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Evaluating Training

Identifying the need

Deliver Training

Plan and Design

Every organization needs to have well trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. If current or potential job occupants can meet this requirement, training is not important. When this not the case, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees. Nowadays, it is common for individuals to change careers several times during their working lives. The probability of any young person learning a job today and having those skills throughout his working life is extremely unlikely or even impossible. In a rapid changing society employee training is not only an activity that is desirable but also an activity that an organization must commit resources to if it is to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force. The entire project talks about the training and development in theoretical as well as new concepts, which are in trend now.

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Here we have discussed what would be the input of training if we ever go for and how can it be good to any organization in reaping the benefits from the money invested in terms like (ROI) i.e. return on investment. What are the ways we can identify the training need of any employee and how to know what kind of training he can go for? Training being covered in different aspect likes integrating it with organizational culture. The best and latest available trends in training method, the benefits which we can derive out of it. How the evaluation should be done and how effective is the training all together. Some of the companies practicing training in unique manner a lesson for other to follow as to how to train and retain the best resource in the world to reap the best out of it. Development is integral part of training if somebody is trained properly and efficiently the developments of that individual and the company for whom he is working. Here we discussed about development of employee, how to identify the needs, and after developing how to develop executive skill to sharpen their knowledge. Learning should be the continuous process and one should not hesitate to learn any stage.

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In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. It is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee¶s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee¶s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training & development is determined by the employee¶s performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training & Development need = Standard performance ± Actual performance.

We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training, as was stated earlier, refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Education, on the other hand, is confined to theoretical learning in classrooms.

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who undergoes training. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems. To bring the distinction among training. training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. Instead. Development activities. are generally voluntary. such as those supplied by management developmental programmes. it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. they are complementary. whereas ³developmental programmes are 5|P ag e . Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. for example. Hence. the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays.Table 1. Training and Education Differentiated Training Application Job-Experience Specific Tasks Narrow / Perspective Education Theoretical Orientation Classroom Learning General Concepts Broad Perspective Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent decision regarding their work and their relationship with clients. For instance. An employee. In fact. education and development into sharp focus. is presumed to have had some formal education. Furthermore. organization must consider elements of both education and training while planning their training programmes. no training programme is complete without an element of education. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. it may be stated that ³training is offered to operatives´. Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Education is theoretical learning in classroom Education Though training and education differ in nature and orientation.

However individual growth is not an end in itself. Employee training tries to improve skills. their grades notwithstanding. Education however is common to all the employees. So it is high time the organization realize that ³train and retain is the mantra of new millennium. Organizational growth need to be measured along with individual growth. Training refers to the teaching / learning activities done for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge skills. Broadly speaking training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. or to prepare him for a higher position with increased responsibilities.´ 6|P ag e . or add to the existing level of knowledge so that employee is better equipped to do his present job. and attitude needed by that organization to acquire and apply the same. abilities.meant for employees in higher positions´. Employees have become central to success or failure of an organization they are the excess of ideas. Research Problem / Statement Defined In today¶s scenario change is the order of the day and the only way to deal with it is to learn and grow.

every large scale company has to go through three phases of training programme which may be critical and crucial for actual implementation of such training programmes. In my opinion. Software Company would prefer ³On-the-job´ training methods because of the technical nature of work like coding and software programme development.  Evaluate training. Phase 3: Post-training  Observe participants¶ behaviour during training. Phase 2: Training  Observe participants¶ behaviour during training.  Calculating the benefits to the company in terms of ROI. 3. which may work as a guide for further training programmes. 2.HYPOTHESIS 1.  Prepare the conditions for improved performance by their participants upon their return.  Finalizing Methods of training. 7|P ag e .  Selection of trainer and suitable participants. Post training phase may ensure the feedback from participants in the training programme. Phase 1: Pre-training  The use the organization expects to make of the participants after training.

Products / Services Provided Opus Software Solutions Inc. In late 2001. Opus created a separate product division with a focus on equities trading and ATM switching solutions. Electra Payment Gateway. electronic payment gateways and card management systems. is a company involved in creating comprehensive software solutions for the global payments industry. Opus is growing at rapid pace with a growing presence in the Indian and foreign markets. mTalk and Trendis. with operations in North America. Currently Opus is a CMMi Level 3 company. Opus provides payment solutions 8|P ag e . Mission To be one of the most admired and respected global payments service providers by market share. great work environment and industry matching remuneration are some of our unique features. ATMs. It offers products including ElectraCard. Electra EFT Switch. Opus has two fully equipped engineering centres (in Pune and Chennai) with Tandem. IBM.Company Information Opus Software Solutions. Opus is now an ISO 27001and ISO 9001:2008 certified company. Opus was founded in 1997. the Far East and India. Kiosks. Challenging work in a niche domain. SUN and HP servers. revenues and analyst rankings. HSMs. an ISO 9001:2000 company is a 500+ people solutions company catering to banking and finance sectors through solutions for ATM switching. POS devices and software engineering tools.

NCR and Diebold ATMs. South East Asia and the Far East with more than 100 satisfied customers worldwide. improvement in customer service. Opus Software Solutions recruits and retains the best talent available. the Electra suite of payment products has gained rapid acceptance in the US. The company respects individual opinions and encourages team spirit. 9|P ag e . Middle East and Africa. POS devices of different make.with Electra suite of products as well as customized development through its software services division. Customers Achievements Opus Software bagged the prestigious National IT Award for Best IT Package for its Electra suite of products. HP. impact on society and innovation. Since its launch. SUN and Linux servers. Opus employs over 300 associates all over the world and has built an in-house engineering infrastructure with Tandem. Kiosks. hardware security modules and VISA/MasterCard simulators. IBM. The company provides its employees with opportunities for professional growth and promotes creativity at work. Electra suite offers comprehensive solution for acquirers and issuers of both card and non-card based payment transactions. impact on quality and productivity. It was ranked first in the list of software products on criteria like criticality of IT usage.

The specific objectives of the study are: 1. To measure the differential change in output due to training. the various training practices. modules.SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Scope The scope of the study covers in depth. formats being followed and is limited to the Opus Software Solutions Pvt. 2. To examine the impact of training on the employees. To examine the effectiveness of training in overall development of skills of employees. The different training programmes incorporated / facilitated in Opus Software through its faculties. 4. Objectives The broad objective of the study of training policies in Opus Software is to study the impact of training on the overall skill development of employees. It also judges the enhancement of the knowledge & skills of employees and feedback on its effectiveness. Ltd and its employees. To study the changes in behavioral pattern due to training. To compare the cost effectiveness in implanting training programmes. outside agencies or professional groups. 3. 5. 10 | P a g e .

mentioned in his recent studies that it¶s easy to implement strategy with the internet supported software. It has come to their attention by their own preferred model and through experience with large Organisations. which reiterates the requirement for flexible approach.REVIEW OF LITERATURE According to Casse and Banahan (2007). 11 | P a g e . (Meister. in maintaining the uncertainty related to the purpose and in introducing new tactics for the environment of work and by recognizing this. There is a survey confirmation for using classroom to deliver the training would drop dramatically. It is a representation itself by the Access on main aspect what is effective to the adopted practice in training development. As per the recent theories to access the knowledge is changing from substantial in the traditional to deliver the knowledge for the virtual forms to use the new meaning of information with electronic learning use. The ³content´ and the ³access´ are the actual factors for the process. According to Davenport (2006). Usually the managers have the choice to select the best training and development programme for their staff but they always have to bear in mind that to increase their chances of achieve the target they must follow the five points highlighted by Miller and Desmarais (2007). 2001). the different approaches to training and development need to be explored. The current traditional training continuously facing the challenges in the selection of the employees. Some of the Training theories can be effective immediately on the future of the skill and developments. they advising on all the problems.

