Unit-V Welding

Gas Welding Gas Welding Processes - Gas welding is a fusion welding process. It joins metals, using the heat of combustion of an oxygen/air and fuel gas (i.e acetylene, hydrogen, propane or butane) mixture. The intense heat (flame) thus produced melts and fuses together the edges of the parts to be welded, generally with the addition of a filler metal

Oxy Acetylene Welding Principle of Operation - When acetylene is mixed with oxygen in correct proportions in the welding torch and ignited, the flame resulting at the tip of the torch is sufficiently hot to melt and join the parent metal. The oxyacetylene flame reaches a temperature of about 3200°C and thus can melt all commercial metals which, during welding, actually flow together to form a complete bond. A filler metal rod is generally added to the molten metal pool to build up the seam slightly for greater strength. Oxyacetylene welding does not require the components to be forced together under pressure until the weld forms and solidifies. Gas Welding Equipment The basic equipments used to carry out gas welding are: 1. Oxygen gas cylinder. 2. Acetylene gas cylinder. 3. Oxygen pressure regulator. 4. Acetylene pressure regulator. 5. Oxygen gas hose(Blue). 6. Acetylene gas hose(Red). 7. Welding torch or blow pipe with a set of nozzles and gas lighter 8. Trolleys for the transportation of oxygen and acetylene cylinders 9. A set of keys and spanners. 10. Filler rods and fluxes. 11. Protective clothing for the welder (e.g., asbestos apron, gloves, goggles, etc

Oxygen Gas Cylinder - Oxygen cylinders are painted black and the valve outlets are screwed right handed. The usual sizes of oxygen cylinders are 3400, 5200 and 6800 litre. Oxygen cylinder is a solid drawn cylinder out of mild steel or alloy steel. Mild steel cylinder is charged to a pressure of 13660 KN/m2 (136.6 bar) and alloy steel cylinders to 17240 KN/m2 (172 bar). The oxygen volume in a cylinder is directly proportional to its pressure. In other words, if the original pressure of a full oxygen cylinder drops by 5% during welding, it means 1/20 of the cylinder contents have been consumed. Because of the possibility of the oxygen pressure becoming high enough to rupture the steel cylinder in case the temperature rises, an oxygen cylinder is equipped with a safety nut that allows the oxygen to drain slowly in the event the temperature increases the gas pressure beyond the safety load of the cylinder. An oxygen cylinder has an inside diameter of 21.6 cm, wall thickness 6.50 mm and length 127.5 cm. In order to protect cylinder valve from getting damaged, a removable steel cap is screwed on the cylinder at all times when the cylinder is not in use. The cylinder valve is kept closed when the cylinder is not in use and even when cylinder is empty. Acetylene Gas Cylinder - An acetylene cylinder is painted maroon and the valves are screwed left handed; to make this easily recognizable they are chamfered or grooved. An acetylene cylinder is also a solid drawn steel cylinder which is charged to a pressure of 1552 KN/m2 (15.5 bar). The usual size of acetylene cylinders are 2800 and 5600 litre. An acetylene cylinder has an inside diameter of 30 cm, wall thickness 4.38 mm and a length of 101.25 cm. An acetylene cylinder is filled with a spongy (porous) material such as balsa wood or some other absorptive material which is saturated with a chemical solvent called acetone. Since high pressure acetylene is not stable, it is dissolved in acetone, which has the ability to absorb a large volume of the gas and release it as the pressure falls. The small compartments in the porous material (filled in the cylinder) prevent the sudden decomposition of the acetylene throughout the mass, should it be started by local heating or other causes. An acetylene cylinder is always kept upright for safety reasons. The acetone in the cylinder must not be permitted to enter the blowpipe, otherwise an explosion could result. The acetylene cylinder valve can only be opened with a special wrench and this wrench is kept in place whenever the cylinder is in use. An acetylene cylinder has a number of fusible plugs, at its bottom, designed to melt at 104°C. These plugs melt and release the pressure in case the cylinder is exposed to excessive heat. Acetylene Gas Generator - If large quantities of acetylene gas are being consumed, it is much cheaper to generate the gas at the place of use with the help of acetylene gas generators. Acetylene gas is generated by carbide to water method, i.e., the generator unit feeds controlled amounts of calcium carbide into the water. When these ingredients are mixed, acetylene gas is produced.

Gas obtained is not so pure as available in cylinders. In order to make the operation of acetylene generators safe. In control valve opens and closes automatically as the acetylene in the chamber decreases or increases. One indicates the gas pressure in the cylinder and the other shows the reduced pressure at which the gas is going out.1 bar. There are two types of acetylene generators. 4. A pressure regulator is fitted with two pressure gauges. (ii) Medium pressure generator which delivers the gas at a pressure of up to 0. Acetylene generators have certain disadvantages: Greater safety precautions are required. therefore (i) to reduce the high pressure of the gas in the cylinder to a suitable working pressure. Labour is required to charge carbide and clean out sludge. and (ii) to produce a steady flow of gas under varying cylinder pressures. (i) Low pressure generator which delivers the gas at pressures of less than 0. With this kind of generator only the injector type of blow pipes can be used. This automatically regulates the amount of calcium carbide falling in water.1.The pressure of the gases obtained from cylinders/generators is considerably higher than the gas pressure used to operate the welding torch. Medium pressure generator is considered stationary and it can produce acetylene up to 3000 litres per minute. Low pressure generator is considered portable and it produces acetylene above 15litres per minute. various devices are incorporated in it. A pressure regulator is connected between the cylinder/generator and the hose leading to welding torch.6 bar. 2.There is a tendency towards pressure fluctuations with resultant unsteady flame. Welding Hoses and Clamps(a) Hoses: The hose for the supply of oxygen (from the pressure regulator) to the welding torch is coloured blue or black and has right handed thread connections.Single stage Regulator 2. if the low pressure type of generator is used. 3. Pressure Regulators . (ii)Gas pressure regulators may be classified as: 1. whereas the acetylene hose is coloured red or maroon and has left handed thread connections with . Two stage Regulator.The purpose of using a gas pressure regulator is. This generator is the one that is more commonly used.

There are two types of welding torches. it is necessary to use oxygen at a high pressure (2. the hoses to be used should be strong. As acetylene is of low pressure. enters the mixing chamber and pulls (or draws) the acetylene in after it. thereby making the proportions of the two gases constant while the torch is in operation. (ii) The hose should never be patched or repaired. flexible and not subject to kinking. Welding Torch and Blow Pipe . (iii) Hot metal (job) should never be placed on the hose.chamfers or grooves on the nuts. For example. A nut on the other end of the nipple is connected to the regulator or torch. (b) Working of a high pressure blowpipe: In this type of blowpipe both the oxygen and acetylene are fed to the blow pipe at equal pressures and the gases are mixed in a mixing chamber prior to being fed to the nozzle tip. namely: (i) High pressure (or equal pressure) type. For welding purposes. Low pressure blowpipes are used with acetylene obtained from an acetylene generator at a pressure of 200 mm head of water (approximately 0. The high pressure oxygen passes through a small opening in the injector nozzle. The equal pressure or high pressure type of blowpipe is the one most generally used because (i) It is lighter and simpler. The clamp squeezes the hose around the nipple to prevent it from working loose. (a) Working of a low pressure blowpipe: It is termed as a low pressure blowpipe because it can be operated at low acetylene pressures. (ii) It does not need an injector. The oxygen enters the mixing chamber through a passage located in the centre of the torch. non porous. The hose is very robust and capable of withstanding high pressure. The outer casing is made of tough abrasion resistant rubber. The oxygen passage is surrounded by the one carrying the acetylene. (iii) In operation.Oxygen and the fuel gas having been reduced in pressure by the gas regulators are fed through suitable hoses to a welding torch which mixes and controls the flow of gases to the welding nozzle or tip where the gas mixture is burnt to produce a flame for carrying out gas welding operation.02 bars). An advantage of low pressure torch is that small fluctuations in the oxygen supplied to it will produce a corresponding change in the amount of acetylene drawn.5 bar). The hose is resistant to the action of gases normally used in welding. it is frequently used with acetylene generators. Welding hose has a seamless lining which is manufactured from rubber (or a rubber compound) which is reinforced with canvas or wrapped cotton plies. High pressure blowpipes or torches are used with (dissolved) acetylene stored in cylinders at a pressure of 8 bars. (ii) Low pressure (or injector) type. it is less troublesome since it does not suffer from . using an oxygen hose to carry acetylene could cause a serious accident. Some precautions are to be taken when using reinforced rubber hoses: (i) Only one gas should be used in a hose. (b) Hose Clamps (Clips): A metal clamp is used to attach the welding hose to a nipple.

