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PDDÍÍCBÍÍCHS (ÍÜÜlP ZÛJÛ)
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WPÏWP^ ÏÏÏ1ÏÜ
Chcc-^|n
¤
1|n
¤
unu òh-Í0ssuín òuhch.
LCH!CI ÍOI ÍIOHCGICdÌ ÍH9IHCCIIH9.
ÍdCHÌ!V OÍ ÍIOHCGÌCdÌ ÍH9IHCCIIH9 dHG ÍCdÌ!H ¬CICHCC.
lHIVCISI!I JCKHOÎO9I wdÌdVSId. "1D1U ¬KHGdI. JOHOI. wdÌdVSId.
ABS1RAL1
¹hstruct- 1his papcr proposcs a ncv approach !or
cIcctrocardiogram (LCG) bascd pcrsonaI idcntiLcation
bascd on cxtcndcd KaIman LItcring (LKI) hamcvork.
1hc hamcvork uscs nonIincar LCG dynamic modcIs
!ormuIatcdtorcprcscntnoisyLCG signaI. 1hcadvantagc
o! thc modcIs is thc abiIity to capturc distinct LCG
!caturcs uscd !or biomctric rccognition such as tcmporaI
and ampIitudc distanccs bctvccn PORS1 points.
Morcovcr thc inhcrcnt modcIing o! additivc noisc
providcs robust rccognition. Log-IikcIihood scoring is
proposcd!orcIassiLcation. 1hcaIgorithmiscvaIuatcdon
idcntiLcation task on iJ subiccts o! MIT-BIH
Arrhythmia Databasc using singIc Icad data.
IdcntiLcation ratc o! 87.5O¾ is achicvcd on JOs tcst
rccordings o! normaI bcat. LxpcrimcntaI rcsuIts using
artiLciaI additivc vhitc noisc shov that thc modcI is
robusttonoisc!orSÞRIcvcIabovc2OdB.
Í0u£ Í0fmS¬ LIcctrocardiography, IdcntiLcation
o!pcrsons, KaImanLItcring.
Í. ¡N1ROD\L1¡ON
AppIication o! LCG anaIysis !or mcdicaI diagnosis has
bccn thoroughIy studicd. Rcccnt studics invcstigatcd thc
possibIc usc o! LCG as ncv biomctric modaIity !or
pcrsonaI idcntiLcation |i-J|. 1hc vaIidity o! LCG as
biomctric traits is supportcd by thc !act that
cIcctrophysioIogicaI and gcomctricaI variations o! hcarts
among di!!crcnt individuaIs prcscnt intcr-individuaI
variabiIity in thc LCG signaIs |4|. 1hc LCG !caturcs
proposcd !or automatic biomctric rccognition incIudc
anaIytic !caturcs |i-2|,appcarancc!caturcs |J|,and hcar|
ratc variabiIity |5|. AnaIytic !caturcs vhich consists o!
thc tcmporaI and ampIitudc distanccs bctvccn thc
dctcctcdLCGLduciaIpoints, achicvcdhighidcntiLcation
ratc. Hovcvcr,thc cxtraction o! thcsc !caturcs rcquircs
prior accuratc dctcction o! thc LduciaI points,vhich is
subicctivc and di!LcuIt cspcciaIIy vhcn thc signaIs arc
subicct to noisc and bascIinc driñ. Wang ct. u|. |J|
proposcd appcarancc !caturcs by PCA and LDA in
combination o! thc anaIytic !caturcs. 1hcsc prcviousIy
d1Ü·J·ºZºº·1JD1·D/JÛ/OZD.ÛÛ ~ZÛJ Û lLLL 11º
proposcd !caturcs arc partiaI and distor|cd rcprcscntation
o!LCGsignaIpattcm.