Lane. is proposed. evaluation should be integrated with organisational life. regarding their efficiency and effectiveness. (1991) Evaluation is increasingly being regarded as a powerful tool to enhance the effectiveness of training. The results also indicated that the approach used in teaching (pedagogy) was consistent across management levels. Michael S. Luo. To ensure this. 2008. ³the quality assurance evaluation model´. The results indicate that management development programmes do not seem to differentiate between levels of management.A manager is that what the other members of the organization want them to be because it is a very popular trend of development training for the managers in the training for the management (Andersson. Three major approaches to training evaluation: quality ascription. 2002). Most of the managers seems to reject a managerial personality in support of the other truth for themselves (Costas and Fleming. Martinec (1990) Management development programmes are increasingly being studied and evaluated. quality assessment and quality control are highlighted. Blakely. A description of an action-research oriented 12 | P a g e . In order to enhance the effectiveness of training. This held true across a wide spectrum of training areas. This lack of variety according to management level seems to go counter to current theory regarding the differences in skill requirements between management levels. 2009). Gerald L. Oladele Akin-Ogundeji. Presents the results of a survey of 155 directors and vice-presidents of personnel and human resource management departments regarding the current status of their management development programmes. Cindy L. a model.

and the modified model presented. Kleiner Successfully measuring effectiveness in management training and development can be a difficult task. Changes in the model. 13 | P a g e . research shows that maintaining a balance of the above measurements is the final key to success in measuring the effectiveness of management training and development.exploration of the model with 43 training co-ordinators of manufacturing firms in Nigeria is given. suggested by the research findings. Finally. Garrett J. Design of a valid measurement programme should include evaluation in key areas. including emotional reaction and knowledge gain measured after training interventions. Endres. The need to test the modified model on real life training programmes is emphasised. Brian H. Behavioural change and organisational impact measurements should be used on a longer time horizon to evaluate the progress and currency of the management development programme. are discussed.

Expert Interview  A clear statement of the research problem. The research plan and steps to be followed are given in the following flowchart: The project is formulated by following the sequence mentioned in the figure above. Research Plan or Design is the blue print for fulfilling research objectives and answering questions. It also refers to the blue print of the research process. 14 | P a g e . It is over-all operation pattern or framework of the project that stipulates what information is to be collected from which source by what procedure.RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the specification of methods and procedures for acquiring the information needed.In-depth Interview Questionnaire. Key Issues Research Design Data Research Research Instrument A research design consists of Options Descriptive Primary Data Qualitative Research .

Descriptive study Descriptive studies are also undertaken to understand the characteristics of organizations that follow certain common practice. Ltd. There are four types of research designs:  Exploratory or formative study.  Diagnostic study.  The population to be studied. Primary Data It is a fresh data. Paul D¶sousa.  Descriptive study. Data Collection The required data for the project has been collected from the In-depth Interview. Opus Software Solutions Pvt. Procedures and techniques used for gathering information. 15 | P a g e .  Experimental study.  Method to be used in Processing and analyzing the data. which is collected after interaction and discussion with the Mr. Lead Human Resources.

SAMPLE DESIGN Sampling Sampling is the act. or a representative part of a population for the purpose of determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population. process. Research Instruments Questionnaire Questionnaire refers to a device for securing answers to a formally arranged list of questions by using a term which the respondent fills himself. or technique of selecting a suitable sample. 2. Training Infrastructure Template. Open ended questions In this question the respondent answers in his own words. The questionnaire in this project is framed by using the following types of questions: 1. Training MIS. 1. 4. 3. Training Feedback Form. These types of questions are rarely used in a questionnaire as it is difficult to weigh the result. 2. Samples Collected The samples collected for this project is Form Templates collected from the company and the Training MIS. Close ended questions 16 | P a g e . Company brochure.

illustrating proportion. A line graph has a vertical axis and a horizontal axis.In these types of questions the respondents are given limited number of alternatives from which he is supposed to select the one that closely matches his opinion or attitude.e. some examples of continuous data would be 'height' or 'weight'. When angles are measured with 1 turn as unit then a number of percent is identified with the same number of centiturns. Pie chart A pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circular chart divided into sectors. data which has discrete values and is not continuous. In contrast. Each variable is plotted along an axis . 3. the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area). 3. Dichotomous questions These types of questions offer only two alternatives and reduce the issue to its simplest form. Line graphs compare two variables. 2. 4. Together. for which you would use a bar chart. 17 | P a g e . It is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced. is proportional to the quantity it represents. Line graph A line graph is most useful in displaying data or information that changes continuously over time. Statistical tools 1. Some examples of discontinuous data include 'shoe size' or 'eye colour'. Bar chart A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent. Multiple-choice questions These types of questions provide several set of alternatives for its answer. The bars can be plotted vertically or horizontally. In a pie chart. A bar chart is very useful if you are trying to record certain information whether it is continuous or not continuous data. the sectors create a full disk. Bar charts are used for plotting discrete (or 'discontinuous') data i.

DATA COLLECTION They key data collection techniques for qualitative studies are:  Depth Interviews  Focus Groups  Discussion Guides  Projective Techniques  Metaphor Analysis In this project Depth Interview Method is used for data collection. Respondents are encouraged to talk freely about their activities. attitudes and interests in addition to the product category and brand under study. instead there is freedom to create questions to probe those questions that appear relevant and generally try to develop set of data that appear relevant. Process The interviewer minimizes his/her own participation after establishing the general subject to be discussed. generally 30 minutes to one hour non-structured lengthy interview between a respondent and a highly trained interviewer is called a Depth Interview. Transcripts. The interviewer may not have a specific set of prescribed questions in mind that must be asked in order imposed by the questionnaire. Depth Interviews A lengthy. They may involve 8-15 participants but in that case it will be called a Focus group. Groups of 4-5 are referred to as mini groups. videotapes or audiotape recordings of interviews are then studied carefully together with 18 | P a g e . Composition of Depth Interview Depth Interviews can involve one interviewer and one respondent that is why it is also called one on one interviews or individual in-depth interviews.

g. Detailed understanding of a complicated behavior or decision making patterns (e. a weight reduction formula). attitudes. The subject matter is of emotionally charged or embarrassing nature (e.g. child rearing practices) 5. Certain strong social norms (e.g. family planning) 6. The subject matter is likely to be of highly confidential nature (e. or needs is required. 2. 4.reports of respondents¶ moods and any gestures or body language they may have used to convey attitudes or motives. Interviews with professional people 19 | P a g e . Detailed study of individual¶s behaviors.g. personal investments) 3. When Appropriate Depth Interviews are conducted when: 1.

PRIMARY DATA For collecting Primary data I took an appointment to meet an HR person in Opus. Paul D¶souza. My visit was fixed on 21st of March 2011. Interview Vision ECS/OPUS Training & Development intends to develop the skills and knowledge of individuals in order to expand the core expertise of the organization. Lead Human Resources. My appointment was fixed with Mr. D¶souza and some set of questions separately for the personal Interview. and to develop the professional excellence of employees to perform their roles more effectively and efficiently. He was very cooperative and helped me a lot in my research. 1. The bonafide letter received from the college helped me to get the appointment. Questionnaire 2. Paul D¶souza is a very kind and pleasing person. Tools used for Primary Data Collection: I had carried with me a hard copy of the questionnaire to be filled by Mr. 20 | P a g e . Mr.

