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Internal Loads developed in Structural Members

Fx Fy M

0 0 0

1

STUDY:

•Statics (CH 5-6-7) •To get support reactions & Internal forces •Strength of Materials (CH 5) drawing V, N, M diagrams •Structural Analysis (CH 2) To get support reactions

2

1

**Sign conventions for internal loadings
**

N: (+) in tension [or (-) in compression] V: (+) rotating the segment in clockwise M: (+) bending the segment concave upward (or creating compression on the top face) + +

+

+

+

3

**FRAMES : Sign convention & reference lines
**

Based on sing convection, identify (+) & (-) moments shown in the figure below?? We need to identify which areas of the moment distributions will be (+) or (-) so as to make them consistent and universal. That is why we consider reference lines.

(+or -)

Moment diagram for a frame

Reference lines

the (-) V,M,N must be plotted on the face of the member where the reference line is located.

Rigid connection of a steel frame

Reference lines

4

2

**Reference lines for V, M & N
**

+

+

Reference line (placed on the bottom face)

+

Reference line (placed on the right face)

+

the (negative) V,M,N diagrams must be plotted on the face of the member where the reference lines are located.

5

**Reference lines for V & M
**

45 k 20 k 10 k 5k

2k/ft

10 k

Beam

Reference lines

Frame

the (negative) V,M,N diagrams must be plotted on the face of the member where the reference lines are located.

6

3

M & N Reference lines Reference lines + A + + + + (M) the (-) V.M. M & N Ay Reference lines Dx Dy the (negative) V. 8 4 .N diagrams must be plotted on the face of the member where the reference lines are located.N diagrams must be plotted on the face of the member where the reference lines are located.Reference lines for (negative) V. 7 Reference lines for V.M.

FBD-left (+) positive Directions Equations of equilibrium (E-of-E) Fx 0 Fy 0 M 0 FBD-right Fx 0 Fy 0 M 0 9 9 (+) positive directions Example 4.m E-of-E for Segment |DB| FBD-|DB| 20 kN.m 20 kN.m 10 5 .1 (V & M at a point) Determine the internal forces (V and M) at points C & D? Study this ! Note: Point D just to the left of 5kN Point C just to the right of 5kN E-of-E for Segment |CB| FBD-|CB| 20 kN.m 20 kN.Shear & moment at a point • Shear force and bending couple at a point are determined by passing a section through the beam and applying an equilibrium analysis on the beam portions on either side of the section.

Example 4.3 (V & M at a point) Study this ! Determine the V & M at point C? FBD-entire A B C FBD-|AC| A C Equations of equilibrium (E-of-E) (+) (+) 11 Relations between Distributed Load (w) & Shear Force (V) Load acting vertically Fy 0 V V C' V V w x w x 0 VC ' VC C w dx INTEGRATION of load V [ (-) x area under distributed loading ] or dV dx w DERIVATIVE of V (-) x distributed load (slope) 12 6 .

Relations between Shear (V) & Bending (M) Load acting vertically MC M M 0 M V x C' M V x w x 1w 2 x 2 0 x2 MC' MC C V dx INTEGRATION of V [area under shear] M or dM dx V DERIVATIVE (slope) of M V 13 Summary Relations between Load&Shear & Shear&Bending Page 151 (correction !!!!!) for the loads acting vertically - - 14 7 .

shear & moment dV w dx derivative Distributed load dM dx V derivative linear Load=0 linear 1st 1st Load=0 Shear=0 Shear=0 Linear Integration under w (distributed load) L Integration under V diagram L V 0 w dx M 0 V dx 15 Relationship between loading.Relationship between loading. shear & moment Distributed load = constant dV dx w dM dx V -2nd -1st parabola +1st -2nd parabola 3rd Cubic equation -1st +2nd parabola 3rd Cubic equation L V 0 w dx Integration under w (distributed load)x(-1)=ΔV Integration under V diagram=ΔM L M 0 V dx 16 dV dx w xD xC VD VC w dx 8 .

(y=ax2+bx+c) [Parabola. (y= -wx+b) [linear (degreasing) equation] 1st degree eq. load between (y=a) |BC| Uniformly distributed (y= w) -1st degree eq. (y= -wx2+bx) [. (y=ax+b) [linear (increasing) equation] 2nd degree eq.Relations between Load&Shear & Shear&Bending Load condition: LOAD SHEAR MOMENT (integration) (-1)x(integration) No distributed Linear function. or quadratic equation] 3rd degree eq.Parabola. or quadratic equation] +1st degree (y=ax+b) [linear equation] +2nd degree eq. (y=ax3+bx2+cx) [cubic equation] 17 SUMMARY: General shapes for M curves based on V curves + +1st +1st: linear increasing equation -1st: linear decreasing equation +2nd: positive parabola -2nd: negative parabola + -1st V=0 (V) (+) area (0) slope (0) area (0)slope (-) area (0) slope (+) area (+) slope (+) area (-) slope (-) area (-) slope +1st (-) area (+) slope -2nd -2nd + Mpeak +2nd + +2nd (M) increasing (+) slope constant (0) slope decreasing (-) slope (+) parabola (-) parabola (-) parabola (+) parabola 18 9 .

