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web. This is true not only because Photoshop is available on a wide array of platforms ranging from Mac to Windows to UNIX, but because after four generations of development, Adobe Photoshop has the most intuitive user interface, the most complete set of tools, and the largest number of reference books around. Photoshop is only one tool in a good designer's arsenal. Other popular tools include Paint Shop Pro, DeBabelizer, or LView Pro for Windows and GIF Converter or Graphics Converter for Macintosh. Fractal Design, Aldus and HSC also put out some excellent programs So what exactly can you do with Photoshop? Well, like any image-editing program, you can use Photoshop to "alter" images like photos, downloaded icons, or scanned artwork. Altering an image includes doing such things as changing the colors within an image, modifying the size and scale of an image, or putting one picture "within" another Alteration also includes technical modifications such as changing the mode of image compression from one type to another, or changing the number of bits used per pixel. But, aside from altering images, Photoshop has a vast array of tools that help you "create" images from scratch. On the web, you will often need to make custom icons, buttons, lines, balls or text art. Photoshop makes all of this excessively easy and fun. Generally, there are four components in your workspace that you will use while creating or modifying graphics. These components are as follows: The Menu Bar The Drawing Canvas The Toolbox Palettes (There are five palettes by default) The title bar has several functions. First off, it displays the current name of the image as well as information about the color mode and zoom scale. As you can see in the figure above, by default, the name will be "Untitled-1", but once you save the image, it will be changed to the name you saved the file under. The color mode and scale measure are more complex, so we will discuss them after we deal with the basics. Another cool aspect of the title bar is that you can use the title bar to move the drawing canvas anywhere within the workspace by clicking and holding down the mouse button over the title bar and dragging the mouse. Try it out! Finally, the title bar provides several control buttons. As with other applications, you can use the buttons to minimize , maximize or destroy the drawing canvas. Before we go on, try working with your drawing canvas a bit. For example, try maximizing the canvas, minimizing the canvas, and then destroying the canvas. Palettes are essential components of your tool set. For one, palettes help you define the nature of your tools. That is, palettes help you customize how the tools in the toolbox perform. For example, you might "sharpen" (make the line thin) or "dull" (make the line thick) your pencil tool using the "Brushes Palette". Palettes also help you perform some of the more complex tasks such as layering or manipulating complex color schemes. By default, there are five palettes. these five palettes are shown in the figure below Info palette Layer palette Command palette Color palatte Brushes palette Photoshop uses the generic term "brush" to represent any of the drawing tools. Thus, the "paint brush" tool will have a brush and the "pencil" tool will also have a brush. This is a little confusing at first but you will quickly get the hang of the terminology. Actually, it helps to think of a brush as the "drawing edge" of whatever drawing tool you are using. Thus, drawing from Photoshop's art studio metaphor, a paint brush's brush would be the bristles of the paint brush while a pencil tool's brush would be the pencil's tip. The importance of defining the "brush" is that once defined, brushes can be customized. For example, you can change the shape or size of your brush. Think of a dull pencil point versus a sharp pencil point and imagine the different types of lines the pencils would draw. Similarly, think of the shape of a calligraphy pen versus the tip of a magic marker or even a highlighting pen. Though the default brush is plenty powerful, it is useful to get the hang of working with custom brushes because each type of brush will be better or worse in various situations. To customize the brush you should access the "options" palette. The most common customization you will perform is to modify the size of the brush. To do so, you use the "Brushes" tab in the "Options" palette and choose a larger or smaller brush by selecting from the range given. Except for the Pencil tool, brush shapes are always anti-aliased. Thus, you can choose both a hard edge or a soft edge by choosing either the solid or blended edge circles.