 Bring about Behavioral Change. by developing the knowledge and skills of their people.  Utilize training as a motivational tool for employee¶s growth and development. and to develop the professional excellence of employees to perform their roles more effectively and efficiently. which is competent to meet the present needs and future requirements of the business. 21 | P a g e .  Improve and upgrade the skills and competencies of the employees for taking up higher responsibilities at the appropriate time.  Encourage multi-skilling for improving productivity. Training includes technical as well as managerial aspects. The objectives of this policy are to:  Have trained manpower.Philosophy The realization of the Training & Development vision depends on the support and commitment of both Management and individual employees and its integration with the business plan and the business culture Objectives The role of Training & Development in a dynamic business environment is to be a partner to the business lines and help them achieve their objectives. The success of training. results from its integration with the business plan and the business culture. Scope Applicable to employees across ECS/OPUS at all levels as per their Training Need Identification (Need based Training with development opportunities) Process Summary The Training process is intended to develop the skills and knowledge of individuals in order to expand the core expertise of the organization. which is in consonance with the organizational value system.

Definitions & Acronym AVP HRM HRE TRN TEE PM GH DH Roles & Responsibilities AVP HRM Approves Learning Calendar and Training Plan Explores the possibilities of conducting training internally. Maintains training records. Updates Employee Training Record TRN Imparts training Establish evaluation parameters Prepare exam paper and answer sheet 22 | P a g e . Escalates necessary issues to management HRE Responsible for preparation of Training Associate Vice President Human Resource Manager Human Resource Executive Trainer Trainee Project Manager Group Head Department Head Calendar.Also ensure proper conduct of training and post-training analysis. Decides the venue for training.

as and when necessary Assists in planning for training and assessing quality of the training programs conducted. . Associate Development Plans / Training Requests from PMs Business Plan Verification / Validation Criteria Review of the Training Calendar Review of Training Plan Review of Training feedback form Quality Records Updated Employee Training Records 23 | P a g e Approves Training Request. during performance appraisals. Attempt Exam Training Feedback PM GH Sends Training Request. DH Process Inputs Business Plan Training needs identified by different processes in organization like. during project management planning etc Entry Criteria HRM is appropriately trained/ skilled to perform his/her training-related activities.Evaluate trainees TEE Attends training.

specific to their requirements for those individuals whose training needs cannot be met by internal training. internal training programmes are planned on a yearly basis and are classified into the following categories: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Induction Training Technical Training Product Training Domain Training Intensive workshops External Training External training programmes are planned to address the specialized areas of training.Reviewed and consolidated Training feedback form Process Outputs Approved Training Calendar Approved Training Plan Training Material Employee Training Record Reviewed consolidated Training feedback form Exit Criteria Updated employee training record Training Types Internal Training Based on the identification of training needs. This includes: ‡ ‡ Technical Training Management Development Programmes 24 | P a g e .

External training e) Organizing the training f) Training Execution g) Training Evaluation h) Training Records Updation IV. II. Training Plan a) Training Calendar.  Will allocate the annual training budget. Setting up the Training Advisory Board II.Preparation and Publish b) Risk Identification c) Training Process.  Review of training activity on quarterly basis. Review meeting of the Training Advisory Board Details I. Training Need Identification III.  Will review and finalize the training calendar. HR Business Partners and a representative each from Services and Products. Training Need Identification 25 | P a g e .Training and Development Process The Flow I. Setting up the Training Advisory Board  Form the Training committee consisting of AVP and department heads (HR)  The board formed will comprise of HR Head.Internal training d) Training Process.

upload the plan at a location where all employees have the access to view the same. Collect training needs data from various sources like training requisition forms. (HR) (Form Used : Training_Need_Identification_Form)  Identify the target audience for the training. Project/Team Requirement.) (Document Referred : Risk Identification-Training) (HR)  Rank and prioritize the risk based on the risk exposure. (HR)  Prepare the Mitigation & Contingency plan for high exposure Risks (Risk with exposure document referred Risk Management Process) (HR)  Implement the mitigation plan based on the priority. (HR) Identify the Trainer 26 | P a g e . (HR) III. Training material may not be available etc. (HR) c) Training Process. Training Plan a) Training Calendar. inputs from performance management system. prepare an yearly Training plan and the estimated budget (Training Committe)  Get the plan and budget approved by Training Advisory Board (Head HR)  Prepare Quarterly Training calendar based on yearly training plan. (HR)  Identify the training needs from the data collected from various sources. (HR)  Analyze the collected data. (HR)  Identify the target audience for the training. (HR) b) Risk Identification  Identify the risk involved in the training program (e. resources may change.Prepare and Publish  Based on needs identified. business plan etc.Internal training  In case of internal training identify the internal trainer and training material. A monthly training calendar is prepared based on this (Template used : Training Calendar) (HRE)  Publish the training calendar to all the concerned groups.g. trainer may not be available at the time of training. Associate Development Plan (Manager¶s recommendation).

(Document Referred : List of Training Vendors. Store the training material in the training repository defined in the plan for configuration management of training material. (HRE)  In case training is to be conducted by external trainer. (Form Used : List of Trainers) (HRE) Note: Trainers for the Training are decided by PM / Senior Management. (TRN) b. it is appended to the List of Trainers. List of Trainers) (HRE) 27 | P a g e . Once a trainer is selected. Skill and knowledge will be taken into consideration while selecting a Trainer. Based on the training to be provided set the exam paper and model answer sheet. . if available). Create the training material for training if not available. Check if the Trainer is qualified to conduct the training program. (TRN) c. . (HRE) e. (HRE) e. requester to send mail request and get necessary approval from HOD. Identify potential vendors who can provide the training. Identify resources in the organization who have attended or imparted similar trainings in past from the training records. (HRE) d. HRM) a. tests etc. Finalize the trainer. (HRE. Revisit training material periodically and update on need basis (HRE) g. (HRE) f. Check for the availability of the Trainer for the identified date of training.a. Store the updated training material in the repository with proper version numbering scheme. check his capability from previous records (Form Used :training feedbacks. (TRN) d. b. In case trainer has imparted the training before. AVP. (HRE) c. Get the training material approved by appropriate subject matter expert. Send it to the HR team.(HRE) Establish Training Material a.

(HR) e) Organizing the training  Invite nominations from the Project Managers of teams identified from the targeted audience in Step II. adequate copies of training material. Ensure the availability of all training aids like soft board. (HR)  Get the training material reviewed & updated by the trainer as per the frequency defined in the plan. Training Execution  On training day. (HRE)  Decide on the venue and the dates for the training. (HR)  Decide on the venue and the dates for the training. ensure that all facilities are in place for the training.External training  In case training is to be conducted by external trainer. (HR)  Book the Training room in advance.  Identify potential vendors who can provide the training. (HR)  Obtain the course contents and commercials from the vendors. (HRE) e. Check for the availability of the Trainer for the identified date of training.  Get the training material approved by appropriate subject matter expert. Evaluate the Trainer (Template Used: Trainer Evaluation Template) d. Check if the Trainer is qualified to conduct the training program (HRE) c. if applicable. (HR) 28 | P a g e . (HR)  Do the Trainer¶s evaluation to check if the Trainer is qualified to conduct the training program. feedback forms etc. HRM)  Create the training material for training if not available. requester to fill in training requisition form with estimated cost and necessary approvals from HOD. question papers. (Document referred : Training Infrastructure ) (HR)  Send the training invite to the participants with a copy to the respective supervisors. projector. (HRE. Obtain the course contents and commercials from the vendors. (HR) d) Training Process.b.  Decide on the final list of participants who will attend the training ensuring adequate representation from all targeted teams.