(+) 20 20 10 . you MUST indicate the variations along the curves.SUMMARY: General shapes for M curves based on V curves +1st + V=0 + -1st (V) (-) area (0) slope (0) area (0)slope (+) area (0) slope -1st - +1st (-) area (-) slope (-) area (+) slope (+) area (+) slope (+) area (-) slope (M) decreasing (-) slope constant (0) slope increasing (+) slope -2nd -2nd Mpeak decreasing (-) parabola +2nd +2nd (+) parabola (-) parabola +1st: linear increasing equation -1st: linear decreasing equation +2nd: positive parabola -2nd: negative parabola (+) parabola 19 Shear-force and bendingmoment diagrams for a simple beam with several concentrated loads (+) (-) IMPORTANT NOTE: When you plot the diagrams.

m Jump in moment in (+) direction 2kN.m A B C A B Counterclockwise 4kN. (-) Mmax 21 21 Concentrated moment at a point & M-diagram Clockwise 4kN.Shear-force and bendingmoment diagrams for a cantilever beam with several concentrated loads (-) Vmax IMPORTANT NOTE: When you plot the diagrams.m C 2kN 1m 1m 2kN 2kN 1m 1m 2kN 2kN - 2kN 2kN.m Jump in moment in (-) direction 22 + 11 .m + + - 2kN.m - 2kN. you MUST indicate the variations along the curves.

7 (V & M diagrams) Draw the V & M diagrams. y y = ax2+bx+c (+) (-) x x -y y= .ax2+bx+c 12 .Exercise # 3 Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams for the beam and loading shown. 9m y y = ax2+bx+c Using E-of-Es: x x Fy M 0 0 V M 10 2 x 30 9 10 3 x 30 x 27 24 -y y= .ax2+bx+c (+) 23 23 Example 4.

20m 0 26 13 .55 w 20 x 9 L V 0 w dx dV dx (+) (-) L V 10 2 x 30 9 w M 0 V dx dM dx (+) V M 10 3 x 30 x 27 25 How to find the location (point of) of V=0 Equation for V: V 10 2 x 30 9 (+) V=0 when V=0 find x (-) x V 10 2 x 30 9 x ~ 5.11.

How to find the magnitude of w at a point w 11.20m (+) (-) Equation for V: V 10 2 x 30 9 27 How to find the magnitude of w at a point w 20 kN / m for x 9m w 2( dV dx 10 )x 9 w x=9m (+) (-) Equation for V: V 10 2 x 30 9 28 14 .55 kN / m for x 5.55 w 2( dV dx 10 )x 9 w x=5.20m w=11.

How to find the Mpeak when V=0 29 Example 4.8 (V & M diagrams) Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams for the beams and loadings shown. (+) (+) (+) (-) (+) (-) (-) 30 15 .

B: pin joint E: pin support Draw the FBDs of each member. and then find the reaction and joint forces 32 16 .Example 4. B is a pin joint). and E is a pin.11 (V & M diagrams) Draw the V & M diagrams for the beam and loading shown (assume supports A & C are rollers. (+) (-) (-) (-) (+) (-) (+) (+) (+) (-) (-) 31 31 Example 4.12 (V & M diagrams) Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams for the beam and loading shown.

2k/ft 60k.ft A B C E Reactions : Ax=0k Ay=4k Cy=45k Ey=-6k Joint forces: Bx=0k By=16kN 10ft 6ft 4ft 6ft 6ft 33 2k/ft 5k C B 3k/ft E 60k.ft A 10ft 6ft 4ft 6ft 6ft Reactions : Ax=0k Ay=4k Cy=45k Ey=-6k (-) Joint forces: Bx=0k By=16kN (+) (-) (+) 34 17 .

Example 4. (+700) Areas of shear diagram (-200) (V) (-500) 700 500 (M) 36 18 .10 Draw the V & M diagrams for the beam. (V & M diagrams) FBD of |ABC| (+) Idealized beam (-) (+) (-) 35 Exercise # 5 Draw the V and M diagrams for the beam.