The choice of the proper tip size is very important to good welding. As the orifice size increases. it is only necessary to change the nozzle tip (size) and increase or decrease the gas pressures appropriately Welding Nozzles or Tips: Depending upon the design of the welding torch (or the blow pipe) the interchangeable nozzles may consist of :(i) Either. To provide for different amounts of heat. To change the power of the welding torch. or(ii) As a set of gooseneck extensions fitting directly onto the mixer portion of the blowpipe. The following factors are important in the selection of appropriate welding nozzle: (i) The position of the weld.(iv) The metal/alloy to be welded. . A welding nozzle enables the welder to guide the flame and direct it with the maximum ease and efficiency. greater amounts of the welding gases pass through and are burnt to supply a greater amount of heat. welding tips are made in various sizes.(iii) Job thickness and the size of welding flame required for the job.(ii) The type of joint. a set of tips which screw onto the head of the blowpipe. A chart giving sizes of tips for welding various thicknesses of metal along with oxygen and acetylene pressures used is generally provided by the manufacturers. The welding nozzle or tip is that portion of the torch which is located at the end of the torch and contains the opening through which the oxygen and acetylene gas mixture passes prior to ignition and combustion. to weld metals of different thicknesses.backfires to the same extent. The size of a welding tip is determined by the diameter of the opening or orifice in the tip.

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This envelope is usually a much darker blue than the inner cone. Types of Flames 1. Normally cylinders can be mounted on a trolley side by side. safe and inexpensive means of lighting the torch. Oxidising Flame (Excess of oxygen) 3. It is surrounded by an outer flame envelope. Trolleys may have rubber tires or steel rim wheels. The gas cylinders are held in place with chains and supported on the bottom with a steel platform. has an advantage.1 to 1). flame is the most important tool. produced by the combination of oxygen in the air and superheated carbon monoxide and hydrogen gases from the inner cone.A neutral flame is produced when approximately equal volumes of oxygen and acetylene are mixed in the welding torch and burnt at the torch tip. The correct type of flame is essential for the production of satisfactory welds. (More accurately the oxygen-to-acetylene ratio is 1. Spark lighters are constructed from flint and steel. Gas Cylinder Trolleys . All the welding equipment simply serves to maintain and control the flame.Trolleys should be capable of accommodating one oxygen cylinder and one acetylene cylinder required for gas welding.Gas Lighter A gas (spark) lighter provides a convenient. . The temperature of the neutral flame is of the order of about 3260ºC. The flame has a nicely defined inner cone which is light blue in colour. shape and condition in order to operate with maximum efficiency. Neutral Flame (Acetylene oxygen in equal proportions) 2. The flame must be of the proper size. Reducing Flame (Excess of acetylene) In oxyacetylene welding. but where work has to be done on plant with access only by narrow gangways the. Neutral Flame . Match sticks should never be used for this purpose because the puff of the flame produced by the ignition of the acetylene flowing from the tip is likely to burn the welder's hand.

in these cases. brittle. such as manganese steel and cast iron The oxidizing atmosphere. the zinc has a tendency to separate and fume away. This is because of excess oxygen and which causes the temperature to rise as high as 3500°C. the result will be an oxidising flame. especially at high temperatures. Reducing Flame .If the volume of oxygen supplied to the neutral flame is reduced. It is not used in the welding of steel.e. With iron and steel it produces very hard.If. and (iii) A few types of ferrous metals. consume the available carbon. The outer flame envelope is longer than that of the neutral flame and is usually much brighter in colour. much bluer in colour and more pointed than that of the neutral flame. in welding brass. For these reasons. i. A reducing flame can be recognized by acetylene feather which exists between the inner cone and the outer envelope. low strength oxides. therefore. tends to combine with many metals to form hard. The neutral flame is commonly used for the welding of: (i) Mild steel (ii) Stainless steel (iii) Cast Iron (iv) Copper (v) Aluminium Oxidising Flame . For example. an oxidising flame is of limited use in welding. An oxidising flame tends to be hotter than the neutral flame. after the neutral flame has been established. its burning temperature is lower and the left over carbon is forced into the molten metal. The outer flame envelope is much shorter and tends to fan out at the end on the other hand the neutral and carburizing envelopes tend to come to a sharp point. A slightly oxidising flame is helpful when welding most (i) Copper base metals (ii) Zinc base metals. the resulting flame will be a carburising or reducing flame.A neutral flame is named so because it effects no chemical change in the molten metal and therefore will not oxidize or carburize the metal. The high temperature of an oxidizing flame (O2: C2H2 = 1. the supply of oxygen is further increased. an excess of oxygen causes the weld bead and the surrounding area to have a scummy or dirty appearance. An oxidising flame burns with a decided loud roar. An oxidising flame can be recognized by the small white cone which is shorter. Moreover. A reducing flame does not completely. rich in acetylene. This chemical change makes the metal unfit for many applications in which the weld may . brittle substance known as iron carbide.5: 1) would be an advantage if it were not for the fact that the excess oxygen. The formation of a covering copper oxide prevents the zinc from dissipating. creates a base metal oxide that protects the base metal.

The oxidizing flame. A reducing flame has an approximate temperature of 3038°C. but the other types of flames are sometimes needed for special welds. Metals that tend to absorb carbon should not be welded with reducing flame. the acetylene valve on the torch is opened slightly and lighted with the help of a friction spark lighter. for most welding operations the Neutral Flame is correct. e. non ferrous) that do not tend to absorb carbon. The well-defined core of the flame (extremely bright pale blue) is known as the “inner cone”. which has a whitish feather around and beyond the inner cone. non-ferrous alloys and high carbon steels may require a reducing flame. This flame is very well used for welding high carbon steel To conclude. The excess acetylene flame. The flame draws the oxygen from the atmosphere and thus results in a reducing flame. whilst zinc bearing alloys may need an oxidising flame for welding purposes. A reducing flame.need to be bent or stretched. The oxygen valve is then slowly opened till . A reducing flame may be distinguished from a carburizing flame by the fact that a carburizing flame contains more acetylene than a reducing flame. does not carburize the metal.g. The neutral flame. rather it ensures the absence of the oxidizing condition. on the other hand.g. Then the acetylene valve is opened to get the required flow of acetylene. A carburizing flame is used in the welding of lead and for carburizing (surface hardening) purposes. has a shorter. It is used for welding with low alloy steel rods and for welding those metals.. which results from burning a mixture containing approximately equial volumes of oxygen and acetylene. Welding Technique: To light the flame. which results from an excess of oxygen in the gas mixture. (e. more sharplypointed inner cone than the neutral flame.