 Circulate feedback form to solicit post training feedback from all participants. (Template for training feedback form) (HRE)  In case of last minute absence of any participant. initiate necessary action. (HR)  Send the report to the trainer and concerned Project Managers and HR Head. Before the training starts ensure attendance is marked for all. newly identified requirements.  Analyze the training feedback ( HR)  Consolidate the training feedback collected and prepare training analysis report.(Form Used Training Attendance sheet)  On completion of Training. (HR)  Follow-up the initiated action till closure. Revise the yearly training calendar for pending trainings.  Review of the Training Calendar  Review of Training feedback form  Record the findings. (Ref. (Refer Risk Identification ± Training ) (HRE) 29 | P a g e .  Review the allocated budget against budget consumed. the cost of the program per employee can be recovered from the employee.  In case of adverse feedback. (HR)  Collect the post-training feedback for from trainees and send it to the Project Manager for his feedback. conduct exam. Handover the answer sheets to HR.Log new risk identified if any. get the right answers discussed with trainees and get the answer sheets checked. Template for MOM)  Update the status of risk . IV. Review meeting of the Training Advisory Board  Conduct the review meeting of training committee quarterly.(HR) g) Training Records Updation (Template for employee wise training)  Approved Training Calendar  Employee Training Record  Reviewed consolidated Training feedback form  Cost sheet for each planned external training. f) Training Evaluation  Collect the training feedback from trainee immediately post training.

Training Requisition Form 16.Employee Training Record Sheet 19.Template for Training Plan 2.Trainer Evaluation Template 6.Template for Training Feedback Form (Attached) 9.Guidelines for Training Trainer Assessment Sheet 15.Training Infrastructure (Attached) 12.Role based training 13.Risk Identification-training 11.Training Need Identification Form 18.Template for Training Attendance Sheet (Attached) 7.List of Training Vendors 5.Template for Employee wise-Trainings 8.Training Master Tracker Sheet 20.Template for Training Calendar 3.Training Need Identification Form 14.Induction Feedback Form 10.Training Analysis Sheet 17.List of Trainers 4.Templates / Checklists / Guidelines 1.Training Risk Identification Form 30 | P a g e .

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Flow Chart Business Plan.Identification of training needs during performance appraisal and project management planning Yes No HRM is appropriately trained in / skilled to perform his/her training related activities.venue etc.potential trainers.          Yes   Conduct the training Book the venue Initiate the training according to strategy mentioned in training plan Yes    Evaluate the training Provide feedback forms to the employees Review the consolidated feedback forms to asses the effectiveness and trainer performance Document and maintain all the training records Yes Updated training record 32 | P a g e . Yes Prepare Learning Calendar Study the identified training needs Identify the skill areas on which trainging is need.objective. Receive waiver form if any and if approrpriate approve it.trainee and availability of them Identify type of training Prepare and update learning calendar and get it reviewed and approved Discuss and define training strategies and standards Yes Prepare for training Prepare training plan for conducting ihhouse training Ensure availability of sufficient infrastructural facilities and training material Intimate the date.timing.

SECONDARY DATA 33 | P a g e .

can help employees gain the confidence and knowledge they need to work when they have a will to do so. Some may have both willingness and confidence. Each employee comes with different capacities. but lack confidence. One frustrating question for the employer can be. regardless of inevitable human limitations there are effective principles which comprise a model for training that.Training and Human Resource Staffing Human resource management serves a vital function in any organization. the answer to this question is more complex than one might expect. when applied. An employee cannot properly work without knowing how to perform their job. human resource management concerns itself with increasing the production levels of the company by addressing issues related to personnel. "how can I effectively train new employees so they perform well?" Unfortunately. However. There are various key functions of human resource management. Individuals have agency and can choose to not pay attention to training. Training and development of personnel ought to be obviously important. Others still might even struggle with a willingness to perform tasks. may choose to complain or otherwise develop an attitude antithetical to effective working. Some may be incredibly willing to work. In business especially. Can all these problems be solved through training? Ultimately the answer is no. but lack the knowledge to perform essential tasks. This article will focus heavily on the Training and Development of personnel as proof of the need for sufficient human resource staffing. and some may continue to lack confidence despite continued efforts at training. The principles of this model are as follows: Teach Demonstrate Practice Evaluate Re-Practice 34 | P a g e .

However. even more important than either teaching or demonstrating are the last three steps involving practice. It only requires someone that can demonstrate the specific skill that an employer needs employees to develop or incorporate into their work.This model can be applied either on a broad level like at large meetings. The last two steps are critical in ensuring that the new skill is applied correctly. For this reason the importance of adequate human resource staffing cannot be overstated. Just think of playing sports: you have to both explain and demonstrate how to shoot a basket. Human resource staffing allows proper. This should be a short and engaging explanation. The model starts with the teaching or explanation of the skill. powerful and pertinent training to be given to new employees or even existing employees that need to be further developed. After trying it out it's important for the student to receive feedback on their performance. and then immediately be able to apply that feedback. 35 | P a g e . After seeing someone else perform the skill it's necessary for the person learning to practice the skill. or also on a personal level. or even swing a bat at a fastball before an initiate can really get the hang of the skill themselves. or spike a volleyball. Following the explanation of the skill should a demonstration of the same skill.

Importance of Training and Development  Optimum Utilization of Human Resources ± Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. team spirit. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. and inter-team collaborations.  Organization Culture ± Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness.  Team spirit ± Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work.  Development of skills of employees ± Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level.  Productivity ± Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal.  Development of Human Resources ± Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources¶ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. 36 | P a g e .

 Training and Development aids in organizational development i. The employees get these feelings from leaders.  Profitability ± Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. 37 | P a g e .  Health and Safety ± Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. subordinates. better attitudes.  Image ± Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image. It helps to build good employee. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. Organization Climate ± Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving.  Healthy work-environment ± Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. motivation.  Quality ± Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life. relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal.e.  Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills. and peers. loyalty.  Morale ± Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.

 It acts act as a retention tool by motivating employee to the vast opportunities for growth available in an organization.  Assessing and addressing any performance deficiency. increased productivity and greater sufficiency.  Enhancing workforce flexibility: Cross-cultural training is essential for the employees for better adjustment in the new environment. 38 | P a g e .  Increasing commitment: Training acts as a loyalty booster. it acts as a catalyst for change. Employee motivation is also enhanced when the employee knows that the organization would provide them opportunities to increase their skills and knowledge.  Training acts as benchmark for hiring promoting and career planning.Benefits of Training and Development Employees and the organization need to realize the importance of contribution and learning for mutual growth and development.  Higher customer satisfaction and lower support cost results through improved service.  It gives the organization a competitive edge by keeping abreast of the latest changes. Other benefits of training include:  Hiring appeal: Companies that provide training attract a better quality Workforce. Training is the answer to deal with stagnation stage by constantly updating it in every field.

Modern Approach The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results. 39 | P a g e . But now the scenario seems to be changing. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made.Traditional and Modern Approach of Training and Development Traditional Approach Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost.

Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM). If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization. resources. HR. etc. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education. when training was considered to be futile. and money. the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. training is an investment because the departments such as. waste of time. senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees. then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Gone are the days. increasing the level of job satisfaction. finance. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses. etc depends on training for its survival. Now-a-days. production. 40 | P a g e . marketing & sales. achieving their professional and personal goals.Training and Human Resource Management The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change.

Active involvement in employee education. HR role now is: 1. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth. the role of HR professionals in training has been widened.Role of HRD Professionals in Training This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business. Rewards for improvement in performance. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training. anytime. 5. 4. 3. anywhere training. 2. 41 | P a g e .e. Flexible access i.

Necessary where a qualification allows the employee to practice (e. POSSIBLE USES Providing an employee with an opportunity to learn about a new area of work. Caution should be exercised where the benefit is solely for the employees career development. Learners can set their own pace and benefit from a flexible structure. Guided Reading An employee is advised of selected books/articles/extracts/ reports etc. induction for new workers.g. communications skills etc. All external qualification support should be assessed to determine the benefits to the employee and the Council. telephone training. Requires the learner to use the skills after the course or the risk is it will be lost. Skills Based Aim to meet identified Courses training needs by instruction and testing of skills gained. COMMENTS An intensive method of training which may involve a considerable time commitment from the µcoach¶. updating on legislation / procedures. environmental health). to assist their development.The Scope of Training and Development TYPE Coaching DESCRIPTION The µcoach¶ works directly with an employee on a specific issue with structured built-in review and evaluation sessions. IT Skills.g. For development of the employee so that promotion can be obtained. Practical skills such as driving. External An employee works to gain Qualifications a recognized qualification at an external provider (e. law.g. Is most effective when used as part of a planned programme e. National An employee prepares a Vocational portfolio of evidence Qualifications against the recognized standards of the 42 | P a g e Can be used where there are no recognized µexternal qualifications¶ based on examination or . Developing knowledge about a specific area or about work context. Turning a work problem into a learning situation. university) or through a correspondence course. Obtaining a general background about a particular topic/area of work. college.