6 365.3 1702 1468 (M) 38 38 19 .2) (-170.3 73.6 (M) 37 Exercise # 7 Draw the V and M diagrams for the beam.Exercise # 6 Draw the V and M diagrams for the beam. (+428.2) 21. Areas of shear diagram 40 (+1702) (-234) (+800) 43.6 425.6 ) Areas of shear diagram (+107.28 (-425.8 428.6) (V) 535.3 (V) (-2266) 153.

2k Dy=48.6 16 39 Exercise # 9 Support reactions: Draw the V and M diagrams for the beam. 200ft 20 .6 1.4 0 + 0 (M) 4.2 4. 3k/ft A B 30ft 60ft 30ft 100k 60k 50k 90k 80k C 100ft 120ft 60ft 40ft 75ft 75ft 50ft D Ay=255k By=435k Cy=241. B 2m 5.8k Not: Arrows shown are the real directions of the forces and moments.8 0. 6kN 5kN 5kN 4kN 2kN/m A 2m 3m 4m 3m 4 + Support Reactions: Ay=15.8 kN By=8.2 kN Not: Arrows shown are the real directions of the forces and moments.Exercise # 8 Draw the V and M diagrams for the beam.8 4 + (V) 6 10 4.

300) 10 120 (-2.840) (11.944kN Cy=22.2 D 48. 6kN A E 5m 3m 2m B 5m C 5m 2m F 4m 4m 2kN/m 10kN 3kN/m 8kN D Ay=3.800) 10.840 + 2700 2430 2100 90 (M) + 0 9000 + 0 41 - 0 0 4200 9000 Exercise# 10 Work on this problem ! Support reactions: Draw the V and M diagrams for the beam.090) 75ft (2.62kN Fy=4.676kN Dy=4.2 + 70 (-600) (-6.0kN Not: Arrows shown are the real directions of the forces and moments.38kN By=33.2 (V) (10.Exercise#9 (cont.8 85tf 115tf 345 (4.48 Ay=255k By=435k Cy=241.2k Dy=48.340) 50ft 90 121.440) 48.) 3k/ft Support reactions: 100k 90 60k 70 50k 90k 90k A 255 B 435 C 30ft 60ft 30ft 241.0kN Joint forces: Ey=8.700) 31. 42 21 .8k 200ft 255 100ft 120ft 60ft 40ft 75ft (9.840) + 0 (-19.

69 kN Not: Arrows shown are the real directions of the forces and moments.5 kN By=21.m Ay=180kN Ax=0kN 180 V [kN] M [kN. 44 Exercise # 12 50kN 130kN.5kN/m G2 8m 2m 2kN/m G1 A 2m 8m 2m B C 8m D Support reactions: Ay=2. 2 kN 10 kN 1.Exercise #11 Work on this problem ! Draw the V & M diagrams for the gerber beam.25 kN Cy=16.m] N [kN] 46 22 . 3 6 9 81 72 54 50 (+) 27 9 180 3kN 3kN (+) 9 6 3 (-) 3kN A M=0kN.m 3kN 3kN 130kN 3kN 3m 3m 3m 3m 3m 3m Draw the V.56 kN Dy=6. M &N diagrams for the column.

Internal force diagrams for sloping members They can be more challenging 47 V.14 48 23 . N of sloping (inclined) members Example 4. M.

Exercise # 13 Draw the V.4kN 24 38. 1.2 4m 14.5m 1.5m FDB : 48kips B 4m 48kips B By Ax A A 3m Ay SOLUTION: • Determine the support reaction forces: MA Fy MB 0 0 B y (3m ) 48 kN (1.) 3m 48kN 48(3 5) 28.5 m ) Ay 0 (or By Fx 48 kN 0) 0 Ax 0 kN 49 0 Ay By 24 kN 24 kN Exercise #13 (cont.4 24 24 (4 5) 24 24 (3 5) 5 3 4 cos sin 35 45 Adjust the support reactions and external loads based on the axes shown (i.e.8 48(4 5) 19. M & N diagrams for the sloping beam. y axis perpendicular to the beam) 50 24 .2 14.4 24 19.

Exercise # 14 2m 48kN Draw the V.8 kN 48 52 25 . 2m B FDB: 48kN Bx 3m A 4m Ax Ay SOLUTION: • Determine the support reaction forces: MA Fy MB 0 0 B x (3m ) 48 kN (2 m ) Ay 48 kN 0 Ay 0 48 kN Bx 0 32 kN 32 kN 0 A y (4 m ) Ax (3m ) 48 kN (2 m ) Ax 51 Exercise 14 (cont. M & N diagrams for the sloping beam.6kN 48(cos ) 38.4kN 48(sin ) 28.6kN 32 48 5 4 cos 3 sin 45 35 32 32(sin ) 19.2kN 32 32(cos ) 25.2kN 32(sin ) 19.) Adjusting the support reactions based on the new x-y axes along the beam : 32 32(cos ) 25.