A dynamic LCG modcI vas proposcd by McSharry
ct. u|. |6| to gcncratc synthctic LCG traicctory in JD
Car|csian coordinatc,vith rcaIistic PORS1 morphoIogy
andhcartratcvariabiIity. LachLCGsub-vavc!orm(P, O,
R, S, and 1) is modcIcd by a Gaussian mnction
charactcrizcd by thrcc paramctcrs: position in timc,
ampIitudc,and vidth. Samcni ct. u|. |7| adaptcd this
modcI into a nonIincar Baycsian LItcring hamcvork !or
LCG dcnoising. In thcstudy,thcLCG dynamic modcI is
trans!ormcd into simpIcr poIar !orm. 1hcn a nonIincar
statc-spacc modcI !or noisy LCG is !ormuIatcd by
adaptingthcdynamicmodcIinitsdiscrctc!ormintostatc
cquations, and by introducing additionaI obscrvation
cquationvhichincorporatcsadditivcnoisc. 1hcmodiLcd
statc-spaccmodcIvasuscdinthccxtcndcdKaImanLItcr
(LKI) !ramcvork !or LCG dcnoising and bcttcr
pcr!ormancc is achicvcd comparcd to vavcIct dcnoising.
Sayadi ct. u|. |8| cxtcndcd thc vork by proposing thc
ioint cstimation o! statcs and modcI paramctcrs using
LKI !or onIinc adaptation o! thc modcIs. 1hc mcthod
vasappIicdinLCGcomprcssionbcsidcsdcnoising.
1his papcr proposcs thc usc o! thc LCG dynamic
modcIs in thc LKI hamcvork !or LCG bascd pcrsonaI
idcntiLcation. Ior prcIiminary invcstigation, thc
hamcvork by |7| vithout onIinc paramctcr cstimation is
uscd. A dynamic modcIis traincd !or cachsubicct using
prior paramctcr cstimation as in |7|. Givcn thc LCG tcst
obscrvationand thc cstimatcd modcI,thcLKI is uscd to
in!cr thc statc in!ormation vhich is rcquircd !or
IikcIihoodcaIcuIation. 1hctcstsampIciscIassiLcdtothc
modcI vith highcst IikcIihood. 1hc advantagcs o! using
thc dynamic modcIs Iic on its abiIity to rcprcscnt thc
distinctLCG!caturcsuscd!orbiomctricrccognition.1hc
modcI capturcs thc anaIytic !caturcs impIicitIy via its
Gaussianparamctcrs, asvcIIashoIisticappcarancco!thc
vhoIc LCG vavc!orm. Accuratc LduciaI point dctcction
is not rcquircd,cxccpt onIy thc R pcak dctcction. 1hc
LKI modcIing and cIassiLcation hamcvork has
advantagc ovcr othcr mcthods such as hiddcn Markov
modcIing |8| on its dynamic cIassiLcation abiIity. 1hc
paramctcr cstimation and IikcIihood caIcuIation can bc
impIcmcntcd onIinc givcn ncxt obscrvation avaiIabIc.
Morcovcr, thc inhcrcnt modcIing o! noisc dynamics
providcs noisc robust cIassi¡cation. noisc
canccIIation is not ncccssary. iJ rccordinµs o¡ Icad
hom M!]-H!H Arrhythmia databasc, subsct o¡ O]
databasc arc uscd ¡or cvaIuation. !irst onc minutc
rccordinµ is uscd vith haI¡ o¡ thc data ¡or traininµ and thc
rcmaininµ ¡or tcstinµ. !dcnti¡cation ratc o¡ 87.5O¾ is
achicvcd on normaI bcat data. Lxpcrimcnt is run to tcst
thc noisc robustncss o¡ thc modcIs ¡or pcrsonaI idcntity
cIassi¡cation.
]hc papcr is orµanizcd as ¡oIIovs: scction i
dcscribcs thc ¡ormuIation o¡ dynamic LCG modcIs.
5cction Z dcscribcs thc in¡crcncc usinµ LK!. Iaramctcr
cstimation and modcI usinµ IikcIihood scorinµ
arc discusscd in scction 4. ]hc cxpcrimcntaI cvaIuation
and discussions arc µivcn in scction 5,¡oIIovcd by a
concIusion and hturc vorks in thc ¡naI scction.