the intermediate flame feather of the reducing flame recedes into the inner white cone. This welding allows a better penetration as well as form bigger weld. In forehand welding. This tends to preheat before the white cone of the tip melts it. Thicker plates require more than one pass of the gas torch along the length to complete the joint. .5 to 3.0 mm from the plate. the first pass (root pass) is very critical in any welding operation. When the welding rod is used to provide filler material. Overhead usage requires additional skill to safeguard the welder. Backhand welding is generally used for thicker materials. The torch should be held at an angle of 30 to 450 from the horizontal plane. In multi pass welding. The various butt joint edge preparations are shown in the adjacent figure. The torch tip should be positioned above the metal plate so that the white cone is at a distance of 1. The choice of the torch size depends on the thickness of the metal to be joined.5 to 3. This is done with the help of a welding rod whose composition depends on the parent metal of the joint. All joints except outside corner joint require a filler metal to be added to fill the joint. The torch movement along the joint should be either oscillating or circular. This way the rod gets preheated and when dipped into the puddle would readily get melted. In backhand welding the torch moves backwards. The outer blue flames are directed on the already welded joint. The actual adjustment of the flame depends on the type of material to be joined. Larger torch tip sizes cause higher amount of oxygen and fuel to flow out causing the release of more heat. Oxy-fuel welding can be used for all the types of joints in all positions. the torch is moved in the direction of the tip. This allows the joint to be continuously annealed relieving the welding stresses. it is necessary to hold it at a distance of 10 mm from the flame and 1.0 mm from the surface of the weld metal pool or puddle.

When a high pressure oxygen jet with a pressure of the order of 300 KPa is directed against a heated steel plate. while the rest is oxidised. Here the torch tip has a provision for preheating the plate as well as providing the oxygen jet. the operator should release the oxygen jet to start the cutting. Drag is the amount by which the lower edge of the drag line trails from the top edge. Thus the tip has a central hole for oxygen jet with surrounding holes for preheating flames. About 30 to 40 % of metal is simply blown away. The cutting tip should be chosen for the intended application. But this energy may not be sufficient to bring the steel to its kindling temperature. The cutting can start at the edge or in the middle of the plate. .2Fe2O3 + 4. After the plate has reached the kindling temperature.2FeO + 3. it gets readily combined with oxygen giving iron oxide with the following reactions: 3 Fe + 2 O2 -. the oxygen jet burns the metal and blows it away causing the cut.Fe3O4 + 6. Oxy-acetylene gas cutting outfit is similar to that of the oxy-acetylene welding except for the torch tip. moving the torch in the forehand direction to achieve the desired cut.67 MJ/Kg of iron 2Fe + O2 -. This process is used for cutting steel plates of various thicknesses (can go up to 2 m) mainly because the equipment required is simple and can be carried anywhere without handling the heavy steel plates. The size is normally dependent on the thickness of the plate which determines the amount of preheating as well as the oxygen jet flow required for cutting. After the steel is heated to the kindling temperature which is about 870 0C.18 MJ/Kg of iron 4 Fe + 3 O2 -. and hence preheating flames may have to be continued as somewhat lower rate. The heat generated causes the metal to melt and get blown away by the oxygen pressure.90 MJ/Kg of iron All the above reactions are exothermic in nature and as such would provide a good amount of heat to preheat the steel.Gas Cutting: It is possible to rapidly oxidise (burn) iron and steel when it is heated to a temperature between 800 to 1000 0C.

In machine cutting the torch is mounted on a rail and both rail and the torch can move simultaneously along the two mutually perpendicular axes in the horizontal plane with the help of servo motors.A good cut is characterised by very small or negligible drag. The manual cutting is used for general purpose work and for straight line cutting. then the tip is inclined at an angle of 15 to 20 degrees. If small tips are not available. Gas cutting can be done manually or by a machine. When the torch is moved too rapidly. When the torch is moved slowly. all the preheated metal is burnt away by the oxygen jet and a large amount of slag is generated. Though the gas cutting is more useful with thick plates. . the metal at the bottom does not get sufficient heat to get oxidized and cut and hence there is a large drag. There is provision in the machine to hold more than one torch so that large number of identical pieces can be cut at the same time. Tip size chosen should be as small as possible. thin sheets (less than 3 mm) can also be cut by this process taking special precautions.

But it cannot be used for materials like aluminium. • Welding equipment is portable and can be operated at remote places. Advantages of gas welding: • It is one of the versatile methods of welding. The electrode is either a rod that simply carries current between the tip and the work. • For joining materials in whose case excessively high temperature or rapid heating and cooling of the job would produce unwanted changes in the metal. • The cost of equipment is not so high. • For heavy sections proper penetration may not be achieved. cutting. Applications: • For joining of thin materials. . the metal deposition can be easily controlled and heat properly adjusted giving rise to a satisfactory weld. • In automotive &aircraft industries. • For welding both ferrous and non-ferrous metals. throat and lungs. or a rod or wire that melts and supplies filler metal to the joint. nose. • More safety is recommended in gas welding. stainless steel which resist oxidation. • Prolonged heating of the joint may results in large HAZ. • Slower speed of welding compared electric arc welding.Oxygen cutting would be useful only for those materials which readily get oxidised and the oxides have lower melting points than the metals. workshops etc. So it is most widely used for ferrous materials. • As the source of heat and filler metal are separated. • Flux used in the filler metal provides fumes which are irritating to the eyes. • Rate of heat generation is less so thin sheets can be welded. The same equipment with a range of torches would be used for welding. Limitations of gas welding: • Heavy sections cannot be joined efficiently. Cutting of high carbon steels and cast irons require special attention due to formation of heat affected zone (HAZ) where structural transformation occurs. project site works. • Acetylene and oxygen are expensive gases. brazing and braze welding. • Heat affected zone (HAZ) is very narrow. Arc Welding Arc welding is the fusion of two pieces of metal by an electric arc between the pieces being joined – the work pieces – and an electrode that is guided along the joint between the pieces. bronze.

thus improving the weld. When the electrode is positioned close to the work piece. This produces a pool of molten metal that cools and solidifies behind the electrode as it is moved along the joint. and molten metal droplets detach and mix into the weld pool.The basic arc welding circuit is an alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) power source connected by a “work” cable to the work piece and by a “hot” cable to an electrode. vapour or slag. The Five Most Common Arc Welding Processes . Consumable electrode tips melt. Non-consumable electrodes do not melt. Most arc welding processes minimize contact between the molten metal and the air with a shield of gas. filler metal is melted into the joint from a separate rod or wire. an arc is created across the gap between the metal and the hot cable electrode. Granular flux. adds deoxidizers that create a shield to protect the molten pool. Instead. for example. An ionized column of gas develops to complete the circuit. The strength of the weld is reduced when metals at high temperatures react with oxygen and nitrogen in the air to form oxides and nitrides. There are two types of electrodes. The arc produces a temperature of about 3600°C at the tip and melts part of the metal being welded and part of the electrode.