6kN 19.6kN 32 = 32 48 5 4 3 19.Exercise 14 (cont.2kN 54 26 .8kN 48(cos ) 38.4kN 19.2kN cos sin 45 35 53 Exercise 14 (cont.4kN 28.4kN 19.) 38.2kN 54.2kN 54.) Adjusted FBD (based on the new axis): 48(sin ) 28.4kN 48kN 48kN 25.8kN 25.

M. except there is a distributed load.5 1. 12kN/m Snow load: 12kN/m 48kN B FBD: 2m 3m 2m Bx A Ax 4m Ay SOLUTION: • Determine the support reaction forces: MA Fy MB 0 0 0 B x (3m ) 48 kN (2 m ) Ay 48 kN 0 Ay 0 48 kN 0 Ax 32 kN 57 Bx 32 kN A y (4 m ) Ax (3m ) 48 kN (2 m ) 27 . NOTE: this problem is very similar to Example 13. N diagrams # 13 # 14 55 Exercise # 16 The roof beam of a building is subjected to a snow loading as shown. acting vertically on the beam. which has the same magnitude. M & N diagrams for the beam. Draw the V.Exercise #15 Compare the drawings from Exercise #14 & Exercise# 14? 1.5 m m 48kips B 4m 48kN B A 3m # 13 A # 14 CONCLUSION: Types of support significantly influence the V.

) Adjust the support reactions based on the new x-y axes that is selected based on beam’s slope 32 5 3 4 cos sin 45 35 32(cos ) 25.2kN 32(sin ) 19.4 19.8kN 48kN 25.8 kN 48 58 Exercise #16 (cont.4 kN 48(3 5) 28.4kN 48(sin ) 28.2kN 32 32(cos ) 25.6 19.6kN 48(cos ) 38.Exercise #16 (cont.2 54.2 59 28 .6kN 32 48 32 32(sin ) 19.) 5 4 3 cos sin 45 35 48kN 12kN/m 48(4 5) 38.

8kN 38.) 48kN 12kN/m Equivalent distributed load due to the component of the load acting perpendicular to the beam’s centroidal axis: 38.2 61 29 .8kN 60 Exercise #16 (cont.Exercise #16 (cont.76kN/m 5 4 3 cos sin 45 35 28.4kN / 5m = 7.4kN 48kN 38.68kN/m Equivalent distributed load due to the component of the load acting along the beam’s centroidal axis: 28.4kN 28.) 12kN/m 32 25.4 19.2 32 48 = 54.8kN / 5m = 5.6 19.

2kN (M) (N) 63 30 .2kN (V) 54.Exercise #16 (cont.6kN/m 48kN 32 9.2kN 19.6kN / m (cos ) 25.6kN 3m 32 48 4m = 32 48 = 54.4kN 19.) SUMMARY: Representing the loads & reactions in various forms of axes: Equivalent distributed load in vertical direction: Equivalent distributed loads perpendicular & along the centroidal axis of the beam 48kN 12kN/m 32 48kN / 5m = 9.6kN 19.2kN 9.) 25.6kN / m (sin ) 62 Exercise #16 (cont.4kN 19.

2kN (V) NOTE: when V=0 M=MMAX (M) (N) 64 Exercise # 17 Compare the drawings from Exercise #14 & Exercise# 16? 12kN/m 48kN B 48kN B A # 14 # 16 # 16 # 14 CONCLUSION: Types of loading significantly influence the V.2kN 19. which is more familiar to you in a way you are used to see.) NOTE: you can also look at the same beam & diagrams as rotated below. N diagrams 65 31 . M. 54..6kN 19.4kN 25.Exercise #16 (cont.

or y 0 0 Fy MA 0 0 MB 0 M B 66 0 66 Example 4. Use the E-of-E to check if joint C is in equilibrium: Fx 0 Fy 0 MC 0 67 32 . M.Example 4. FBD of entire frame SOLUTION: The frame is statically determinate Find the support reactions Bx.13 (cont. N are the same C CHECK POINT: You may check joint C to verify if those calculated internal forces from |AC| & |CB| are correct. Assume support A (rolling) & B (pinned). M. Note: (E-of-E: Equations of Equilibrium) Use one of these combinations of E-of-E to find the support reactions: Fx Fx.13 (V & M diagrams) Draw the V&M diagrams for the beam. N are the same FBD of |AC| V. FBD of |CB| C V. By & Ay.) FBD of Joint C (ii) Draw the FBDs of members |AC| & |CB| and calculate the internal forces.