Well. it assures that the color value of the tool is applied according to the closest available color in the color map. Finally. that is because you needed to learn the fundamentals of Photoshop before you could move on to the more exciting features. rotate or scale. When you scan in a picture of a face. and the result value. . Using it is fairly easy. move. The opposite effect can be achieved by using Screen Overlay works like screen and multiply depending on the value of the base color. you can think of painting in Photoshop as involving three values: the base value. in the case of an edit tool. The Behind and Clear modes are available in layered images. Thus. The spacing controls how frequently a tool affects an image as you drag. Essentially. Photoshop can manipulate those pixels. the blend color will completely coat the base color. the sponge tool reduces the amount of saturation and contrast. The burn tool works like the opposite of the dodge tool. flip. In the case of a painting tool. Turn up the spacing and you get splotchy lines if you drag your mouse quickly over the canvas. Specifically. This is because images are pixel based rather than object oriented. Difference compares the brightness values of the base and blend colors and creates a result value by subtracting the smaller from larger values. This tool mirrors the dodging tool in photography that allows you to cover certain parts of the developing paper so that they are less exposed.. a color will be applied behind the layer showing through only int he blank or transparent areas. randomly scatters the blend color to give a rough textured non anti-aliased brush stroke. you simply choose the gradient tool from the toolbox click on the canvas and drag out an area to fill with the gradient. the pixels in the streak of blue will be changed to pixels of purple. consider your word processor. Specifically. the irony of yesterday was that in the introduction we said that Photoshop was not really a painting program yet we spent the rest of the day learning how to paint on our canvas. Thus if you paint a streak of red over a streak of blue. Your word processor knows to select the word because letters are isolate objects. Soft light works like overlay with less intensity while Hard light is more intense. there are several factors that define a brush besides size and hardness. you double click on that word. Photoshop has no way of discerning between the eyes and the nose on that face. Brush modes modify the way this blending works. modes specify the way in which the blend and base values will interact to create a result value. Today we will go into some of those more exciting features. Most likely. cut. Darken darkens the base color using the blend color as a basis and Lighten lightens the base color by using the lightest value of the blend color. the edit value will completely override the existing color.. Luminosity works the same way for the lightness value. A low spacing will track your mouse more exactly Angle allows you to pivot your brush shape on its axes which is really only useful on elliptical or strangely-shaped brushes. for the first half of the day we will work with "Selections". they modify whether the blend color is applied to the foreground or background layer. The Dodge tool allows you to lighten an image by dragging your mouse across it. For example. Photoshop modifies the existing pixels in the background according to the logic of painting. When you draw something on the canvas. Roundness is used to modify how elliptical a brush is A value of 100 creates a circle and a value of 15 creates a long. In particular. The Normal mode applies the full blend value. The Threshold mode is specific for Bitmapped and Indexed Color images. the blend value. but it cannot intelligently differentiate between them in terms of the overall meaning of the picture. The Multiply mode multiplies the brightness of the base color and the blend to create a darker tone. It is important to understand that Photoshop is different from other programs in which you select things. When the behind mode is selected for example.As you can see. which is only available for painting tools. when you want to select a word. angle and roundness of the brush. Essentially. This tool allows you to darken portions of the canvas by dragging over them. Selections are areas within the canvas that you set apart from the rest which you can apply special effects to or other wise modify. the hues of the base color will move towards the blend color. Photoshop does not have that convenience. You will also be asked to define the spacing. Saturation does the same for saturation and Color does the same for both hue and saturation. Selecting things---------------Well. Let's look at each of the modes. copy. The Dissolve mode. The Gradient tool allows you to specify a gradient of color. skinny elliptical shape. Hue replaces the hue of the base with the hue of the blend.