Welding Power Sources: The main requirement of a power source is to deliver controllable current at a voltage according to the demands of the welding process being used. One type uses electric motors or internal combustion engines to drive alternators or generators. they are now the industry standards. It has a slightly downward or negative slope because of sufficient internal electrical resistance and inductance in the welding circuit to cause a minor droop in the output volt ampere characteristics. Because transformer-type welding transformers are quieter. are more energy efficient. With constant voltage power supply the arc voltage is established by setting the output voltage on the source. higher efficiency and lower maintenance as compared to generators. Welding transformers. Based on the static characteristics power sources can be classified in two categories • Constant current or drooping or falling characteristic power source. The power source shall supply necessary current to melt the electrode at the rate required to maintain the preset voltage or relative arc length. The open circuit voltage normally ranges between 70-90 V in case of welding transformers while in case of rectifiers it is 50-80 V. both in the form of process controls required to accomplish a given operating condition and the consequent demands on the power source. require less maintenance and are less expansive. arc welding power sources are playing very important role in welding. The conventional welding power sources are: Power Source Supply Power Source (i) Welding Transformer (ii) Welding Rectifier (iii) Welding Generators Supply AC DC AC or DC (Depending on generator) Types of Power Source sand characteristics Two types of electrical devices can be used to produce low-voltage. engine-powered generators are still widely used for portable welding. high-amperage current combination that arc welding requires. The other types use step-down transformers. Therefore. The speed of electrode drive is used to control the average welding current. The use of such power source in conjunction with a constant electrode wire feed results in a self regulating or self adjusting arc length system. However. rectifiers and DC generators are being used in shop while engine coupled AC generators as well as sometimes DC generators are used at site where line supply is not available. Constant voltage power source does not have true constant voltage output. welding voltages are lower as compared to open circuit voltage of the power source. Normally rectifiers and transformers are preferred because of low noise. • Constant potential or constant voltage or flat characteristic power source. Due to some internal or external fluctuation . Each welding process has distinct differences from one another. However. Selection of power source is mainly dependent on welding process and consumable.

the change in current is small and. Fig 4. it will automatically increase or decrease the electrode melting rate to regain the desired arc length. electrode melting rate would remain fairly constant with a change in arc length.if the change in welding current occurs. The power source may have open circuit voltage adjustment in addition to output current control. therefore. The volt ampere output curves for constant current power source are called �drooper' because of substantial downward or negative slope of the curves. Fig 4. . A change in either control will change the slope of the volt ampere curve. with a consumable electrode welding process. These power sources are required for processes using relatively thicker consumable electrodes which may sometimes get stubbed to workpiece or with nonconsumable tungsten electrode where during touching of electrode for starting of arc may lead to damage of electrode if current is unlimited.1: Constant Potential or Constant Voltage or Flat Characteristic. With a change in arc voltage. Under these conditions the short circuiting current shall be limited leading to safety of power source and the electrode.2: Drooping or Constant current or Falling Characteristic.

e. High frequency unit is introduced in the welding circuit but in between the control circuit and HF unit. At 100% duty cycle minimum current is to be drawn i. Duty Cycle: Duty cycle is the ratio of arcing time to the weld cycle time multiplied by 100. filters are required so that high frequency may not flow through control circuit and damage it. Duty cycle and associated currents are important as it ensures that power source remains safe and its windings are not getting damaged due to increase in temperature beyond specified limit. type of insulation and cooling system of the power source.Some power sources need high frequency unit to start the arc. High frequency unit is a device which supplies high voltage of the order of few KV along with high frequency of few KHz with low current. current passes through the skin of operator causing no damage to the operator. which may be requirement of processes like TIG and plasma arc. with the reduction of duty cycle current drawn can be of higher level. Table 4. It arcing time is continuously 5 minutes then as per European standard it is 100% duty cycle and 50% as per American standard. Welding cycle time is either 5 minutes as per European standards or 10 minutes as per American standard and accordingly power sources are designed.e. Although high voltage may be fatal for the operator but when it is associated with high frequencies then current does not enter body but it causes only skin effect i. Type of Current and Static Characteristic Type ofStatic Characteristic of Welding Process Current The Power Source Manual Metal Arc Welding Tungsten Inert Gas Welding Plasma Arc Welding Submerged Arc Welding Gas Metal Arc Welding / Metal Inert Gas Welding / Metal Active Gas Welding Constant Current Constant Current Constant Current Constant Current (if electrode  = 2. The welding current which can be drawn at a duty cycle can be evaluated from the following equation.4 mm ) Constant Potential .1: Welding Processes. The maximum current which can be drawn from a power source depends upon its size of winding wire. This high voltage ionizes the medium between electrode and workpiece/nozzle starting pilot arc which ultimately leads to the start of main arc.4 mm ) Constant Potential (if electrode  = 2.

the magnetic field is constantly being built and allowed to collapse. Because the current being used is alternating or reverse each 1/60 of a second. A step-down transformer takes a highvoltage. Rotating Type power Sources .Rotating type power sources may be divided into two classifications: 1. They are commonly called "Welding Transformers. Few. As electrons flow through a wire they produce a magnetic field around the wire. The placing an iron core in the center of these coils will increase the concentration of the magnetic field as shown in Fig. By placing a second or secondary winding of wire in the magnetic field produced by the first or primary winding a current will be induced in the secondary winding. but rectify the AC or DC by the use of selenium rectifiers. Both types are available as constant current or constant voltage models. They may utilize either single phase or three phase input power. Except for some power lost by heat within a transformer. The transformer type produce only alternating current. low-amperage current changes it into a low-voltage. They are used extensively on jobs beyond commercial power lines and also as mobile repair units.Static type power sources are all of those that use commercially generated electrical power to energize a transformer that. AC Transformers or AC welding machine: A welding transformer uses the alternating current (AC) supplied to the welding shop at a high voltage to produce the low-voltage power. the power (Watts) into a transformer equals the power (Watts) out because the volts and amperes are mutually increase and decreased. if any. A transformer with more turns of wire in the primary winding than in the secondary winding is known as step-down transformer. required considerable maintenance. Engine-Driven. non-consumable electrode welding and for welding with solid or flux cored wires. silicon diodes or silicon controlled rectifiers. AC and DC welding current. in turn. If the wire is wound into a coil the weak magnetic field of each wire is concentrated to produce a much stronger central magnetic force. Engine driven types consist of a gasoline or diesel engine coupled to a generator or alternator that produces the desired welding power. . These machines produced excellent welds. some manufacturers offer units that are a combination of both and can be used for coated electrode welding. steps the line voltage down to useable welding voltages. Motor-generator types consist of an electric motor coupled to a generator or alternator that produces the desired welding power. but due to the moving parts. are being built today. or a combination of both. They contain a transformer.3-14. The rectifier types are commonly called "Welding Rectifiers" and produce DC or. Motor-Generators 2. high-amperage current. The two major categories of static power sources are the transformer type and the rectifier type." All AC types utilize single-phase primary power and are of the constant current type. Available in either the constant current or the constant voltage type. Both rotating types can deliver either AC or DC welding power.Static Type Power Sources .

A transformer welder is step-down transformer. called taps. DC Welding Machine: Although much welding is accomplished with AC welding power sources. or it may be marked in tenths. This is accomplished with a device called a rectifier. 3-15. Welding machines can be classified by the method by which control or adjust the welding current. The commercially produced AC power that operates the welding machine must then be changed (rectified) to direct current for the DC arc. and inverter type. The greater the number of turns. Two types of rectifiers have been used extensively in welding machines. The major classifications are multiple-coil.) and low –amperage current (50A. 60 A etc. The multiple-coil or tap-type machine. These machines may have a large number of fixed amperes or they may have two or more amperages that can be adjusted further with a fine adjusting knob. 440 V etc. or in any other unit. allows the selection of different current settings by tapping into the secondary coil at a different turn value. The fine adjusting knob may be marked in amperes. hundredths. movable coil or movable core.)and changes it into 17V to 45V at 190A to 590 A. the higher is the amperage induced in the turns. the majority of industrial welding is done with machines that produce a direct current arc. See Figure 16 SILICON RECTIFIER SELENIUM RECTIFIER Fig. Fig. 16 . often referred to as diodes. the old selenium rectifiers and the more modern silicon rectifiers. It takes the high line voltage (220V.