M & N are plotted on the side where the doted lines are shown. 69 33 .) FBD of Joint C (iii) Draw the corresponding V & M diagrams based on the internal forces shown on the FBDs of |AC|& CB|. Think about how to draw the V and N diagrams for the given FBD’s. y FBD of |CB| x FBD of |AC| (-) (M) (M) (-) y x 68 68 Example 4.ft] A A NOTE: make sure the (-) values of V . NOTE: only moment diagram is shown in this example.Example 4.) (iv) show the V & M diagrams on the entire frame separately as shown.13 (cont.13 (cont. NO B (-) (-) Summary of the M diagram: B (-) (-) YES (M) [-k.

70 Exercise # 18 (cont.) C B Member |CB| C B By=45 Ax=60 Ay=30 A (V) Member |AC| (M) C A (V) (M) 71 34 . M. N diagrams for the frame.Exercise # 18 Draw the V. C B By=45 Support reactions: A Ax=60 Ay=30 Ax=30kips Ay=60kips By=45kips NOTE: The support reactions are shown with their real directions on the frame.

N diagrams for the frame. M&N diagrams for the frame.Exercise # 19 Work on this problem ! Draw the V. 2kN D C 2kN 2m Reactions: Ax=2 kN Ay=6 kN MA=8 kN. M. FBD of the entire frame FBDs of each member 74 35 .m A 1kN/m B 2m 2m 72 Exercise # 20 Draw the V.

(V) 100 FBD of the entire frame (M) 76 Exercise # 22 Draw the V and M diagrams for the frame.Exercise # 21 Draw the V. M &N diagrams for the frame. (+) (-) (+) (V) (+) (-) FBD of the entire frame (+) (-) (-) (-) (M) (-) FBDs of the members 77 36 .

) 79 37 .) (2) (1) (3) (5) (4) 78 Exercise # 22 (cont.Exercise # 22 (cont.

Exercise # 22 (cont.) 81 38 .) + 80 Exercise # 22 (cont.

Joint B is fixed. Note: (E-of-E: Equations of Equilibrium) Use one of these combinations of E-of-E to find the support reactions: Fx Fx. Ay & Cy .) 82 Example 4.entire frame B C SOLUTION: The frame is statically determinate (there are three unknowns). FBD.14 (V & M diagrams) Prototype=one-to-one Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams for the frame shown. first.Exercise # 22 (cont. Assume supports A (pinned) & C (rolling). (i) using the E-of-Es for the FBD of the entire framing system. or y 0 0 Fy MA 0 0 MA MC 0 0 83 83 39 . find the support reactions Ax.

14 (cont.Example 4.) FBD of entire system (ii) Draw the FBDs of members |AB| & |CB| and calculate the internal forces. V. Use the E-of-E to check if joint C is in equilibrium: Fx 0 Fy 0 MB 0 84 Example 4. N are the same here FBD of |BC| FBD of Joint B 170 kN.14 (cont. M.) FBD of |AB| Member |AB| (V) [kN] (M) [kN.m FBD of |AB| CHECK POINT: You may check joint C to verify if those calculated internal forces are correct.m] 85 85 40 .

87 41 . NOTE: only the V & M are drawn here. Think about how to draw the N diagram for the given frame.) Summary of the V & M diagrams: (+) (-) (-) (+) (+) (V) (M) NOTE: make sure the (-) values of V & M are located on the side where the doted lines are shown.Example 4.14 (cont.14 (cont.) Member |BC| FBD of |BC|: (V) [kN] (-) (M) [kN.m] (+) 86 Example 4.

15 (cont.142 k / ft 0. (i) Using the FBD of the entire framing system and E-of-Es. first. or y 0 0 0 MA 0 MA M C89 0 89 42 . 0.142 k / ft Correct this in your textbook 88 Example 4.142 k / ft (14. find the support reactions Ax.Example 4.14) ft 2. Note: (E-of-E: Equations of Equilibrium) Use one of these combinations of E-of-E to find the support reactions: Fy Fx. Joint B (rigid).0k C B A SOLUTION: The frame is statically determinate (there are three unknowns). Assume supports A (pinned) & C (rolling).) FBD of the entire frame 0. Ay & Cx.15 (V & M diagrams) Draw the V and M diagrams for the frame shown.

