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PRESTIGE INSTITUE OF MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH

PRESENTATION ON MOTIVATION (2010-2012)

SUBMITTED BY : PREETI KOHLI, FALGUNI SHAH NIKITA MAHESWARI, SHUBHAM TARMARKAR MARKETING MANAGEMENT (I SEM)

SUBMITTED TO : PROF. DEBOHATI BASU

MOTIVATION
Motivation means the process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals. The term motivation is derived from the word motive. Motives may be defined as needs, wants, drives or impulses within an individual. Motivation is a driving force that propels people to action and continues them to action. It is the process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals.

PROCESS OF MOTIVATION

IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION
Willingness to Work. Increased Efficiency. Contribution to Organizational Goals. Congenial Work Environment. Reduction in Resistance to Change. Reduced Turnover. Better Utilization of Resources.

MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS


Abraham Maslow, an eminent US psychologist, offered a general theory of motivation, called the Need Hierarchy Theory. He felt that people have a wide range of needs which motivate them to strive for their fulfillment. According to him, human needs can be categorized in to 5 types:  Physiological needs,  Security needs,  Social needs,  Esteem needs, and  Self actualization needs

HERZBERGS TWO-FACTOR THEORY


The two-factor theory (also known as Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory) states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction. It was developed by Frederick Herzberg, a psychologist, who theorized that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction act independently of each other Motivators (e.g., challenging work, recognition, responsibility) that give positive satisfaction, arising from intrinsic conditions of the job itself, such as recognition, achievement, or personal growth, Hygiene factors (e.g. status, job security, salary and fringe benefits) that do not give positive satisfaction, though dissatisfaction results from their absence. These are extrinsic to the work itself, and include aspects such as company policies, supervisory practices, or wages/salary

COMPARING MASLOW & HERZBERG


The lower level needs of Maslow's Hierarchy relate to the Extrinsic /Hygiene factors of Herzberg's Two Factor Theory. Perhaps satisfaction of lower level needs leads to an absence of 'dissatisfaction' in relation to work, rather than that which Herzberg considers true motivtn.

ERG THEORY OF MOTIVATION


The ERG Theory was proposed by Clayton P. Alderfer in 1969 in a Psychological Review article entitled "An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Need". The model was developed in his book: "Existence, Relatedness, and Growth; Human Needs in Organizational Settings. The theory is a response and reaction to Maslow's famous "Hierarchy of Needs" theory, and reduces Maslow's 5 levels of need to just these 3 categories (Existence, Relatedness, and Growth).  Existence Needs co-relate to Maslow's first two levels. This group of needs is concerned with providing the basic requirements for material existence, such as physiological and safety needs. In a work context this need is satisfied by money earned in a job for the purchase of food, shelter, clothing, etc.  Relatedness Needs co-relate to Maslow's third and fourth levels. This group of needs focuses on the desire to establish and maintain interpersonal employers.   This need includes the need to interact with other people, receive public recognition, and feel secure around people. In a work context and given the amount of time most people spend at work this need is normally satisfied to some extent by their relationships with colleagues and managers.  Growth Needs co-relate to Maslow's fourth and fifth levels. These needs are about the fulfillment of desires to be creative, productive and to complete meaningful tasks in order to build and enhance a persons self-esteem through personal achievement. relationships with family, friends, co-workers and

HERZBERG ,MASLOW & ERG


SA ESTEEM SOCIAL SAFETY PSYCOLOGICAL

VROOMS EXPECTANCY THEORY


Expectancy theory is about the mental processes regarding choice, or choosing. It explains the processes that an individual undergoes to make choices. In the study of organizational behavior, expectancy theory is a motivation theory first proposed by Victor Vroom of the Yale School of Management. "This theory emphasizes the needs for organizations to relate rewards directly to performance and to ensure that the rewards provided are those rewards deserved and wanted by the recipients." Three beliefs Vroom's Expectancy Theory is based upon the following three beliefs:  Valence -Valence refers to the emotional orientations people hold with respect to outcomes [rewards]. The depth of the want of an employee for extrinsic [money, promotion, time-off, benefits] or intrinsic [satisfaction] rewards. Management must discover what employees value.  Expectancy - Employees have different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of doing. Management must discover what resources, training, or supervision employees need.  Instrumentality - The perception of employees whether they will actually get what they desire even if it has been promised by a manager. Management must ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled and that employees are aware of that.

Vroom suggests that an employee's beliefs about Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence interact psychologically to create a motivational force such that the employee acts in ways that bring pleasure and avoid pain.

 This force can be 'calculated' via the following formula: Motivation = Valance Expectancy x Instrumentality. This formula can be used to indicate and predict such things as job satisfaction, one's occupational choice, the likelihood of staying in a job, and the effort one might expend at work. Key Elements Expectancy (E P) Instrumentality (P O) Valance V(R)

EXPECTANCY- PROBABILITY (E P)
Expectancy is the belief that one's effort (E) will result is attainment of desired performance (P) goals. Factors associated with the individual's Expectancy perception are self efficacy, goal difficulty, and control. Self efficacy is the persons belief about their ability to successfully perform a particular behavior. Goal difficulty happens when goals are set too high or performance expectations that are made too difficult are most likely to lead to low expectancy. Control is one's perceived control over performance. In order for expectancy to be high, individuals must believe that some degree of control over the expected outcome.