Should be manageable in scope i. employee and manager/ supervisor. As with all accredited training that takes place over a longer period of time. NVQs can be delivered in the workplace during work time or combined with external.To develop skills/ Most effective teaching material e. Demonstratio An µinstructor¶ shows an Often used for mechanical It is important that n / employee/group how to skills but could have a the µinstructor¶ observations carry out a particular task wider application e. agreed between the period of time. where the employee is better suited to working at their own pace.e. when part of a programmed broader training learning/package/manual programme with on their own. An employee uses self. NVQs do require a commitment from the learner and the employer alike. off the job training.appropriate NVQ. context of the work. have a clearly including progress / but could have a wider defined structured performance level.g. not too broad. trainees etc.g. supervisor. other live training. explains why each of Others at work. often in application. Log Book An employee maintains a Generally used for It is important to Display record of work programme apprentices. programme of conjunction with manager / training to work. Those being trained should have 43 | P a g e Projects/ Assignments . Self Instruction (Open Learning) Units are chosen to match the candidates¶ job role and some training providers will tailor the qualification to meet your needs. stages in carrying out a stage is done and clerical task such as sets the wider sorting incoming mail. knowledge in new areas. An employee carries out a To broaden experience of The task should be specific task within a set an area of work. The Portfolio will be assessed by a qualified individual and awards are made by recognized µlead bodies¶.

Question and Time set aside for Answer exchange of information sessions/ between manager and Discussions employee(s) Mentoring Useful when dealing with complex problems or people related issues. so all participants can µgive¶ comments freely on an equal basis.an opportunity to practice immediately after the instruction. To develop and broaden the knowledge of the group e. Health and Safety. Seminars/ Knowledge Based Courses Sessions aimed at passing on or updating information necessary for staff to perform their work effectively e. Conferences Attendance at District. Seminars outside the organisation normally provide specialist input not available within. Often used to pick up County or national national trends and conferences on a specific information as well as topic. Business Plans. One to one sessions with a nominated person to think through ideas and receive advice.g. Managers may need to be thoroughly familiar with the topic. Staff need to be aware of the reasons why training is being carried out and what the objectives are. networking with other colleagues. It is important to have an agreement established between both parties. about new developments/future plans.g. IIP etc An efficient way to ensure large numbers of staff are covered with a consistent message. 44 | P a g e . Probably more useful if a structured discussion. Assessment of external seminars should still be carried out by staff and line managers to evaluate effectiveness. There needs to be clear links identified between the topic of the conference and the purpose/use for attending.

which in turn. Individual Objectives ± help employees in achieving their personal goals.Training and Development Objectives The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. Organizational Objectives ± assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness. Functional Objectives ± maintain the department¶s contribution at a level suitable to the organization¶s needs. Functional. and Societal. Societal Objectives ± ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society. there are four other objectives: Individual. In addition to that. enhances the individual contribution to an organization. 45 | P a g e . Organizational.

A timetable should be established with periodic evaluations to inform employees about their progress. programmed instruction and laboratory training. films. After a plan is developed for what should be taught. job rotation and coaching. On-the-job training is delivered to employees while they perform their regular jobs. y Personnel rules and regulations. Orientation training should emphasize the following topics: y y y The company's history and mission. special study. Orientations are for new employees. 46 | P a g e . and how the department helps fulfill the mission of the company. The first several days on the job are crucial in the success of new employees. Off-the-job techniques include lectures. role playing. job instruction training. In this way." "what" and "why" of your training program determine which method to use. Most of these techniques can be used by small businesses although. This point is illustrated by the fact that 60 percent of all employees who quit do so in the first ten days. apprenticeships. The key members in the department. The key members in the organization. they do not lose time while they are learning. internships and assistantships. simulation. employees should be informed of the details. some may be too costly. On-the-job techniques include orientations. television conferences or discussions. Individual circumstances and the "who. case studies.Training Methods There are two broad types of training available to small businesses: on-the-job and off-the-job techniques.

Some companies use verbal presentations while others have written presentations. Many small businesses convey these topics in one-on-one orientations. No matter what method is used, it is important that the newcomer understand his or her new place of employment. Lectures present training material verbally and are used when the goal is to present a great deal of material to many people. It is more cost effective to lecture to a group than to train people individually. Lecturing is one-way communication and as such may not be the most effective way to train. Also, it is hard to ensure that the entire audience understands a topic on the same level; by targeting the average attendee you may undertrain some and lose others. Despite these drawbacks, lecturing is the most cost-effective way of reaching large audiences. Role playing and simulation are training techniques that attempt to bring realistic decision making situations to the trainee. Likely problems and alternative solutions are presented for discussion. The adage there is no better trainer than experience is exemplified with this type of training. Experienced employees can describe real world experiences, and can help in and learn from developing the solutions to these simulations. This method is cost effective and is used in marketing and management training. Audiovisual methods such as television, videotapes and films are the most effective means of providing real world conditions and situations in a short time. One advantage is that the presentation is the same no matter how many times it's played. This is not true with lectures, which can change as the speaker is changed or can be influenced by outside constraints. The major flaw with the audiovisual method is that it does not allow for questions and interactions with the speaker, nor does it allow for changes in the presentation for different audiences. Job rotation involves moving an employee through a series of jobs so he or she can get a good feel for the tasks that are associated with different jobs. It is usually used in training for supervisory positions. The employee learns a little about everything. This is a good strategy for small businesses because of the many jobs an employee may be asked to do. Apprenticeships develop employees who can do many different tasks. They usually involve several related groups of skills that allow the apprentice to practice a particular trade, and they
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take place over a long period of time in which the apprentice works for, and with, the senior skilled worker. Apprenticeships are especially appropriate for jobs requiring production skills. Internships and assistantships are usually a combination of classroom and on-the-job training. They are often used to train prospective managers or marketing personnel. Programmed learning, computer-aided instruction and interactive video all have one thing in common: they allow the trainee to learn at his or her own pace. Also, they allow material already learned to be bypassed in favor of material with which a trainee is having difficulty. After the introductory period, the instructor need not be present, and the trainee can learn as his or her time allows. These methods sound good, but may be beyond the resources of some small businesses. Laboratory training is conducted for groups by skilled trainers. It usually is conducted at a neutral site and is used by upper- and middle management trainees to develop a spirit of teamwork and an increased ability to deal with management and peers. It can be costly and usually is offered by larger small businesses.

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Training Need Analysis (TNA)
An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effective training. The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance. Why training need analysis? Training need analysis is conducted to determine whether resources required are available or not. It helps to plan the budget of the company, areas where training is required, and also highlights the occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternate action.

Training Need

Organizational Level

Individual Level

Operational Level











performance ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employee and its sub group.

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Organizational Level Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on strategic planning, business need, and goals. It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, and weaknesses and external environment such as opportunities and threats.