) (V) 0. and calculate the internal forces.) (ii) Draw the FBDs of members |AB| & |BC|. NOTE: only the V & M are drawn here. FBD of |BC| CHECK POINT: (FBD of joint B) V.06 (+) 5 (-) (-) 0. N’s the same B FBD of |BC| 90 FBD of entire frame 90 Example 4. 91 43 .625 (+) (N) 1. M & N diagrams: (M) 0.15 (cont. Draw the N diagram for the given frame. M.15 (cont.Example 4.354 Summary: the V .5 NOTE: make sure the (-) values of V and M are located on the side where the dashed lines are shown.

04 By=52.96 Reactions: Ax=36kips Ay=64. M &N diagrams for the frame.) FBDs of each member: Ax=36 Ay=64.04 By=52.04kips By=52.Exercise # 23 Draw the V.96 44 . Ax=36 Ay=64.96kips 92 Exercise # 23 (cont.

M & N diagrams for the frame shown (support A is fixed). The section cuts are determined based on the variations in the geometry and the presence of loadings. 3kN 3kN (6) 2kN (8) (7) 1kN (5) 2m (2) 3kN 3m (4) 4kN.m (3) 3kN 4m 3kN 3kN 4m 1kN 3kN 2m 3kN 3m A 4kN. 95 45 .) (+) FBDs of each member (-) (+) (V) (-) (-) (+) (-) (M) (-) (+) NOTE: Draw the N diagram by yourself 94 Exercise #24 2kN Draw the V.Exercise # 23 (cont.m A (1) 4m 4m NOTE: the solution to this problem is very detailed in a way that the internal forces and moments are determined for each section cuts shown.

m 2m 3m MA Ay a 3kN A 4m 1kN 3kN 2m 2kN (8) (6) 3kN (7) 3kN 1kN (5) (2) 3kN (4) 4kN.m 1(4m ) 3(5m ) 3(4m ) 3(9 m ) 0 Exercise# 24 (cont.) 2kN 3kN 3kN 4m 4kN.) 12 (+) 3 (+) 3 1 3 (+) 12 (-) (+) 3 4 (+) (+) 1 3 (+) 1 (-) 3 (+) 3 3 3 (-) 9 V [kN] M [kN.m 96 M A 3(3m ) 4 kN .m (1) 3kN 0kN 4m real directions (reversed) Determine the support reaction forces: Fx Fy MA 0 0 0 Ax 3 3 3 0 Ay 2 3 1 0 Ax Ay 3kN 0 kN MA 9kN .m] N [kN] NOT TO SCALE 97 46 .m 3kN (3) Ax 3m initially predicted reactions b A MA=9kN.Exercise# 24 (cont.

5kN 8kN 2kN 4m A G 3m B 3m 3m 3m 2m NOTE: the solution to this problem is very detailed in a way that the internal forces and moments are determined for each section cuts shown.) Section 7 : M7 0 kN . Supports: A (fixed) & D (sliding).m V6 1kN N 6 1kN Section 5 : M5 4 0 V5 1 0 N5 3 0 M5 N5 4 kN .m 3kN V5 1kN 99 Exercise # 25 Draw the V. 104 47 .m V7 N7 3kN 1kN V7 3 0 N7 1 0 Section 6 : M 6 4 1(4 m ) 0 V6 1 0 N6 1 0 M6 0 kN . The section cuts are determined based on the variations in the geometry and the presence of loadings.Exercise# 24 (cont. M & N diagrams for the frame shown.

We will determine the V.Exercise #25 (cont. M & N values for each of these sections: 5kN (5) 8kN (4) 2kN (6) (7) (8) (9) 4m (10) (11) 3m (12) (3) A (1) (2) G B 3m 3m 3m 2m 105 Exercise #25 (cont.) Find support reactions: 5kN (5) (4) (6) (7) (3) (8) (9) 4m (10) (11) 3m (12) 8kN 2kN Gx G MA Ax Ay A (1) 3m Gy Gx (2) 3m 3m B By 2m 106 48 .) Mark the critical locations (sections) where the internal forces may be varying.

125 kN (3m ) 18.Exercise #25 (cont.125 kN G y (3m) 6.875 kN 6.) (5) (4) FIND SUPPORT REACTIONS: at G &B 5kN 8kN 2kN (6) (7) (3) (8) (9) 4m (10) (11) 3m (12) Gx G Gy Fx MG Fy 0 0 0 Gx By Gy 2 kN 6.) FIND SUPPORT REACTIONS at A: MA Ax Ay A (1) 3m (2) Gy Gx Fx Fy MA 0 0 0 Ax Ay MA Gx Gy 2 kN 6.375 kN .125 kN B By 3m 3m 2m 107 Exercise #25 (cont.m 108 49 .