These types of machines are the smallest. Industrial applications for manual operation use machines having 200. 19. current is allowed to flow through the rectifier. a bridge rectifier is created. Current control is provided in several ways by the welding transformer manufacturers. By using four rectifiers connected in a certain manner. 17 SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE RECTIFICATION Fig. One major advantage of ac transformers is the freedom from arc blow. the current is blocked. The transformers are usually equipped with arc. Machines with a 150. The polarity selected for welding depends upon the kind of electrode . During the negative half-cycle. This produces a DC composed of 60 positive pulses per second. and 400 ampere ratings. and job/shop welding. and the lightest type of welders made. See Figure 18. 300. With one diode in the circuit. garage. The bridge rectifier results in 120 positive half-cycles per second. a relatively smooth DC voltage results as shown in Figure 19. Another method is by plugging the electrode cable into different sockets located on the front of the machine. half-wave rectification takes place as shown in Figure 17. producing a considerably smoother direct current than half-wave rectification. The negative half-wave is simply cut off and a pulsating DC is produced.A DC welding generator produces direct current in either straight or reverse polarity. DC Generator Sets .stabilizing capacitors. as shown in figure. One such method is an adjustable reactor that is set by turning a crank until the appropriate setting is found.The function of a rectifier in the circuit can best be shown by the use of the AC sine wave. Arc blow causes the arc to wander while you are welding in corners on heavy metal or using large coated electrodes. Since three-phase AC power produces three times as many half-cycles per second as single. producing full wave rectification. 1 Cycle Fig. 3 PHASE FULL WAVE RECTIFICATION Alternating-Current Transformer Welding Machines. 18 SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE RECTIFICATION Three-phase AC can be rectified to produce an even smoother DC than single-phase AC. Fig. During the positive half-cycle. which often occurs when welding with direct-current (dc) machines. least expensive. — Practically all the alternating current (AC) arc-welding machines in use are the static-transformer type.phase power.ampere rating are used in light industrial.

polarity is not a problem. (iii) Noisy machine operation. In reverse polarity. you can weld with either straight polarity or reverse polarity. Disadvantages of DC generator sets (i) Higher initial cost. (iv) Diesel driven generators form self-contained units. Generator supplies voltage usually in the range from 15 to 45 volts across the arc. The armature is rotated by an electric motor or an engine. Fully automatic welding processes use rising voltage characteristic machines. usually done with AC. thus ensuring a stabilized arc. When using dc welding machines. 1800 or 3600 rpm to give optimum current values. With ac welding machines. Three V-I (Voltage-current) characteristics used in arc welding DC machines to help control fluctuating currents are: (i) Drooping arc voltage or constant current. as shown in figure 7-9. The current supplied by a DC generator is created by an armature rotating in an electrical field. Polarity is the direction of the current flow in a circuit. In rising voltage characteristics. because they maintain a preset voltage regardless of the amount of current being drawn from the machine. as the current increases. (ii) Constant arc voltage. it can be used in practically all welding operations. (vi) DC is most universal in application. Machine with drooping characteristics is used for standard shielded arc manual welding. The current is drawn off for welding use by a commutator. (v) Generator output (as it does in transformer and rectifier sets) is not affected by normal variations in power line voltage. A generator is designed such that it will compensate for any change in the arc column voltage. (iii) Nearly all ferrous and non-ferrous metals can be welded. (ii) Higher maintenance cost. A polarity switch on most machines provides reversed or straight polarity. (ii) Welding can be carried out in all positions. arc voltage rises and the current decreases and vice versa. the electrode is negative and the workpiece positive. In drooping characteristics as the arc length increases. Diesel operated generator sets are suitable for out-door applications or other areas where power is not available. the electrode is positive and the workpiece negative.used and the material to be welded. In straight polarity. . A DC generator is powered either by an electric motor or a diesel engine. voltage also increases.automatic (MIG) or automatic welding processes. Constant voltage characteristics are preferred for semi. the electrons flow from the electrode to the workpiece. Advantages of DC Generator Sets (i) Straight and reverse polarities can be employed to advantage. The open circuit voltage is between 50 and 100 volts. To help you remember the difference. An exception is TIG welding of Al and Mg. Generators are designed to rotate at speeds of 1500. the electrons flow from the workpiece to the electrode. (iii) Rising arc voltage. Current output will vary depending upon the type of unit.

you can direct the amount of heat to where it is needed. However. On the other hand. Electrode coatings affect the heat conditions differently. you should use straight polarity. In general. Direct current flowing through the electrode.think of straight polarity as a SENator and reverse polarity as a REPresentative. SEN stands for Straight Electrode Negative. With these types of electrodes. In some welding situations. workpiece. polarity is changed by switching cables. Monel. Reverse polarity is used in the welding of nonferrous metals. bronze. You can recognize the proper polarity for a given electrode by the sharp. straight polarity is used for all mild steel. when making large heavy deposits. such as aluminum. and nickel. When you use reverse polarity. reverse polarity permits the deposits from the electrode to be applied rapidly while preventing overheating in the base metal. On many of the newer machines. by welding away from the ground clamp. while another type of coating on the same electrode may provide a more desirable heat balance with reverse polarity. Arc blow can often be corrected by one of the following methods: by changing the position of the ground clamp. Use only the first three letters of each key word. The wrong polarity causes the arc to emit a hissing sound. When you use reverse polarity. arc blow causes the arc to wander while you are welding in corners on heavy metal or when using largecoated electrodes. therefore. REP for Reverse Electrode Positive. less heat is concentrated at the workpiece. One disadvantage of direct-current welding is “arc blow. On some of the older machines. or by changing the position of the workpiece. the polarity can be changed by turning a switch on the machine. the heat is concentrated on the electrode. resulting in porosity. when heavy-coated electrodes are used. Polarity affects the amount of heat going into the base metal. This field can cause the arc to deviate from the intended path. or lightly coated electrodes. . it is desirable to have more heat on the workpiece because of its size and the need for more heat to melt the base metal than the electrode. in overhead welding it is necessary to rapidly freeze the filler metal so the force of gravity will not cause it to fall. bare. By changing polarity. the majority of the heat is directed toward the workpiece. the workpiece. The arc is usually deflected forward or backward along the line of travel and may cause excessive spatter and incomplete fusion. giving it greater holding power. and ground clamp generates a magnetic field around each of these units. and the welding bead is difficult to control. crackling sound of the arc. the gases given off in the arc may alter the heat conditions so the opposite is true and the greatest heat is produced on the negative side. It also has the tendency to pull atmospheric gases into the arc. This allows the filler metal to cool faster.” As stated earlier. the majority of heat is developed at the positive side of the current. Cast-iron arc welding is another good example of the need to keep the workpiece cool. One type of heavy coating may provide the most desirable heat balance with straight polarity. Reverse polarity is also used with some types of electrodes for making vertical and overhead welds. When you use straight polarity.