For one. Okay. hold down the OPTION or ALT key (depending on operating system) and use the selection tool to remove from the existing selection To create an intersection selection. thus selecting everything that was not selected by your selection by choosing SELECT --> INVERSE from the main menu. To form the selection. you will have to use one of the selection tools that we will discuss more later. Similar. SLICE TOOL In this tutorial. simply choose the lasso tool [IMAGE] and click and drag on the canvas. However. Photoshop will complete it for you by drawing a line from the end to the beginning as the crow flies. You can easily choose the geometrical form by changing the value for SHAPE in the options palette. These include Grow. a free form selection tool is what you really want. To subtract from a selection. you can use the SHIFT and ALT keys to add or subtract from a selection as well as use the ALT key down while you drag with the lasso to create polygons much like you would do to create lines using one of the paint tools as discussed yesterday. [IMAGE] To create a free form selection. We will do a lot of manipulation of selections over today and tomorrow. The selection will follow your drag. you can inverse the selection. often times. the marquee tool allows you to draw rectangular and elliptical selections. you can easily add to a selection. you can create some pretty complex selections. any selection can be deselected just by clicking outside of the selected area or choosing SELECT --> NONE from the main menu Another such property is that you can edit a selection. Fortunately. simply click and drag the mouse. Now let's take a look at the list of tools that you can use to create selections. There are also several built in selection modification tools int he SELECT menu item. allows you to draw out a selection area much like you were tracing over an image through tracing paper. Fortunately. I want to touch on briefly the slice tool and the slice selection tool. Note that if you do not perfectly align up the beginning and the ending of a lasso selection. Typical reasons to make selections include Editing a portion of your canvas Creating a mask or layer Cropping Applying filters and special effects to portions of your image To select a portion of your canvas. you are needed to decide which pixels belong to which meaningful part of a picture. This tool is used to draw selections based on geometric shapes. simply hold down the SHIFT key and use the selection tool to add to the existing outline. [IMAGE] LASSO TOOL he marquee tool is certainly cool and when you use the SHIFT and ALT keys to add or subtract from the selection. that is a run down of the qualities shared by all selections. You can also hide the selection outline if it is getting in the way of your concentration by hitting CONTROL-H Further.This is a good thing because otherwise. To add to a selection. Border. Specifically. You can generate rectangular selections called slices designed for splitting up a graphic image into different pieces for a table and for presentation in . they draw an outline around some bit of your canvas with a little flashy marquee that looks like a dashed line or a row of little parading ants. you can manipulate that area in many cool ways. simply hold down the ALT and SHIFT (OPTION-SHIFT) keys and use a selection tool to deselect all but the overlapping portions of two selections. For example. remove from a selection or create selections from intersections of other selections. These all modify the selection in predefined ways. But all selection tools do the same basic task. This is a good thing because it would suck to create a detailed selection only to realize that you missed one small piece. and Expand/Contract. it is unlikely that you will succeed in making a free form selection right the first time since it is very easy for your mouse to slip. A freeform tool like the Lasso. there would be little use for you. so it is crucial that we get a good sense of how to select areas Modifying the seletion-----------We will talk about several tools to make an initial selection however we should mention here that all selections share several properties. MARQUEE TOOL The Marquee tool is the most basic of selection tools and often the one most useful. Once you have selected an area. Smooth. Obviously. you might want to select a pair of glasses on a face in order to change the color of the frame. Fortunately.
» Alpha channels are not part of your image's color composition. But be careful doing this as these channels will directly produce a destructive editing result on your image. Introduction: Channels serve a couple of specific purposes. In this case. to produce interesting imaging effects. And another nice feature is we can also press this button show auto-slices. Red-Green-Blue / Cyan-Yellow-Magenta-Black. So in this point I could choose divide slice if I wish by clicking on that. so that you might be compressed differently in one image. Because of course if I am dividing or selecting a rectangular selection. I'm going to get rid of these slices to show you how you can do that yourself. Now I can continue adding slices simply by dragging diagonally over the areas that I want to become a slice. For instance.com and you can see that I've actually created a few slices here. for my text here. it brings up the save for web dialogue box. and that's this exacto knife looking tool. And in order to generate a slice. particularly when you choose the save for web feature. Photoshop is no more complex than a bicycle. and it brings up a dialogue box giving me options to divide my slice in these multiple ways. For instance my text. 2. and in this case I could choose what type of slice it is. You have to ride it for a while first before you feel comfortable about 'taking it apart'. at some point. And I could also choose a particular URL right here that I want my slice to go