**Exercise #25 (cont.)
**

Show the FBD of the entire system with known values of the support reactions (make sure that your support reactions show real directions):

5kN

(5) (4) (6) (7) (3) (1) (2) (8) (9) 4m (10) (11) 3m (12)

8kN 2kN

18.375kN.m 2 6.125kN

G

B 6.875 kN

3m 3m 3m 2m

109

**Exercise #25 (cont.) Calculate internal forces for each section using E-of-E:
**

Section 1 : M1 V1 N1 18 .375 6.125 2

kN kN kN

Section 2 : M2 V2 N2 0

kN .m

Section 3 : M3 V3 N3 0

kN .m

Section 4 : M4 V4

kN

Section 5 :(i )

m

2(4 ) 2 kN 6.125 kN

8

kN .m

M5 V5 N5

2(4 m ) 6.125 kN 2 kN

8kN .m

6.125 kN 2

kN

2 kN 6.125

N4

4m

Real directions

(+) sing directions

Real directions

110

50

**Exercise #25 (cont.)
**

Section 6 : M 6 6.125 (3) 2(4) 0 V6 6.125 N6 2 0 0 M 6 10 .375 V6 N6 2 kN

kN .m

Section 8 :(i ) M 8 6.125 (6) 2(4) 5(3) 0 V8 6.125 5 0 N8 2 0 M 8 13 .75 kN .m V8 1.125 kN N8 2 kN

6.125 kN

**Section 7 : M 7 6.125 (3m ) 2(4 m ) 0 V7 6.125 5 0 N7 2 0 M7 V7 N2 10 .375 kN .m 1.125 2
**

kN kN

**Section 8 :(ii ) M 8 6.875 (2 m ) 0 V8 6.875 8 0 N8 2 0 M 8 13 .75 kN .m V8 1.125 kN N8 2 kN
**

111

Exercise# 25(cont.)

Section 9 : M9 V9 N9 6.875 (2) 13 .75 kN .m 6.875 (cos ) 6.875 (sin ) 6.146

kN

**Section 10 : M 10 N10 6.875 (0) 0 kN .m 6.875 (cos ) 6.875 (sin ) 6.146
**

kN

**Section 11 : M 11 3.073 kN V11 N11 6.875 (0) 0 kN .m 0
**

kN

Section 12 : M 12 V12

kN

6.875 (0) 0 kN .m 0 kN 6.875 kN

3.073 kN V10

6.875

N12

112

51

Exercise# 25(cont.)

(5)

5kN

8kN 2kN

Section 4 :(ii ) M4 2(4 m ) 0 0 M4 V4 N4 8kN .m 2

kN

**Section 5 :(ii ) M5 8 0 V5 6.125 N5 2 0 0 M5 V5 N5 8kN .m 6.125 2 kN
**

kN

(4)

(6) (7)

(8)

(9) (10) (11)

(3) G Gy

V4 2 0 N 4 6.125

6.125 kN

(12) B By

**Section 6 :(ii ) M 6 8 6.125 (3m ) 0 V6 6.125 N6 2 0 0 M 6 10 .375 kN .m V6 N6 6.125 kN 2 kN
**

113

Exercise# 25(cont.)

Section 7 :(ii ) M 7 10 .375 N7 2 0 0 M7 V7 N2 10 .375 1.125 kN 2 kN

kN .m

Section 8 :(iii ) M 8 10.375 1.125 (3m ) 0 V8 1.125 N8 2 0 0 M 8 13.75 kN .m V8 1.125 kN N8 2 kN

V7 6.125 5 0

5kN (5)

8kN 2kN

NOTE: You may use different FBDs for the same section cut to determine V, M,N at that section. For instance, for Section 8, THREE different FBDs are used. All are presented in this example as Section 8(i), (ii) & (iii)

(4)

(6) (7)

(8)

(9) (10) (11)

(3) G Gy

(12) B By 114

52

146 2 (-) 6.5 kN 2m 8m Not: Arrows shown are the real directions of the forces and moments.125 (+) 6.75 (+) 8 M [kN.) 6.125 (-) 6.875 115 NOT TO SCALE Exercise # 26 Work on this problem ! Draw the V.m] (-) 18. 6kN F D 1 kN/m E 2m 2m 4kN B Reactions: A Ax=4 kN Ay=10.073 10.5 kN Ey=3.Exercise# 25(cont.125 2 (-) (-) 2 2 6. 116 53 .375 8 (+) (-) 13.146 N [kN] (-) 6.375 6.125 (-) V [kN] 3.125 (+) (-) 2 1. M &N diagrams for the frame.