The arc is struck between a flux covered stick electrode and the workpieces. welding cables. The circuitry can also provide features such as power control and overload protection. The workpieces are made part of an electric circuit.1 Shows details of welding circuit.2 shows the fine molten droplets of metal and molten flux coming from the tip of the coated electrode. earth clamp and the consumable coated electrode. Figure 5. It includes welding power source. known as welding circuit. The IGBTs in an inverter based machine are controlled by a microcontroller. then they switch (invert) the DC power into a step down transformer to produce the desired welding voltage or current. The switching frequency is typically 10. variable frequencies. and automatic spot-welding. it can drastically reduce the bulk of the step down transformer. all of which would be prohibitively expensive in a transformer-based machine but require only program space in software-controlled inverter machine Manual Metal Arc Welding: Manual metal arc welding (MMAW) or shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) is the oldest and most widely used process being used for fabrication. They generally first rectify the utility AC power to DC. .Inverter Since the advent of high-power semiconductors such as the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). variable ratios and current densities through a welding cycle. The high frequency inverter-based welding machines can be more efficient and have better control than non-inverter welding machines. These designs are known as inverter welding units. The flux melts along with the metallic core wire and goes to weld pool where it reacts with molten metal forming slag which floats on the top of molten weld pool and solidifies after solidification of molten metal and can be removed by chipping and brushing. Typically the controller software will implement features such as pulsing the welding current. Although the high switching frequency requires sophisticated components and circuits. so the electrical characteristics of the welding power can be changed by software in real time updates.000 Hz or higher. it is now possible to build a switching power supply capable of coping with the high loads of arc welding. Figure 5. electrode holder.

Travel speed in excess of Narrow thin weld bead. Welding current depends on the size of the electrode i. Poor optimum penetration. The steeper the slope of the volt-ampere curve within the welding range.Welding power sources used may be transformer or rectifier for AC or DC supply. optimum Travel speed less than Wide thick deposit. Undercut. The constant-current or drooping type of power source is preferred for manual metal arc welding since it is difficult to hold a constant arc length. Table 5. optimum Optimum Welding Smooth even weld deposit. Deep crater. core diameter. the smaller the current change for a given change in arc voltage. Arc extinctions. Little optimum penetration.d (where d is electrode diameter in mm) with some variations with the type of coating of electrode. This results into stable arc. Deep penetration. higher the voltage. The output voltage of the power source on “no load” or “open circuit” must be high enough to enable the arc to be started. Voltage in excess of Deposit irregular and flat.1 shows influence of welding parameters on weld characteristics. The requirement depends on the type of electrode coating and sometimes on the material to be welded. Porosity. The welding voltages range from 20 to 30 V depending upon welding current i. Arc wander. Flat wide deposit. optimum Voltage less than Irregular piling of weld metal. higher the current. which in turn produces a change in welding current. Easily conditions controlled slag. Stable arc condition. Little spatter produced. uniform penetration and better weld seam in-spite of fluctuations of arc length. Metal piles up. Table 5. optimum Electrode overheats.e. A value of 80 V is sufficient for most electrodes but certain types may require more or less than this value. The changing arc length causes arc voltage to increase or decrease. Difficulty in slag control. Poor dead shape. The approximate average welding current for structural steel electrodes is 35. Spatter.1: Welding Variables and Their Influence Welding Condition Main Effects Current in excess of Excess spatter. . Current less than Slag difficult to control.e.

A manual welding power source is never loaded continuously because of operations such as.One reason for the wide acceptance of the SMAW process is the simplicity of the necessary equipment. Accessory equipment (chipping hammer.Shielded metal arc welding may utilize either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC). Some electrodes operate on both DC straight and reverse polarity. Welding Position . Ground clamp 4. .Using a DC power source allows the use of a greater range of electrode types. gloves. Figure 3 shows the connections and effects of straight and reverse polarity. the power source selected must be of the constant current type. the resistance in the cables becomes greater as the cable length increases. In weldments that have varying thickness and protrusions. the weld beads produced will be uniform in size and shape. electrode changing. Most MMA welding equipment has a duty cycle of around 40% at maximum welding current.DC power sources may be used for welding both heavy sections and light gauge work. but in either case. This is known as voltage drop. AC can successfully be used for outof-position work if proper electrodes are selected. When using a DC power source. Welding cables and connectors 5. The following factors should be considered: Electrode Selection . Direct current flows in one direction in an electrical circuit and the direction of current flow and the composition of the electrode coating will have a definite effect on the welding arc and weld bead. Sheet metal is more easily welded with DC because it is easier to strike and maintain the DC arc at low currents. Distance from Work . This type of power source will deliver a relatively constant amperage or welding current regardless of arc length variations by the operator. or AC/DC power source depends on the type of welding to be done and the electrodes used. it is more suitable for overhead and vertical welding than AC. Even though welding cables are made of copper or aluminum (both good conductors). some will work properly only on DC. Metal Thickness .) Welding Power Sources . AC seldom causes this problem because of the rapidly reversing magnetic field produced. In other words.If the distance from the work to the power source is great. slag removal etc. Electrode holder 3. DC. Whether to use an AC. and others on DC negative or DC positive polarity only.Because DC may be operated at lower welding currents. this magnetic field can affect the arc by making it stray or fluctuate in direction. Equipment & Operation . 1. the question of whether to use electrode negative or positive polarity arises. Arc Blow . etc. Combination power sources that produce both AC and DC are available and provide the versatility necessary to select the proper welding current for the application. magnetic fields are set up throughout the weldment. a voltage reading taken between the electrode and the work will be somewhat lower than a reading taken at the output terminals of the power source. The equipment consists of the following items.When welding with DC. This condition is especially troublesome when welding in corners. Protective equipment (helmet. AC is the best choice since the voltage drop through the cables is lower than with DC. The amperage determines the amount of heat at the arc and since it will remain relatively constant. wire brush) 6. While most of the electrodes are designed to be used on AC or DC. Welding power source 2.

The weld bead is rather wide and shallow as shown at "A" in Figure 3. the ground clamp must be capable of carrying the welding current without overheating due to electrical resistance. Being a part of the welding circuit. special grade electrodes are being developed for specific applications. Besides this. the electrode coating also has a strong influence on arc characteristics.ducts the welding current to the electrode. Welding electrodes comprise basically of steel core wire and coating ingredients or flux mild steel core wires are used in majority of unalloyed steel electrodes. They must be very flexible and have a tough heat-resistant insulation. potassium silicate.S.The electrode holder connects to the welding cable and con. Electrode Holder .3 Workpiece Workpiece Straight polarity Reverse polarity While polarity affects the penetration and burn-off rate. factory sheds. construction of steel structures such as bridges. Welding electrodes are used in welding various metals in the fabrication of equipment for chemical & Allied industries. chemical & surgical instrument making industry. Electrode holders are available in different sizes and are rated on their current carrying capacity.The ground clamp is used to connect the ground cable to the work piece. Therefore M. Coated Electrodes .The electrode cable and the ground cable are important parts of the welding circuit. in the manufacture of ships. Mild steel is welded by electrodes to a maximum among all the metals & Alloys. Electrode positive (+) produces welds with deep penetration and a narrower weld bead as shown at "B" in Figure 3. Coating ingredients are basically rutile. however. Increasing the cable length necessitates increasing the cable diameter to lessen resistance and voltage drop. Nickel-copper. Ground Clamp .Electrode negative (-) produces welds with shallow penetration. Vehicles and engineering equipment. and at the power source lugs must be soldered or well crimped to assure low electrical resistance. The insulated handle is used to guide the electrode over the weld joint and feed the electrode over the weld joint and feed the electrode into the weld puddle as it is consumed. Connections at the electrode holder. Stainless steel wires are also used for welding in fertilizer. Nickel irons are also used in MIG & TIG welding. nickel. sodium silicate and . the electrode melt-off rate is high. It may be connected directly to the work or to the table or fixture upon which the work is positioned. The cross-sectional area of the cable must be sufficient size to carry the welding current with a minimum of voltage drop. Besides mild steel. Welding Electrode is the most widely used core wire. the ground clamp. Welding Cables . DC Power Source A Higher burn-off rate Less penetration Electrode B Low burn-off rate Deep penetration Electrode DC Power Source Fig.Various types of coated electrodes are used in shielded metal arc welding.