INSTRUMENTALITY- PROBABILITY (P R)
Instrumentality is the belief that a person will receive a reward if the performance expectation is met. Reward may come in the form of a pay increase, promotion, recognition or sense of accomplishment. When there is a lack of trust on leadership, people often attempt to control the reward system. When individuals believe they have some kind of control over how, when, and why rewards are distributed, Instrumentality tends to increase. Formalized written policies impact the individuals' instrumentality perceptions. Instrumentality is increased when formalized policies associates rewards to performance.

VALANCE- V(R)
Valance: the value the individual places on the rewards based on their needs, goals, values and Sources of Motivation. Factors associated with the individual's valance for outcomes are values, needs, goals, preferences and Sources of Motivation Strength of an individuals preference for a particular outcome. The valance refers the value the individual personally places on the rewards. -1 0 +1 -1= avoiding the outcome 0= indifferent to the outcome +1=welcomes the outcome In order for the valence to be positive, the person must prefer attaining the outcome to not attaining it.

THERE WILL BE NO MOTIVATIONAL FORCES ACTING ON AN EMPLOYEE IF ANY OF THESE THREE CONDITIONS HOLD
the person does not believe that he/she can successfully perform the required task the person believes that successful task performance will not be associated with positively valet outcomes the person believes that outcomes associated with successful task completion will be negatively valiant (have no value for that person)

REINFORCEMENT THEORY
Reinforcement theory of motivation was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates. It states that individuals behaviour is a function of its consequences. It is based on law of effect, i.e, individuals behaviour with positive consequences tends to be repeated, but individuals behaviour with negative consequences tends not to be repeated. Reinforcement theory of motivation overlooks the internal state of individual, i.e., the inner feelings and drives of individuals are ignored by Skinner. The theory focuses totally on what happens to an individual when he takes some action. according to Skinner, the external environment of the organization must be designed effectively and positively so as to motivate the employee. This theory is a strong tool for analyzing controlling mechanism for individuals behavior. However, it does not focus on the causes of individuals behavior.

Negative reinforcement Positive reinforcement is a method of increasing the desired behavior involves removal of unpleasant outcomes once desired behavior is demonstrated. is also used to increase the desired behavior.

REINFORCEMENT

Punishment is another method of reducing the frequency of undesirable behaviors

Extinction occurs when a behavior ceases as a result of receiving no reinforcement

POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT
This implies giving a positive response when an individual shows positive and required behavior. For example - Immediately praising an employee for coming early for job. This will increase probability of outstanding behavior occurring again. Reward is a positive reinforce, but not necessarily. If and only if the employees behavior improves, reward can said to be a positive reinforce. Positive reinforcement stimulates occurrence of a behavior. It must be noted that more spontaneous is the giving of reward, the greater reinforcement value it has.

NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
This implies rewarding an employee by removing negative / undesirable consequences. Both positive and negative reinforcement can be used for increasing desirable / required behavior. Nagging an employee to complete a report is an example of negative reinforcement. The negative stimulus in the environment will remain present until positive behavior is demonstrated. The problem with negative reinforcement may be that the negative stimulus may lead to unexpected behaviors and may fail to stimulate the desired behavior. For example, the person may start avoiding the manager to avoid being nagged.

PUNISHMENT
It implies removing positive consequences so as to lower the probability of repeating undesirable behavior in future. In other words, punishment means applying undesirable consequence for showing undesirable behavior. For instance - Suspending an employee for breaking the organizational rules ,Or Giving an employee a warning for consistently being late to work is an example of punishment. Punishment can be equalized by positive reinforcement from alternative source.

EXTINCTION
It implies absence of reinforcements. In other words, extinction implies lowering the probability of undesired behavior by removing reward for that kind of behavior. For instance - if an employee no longer receives praise and admiration for his good work, he may feel that his behavior is generating no fruitful consequence. Extinction may unintentionally lower desirable behavior when a behavior ceases as a result of receiving no reinforcement. For example, suppose an employee has an annoying habit of forwarding email jokes to everyone in the department, cluttering up peoples in-boxes and distracting them from their work. Commenting about the jokes, whether in favorable or unfavorable terms, may be encouraging the person to keep forwarding them. Completely ignoring the jokes may reduce their frequency.

REINFORCEMENT THEORY APPLIED TO ORGANIZATIONAL SETTINGS


 Probably the best-known application of the principles of reinforcement theory to organizational settings is called behavioral modification, or behavioral contingency management. Typically, a behavioral modification program consists of four steps:  Specifying the desired behavior as objectively as possible.  Measuring the current incidence of desired behavior.  Providing behavioral consequences that reinforce desired behavior.  Determining the effectiveness of the program by systematically assessing behavioral change.  Reinforcement theory is an important explanation of how people learn behavior. It is often applied to organizational settings in the context of a behavioral modification program. Although the assumptions of reinforcement theory are often criticized, its principles continue to offer important insights into individual learning and motivation.