Z. DYNA%¡L %OD¡1 1OR NO¡SY ¡LI
A dynamic LCG modcI in JD Cartcsian coordinatcs
initiaIIy proposcd by |6|. 5amcni ct u/ |7| trans¡ormcd
thc modcI into poIar ¡orm and ¡ormuIatcd thc tra¡cctory
cquations into a nonIincar dynamic modcI in statc-spacc
¡orm, to modcI noisy ]hc usc o¡ thc modcI by |7|
in bascd biomctric rccoµnition is motivatcd by thc
abiIity o¡ thc modcI to rcprcscnt distinct LCG ¡caturc
amonµ di¡¡crcnt human sub¡ccts, cspcciaIIy thc IOK5]
morphoIoµy. Morcovcr, thc inhcrcnt noisc modcIIinµ
incrcascs thc noisc robustncss o¡ thc modcI. ]hc dynamic
modcI consists o¡ tvo componcnts: statc cquation and
obscrvation cquation. ]hc dcscriptions ¡oIIov |7-8|.
]hc ¡rst componcnt o¡ thc modcI is a statc cquation
to dcscribcs LCG dynamic such as IOK5] morphoIoµy,
|I)
vhcrc z, is a statc variabIc that dcscribcs thc discrctc
synthctic LCG sampIc at timc k vith corrcspondinµ
anµuIar position 0,. ]hc phasc variabIc 0, has pcriodic
vaIucs bctvccn 0¡ - Oat K-pcak and 0¡ - Zx at thc ncxt
K-pcak. O, ,h, ,0, arc thc ampIitudc, anµuIar vidth, and
position o¡ thc Gaussian hnctions uscd to modcI thc I,
O, R,5, and ] sub-vavc¡om. A0, - (0,
¬
0,) mod(ZX)
rcprcscnts thc intcrvaI variabiIity. o is thc sampIinµ
pcriod, 0 is thc anµuIar vcIocity vhcn thc tra¡cctory
movinµ around thc Iimit cycIc |6|, and! is random
additivc vhitc noisc rcprcscntinµ bascIinc dri¡ and othcr
proccss noisc. ]hc statc cquation is dc¡ncd as:
vhcrc
r
¡ is thc statc vcctor, and proccss noisc +¡ 1b
assumcd as i.d.d. Gaussian proccss vith mcan ¤¡ and
¯¯Ô
covariancc matrix(¡ - I ¦(ס
¬¤¡)(ס
¬×¡)
`1.
]hc sccond componcnt o¡ thc modcI is thc
obscrvation cquation that modcIs thc noisy LCG
mcasurcmcnts and phasc paramctcrs. ]hc obscrvation
vcctor o¡ phasc obscrvations o and noisy LCG
mcasurcmcnts x, arc rcIatcd to Iincar trans¡ormation o¡
thc statc vcctor vith additivc noisc as ¡oIIovs
(J)
vhcrc in a compact ¡orm vith obscrvation vcctor ) ¡ as
(4)
]hc obscrvation noisc r¡- |+¡¡. r
;
¡ is assumcd as i.d.d.
zcro mcan Gaussian proccss vith covariancc matrix
R¡ - L ¦r¡r]1. ]hc motion arti¡acts, cnvironmcntaI
noisc (such as povcr Iinc intcr¡crcncc), biocIcctricaI
arti¡acts such as LNG or cIcctro µastric noisc is assumcd
as LCG mcasurcmcnt noiscs r
;
¡ .
ó. \S¡NI
KaIman ¡Itcr (K!) is uscd to in¡cr statc in¡ormation µivcn
scqucncc o¡ obscrvution vcctors Y- ()¡. )
;
... , ) × )
and a sct o¡ dynamic modcI paramctcrs t . ConvcntionaI
K! assumcs a Iincar modcI ¡or statc and obscrvation
cquation. Lxtcndcd KaIman ¡Itcr (LK!) is an cxtcnsion
o¡ K! to nonIincar dynamic systcms. ]hc LK!
hamcvork rcquircs Iincar approximation o¡ thc nonIincar
systcm usinµ Iincar ]ayIor scrics approximation that
nccds computation o¡ iacobian matrix. ]hc ¡oIIovinµ
dcscription o¡ LK! mostIy ¡oIIovs |7| vith somc
modi¡cations.