67 kN Cx=3 kN Cy=1.Exercise # 27 Work on this problem ! Draw the V. 5kN A 2kN/m 3kN B 4m C Reactions: Ay=16 kN By=7. M &N diagrams for the frame.m 2m 10m 6m 3m Not: Arrows shown are the real directions of the forces and moments. B 1m 2m 2m 1m 1m 118 Exercise # 28 Work on this problem ! Draw the V.33 kN. 5kN D E G F 3kN C 1kN 2m 2 kN/m H 4kN 2m A Reactions: Ax=4 kN Ay=3 kN By=6 kN MA=1kN. 120 54 . M &N diagrams for the frame.m Not: Arrows shown are the real directions of the forces and moments.

1kN/m A I G I 4I 4kN B H 2m 9kN 8m 2m 5kN 6kN E 4kN 4I 2I 2I C I F 4m D Reactions: Ay=4 kN Bx=0 kN By=9 kN Cy=5 kN Not: Arrows shown are the real directions of the forces and moments. Moment of inertias of members are used to calculate the deflections (displacements) to be covered in the future chapters 122 Exercise # 30 Work on this problem ! Draw the V. 8m NOTE: I is the moment of inertia. M. N diagrams for the frame.Exercise # 29 Work on this problem ! Draw the V. 4m 4m NOTE: I is the moment of inertia. Moment of inertias of members are used to calculate the deflections (displacements) to be covered in the future chapters 124 55 . 1kN/m C 4I I G 4I I D Reactions: 4m A B Ax=2 kN Ay=4 kN Bx=2 kN By=4 kN Not: Arrows shown are the real directions of the forces and moments. M &N diagrams for the threehinge frame.

Exercise #30 (cont.m (4) E (6) 8kN.) A 1kN/m G (1) (2) D 6kN (4) E (5) (3) 4kN (6) F 4m 4kN B 8m 9kN 2m 8m (7) H C (8) 2m 5kN Hint for moments: 10kN.m 10kN.m (3) 2kN. Moment of inertias of members are used to calculate the deflections (displacements) to be covered in the future chapters 127 56 .m 125 Exercise # 31 Draw the V. M &N diagrams for the frame.m 8kN.m (5) (7) 10kN. NOTE: I is the moment of inertia.m (2) D (1) 10kN. Work on this problem ! 2kN/m B 4m 2I A D 6m 3m 3m 4I C 2I I 3kN E Reactions: Ax=3 kN Ay=10 kN Ey=2 kN Not: Arrows shown are the real directions of the forces and moments.m (8) H 18kN.

Reactions: Ax=60 kN Ay=4.Exercise #31(cont.m (6) (7) D 12kN.7 kN Dy=74. N diagrams for the frame.7 kN Not: Arrows shown are the real directions of the forces and moments.m 12kN.m 6kN.m 12kN. M.m (4) (5) C 3kN 12kN.m 128 Exercise # 31 Draw the V.) (2) 2kN/m B (3) (4) C (5) 3kN 4m (1) A D (6) (7) (8) 3 10 E 3m 6m 3m 2 Hint for moments: B (2) (3) 6kN. 130 57 .

131 58 .

133 134 59 .

135 60 .

137 138 61 .

individually. h X1 L1 L2 X2 X3 L3 X7 X4 X5 X6 14 0 62 .139 Exercise #32 Draw the M diagrams resulted from each of the unit forces & moments (X1=…=X7=1) shown.

h X1 L1 X2 1 + + X1=1 1/L1 h 1 h 1/L1 L2 L3 X4 X3 X7 X6 X5 1 X2=1 h X1 L1 X2 1 + 1 + L2 L3 X4 X3 X7 X6 X5 (L1+L2)/L1-1 h 1 (L1+L2)/L1 h - X3=1 X4=1 63 .

h X1 L1 X2 L2 +L3 + + L2 L3 X4 X3 L3 X7 X6 X5 (L1+L2+L3)/L1-1 h 1 h (L1+L2+L3)/L1 h h X5=1 X6=1 h X1 L1 X2 1 + L2 L3 X4 X3 1 X7 X6 X5 + + 1 (L1+L2+L3)/L1 + 1/L1 X7=1 1/L1 64 .

64 4.65 • + Study all of the problems in the lecture slides and example problems from your test book *: suggested 147 65 .Exercise # 33 Work on this problem ! 30k B Draw the V.62 4.59 4. Hint: C 10ft 20ft 30k 60k D 10ft M=-300k-ft V= 10k N=-10k 10ft A 20ft 10ft 145 Homework .58 4.54 4. M &N diagrams for the frame.CH 4* • • • • • • • 4.49 4.

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