to. is being able to choose file menu>save for web feature. Ones that you can't use will be dimmed out in the menus. Because these different compression methods work better on different types of imagery. edit. And JPEG works better on photographic type of continuous tone images. For instance. My selected slice in this case is this orange color. and a target and message text and an alternate tag as well. Just a thought for you there. and all the other slices are blue. I'm going to select contact by clicking on it and hold down the shift key. and select all of these slice sections. And in this dialogue box. an image or no image. I want each of these words to be a slice section because I am going to. The slice tool has a companion tool as part of the hidden tool.all I need to do is click right on that particular one. While I'm using my slice selection tool. So slices are very valuable and helpful. You can learn a lot more about how to work with slices and saving for the World Wide Web on the VTC tutorial dedicated solely to ImageReady by Adobe. convert these into buttons. Another reason why you might want to use a slice is to also assign different actions and URLs to a particular slice. which will make them look better so we don't see JPEG compression artefacts. Separated. One option that has to do with slices is we can select an individual slice and change its compression setting. Press and hold on the slice tool and we could choose the slice select tool. Used more specifically for 4 color pre press/printing and color separation work and editing. And in this way when we choose the slice select tool. GIF image compression works well on solid colored graphics. or save specific types of selections into. So you create slices for at least a couple of reasons. I've created this fake website type of a design called flowerpower.the World Wide Web. Photoshop has to create a selection that encompasses everything that was not in my slice. 1. which can then be applied as Layer Masks as well. it allows you to really customize how a particular slice is saved and compressed. But if I choose this slice section. Or another option I have is to choose the slice options button. I'm going to go to clear slices. So. instead I might choose a GIF setting. And in this interface. Where my photographic type of imagery I might want to save compressed out as a JPEG type of image. and Photoshop will show me other slices that were created. you can use the slice tool. The real value for generating slices of course here. unless they are in auto-slice in which case they have a blue dashed line. since it is a photographic type of image in nature. I can do a couple of things. I might want to save out as a GIF image. The RGB/CYMK color channels The RGB/CYMK color channels are to give you an indication of the separate color channels contained within your image. » They are explicitly 256 grayscale in color. we can promote or demote slices. I might want this to be saved as JPEG. they create the full color spectrum of an image. And when you choose save for web. One is to segregate different areas. to create a minimal type of 3D effect on . And these are called auto-slices. it gives us many different functions. I could choose to divide a slice first by selecting the slice . which looks like the exacto knife with a little arrow next to it. » You can apply most of Photoshop's native filters to them to create complex and interesting types of selections. These I don't want to be saved as JPEG. So with that in mind. on how we can choose these options for saving for web. and have no effect on that directly. I'm going to choose my slice tool and just drag diagonally over this one area here to create my first slice. Alpha channels Alpha channels are more widely used to either create. and they become very small in terms of file size. and you can see the highlighted color difference. » Channels are also used as Texture Channels within the Lighting Effects filter. they produce the individual color 'plates' that make up the image's color. You can apply most of Photoshop's native filters/effects to these channels. which I'm going to talk in more detail in its own tutorial. When combined.
edit. or a specific selected area of an object on a layer. The 'White is High' option in the filter can produce embossed effects when checked ON. And then applied a 4 pixel Gaussian blur to the circle. it would produce a 3D type of effect onto the layer you filled with the dark blue. » You can use any of Photoshop's painting tools to create and/or edit a channel. If you then opened the Lighting Effects filter. the sunken-in effect: . And for a CYMK document. Then created a new channel. and they will most likely not produce any visible effects if edited in some way. All this means is that the selection of these darker shades will not show up as a selection marquee on your screen. you can create a fresh new clean edged circular selection and do the same with it. Open the Channels palette and click the small icon at the bottom center of the palette.'