Assumc a nonIincar dynamic systcm is rcprcscntcd
as ¡oIIovs:
vhcrc !.) is thc statc cvoIution hnction and g|.) is thc
mappinµ o¡ statc vcctor to obscrvation vcctor. ]hc
nonIincar systcm o¡ (5) is usinµ thc ¡rst
ordcr ]ayIor scrics approximation ncar a rc¡crcncc point
(¡. ס, v¡) into Iincar ¡orm o¡
vhcrc thc iacobian matriccs arc µivcn as ¡oIIovs:
_
¡ -
o
Í
(
×
, ¤¡ ,
ª
)
|
r
-
[
¡

¡ -
o
Í
(¡, +,
ª
)
|
+ - ¤¡
o
×

C
oq(
×
.v¡,
ª
)
]
.
G
oq(¡,r,
ª
)
|
.
( ) ¡
¬ × ¬×
¡ ¡
¬
+
¬
r¡ 7
o
×
o+
1hc LCG dynamic modcI (i)-(4) is a !orm o! nonIincar
modcI o! (5). 1hc Iincarization o! thc LCG dynamic
modcI to suit thc LKI hamcvork can bc !ound in |7|.
1hc LKI vhich rccursivcIy produccd ùItcrcd statc mcan
X
;¸;
andcovariancc
¹;

;
canbcsummarizcdas!oIIovs:
At kO,InitiaIization o! statc mcan
X
¡ and covariancc
¹
¡ IorkOuntiIkA.
X
;
+i

¸;¬
J'×;¸;- ª^! ¸ª ¬
×;
¹;
+i

¸;¯ ´;
¹;

;´. ' !;U;!,
¹¢;+i¬ ¹;¹;+
,¡;¹. ' !;×;!;
ª;+i¬ ¹;
+i¸;¹.̹¢;+i1
i
¹;+i¸;+i
¬
\¹ ¯ ª ;
+i ¹ ; !
¹;+i¸;
¢;
+i¬ J;
+i ¯ k'
X;
+i¸;- ¹·^) ¹ ¬
O
^
;+i¸;
+i
¬
^
;
+i¸;
+i
' ª
;+i
¢;
+i
(8)
vhcrc
×;
+i

¸;
and
¹;
+i

¸;
arc prior cstimatcs o! statc mcan
and covariancc rcspcctivcIy at instant k· i,vhich is thcn
adiustcdusingthc KaImanùItcrgain
ª
;
andinnovation
¢;
to givcs postcriori cstimatcs
^
;+i¸;+i
and
¹;+i¸;+i
.
LxtcndcdKaImansmoothingisnotstudicdinthispapcr.
+. ¡ARA%¡1¡R ¡S1¡%A1¡ON ò
L1ASS¡1¡LA1¡ON
Ior paramctcr cstimation o! statc-spacc modcIs,
Lxpcctationmaximization (LM) aIgorithm |iO| and LKI
havc bccnuscd |ii|. Jointstatcandparamctcrcstimation
usingLKI!orthcLCGdynamicmodcIshasbccnstudicd
in |8|. In this papcr,thc modcIs arc cstimatcd initiaIIy
vithout adapting thc paramctcrs onIinc using LKI,as
proposcdin |7|. DctaiIso!thccstimationrc!crto |7|.
Prior to paramctcr cstimation, thc timc pcriod o!
training LCG bcat dctcctcd using thc R-pcak dctcction
aIgorithm is IincarIy aIigncd to phasc vaIucs bctvccn O
andZR .1hcn,thc mcan and variancc o! aII thc phasc-
vrappcd training bcats arc caIcuIatcd. ÞonIincar
optimization aIgorithm is uscd to ùnd thc optimaI
paramctcrs to bcst ùt thc LCG mcan |7|,|i2|,vhich
givcs thc cstimatcs o! Gaussian paramctcrs c! proccss
noiscmcanw
;
. 1hccorrcspondingcovarianccvaIucs Q
;
arc cstimatcd by thc dcviations o! thc Gaussian
paramctcrs around thc LCG mcan. 1hc mcan o! thc
anguIar hcqucncyÚ is sct asÚ ZR / vhcrc is
avcragc RR-intcrvaI o! thc vhoIc training signaI. 1hc
proccss noiscn is assumcd as zcro mcan vith variancc
cstimatcd hom thc dcviations o! thc inactivc scgmcnt o!