After doing the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, while strengths can further be strengthened with continued training. Threats can be reduced by identifying the areas where training is required. And, opportunities can be exploited by balancing it against costs. For this approach to be successful, the HR department of the company requires to be involved in strategic planning. In this planning, HR develops strategies to be sure that the employees in the organization have the required Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level . Individual Level Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly there is a need of training. However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need. The methods that are used to analyze the individual need are: 

Appraisal and performance review  Peer appraisal  Competency assessments  Subordinate appraisal  Client feedback  Customer feedback  Self-assessment or self-appraisal

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Employees need to prepare for these changes. Today. The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. observation. questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as open ended questions. jobs are dynamic and keep changing over the time. The job analyst also gathers information on the tasks needs to be done plus the tasks that will be required in the future.Operational Level Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work that is being assigned to the employees. etc. training Need analysis (TNA) is done. Based on the information collected. 51 | P a g e . He gathers this information through technical interview. psychological test.

TRANSFEREES WITHIN THE COMPANY These are people who are moved from one job to another. NEW PROCEDURES Mainly for those who work in offices in commercial and administrative functions but also for those who we workplace is on the shop floor or on process plant on any occasion on which there is a modification to existing paperwork or procedure for. which take people into entirely new levels of responsibility. There is no less a training requirement for the supervisors and process management. the same department or function. 2. and the career and advancement opportunities available.Best Time to Impart Training to Employees 1. the terms. 4. conditions and benefits appropriate to the particular employee. or to dissimilar work under a different management. 5. i. Under this heading we are excluding promotions. say the withdrawal of materials 52 | P a g e . either within the same work area.e. NEW PLANT OR EQUIPMENT Even the most experienced operator has everything to learn when a computer and electronic controls replace the previous manual and electro-mechanical system on the process plant on which he works. he is dissimilar in that the promotion has brought him to a new level of supervisory or management responsibility. 3. as well as for technical service production control and others. PROMOTIONS Although similar to the transferee in that there is a new job to be learned in new surroundings. NEW RECRUITS TO THE COMPANY These have a requirement for induction into the company as a whole in terms of its business activities and personnel policies and provisions. The change is usually too important and difficult to make successfully to permit one to assume that the promotes will pick it up as he goes along and attention has to be paid to training in the tasks and the responsibilities and personal skills necessary for effective performance.

MAINTENANCE OF STANDARDS We are here concerned with maintenance of standards through training.from stores. a note bringing the attention of all concerned the change is assume to be sufficient. but there are cases. the recognition of the accounts department can result in a realization of responsibilities between the section leaders of credit control. there is nevertheless a need for each person to know where he stands in the new set up. invoicing and customer records. and where to direct problems and enquiries as they arise in the future. there needs to be instruction on the change in the way of working in many instances. as a result of management decisions. RULES AND PRACTICES Changes in any one these are likely to be conveyed by printed note or by word of mouth by the manager to his subordinates. However not all changes under this heading can be left to this sort of handling. Although the change in work content for each clerk and supervisor is defined clearly for each person in the new procedures. such as when total new systems in corporating IT up dates are installed. in a number of ways. In examples. NEW RELATIONSHIP AND AUTHORITIES These can arise. there is not much agreement on the next frequency 53 | P a g e . taking varied forms even for the on group of employees. the control of customer credit the approval of expense claims. 6. or he may understand the purpose and have a better alternative to offer if it is not too late. when more thorough training is needed. 8. which is responsible for what. no transfers). Even the simplest looking instruction may be regarded as undesirable or impracticable by whoever has to perform it he may not understand the purpose behind the change and lose confidence in a management which he now believes to be µmessing about¶. does act as both a reminder and a stimulus. NEW STANDARDS. Although it is generally agreed that some retraining from time to time. although there is no movement of staff between the sections (i. 7. for it must be remembered that supervision and inspection and qualify control are continuously responsible for standards and exercise their own authorities to this end. and this can be the most satisfaction way of dealing with the change from the point of view of getting those affected to understand their new responsibility.e.

work opportunities money management etc. communications. there is the inference arising from the laboratory experiments of psychologists. employee empowerment and so on. RETIREMENT AND REDUNDANCY Employees of any position in the company who are heading towards retirement will benefit from learning about health. social life. Some of these skills are seen to be critical to major developments in company organisation. leadership etc are important in all companies. of course. Initial training in these skills is not uncommon in the largest companies on appointment into management and supervision. 10. in a few companies a member of Personnel will act as a counselor as required. Add. culture. and without the need to learn. 11. there is increasing evidence in current experience to suggest that this is the case in industrial employment. of there is as yet little scientific knowledge on this subject which is of much use in industrial situations. 54 | P a g e . whilst there is little scientific study of the loss of ability to learn new skills in those cases where people spend a long time without change. Internal or external courses are best attended a year or two before retirement date. THE MAINTENANCE OF MANAGEMENT SKILLS & STANDARDS Skills in supervising. 9.and form that such retraining should take. THE MAINTENANCE OF ADAPTABILITY Again. employee appraisal. But continuous training and performance monitoring is rare. despite the common knowledge that standards are as varied as human nature.

The trainees ± A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles. educational background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included. knowledge. Therefore. interpersonal. positive perception for training program. needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design. etc. These topics and modules are then classified into information. trainer decides upon the content to be delivered. tone. 55 | P a g e . Training strategies ± Once the training objective has been identified. age. Trainees¶ learning style ± the learning style. Trainers break the content into headings. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i. almost everything goes wrong. feelings. when the climate is favorable nothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable. and attitudes. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. a trainer analyzes his technical.e. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program. experience. the trainer translates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer ± Before starting a training program. what could be included. Training climate ± A good training climate comprises of ambience. judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers. skills. Training topics ± After formulating a strategy. Age.Training Design The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has been produced. ad modules. topics. experience.

Sequence the contents ± Contents are then sequenced in a following manner: y y y y y From simple to complex Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance From known to unknown From specific to general Dependent relationship Training tactics ± Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes clear. The method selection depends on the following factors: 56 | P a g e . trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques.

facilities and their availability  Furnishings and equipments  Budget  Design of the training. Constraints ± The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are:  Time  Accommodation. etc. The various requirements in a training program are white boards.Support facilities ± It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. markers. flip charts. etc 57 | P a g e .

Preparation is the most important factor to taste the success. Therefore. topics are ready. course. Completing training design does not mean that the work is done because implementation phase requires continual adjusting. Training implementation is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. equipments. Training implementation can be segregated into: ‡ Practical administrative arrangements ‡ Carrying out of the training Implementing Training Once the staff.Training Implementation To put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure is called training implementation. following are the factors that are kept in mind while implementing training program: The trainer 58 | P a g e . redesigning. Even the best training program will fail due to one wrong action. the training is implemented. content. and refining.

The trainer needs to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content. Trainer prepares materials and activities well in advance.  Pairing up the learners and have them familiarized with one another  Listening carefully to trainees¶ comments and opinions  Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed  Getting to class before the arrival of learners  Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time  Using familiar examples  Varying his instructional techniques  Using the alternate approach if one seems to bog down Reviewing the agenda 59 | P a g e . Classrooms should not be very small or big but as nearly square as possible. Establishing rapport with participants There are various ways by which a trainer can establish good rapport with trainees by:  Greeting participants ± simple way to ease those initial tense moments  Encouraging informal conversation  Remembering their first name. Also. The trainer also set grounds before meeting with participants by making sure that he is comfortable with course content and is flexible in his approach. right amount of space should be allocated to every participant. This will bring people together both physically and psychologically. Physical set-up Good physical set up is pre-requisite for effective and successful training program because it makes the first impression on participants.

The trainer must tell the participants the goal of the program. The following information needs to be included:  Kinds of training activities  Schedule  Setting group norms  Housekeeping arrangements  Flow of the program  Handling problematic situations 60 | P a g e . and how the program will run.At the beginning of the training program it is very important to review the program objective. what is expected out of trainers to do at the end of the program.

or to the regular work routines. transfer of knowledge at the work place. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces.Training Evaluation The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Purposes of Training Evaluation The five main purposes of training evaluation are: Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. 61 | P a g e . and training.