. but PS 6 allows you up to 25 separate channels per document. a blurred circle at 100 percent produces a round bulging effect out of the colored layer. But it's easier to just open the Channels palette and Ctrl-click the one you want loaded. Or. » Channels can be loaded as active selections in the same manner that layers can. When it's OFF.. and filled a circular selection with white. unless you delete it. But Alpha Channels are the 256 grayscale channels you use to either create.e. and when off. NOTE Generally. and uses those to create/render 3D types of effects. If you wanted to 'extract' just the circle area. this can also be produced by blurring your channel. The amount of RAM you have/give it is the deciding factor. or specific areas of it. Menu options that you can't use will be dimmed (non selectable) in the menu lists. then go to the Selection menu and at the bottom choose 'Save selection. (do the following if you wish) Say you filled a layer with a dark blue. » Quick Masks & Layer Masks use a temporary Alpha channel to store your selection/masking information. You can also use up to 256 levels of gray as well as black and white. just load the selection again from the 'blurred circle' channel. or store selections you've made or would like to make within your working document. For example. Then. You run the filter on the channel just as you would a layer..a colored area of a layer. You'll see that this creates a New Channel. it can produce a sunken-in effect. Channels are also used as 'Texture Channels' for the Lighting Effects filter Channels are also used as 'Texture Channels' for the Lighting Effects filter. moved the 'Height' slider to 100 percent. invert the selection. Channels can have certain types of filters applied to them also. And I believe PS7 has no strict limitation now. That will turn your selection into an Alpha channel.. Lighter shades produce a bulging effect (blue sample image). by applying light and shadow filters in varying degrees. You can now go back to your Layers palette and apply this selection to whatever you want. that's 20 new channels -. or unchecked. Now grab a paint brush and paint some white into the channel (or black if your channel has a white background color). The filter recognizes the multiple levels of gray contained within the channel. » I don't remember how many channels PS 5 & 5. Then Ctrl-click the channel to load it as a selection. which will then always be within the Channels palette. return to your layers and use the selection to confine a filter or painting effect to only the active selection.. that's 21 new channels. 3.because CYMK Mode has an extra channel for illumination. under default program settings. Gray areas will produce Feathered (semi-transparent) selections. You also have there an option to 'Load' a selection that you've previously saved. and will not be visible'. In an RGB Mode document.In fact. Certain darker levels of gray may produce an Alert message similar to the following. and press Delete. i. That number includes the R/G/B and composite RGB channels as well. Now Ctrl-click on the channel and you'll see that the painted area(s) become a new selection. and loaded the 'blurred circle' channel into the Lighting filter's 'Texture Channel' (menu at the bottom of the filter's editing window). Perhaps to confine a filter or painting effect to a specific area of your photo/image? That's the primary use for Channels. selections will be created from only varying shades of gray up to solid white. 4. These are created and stored within the same palette where the color channels are located. and Deselected. telling you that 'No Pixels below 50 percent where selected. by holding the Ctrl key down while clicking on them. If you've drawn/created a selection while you're in the Layers palette.5 allow. That provides you a way to create some real funky or complex selections for special effects. More information about channels Photoshop normally contains the 3 'color channels' within an RGB image and 4 color channels (or 'plates') within a CYMK image. then clicked OK to apply the filter.
there are many color modes to choose from. a and b. For instance. In 1976. the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) came up with a color model that displays every color perceived by the human eye. the higher the value. a and b. the visual characteristics of these colors remain consistent on monitors. The first channel is Lightness (L). ink and paper characteristics.LAB colour MODE Color has always been a strong factor in image editing and graphic design. Each channel represents specific pixels within an image. But. CMYK is quite limited in color representation. . This is usually the determining factor when deciding on a color mode to work in. The more common modes that are implemented are RGB and CMYK. Unlike RGB colors that are screen-dependent and CMYK colors that vary with printer. it's nearly impossible to create rich yellows and oranges using RGB. The Lab color model actually includes all of the colors that you can create in both RGB and CMYK modes. The Benefits of Working in Lab Mode One of the main benefits you'll notice when working in Lab mode is that you're provided with a wide range of color values to choose from. Undoubtedly. The a channel contains colors ranging from green to red and the b channel contains colors ranging from blue to yellow. printers and scanners. The other two channels. dark greens and purples. this model was updated and refined. you have to do so in CMYK. in order to create the CIE Lab color system. sketchy. Origins of Lab Color In 1931. but the moment you try to print these colors to a CMYK printer. shall we say. you've noticed that these color modes are a bit. can range from 0 to 100. the Lab mode consists of three color channels. we'll explore the benefits of working in Lab mode and we'll show you how you can create imagery with colors as vibrant as those on our cover. Figure C shows the high intensity colors available to you in this mode versus those available in RGB and CMYK. On the other hand. vibrant blues. you do have another option that has an endless color selection--Photoshop's Lab mode. So. as shown in Figure A. the more vivid the color. A Lightness value of 0 equals black and a value of 100 equals white. The Lightness component. The hard truth is that if you have to print it. How it's Broken Down In Photoshop. In this article. This is great on-screen. RGB allows you to create amazing. Not to mention. otherwise known as luminance. they look as if the black ink cartridge threw up all over them. Photoshop's Lab mode consists of three channels: Lightness. Figure B shows how our original image is broken down within the channels. represent color ranges. CIE Lab colors are device-independent. Therefore. When working in Photoshop.