thcLCG signaI bctvccnthccndo!1vavc andstart o! P
vavc. 1ocstimatcthccovariancco!thcobscrvationnoisc
×; thc variancc o! thc phasc obscrvation noisc is
cstimatcdas|o
;
/1Z andthcLCGmcasurcmcnt
variancciscstimatcdhomthcnoiscpovcrbctvccnthc
¯¯Ô
¬.=
¯imæ tææm:tlææ)
|
a
)
QCC <CC CCC
¯mæ c eæmmlææ)
|Þ)
ææ
|~)
|¤)
¡ìPurc 1. ¹XdHD!CS OI¹L\ DCdIS HOH IWO SHD]C0IS. bC!!1Ú |d)
dHU bCÌZ1ó |D) OIÍJ-ÍÍÍ /IIHVIHHId !dIdDdSC dHU
0OIICSDOHUIH9 SVHIHCII0 UVHdHI0 HOUC!S |0) dHU |U)
ICSDC0IIVC!V. JHC HOUC!S dIC CSIIHdICU HSIH9 HISI óÛS OI IHC
IC0OIUIH9S. ^OIC IHdI IHC SVHIHCII0 HOUC!S dD!C IO ICDICSCHI IHC
UISIIH0I DCdI HOIDHO!O9V OI IHC UIIICICHI SHD]C0IS.
tvo succcssivc P and 1 vavcs. Iigurc i shovs thc
synthcsizcd LCG modcIs cstimatcd using ùrst JOs data
hom tvo subiccts o! MI1-BIH Arrhythmia Databasc,
vithoutnoiscbcingaddcd. ItisshovnthatthcmodcIsarc
abIc to capturc distinct !caturcs o! bcat morphoIogy
amongdi!!crcntsubiccts.
Ior cIassiùcation, an LCG dynamic modcI is
cstimatcd !or cach subicct. Lach modcI is cvaIuatcd
against thc tcst LCG obscrvation vhich has bccn phasc-
vrappcdasthctrainingLCG. 1hctcstsampIcisassigncd
to thc modcI vith highcst IikcIihood. 1hc Iog-IikcIihood
o! gcncrating a scqucncc o! A obscrvation vcctors Ï
givcnthcdynamicmodcI |iscaIcuIatcdas
^
Iog
(
(
!
|)¯
Iog
Í¢, '¢¹¢,
'
¢,

¯
K |9)
,
=
'
vhcrc
¢;
and
¹¢;
!or i6 k6 A arc rcspcctivcIy thc
innovationscqucnccandassociatcdcovariancc, vhicharc
computcd by thc KaIman rccursions o! (8). 1hc
normaIization tcrm à can bc omittcd vhcn comparing
muItipIcmodcIsvithsingIctcstsampIc.
D. ¡X¡¡R¡%¡N1 A1 ¡V A1LA 1¡ON
1hisscctionprcscntscxpcrimcntaIcvaIuationo!thcLCG
dynamic modcIs on human idcntiùcation using O1
databasc. 1hc databasc consists o! iO5 tvo-channcI
rccordings o! i5min,sampIcd at 25OHz. Irom thc O1
databasc, i5 rccordings hom MI1-BIH Arrhythmia
databasc hom subiccts o! di!!crcnt agc and gcndcr arc
uscd. 1hc i minutc data o! modiùcd Icad II hom iJ
rccordings arc scIcctcd !or cxpcrimcnt. 1his data is
mrthcr dividcd into tvo scts: (i) Datasct-I consists o! 8
rccordingso!normaIbcats(iOO,iOJ,ii4,ii6,ii7,i2J,
2iJ, and2JO)and(2)Datasct-IIconsistso!aIIi5
18bÌc 1. ÍUCHIIH0dIIOH IdICS |") OH IIdIH dHU ICSI SCI OI !dIdSCI-
Í dHU !dIdSCI-ÍÍ.
