Well Construction and Well Intervention

Agung Sudrajat Supriatna
Komp. Griya Caraka A-27, Bandung 40293 There are several ways in making wells. They can be drilled with machines, manually, or dug by hand. We have to review first yield and location then we can select the most appropriate method. There are several criterias that we must consider such as geology, depth aquifer, etc.

Well Construction
Machine Drilling
• Very high in quality • Very expensive. The cost vary in the range of US$ 5,000 - 15,000 for a 30-meter deep well

Hand dug wells
• They are very useful in formations with low permeability because their capacity to store water will seep in overnight. • The total yield/day may be low • in some countries hand dug wells are dug in clay without any lining

Going to scale
Even the machine drilled wells are very high in quality and a good way to construct safe water points for large communities and piped water supply schemes, the investment cost for an enterprise to buy additional machines is high (estimated > US$ 100 000), making it difficult to scale-up the capacity rapidly in the local private sector. On the other hand, manual drilling and digging, much less expensive tools are required, making the capital investment (US$ 3000) for an enterprise to enter the market or to expand capacity much easier. In addition, the drilling time required for drilled wells manually (1 day - 2 weeks) is much less than

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Criteria Static Water Level Depth of Well Geological Profile Aquifer Yield Cost Access to Well Site Drilling Time Season for Drilling

Machine Drilling 0-200 meters 0-200 meters All types of formations including hard rock Very permeable (sand, gravel, and weathered rock formations) >$10 000 All weather roads are required to move heavy machinery 1 day - 2 weeks Year round if site is accessible Tab. 1: Machine Drilling

Criteria Static Water Level Depth of Well Geological Profile Aquifer Yield Cost Access to Well Site Drilling Time Season for Drilling

Manual Drilling 0-40 meters 0-50 meters Soft formations: sand, clay, soft consolidated formations Very permeable (sand and gravel) $400-2 500 Easy to transport because equipment and materials are light 1 day - 2 weeks Year round Tab. 2: Manual Drilling

the time needed to construct a lined hand dug well (1-3 months). All of these different factors make manual drilling a suitable option, where the hydrogeology is suitable, with a very high potential to scale up the capacity of the sector.

Additional Information:
Manual: Understanding groundwater and wells in manual drilling Desk study: Inventory of manual drilling techniques Map of suitability for manual drilling

Resume
Table 1, 2, and 3 resume what we have discussed.

Criteria Static Water Level Depth of Well Geological Profile Aquifer Yield Cost Access to Well Site Drilling Time Season for Drilling Tab. 3: Concrete Lined Dug Well

Concrete Lined Dug Well 0-30 meters 0-35 meters Soft formations; clay, soft consolidated formations Lower permeability (sandy clay or clay) $2 500-10 000 Less easy to transport: equipment is light but concrete rings or materials (cement, gravel, and rebar) are heavy. 1-3 months Dry season only

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Well Intervention
Definition of Light/Medium Well Intervention
The definition of that is any operation is any operation in a subsea wellbore that does not need a drilling rig to gain access to the well, to convey the service .. or .. carry out the operation! However, there are some problems: • Subsea wells under perform platform/dry tree wells • Cost of intervention prohibits intervention. • Lack of Subsea Christmas Tree makes this task difficult “The value is in the well work, the cost is in the access.”

Why do we intervene Subsea wells?
In order to manage the production of the well: • Maintain or improve production levels • Repair wellbore mechanical failures • Terminate/suspend production Via well diagnostics: • Flow characteristics • Geological data • Fluid data Via altering the state of the well and/or well geometry: • Pro-actively(planned) or Re-actively (unplanned/failure) • Shut off unwanted water production • Reservoir Stimulation/Fracturing • Re-perforating the production intervals or establishing new intervals • Open/closing valves • Replacing parts • Removing scale or wax precipitates • Setting plugs • etc

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Schlumberger Subsea Intervention Systems
Subsea Intervention Lubricator (SIL) • Since late 80’s an excess of 250 wells intervened • Cased Hole Logging, Perforating, Slickline Subsea Intervention System Development • 7 3/8” x 10Kpsi system designed and delivered to Caldive • For both Horizontal x Conventional Tree Styles Subsea Completion Tree (SenTREE) • Since late 1999 an excess of 200 wells intervened • 150 Additional wells committed

Intervention Genesis & Industry Firsts
Flopetrol in Brazil 1970’s with a manned module for slickline First subsea intervention • BP Magnus July 1987 First field abandonment • Argyll field - Hamilton Brothers - Jan 1993 First subsea wellhead machining repair • Ellon field - Total - April 1995 First subsea Cristmas tree change out • Ivanhoe/Rob Roy Field - November 1995 First subsea coiled tubing intervention • Gannet field - Shell Expro - December 1997 First recover/re-installation of an ESP Xmas tree • Gannet field - Shell Expro - January 1998 First intervention into a horizontal Xmas tree • Arkwright field - Amoco - October 1998 First deep water field abandonment (Horizontal Trees) • Cooper - EEX - August 1999 First diver less well de-commissioning operation in North Sea • Tommeliten - Statoil - June 2000 2000 Onwards - Multiple Interventions (Light through heavy weight)

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Subsea Well Intervention Categorization
• Water Depths shall vary: – 300 - 10 000 ft (15 000 ft by 2015) • Hydrocarbon pressures at the wellhead shall vary – 1 000 - 15 000 psi (20 000 psi by 2015) • A vessel shall be present – Positioned above well throughout intervention – Within +/- 100 m watch circle of wellhead • +/- 100 Crew required for vessel / Intervention management • Control of well is handed over to vessel at time of intervention – Production facility shall not have control • A Subsea support vehicle(s) shall always be used – Duties dependant on SS Intervention system design. – Support vehicle(s) shall be managed from intervention vessel. • Durations shall vary (depending on WD, intervention need, etc) – Up to 2 weeks

Subsea Well Intervention Well Intervention Vessel Categories
1. Vessel (A) Light intervention.

(a) Wireline and Slickline (b) Benchmark 9 days/ well job

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(c) $150K - 200K/day 2. Vessel (B) Medium intervention.

(a) Coiled Tubing, Wireline and Slickline (b) Benchmark 9 days/well job (c) $150K - 300K /day 3. Heavy Intervention (a) Heavy operations (b) Benchmark 15 days/well job (c) $360K - 840 K/day (This writing was taken from Schlumberger’s document and in UNICEF web)

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