Formation of shielding gas to protect molten metal. structural steel electrodes can be classified in the following classes. which. larger the core diameter larger the length.5 3. These are all position electrodes and produce deep penetration because of extra heat generated during burning of cellulosic materials. Acidic Electrodes 1. ferro-maganese. talc. asbestos. These electrodes are widely used for general work and are called general purpose electrodes. 4. high spatter losses are associated with these electrodes.0 5. Cellulosic Electrodes Coating consists of high cellulosic content more than 30% and TiO2 up to 20%. (d) Reduces the cooling rate of weld seam. Formation of slag. 2. calcite and mica. (c) Protects solidified hot metal from atmospheric gases. 2. However.2: Size and Welding Current for Stick Mild Steel Electrodes Diameter d 2. Commonly used electrode diameters are 2. 3. clay.5. Rutile Electrodes Coating consists of TiO 2 up to 45% and SiO2 around 20%. powdered alloys. Various constituents of electrode coating are cellulose. calcium fluoride. Length of electrodes may depend on diameter of core wire ranging from 250 to 450 mm i. during welding to improve weld metal properties. (b) Protects the droplet during transfer and molten weld pool from atmospheric gases.18. iron oxide. 2. Mo to improve weld metal properties.minerals like quartz. 3. Coated Electrodes are specified based on core wire diameter. The important functions are as follows: 1. 6. special electrodes may be of 8-10 mm diameter. 5. potassium / sodium silicate. Table 5. Improve deposition rate with addition of iron powder in coating.0 6. 4. Electrode metallic core wire is the same but the coating constituents give the different characteristics to the welds. iron powder.0 mm Length L 250/300 350 350/450 450 450 450 mm Welding I 50-80 70-100 90-130 120-160 160-200 190-240 Current A Electrode coating performs many functions depending upon coating constituents. Provide deoxidizers like Si and Mn in form of FeSi and FeMn. . Based on the coating constituents. 5 and 6 mm. Improve the electric conductivity in the arc region to improve the arc ignition and stabilization of the arc. Each constituent performs either one or more than one functions. (a) Influences size of droplet. calcium carbonate. 3. However. silica etc. Ferro-alloys are also used in the formulations of fluxes. Table 5. titanium dioxide. Ni.2 gives the details of electrode sizes and currents.18(1/8") 4.0 2.e. Alloying with certain elements such as Cr.

e.4. Table 5. These electrodes normally require baking at temperature of approximately 250 ° C for 1-2 hrs or as per manufacturer's instructions. forming HF acid as CaF2 generates fluorine on dissociation in the heat of arc. the arc is started by short circuiting the welding current between the electrode and the work surface. Slag former Asbestos Coating strength Slag former Quartz (SiO2 ) Slag fluidity. 7-10) and the tapping method (fig. Arc stabilizer Slag basicity. improved metal transfer. This is because hydrogen is removed from weld metal by the action of fluorine i.3: Coating Constituents and Their Functions Functions Main Functions Other Functions Cellulose Gas former Coating Strength and Reducing agent Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) Slag basicity and metal Slag former fluidity. 7-11). Slag removal and bead Fluidity appearance Iron Oxides Fluidity. Calcium Carbonate Gas former. Such electrodes produce self detaching slag and smooth weld finish and are used normally in flat position. Slag former Increase in current carrying capacity. In Coating Constituent . The surge of high current causes the end of the electrode and a small spot on the base metal beneath the electrode to melt instantly. In either method. Basic Electrodes Coating consist of CaCO3 around 40% and CaF2 15-20%. Arc stabilizer Slag former Silicate FeMn / FeSi Deoxidizer Iron Powder Deposition Rate Powdered Alloys Alloying Starting the Arc: Two basic methods are used for starting the arc: the striking or brushing method (fig. other constituents may be TiO2 10% and CaCO3 10%. Slag former Arc Stabilizer. Slag former. Coating consists of iron oxide more than 20%. Sometimes it may be up to 40%. Sodium Silicate / Potassium Binder. Such electrodes produce high quality weld deposits which has high resistance to cracking. H2 removal Clay (Aluminum Silicate) Slag former Coating strength Talc (Magnesium Silicate) Slag former Arc stabilizer Rutile (TiO2 ) Arc stabilizer.

and an example is shown in figure 7-12. crackling sound. As soon as the electrode touches the work surface. a sharp. it must be raised to establish the arc (fig.the striking or brushing method. Use alight blow with a chipping hammer or a chisel to free the electrode from the base metal. the electrode melts faster and the molten puddle will be excessively large and irregular. After starting the weld. you can usually free the electrode by a quick sideways wrist motion to snap the end of the electrode from the plate. As a rule. or at 95 amperes. make your final adjustments by either increasing or decreasing the current. 7-11). this information is normally found on the face of the electrode container. In the tapping method. When the current is too high. final current settings and adjustments need to be made during the welding operation. . you hold the electrode in a vertical position to the surface of the work. 7-10). Setting the Current The amount of current used during a welding operation depends primarily upon the diameter of the electrode. it produces a sharp. High current also leaves a groove in the base metal along both sides of the weld. When the proper arc length is obtained. crackling sound is heard. view C. the usual practice is to set the controls midway between the two limits. For example. If this method fails. immediately release the electrode from the holder or shutoff the welding machine. it will stick or freeze to the plate or base metal. when the recommended current range for an electrode is 90-100 amperes. This is called undercutting. the electrode is brought down to the work with a lateral motion similar to striking a match. Manufacturers of electrodes usually specify a current range for each type and size of electrode. Since most recommended current settings are only approximate. The arc is started by tapping or bouncing it on the work surface and then raising it to a distance equal to the diameter of the electrode (fig. higher currents and larger diameter electrodes are better for welding in the flat position than the vertical or overhead position. When the electrode is withdrawn too slowly with either of the starting methods described above. When the proper length of arc is established. If this occurs. The arc length or gap between the end of the electrode and the work should be equal to the diameter of the electrode.

A short arc with correct amperage will give a sharp. a good arc produces a sharp.With current that is too low. there is not enough heat to melt the base metal and the molten pool will be too small. . Procedure for Welding 1 Workpiece Make sure workpiece is clean before welding. 4 Insulated Electrode Holder 5 Electrode Holder Position 6 Arc Length Arc length is the distance from the electrode to the workpiece. insert an electrode in the electrode holder. 7 Slag Use a chipping hammer and wire brush to remove slag. Both undercutting and overlapping results in poor welds. arc length for 1/8 and 5/32 in electrodes should be about 1/8 in (3 mm). When the electrode. Correct arc length is related to electrode diameter. Examine the weld bead to determine if the arc length is correct. the arc produces a steady. Remove slag and check weld bead before making another weld pass. When any of these conditions are incorrect. The molten metal from the electrode lays on the work without penetrating the base metal. 3 Electrode Before striking an arc. view B. Arc length for 1/16 and 3/32 in diameter electrodes should be about 1/16 in (1. hissing sound. A small diameter electrode requires less current than a large one. as shown in figure 7-12. crackling sound. 2 Work Clamp Place as close to the weld as possible.6 mm). crackling sound. and polarity are correct. The result is poor fusion and a irregular shaped deposit that piles up. current. Follow recommendations of the electrode manufacturer when setting weld amperage . This piling up of molten metal is called overlap. such as steam escaping.