!dIdSCI-Í
!dIdSCI-ÍÍ
JIdIH bCI
öJ.J
JÚ.V
JCSI bCI
öJ.J
Jó.ö
18bÌc Z. ^OIHd!IZCU !O9-!IKC!IHOOU S0OICS OI ICSI SdHD!CS OI
!dIdSCI-Í 9IVCH IHC HOUC!S.
¾odrIs 1ÛÛ JÛd 1J¬ JJÙ JJ7 JZd ZJd ZdÛ
1ÛÛ ¬.ÛÛ o.¬ ¬Z.Û ¬J.o ZD.7 ZZ.Ù 1oD.7 ¬d.Û
1Ûd ·b.d b.d ·JÙ.Z ·JÙ.Z ·JÙ.¬ ·J7.¬ ·Z¬Z.¬ ·7.Û
1J¬ ¬.Û J¬.9 ¬.¬ ¬.D ZDÛ.o ZÙJ.d Z¬d.Û JJ.Û
1JÙ Û.Z ¬.Z Ù.Z Ù.Z J1D.Ù JJ7.J JJD.o Û.D
JJ7 ·¬dZ ·ZÙZ.b ·bÙ¬ ·bÙJ 7.Z J.7 ·JÙZd ·doÛ.Û
1Zd ¬Û.Û ZZ.Ù 7D.D 7D.Z Ù.Z 7.D ZÙ7.Z
ZJd d.7 d.d d.7 d.7 Û.Û J.Û ¬.¬
ZdÛ Û.¬ ¬.Z Û.Z Û.d ZJ.D ZZ.¬ 1ÛZÛ
7 ÛÛ
o
? ÖÛ
S
¬Û
L
- rÛ
. ¹ J . ¹ .
| | |
, . , .
| |
...................... ........
¬J.Z
d.d
¬.d
¬Û ZÛ ]Û ]Ö 1¬ 12 ]Û Û
|nOu! SNH (ee)
¡ìPurc Z. ÍUCHIIH0dIIOH IdIC IH HH0IIOH OI IHDHI b^V !CVC!S.
rccordings incIuding 5 rccordings (22i,22J,2Ji,2J2,
and 2JJ) vith abnormaI LCG bcats (such as prcmaturc
vcntricuIar contractions,atriaI prcmaturc bcats) and right
bundIcbranchbIockbcats. IirsthaI!o!thcrccordingsarc
uscd!ortrainingandthcsccondhaI!!ortcsting.
1hcLCGdata isprcproccsscdvithbascIinc rcmovaI
and phasc-vrappcd bc!orc uscd !or training and tcsting.
1hc data contains noisc to tcst thc robustncss o! thc
modcI. AdynamicmodcIistraincd!orcachsubicctusing
paramctcr cstimation dcscribcd in scction 4. Ior
cIassiLcation,thc tcst sampIc iscvaIuatcdgivcn a modcI
using Iog-IikcIihood scoringvhich rcquircsLItcrcdstatc
in!ormationcaIcuIatcdusing LKI. 1hcR-pcakdctcction,
phasc vrapping,LKI rccursion and modcI !ormuIation
arc impIcmcntcd using thc Opcn Sourcc LCG 1ooIbox
(OSL1)byR. Samcni |iJ|.
1abIc I shovs thc idcntiLcation rcsuIts on Datasct-!
andDatasct-!!. !dcntiLcationratco! 87.5¾and6i.5¾arc
achicvcd on tcst sct o! DataSct-! and DataSct-!!
rcspcctivcIy. Lovcr pcr!ormancc on DataSct-!! may bc
causcd byphasccrroro! thcmodcIducto morphoIogicaI
abnormaIitics. 1his causcd unrcIiabIc modcIs vith Iargc
crror in Gaussian Iocations,vhich is mrthcr dctcrioratcd
by misdctcction o! R-pcaks |7|,|8|. 1abIc 2 shovs thc
normaIizcd Iog-IikcIihood scorcs o! thc tcst sampIcsvith
normaIbcatsgivcndi!!crcnttraincdmodcIs.