your monitor is RGB so Photoshop is converting these values continuously. Since Lab mode is device-independent. . And what's even better. the antique car shown in Figure D. This tends to occur when you're working with very vibrant shades of blue and purple. Also. Not to mention. keep in mind that even though you're working in CMYK mode. you may have to fine-tune them a bit.Besides having maximum color flexibility. Figure C The Lab color model encompasses all of the colors available in both CMYK and RGB modes. The colors are fun. but what if you needed the same image with more subdued colors. your colors won't undergo major tonal changes when converted to CMYK for final output. Take. A way to avoid any color alterations is to print to a PostScript Level 2 or Level 3 printer. Having Fun with Lab Colors Now that you know the fundamentals behind Lab colors. In both instances Photoshop has only three channels to work with when processing information. we'll explore their creative side. or you wanted to reverse the pink and green areas? You can do both with a few clicks of the mouse. working in Lab mode is just as fast as working in RGB mode. if any of your colors fall out of the CMYK range. What's great about working in Lab mode is that you can manipulate colors in an image with ease. This is one reason many of the high-end users prefer to work in Lab mode. for example. Figure D Let's see how many ways that we can colorize our original image. Although. Printing Lab Colors There really are no limitations when selecting or editing colors on-screen if you're working in Lab mode. you don't have to worry about losing any detail from the original image. you can use it to edit any image. You can print an image in Lab mode directly to either one of these printers to avoid any color conversions. whereas working with CMYK images can be much slower.
Select the a or b channel and then choose Image > Adjust > Replace Color. Then click on the Channels palette (if the palette is hidden. Again. We're going to invert these colors by choosing Image > Adjust > Invert. Lab. Notice how the blues and yellows are reversed. Click OK to apply your changes. but you can even replace a color. choose Window > Show Channels). as shown in Figure F. Then drag the Lightness slider back and forth to achieve your desired result. to see the results. or by clicking on an area of color directly on your image. We selected the b channel and increased the Lightness to +70 to create the effects shown in Figure H. shown in Figure G. giving our hot rod a whole new look. After inverting the a channel. choose Image > Mode > Lab Color. Figure E By inverting the colors found in the a channel we were able to reverse our pinks and greens. . In the resulting Replace Color dialog box. Open a new image in Photoshop and convert it to Lab mode. click on the top-most channel. Replacing Color Not only can you invert colors using channels. To do so.Color Swapping To begin. Now. Figure F By inverting the colors found in the b channel we were able to reverse our blues and yellows. repeat these steps for the b channel. Set the Fuzziness slider to 40 and choose the Selection option button. Figure E demonstrates how the greens have been replaced with magenta hues and vice versa in our image. select the Lab channel in the Channels palette to see the final results. select a color that you want to replace. or by pressing cI ([Ctrl]I in Windows). open a color image in Photoshop and convert it to Lab mode. and select the a channel. This channel maps the greens and magentas. You can do this by clicking on the preview window with the Eyedropper tool.
Joining the World of Color Junkies These are just two simple examples of how you can have fun with colors using channels in Lab mode. Why limit yourself to RGB or CMYK colors when you can have the best of both worlds? Test it out. Figure H By modifying one color within our image our hot rod has gone from cotton candy to suave.Figure G Here we replaced a specific color in our image within a channel. Experiment with the Levels and Curves commands as well. . Lab colors are convenient and fun to work with. you may find that once you go Lab. You'll be amazed at the results. you never go back.
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