62 | P a g e . candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. Power games: At times. they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style.Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective. Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes. Once aware. then it can be dealt with accordingly. Process of Training Evaluation Before Training: The learner's skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. During the start of training.

This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals. After Training: It is the phase when learner¶s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training.During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. There are various evaluation techniques for this phase. Techniques of Evaluation The various methods of training evaluation are:  Observation  Questionnaire  Interview  Self diaries  Self recording of specific incidents 63 | P a g e .

64 | P a g e . 3) Computer aided instruction: An educational concept which places the student in a conversational mode with a computer which has programmed study plan. Some leading institution like MANAGE. the system composed of four basic components (1) monitor or video display unit (2) video tape or video disc (3) a computer (4) a disc drive.New Electronic Technologies in Training 1) Interactive computer video technology: The use of computers and videotapes in the field of training is now well established. 5) Tele-conferencing: A two way audio and one way video system. Interactivity takes place between user and the system. Disc drive loads a programme into the computer. 2) Broadcast television / cable television: Televisions system in which programme is sent out by radio wave and are seen on television. 4) Interactive video /interactive compute: The phrase µinteractive video¶ refers to a video programme with which user (trainee) can interact. It is used nowadays by many institutions for education and training purpose. The programmed course selects the next topic or phase of study according to previous responses from the student allowing each student to progress at pace directly to his or her learning capability. Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) is very well using this technology its educational and training programme. Hyderabad is using this technology in training programme. the computer controls the video or video disc. something for IC also.

human resource. through the increased learnt behavior.Training Effectiveness Cutting edge of competition today demands every organization. It is not only the ROI but the performance management. In the process of training effectiveness is the most important /vital area. loyalty and commitment etc. efficiency. How to reduce the gap? 65 | P a g e .e. to measure its activities in terms of effectiveness. retention level. The training effectiveness is obviously in terms of enhanced skill and knowledge to achieve the present goals. this is because he has to handle the most complex resource i. excellence (triple E). of the manpower which are not easy to handle. innovation conflicts. The next toughest thing is to maintain is the ROI (return on investment) of training and development. Keeping all these factors in mind the focus of vision falls on training and development. creativity. where by the individual and organizational goals are integrated to bring about the desired performance levels. morale. motivation. A lot of investment is made by the organization but the sword of sure short success hangs on the head of the HRD manager.

it has earned revenue of about US $ 40 billion with a growth rate of 30%.Training Scenario In Indian IT Software Development Industry The Indian IT sector is growing at a very fast pace and is expected to earn a revenue of US $87 billion by 2008. Interpretation : According to the recent review by Harvard Business Review. according to NASSCOM (National Association of Software and Service Companies) With this rapid expansion of IT sector and coming up of major players and new technologies like SAP. IT sector is expected to generate 2. helps the organization in achieving its business goals. Training is a tool that can help in gaining competitive advantage in terms of human resource. the need of human resource development has increased. It clearly indicates that the companies which have successfully implemented training programs have been able to deliver customer goals with effective results. Those companies with higher training investment had higher market capitalization. there is a direct link between training investment of the companies and the market capitalization. In 2006.3 million jobs by 2010. It shows that good training results in enhancement of individual performance. 66 | P a g e . which in turn.

Aptech is venturing into colleges. lack of conviction regarding training. research firms. which has always been an essential part in IT industry.With the growing investment by IT companies in the development of their employees many companies have now started their own learning centers. NIIT has invested in product development to create product segmentation and is customizing them to address IT/ITES education arena. and universities. most of the training institutes are now strategizing to launch new product and are marketing aggressively. it has become a challenge for the training institutes to offer effective. and lengthy decision-making process. there are various issues that are affecting the IT training sector such as. As an example. Sun has its own training department. On the other side. latest. Companies are investing in both the technical training. Another opportunity that has been identified by Aptech is the field of developing content and the company is offering these services to third-party clients for customization 67 | P a g e . Other than that. The company regularly conducts surveys of training needs in Indian job market. New Horizons is establishing partnership with its customers and delivering quality training. As an example. uncertain quality focus. unplanned training approach. With the coming up of various new technologies. updated. as well as in managerial skills development. As an example. planned training to candidates in a shortest-possible time. Concern in Information Technology Training One of the major concerns for training companies is to create professionals who are better able to go in for a technology in a specific domain area. some of the major players like Tata Elexi and Accenture are allocating 7% and 3% respectively of the company¶s overall revenue. To increase the market share. Accenture has Internet based tool by the name of ³My Learning´ that offers access to its vast learning resources to its employees. Companies now kept aside 3-5% of revenue for training programs.

the IT training market is valued at Rs 100 crore. 68 | P a g e . etc This must be met by the Indian players.  Good infrastructure  Trained trainers  Quality of content  Certification of training course  Effective Training evaluation  Post training support. Currently. and is expected to reach Rs 500 crore over the next 3 years.Essentials in IT Industry To survive in long term there are some definite essential things such as.

69 | P a g e . The demand has largely for JAVA and . the focus is now on hiring professionals with expertise in particular domains.NET professionals.The major factor that is responsible for growth in IT sector is the e-governance initiatives introduced by central government and various other state governments. Now there is a notable shift from long-term course to short-term training certifications. Due to this. And on the NETWORKING end. network storage and Linux demand is taking a toll.

The least number of batches were conducted for Soft Skills.Training MIS is interpreted as follows 1. 70 | P a g e . The pie chart given below gives information about total number of training batches conducted in Opus in the year 2010. All other training depends on the decisions taken by the company. As and when a new project is undertaken process training and the required technical training for that process is provided to the employees in Opus. Managerial Training and Domain Training batches were conducted on an average scale. Induction training was conducted for new comers two times in the year 2010. This is the reason why the numbers of trainings conducted in these areas are maximum. maximum batches were conducted for Technical training and Process training. Analysis: Segment Process Technical Induction Managerial Soft Skills Domain Total number of Batches conducted in the year 2010 Interpretation: Batches 15 15 2 3 1 3 39 From the analysis of this pie chart for training batches it is clear that out of 39 batches conducted in year 2010.

Domain Knowledge i. This indicated that maximum requirement for training and development in Opus is in Process Training.e. 71 | P a g e . Analysis: Segment Process Technical Induction Managerial Soft Skills Domain Total number of employees who attended training in the year 2010 Interpretation: Participants 182 166 18 47 14 55 482 From the analysis of this pie chart for number of participants in each batch it is clear that maximum number of employees who underwent training were in Process and Technical areas. The pie chart given below gives the bifurcation of the number of participants who attended the trainings under different segments discussed in the above pie chart of training batches. as the company specializes in Banking Domain was given to 55 people. Technical Training and Domain Knowledge.2.

It is followed by Process training and induction. technical training is of utmost importance. The pie chart given below shows the number of man days spent on training by the company in the year 2010. Analysis: Segment Process Technical Induction Managerial Soft Skills Domain Total number of man days of training in the year 2010 Interpretation: Days 27 181 27 21 14 21 291 From the analysis of this pie chart for number of man days spent on training by the employees. 72 | P a g e . it is clear that maximum number of days were spent on technical training. As Opus is a software development company in Banking sector.3.

Analysis: Segment Days Internal Training 34 External Training 5 Total number of Batches 39 conducted in the year 2010 Interpretation: From the analysis of this pie chart for types of training it is clear that out of total 39 training batches conducted 34 were conducted internally and only 4 batches were conducted in external locations. 73 | P a g e . From this we can interpret that Opus is keener on internally training its employees. The pie chart given below shows the types of training conducted in Opus in the year 2010.4. But though the training is internal external consultant are hired on a large scale.