1hc LCG dynamic modcI capturc dynamic o!
additivc noisc bcsidcs thc LCG dynamic. As such,thc
modcI is suitabIc !or noisc robust cIassiLcation.
Lxpcrimcnt is run to cvaIuatc thc noisc robustncss o! thc
modcI in LCG bascd cIassiLcation. 1hc noisy signaI is
simuIatcd by adding vhitc noisc vith di!!crcnt SÞR
IcvcIs to thc LCG tcst sampIcs. Iigurc 2 shovs thc
idcntiLcation ratc in mnction o! input SÞR IcvcIs in dB.
¯¯¯
1hc modcIs arc robust to noisc IcvcIs abovc 2OdB. 1hc
pcr!ormanccdropsbyincrcasingnoiscIcvcIañcr2OdB.
0. LONL1\S¡ONS
!n this papcr,LKI hamcvork using LCG dynamicaI
modcIsarcproposcdandcvaIuatcd!orLCGbascdhuman
idcntiLcation o! iJ subiccts. 1hc rcsuIts dcmonstratc
rcasonabIc accuracy o! 87.5¾ on normaI bcat data,vith
Iovpcr!ormancc !or data incIuding abnormaI bcat duc to
inappropriatc modcIIing o! morphoIogicaI abnormaIitics
using currcnt modcIs. LvaIuaticn using aniLciaI additivc
noisc shovs that thc cIassiLcation pcr!ormancc is Icss
a!!cctcd by SÞR IcvcI abovc 2OdB. Iuturc vork viII
invcstigatcmorcrcIiabIcmodcIIingo!abnormaILCGsas
addrcsscd in |7|. Paramctcr cstimation using LM and
iointstatcandparamctcrcstimationusingLKI |7|canbc
uscdtoobtainmorcaccuratccstimatcso!thcmodcIs.
¯. ALHL½I¡UL¡ñ¡D1h
JHC dHIHOIS !IKC IO IHdHKS I \. bdVdUI IOI Vd!HdD!C 9HIUdH0C
OH IHC ¹L\ UVHdHI0 HOUC!!IH9, !I. V. bdHCHI IOI IHC HSCIH!
\DCH bOHI0C ¹L\ JOO!DOX, I. . ^d]CD JdHd!HUUIH IOI
UIS0HSSIOHS OH IHC ¹L\ 0HdId0ICIISII0S, dHU !I. d!dIVI!I IOI
Vd!HdD!C 0OHHCHIS OH IHC DdDCI.
b. H¡¡¡H¡DL¡h
j1| L. DI0!, \. l0!!0!SSOH, L. lDI!IµSOH, ûHC l. YIC0, ¯!L\
ûHû!VSIS. / H0W ûµµ!OûCD IH DuHûH IC0H!IÜCû!IOH, !JJJ 1rGH8.
!H8Irum. ÞéG8.. VO!.JÛ, HO.o, µµ. öÛö-ö1Z,ZÛÛ1.
jZ| h. /. !S!û0!, i. À. !!VIH0, /. LD0H9, À. Í. YI0C0!DO!C, ûHC D.
Þ. YI0C0!DO!C, ¯!L\ !O IC0H!IJ IHCIVICuû!S, 1GIIérH ÞécOVHiIiOH.
VO!. oö, HO. 1, µµ 1oo-1+Z,ZÛÛJ.
jo| Y. YûH9, Í. /9!ûÜO!I, Í. !û!ZIH8KOS, 8HC Þ. l!û!ûIO!IS,
¯/Hû!VSIS OÍ !uHûH !!0C!!OCû!CIO9!ûH |!L\) ÍO! DIOH0!!IC.
h0CO9HI!IOH, J¹Hð!1 J OH HdVGHcé8 iH ði2G! 1rOcé88iHV. ZÛÛö.
j+| h. !O0K0Hû, \. J. ! ÍI]0H, ûHC /. VûH \OS!0!OH,
¯\0OH0!!ICû! ûSµ0C!S OÍ !D0 IH!0!-IHCIVICuû! Vû!IûDI!I!V OÍ Hu!!I!0ûC
!L\ !0CO!CIH9S, !JJJ 1rGH8. DiOméu JHV. VO!. +ö. ÌO. J, µµ. JJ1-
JJV,ZÛÛ1.
jJ| i. À. !rViHé. H. Þ. YI0C0!DO!C, L. Y. \ûVSDOH, 0!. ûÎ., !0û!I
!û!0 Vû!IûDI!I!V. û H0W DIOH0!!IC ÍO! DuH8H IC0H!IÜCû!IOH, 1rOc. OJ
!HIérGIiOHG! LOHOH HrIUciG! !HIé!!iVéHcé. µµ. 11ÛU-1111,ZÛÛ1.
jU| l. !. ÀChDû!!V, \. Í. L!IÙO!C, L. Jû!ûSS0HKO, ¯/ CVHûHICû!
HOC0! ÍO! 90H0!û!IH9 SVH!D0!IC 0!0C!!OCû!CIO9!ûH SI9Hû!S, !JJJ
1rGH8. DiOméu JHV. VO!. JÛ, HO. o, µµ. ZöV¬ZV+,ZÛÛo.
j1| h. hûH0HI, À. H. hDûHSO!!ûDI, L. Ju!I0H, ûHC \. Í. L!IHO!C,
¯/ HOH!IH0û! DûV0SIûH Ü!!0!IH9 H8H0WO!K ÍO! !L\ C0HOISIH9,
!JJJ 1rGH8. DiOméu JHV. VO!. +J, HO. 1Z, µµ. Z11Z¬Z1öJ, ZÛÛ1.
jö| \. hûVûCI, ûHC À. D. hDûHSO!!ûDI, ¯!L\ Í0HOISIH9 ûHC
LOHµl0Sb!ÛH \S!HE û ÀOCIÜ0C LXI0HC0C Þû!HüH Í!!I0l oIlu0Iul0
!JJJ 1rGH8. DiOméu JHV. VO!. JJ, HO. V, µµ. ZZ+Û¬ZZ+ö, ZÛÛö.
jV| h. Y. /HC!0ûO, D. ÍO!IZZI, ûHC J. DOuCV, ¯!L\ ûHû!VSIS
!D!Ou9D DICC0H Àû!KOV HOC0!S, !JJJ 1rGH8. DiOméu JHV. VO!. Jo,
HO. ö, µµ. 1J+1¬1J+V,ZÛÛU.
j1Û| h. hDuHWûV, ûHC Í. h!OÍÍ0!, ¯/H ûµµ!OûCD !O !IH0 S0!I0S
SHOO!DIH9 ûC ÍO!0CûS!IH9 uSIH9 !D0 !À û!9O!I!DH, J 1imé ðérié8
HHG!]8i8. VO! o, HO. +, µµ. ZJo-ZUJ, 1VöZ.
j11| L. L]uH9, ¯/SVHµ!O!IC D0DûVIO! OÍ !D0 0X!0HC0C Þû!HûH Ü!!0!
ûS û µû!ûH0!0! 0S!IHû!O! ÍO! !IH0û! SVS!0HS, !JJJ 1rGH8. HuIO.
LOHIrO.. VO!. /L-Z+, µµ. oU-JÛ, 1V1V.
j1Z| L. Í. L!IÙO!C, /. hDO0D, l. Í. ÀChDd!!V, ûHC U. /. JûHZ,
¨NOC0!-DûS0C Ü!!0!IH9, COHµ!0SSIOH ûHC C!ûSSIÜCû!IOH O! !D0 ÍLL,´
Iot. J. Bioclcctmmvoctia, VO!. 1, HO. 1, µµ. 1Jö¬1U1,ZÛÛJ.
j1o| h. h8H0HI, \µ0H hOu!C0 !L\ JOO!DOX |\h!J),
ZÛÛU.

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