Role based training is also very effective for training. Job rotation is least preferred.Questionnaire is interpreted as follows 1. External consultants and knowledge of senior management is also very commonly relied upon. Mode of training methods Classroom training for senior staff External consultants Role based training Business games 0 7 6 0 Job rotation Training Institutes Case Studies Online training . E-Learning 2 8 0 0 Senior management share their knowledge and experiences to find out 7 what is needed and what is not Graphical representation Interpretation: Opus relies on training institutes for most of its trainings. 74 | P a g e .

Secondary research is interpreted as follows Interpretation: As compared to other companies Opus has shown a drastic increase in the growth of research and development in the above line graph from the year Apr¶2010 to March¶2011.Other companies show a constant growth which shows the maximum growth in march which is upto 23% growth where as Opus shows some variations in the graph which reaches 35% growth in March¶ 2011. 75 | P a g e .

76 | P a g e . In other companies it is 55%. This shows that the basic need in companies is Bachelors Degree and Masters Degree. 62% of employees hold Bachelor¶s degree in Opus which is the degree held by maximum employees in Opus. The employees gain other qualification by attending in-house trainings.Interpretation : Here this bar chart tries to compare the highest degree attained by employees in various levels as compared to other similar companies.

Interpretation: The focus on Research and development is more as compared to other areas in Opus and also as compared to other similar companies. Executive leadership and Sales and marketing areas go hand in hand. The next maximum focus is on General and administrative areas. 77 | P a g e .

this has come in the form of employee development programs. Training needs are regularly accessed at Opus by Human resources team and department heads. As I had stated in my hypothesis I was able to get a clear picture of are training and development activities conducted in Opus Software Solutions Pvt. and is the A performance productive. undoubtedly fact negative consequences. For many organizations. 6. Legal requirements are considered in training needs. 3. Ltd. Training Provided in Opus is planned and systematically administered. Action Plan for training needs are captured using the following  Business needs 78 | P a g e . The activities performed in each phase in Opus Software Solutions Pvt. If an of an the employees. Training programs and opportunities are communicated to employees using Training Calendar uploaded on HRMS. 8. Organizations immediate and future needs of training and development are communicated to Top Manager¶s. profitable effective as organization¶s does they they not make will will employees address the organization or if employee that satisfaction money retention only error believing motivation. Ltd are listed below: Phase 1: Pre-training 1.Testing of Hypothesis An To organization remain must issues of depends competitive. be of as on the success and and possible. 4. Employee development plans are addressed in performance appraisals 7. 2. Upto 2 year¶s future training needs are projected in Opus. successful organization have employees who are able to adapt and learn which takes an investment and constant cultivating. 5.

 Original road map  Client requirements  Appraisals 9. Feedback questionnaire is used to measure participants¶ reaction to the training program. Training incharge is responsible for Training and Development activities in Opus. Methods to identify training needs in Opus:  Observation  Performance appraisals  Opinion surveys  Critical Incident  Business needs  Client needs Phase 2: Training 1. 2. Mode of training methods adopted in Opus are:  External Consultants  Role based training  Business games  Job rotation  Training institutes  Senior management sharing their knowledge. 2. Employees have to participate for minimum 9 to 24 hours in training in Opus. Phase 3: Post-training 1. Trainer evaluation is considered for the selection of trainer. 10. Participants¶ knowledge and skills are tested by Pre and post test scores and On ±the ± job assessments. Employees are permitted time-off with pay during training programs in Opus. 3. 4. 79 | P a g e .

Participants¶ behavior in the workplace is found out using on-the ±job observations after training. Learning Type of Measure Satisfaction Focus Learner Satisfaction with the program Learning. techniques 3. facts. 6. Behaviour 4. 5. 4. Reaction 2. quantity The formula used is : % ROI = (Net Benefits / Cost) * 100 80 | P a g e .3. quality. Quality Inspections is used to measure benefits from training in Opus. Reference library of training and development is provided to employees. Results Changes in Job Behaviour Tangible results ± cost. Attitudes Behavioural Change Results Principles. Return on Investment is measured in Opus merely as per the Kirkpatrick model The Kirkpatrick Model Level 1.

3. Ltd prevented me to prolong my interview session. The limitations that I faced while working on my project are as follows: 1. The most important limitation is the time limit given for completing my project work. 81 | P a g e . Some of the questions in the questionnaire were not answered properly.Limitations Every project faces some limitations. 2. Opus software solutions Pvt. Busy schedule of the Lead Human resources.

and abilities (KSA) through professional development. and where you will be after some point of time. but it knows how to reach it. It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge. Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks) at present.  It's not a set of goals. but it¶s more like a vision. 82 | P a g e . I understand that a company has to invest on training and developing its employees on a regular basis which would help the company grow and also in employee retention. but it knows how to take off. Opus realizes that training and development are integral to competitive business success. but it¶s having the knowledge to do it. Ltd.  It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for. skills. From my study. Training is activity leading to skilled behavior  It¶s not what you want in life.Conclusion The purpose of this study was to explore the various aspects of training and development in Opus Software solutions pvt. but it will be an outcome. there is a lot of savings caused by its long term benefits as it enables employees to keep up with the organization and its changes and growth.  It¶s not the goal you set.  It¶s not how high you want to rise. sharpening of skills. concepts. Training and development obviously has its cost such as course material.. for instance. Ltd. Training is about the acquisition of knowledge. in Opus software solutions Pvt. but it¶s what you need to achieve it. facilitator fees and facilities rental. rules. but its knowing how to get there.  It¶s not where you want to go. However. or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees.  It¶s not what you dream of doing.

Although training needs are identified much before training programmed actually commence but still some crucial points are left some un-addressed. ³He is stressed out. writing and reasoning skills needed for today's workplace. Taking this in context there are many organization where some employee who are earmarked are regularly nominated to attend training program. well skilled.Suggestions ³TRAIN AND RETAIN TO STOP THE DRAIN ³ In today¶s competitive world. employers must complete the basic training that they believe high schools and technical colleges fail to provide. training budgets are the first to be axed. is not an indicator of the skills a person should have. where margins are constantly under pressure.99% cases employee is nominated by higher authorities instead of chance being given to volunteer program under the notion that boss is always right and he knows the best off. Ongoing training would keep these students interested and learning new and helps them employees helps them to adjust to rapidly changing job requirements. Many students come out of college and are recruited into jobs that aren't challenging and move them along slowly. The gap between the well educated. For example very little is done to know the opinion of the employee about training need identified for him as to what he feels about the same . A high school diploma. why don¶t pack him up for a training program´ approach. Training is also important in aiding in underemployment and employee retention. and sometimes even a college degree. 83 | P a g e . So it becomes imperative that the training model that is evolved should be less capital intensive and not dependent upon profit margins and profitability. and the non-educated. In some cases. non-skilled is becoming more obvious due to the decline in manual labor jobs. Employers are having a difficult time finding qualified entry level workers who possess the basic reading. They then quit in search for other opportunities.

Brian H. www. David A. Allan Pepper (1999) A Handbook on Training and Development WEBSITES: 1. http://human-resources-mgt. http://traininganddevelopment. 14 Iss: 9 BOOKS: 1.com 8. http://employersclub.com 6. Decenzo/Stephen P. www. Kleiner. Journal of European Industrial Training ³How to Measure Management Training and Development Effectiveness´ Garrett J.naukrihub.com/journals. Oladele Akin-Ogundeji.Bibliography JOURNALS : 1. Journal of Managerial Psychology ³ASSURING THE QUALITY OF TRAINING THROUGH EVALUATION: A MODEL ³. (1991) Vol.aspx 3.linkedin.com 2. Personal Management 3.wikipedia.opussoft. Vol.org/ 4. www.emeraldinsight.bestmanagementarticles. http://www. A. www. Monappa (2004). Endres.htm?articleid=881723 7. Robins (2004) Personal and Human Resource Management 2.citehr.com/a-35534-training-and-humanresource-staffing.com 84 | P a g e .org 5. 6 Iss: 1 2.

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