it is more fixquently used in sheet metal work An edge joint should only be used for joining metals 1/4 inch or less in thickness that are not subjected to heavy loads. Corner and tee joints are used to join two members located at right angles to each other (fig. An edge joint is used to join the edges of two or more members lying in the same plane. as the name implies. however. however. 3-6. as shown in figure 3-6. the corner joint forms an L-shape. In cross section. The five basic types of weld joints are the butt. tee. and the tee joint has the shape of the letter T. one of the members is flanged. A joint of this type may be either square or grooved. Various joint designs of both types have uses in many types of metal structures. While this type of joint has some applications in platework. for maximum joint efficiency. and pipe work. as shown in figure 3-6. Inmost cases. 3-6. This is one of the strongest types of joints available. 3-6. view A). corner. This joint is frequently used in plate. view E. lap. views B and C). view D). PARTS OF JOINTS . A lap joint. is made by lapping one piece of metal over another (fig. A butt joint is used to join two members aligned in the same plane (fig. and edge. you should overlap the metals a minimum of three times the thickness of the thinnest member you are joining. Lap joints are commonly used with torch brazing and spot welding applications.WELD JOINTS The weld joint is where two or more metal parts are joined by welding. The above paragraphs discussed only the five basic types of joints. there are many possible variations. sheet metal.

as shown in view B. The root face. A groove (fig.While there are many variations of joints. the groove face and the root face are the same metal surfaces in some joints. the root may be a point. As you can see. A brief description of each term is shown in figure 3-9. The root edge is basically a root face of zero width. and root opening. As you can see in views C and D of the illustration. The bevel angle is . also shown in view A. or an area. the root face has relatively small dimensions. the parts of the joint are described by standard terms. The groove face is that surface of a metal part included in the groove. as shown in figure 3-8. view A. The specified requirements for a particular joint areexpressed in such terms as bevel angle. groove angle. a line. when viewed in cross section. groove radius. A given joint may have a root face or a root edge. is the portion of the prepared edge of a part to be joined by a groove weld that has not been grooved. As shown in figure 3-7. The root of a joint is that portion of the joint where the metals are closest to each other. 3-8) is an opening or space provided between the edges of the metal parts to be welded.

It is sometimes called the “root gap. The horizontal position has two basic forms. Often the work must be done in the horizontal position. For example. at . the techniques are somewhat different because of the equipment involved is different. Flat-Position Welding The welding can be done in any position. you must consider the thickness of the weld material. Whenever possible. Welding Positions The types of welds. the molten puddle is not as likely to run. The root opening refers to the separation between the parts to be joined at the root of the joint. In a fillet weld. It is used only for special groove joint designs. the work is less tiring. Having an adequate root opening is essential for root penetration. The root opening is usually governed by the diameter of the thickness filler material. the face of the weld is approximately horizontal. in turn. depends on the of the base metal and the welding position. In this position. the axis of the weld lies in a relative horizontal plane and the face of the weld is in a vertical plane (fig. welding speed is faster. groove angle. This. if the edge of each of two plates were beveled to an angle of 30 degrees. but it is much simpler when done in the flat position. and welding positions used in manual-shielded metal arc welding are very similar to those used in oxygas welding. depending upon whether it is used with a groove weld or a fillet weld. and root opening for a joint. Horizontal-Position Welding You will discover that it is impossible to weld all pieces in the flat position.the angle formed between the prepared edge of a member and a plane perpendicular to the surface of the member.29). Butt joints are the primary type of joints used in the flat position of welding. the welding is performed on the up per side of a relatively horizontal surface and against an approximately vertical plane. Naturally. try to position the work so you can weld in the flat position. however. An inexperienced welder usually finds the horizontal position of arc welding difficult. In a groove weld. and better penetration can be achieved. joints. 3. gas welding requires a larger groove angle than manual metal-arc welding.or U-groove weld joint. The groove radius is the radius used to form the shape of a J. flat-position welding can be made on just about any type of joint providing you can rotate the section you are welding on to the appropriate position. In the flat position. the groove angle would be 60 degrees. and the welding process to be used.” To determine the bevel angle. The groove angle is the total angle of the groove between the parts to be joined. This isoften referred to as the “included angle” between the parts to be joined by a groove weld. the type of joint to be made. As a general rule.

pontoons. To counteract this force. Horizontal-position welding can be used on most types of joints. Erecting structures. such as buildings. Gravity pulls the molten metal down. The most common types of joints it is used on are tee joints. and butt joints. The primary difficulty is that in this position you have no “shoulder” of previously deposited weld metal to hold the molten metal. Vertical-Position Welding A “vertical weld” is defined as a weld that is applied to a vertical surface or one that is inclined 45 degrees or less. lap joints. you should use fast-freeze or fill- . require welding in this position. and pipelines.least until he has developed a fair degree of skill in applying the proper technique. Welding on a vertical surface is much more difficult than welding in the flat or horizontal position due to the force of gravity. tanks.

and butt joints. pausing for a second or two on each side before moving diagonally to the next and pausing there. the goal is to get strong. You also can use a zig-zag technique. with practice it is possible to make welds equal to those made in the other positions. Vertical welding is done in either an upward or downward position. The types of joints you will most often use it on are tee joints. the torches are suddenly removed. Fusion temperature is not reached. complete coverage over the entire weld area. The terms used for the direction of welding are vertical up or vertical down. are brought to contact and upset together under pressure. not to stand in the way. Vertical welding is used on most types of joints. and substantial plastic deformation is generated. Heat is generally applied by flames of oxy-fuel torches directed on the surfaces to be joined. and the two bodies. by application of heat and of pressure. Nevertheless. Most beginning welders simply use the straight drag technique. filler metal is not needed. Some prefer a simple. Not only do you have to contend with the force of gravity but the majority of the time you also have to assume an awkward stance. Furthermore. Some of the electrode movements are shown below. usually by hydraulic equipment. Whichever technique you choose. Upon reaching the correct temperature (about 1200 0C). . lap joints. Overhead-Position Welding Overhead welding is the most difficult position in welding. solid bars or hollow sections. Vertical down welding is suited for welding light gauge metal because the penetration is shallow and diminishes the possibility of burning through the metal.freeze electrodes. Pressure Welding Hot pressure welding: Hot-pressure-welding is a solid state process that produces joints between the faying surfaces of two bodies. straight-line drag at a slow and steady pace to get the job done. Others will make a "C" shape with the tip of the rod as they weld for better coverage and a slick-looking end product. vertical down welding is faster which is very important in production work. Electrode Movements Each welder has a preference in this area.

Some beveling can be used to control the amount of upset. For obtaining the best results the surfaces should be machined square and clean. typically among them aluminum alloys and stainless steels. and certain nonferrous metals. especially in Japan. but depend upon materials composition. The materials commonly joined by Hotpressure-welding are carbon. Therefore cast iron cannot be Hot-pressure-welded. Typical application reported. cooling rate and quality. The process as described is performed as a manual operation. it is called the closed joint process. Pressure in the range of 40 to 70 MPa must be available. Tests were performed in a vacuum chamber. The most important parameter is the pressure sequence cycle. The materials to be welded must exhibit hot ductility or forgeability. Mechanical properties tend to be near those of the base materials. Certain dissimilar materials combinations are weldable by Hot-pressure-welding. although the source of heating is different. Hot-pressure-welding can be an economic and successful process for performing butt joints of simple shapes if the materials are easily weldable.This variant is properly called the open joint process. Alternatively. refer to butt Hot-pressure-welding of railroad rails sections and steel reinforcing bars. when the parts are making contact under pressure before heat application from the outside. . possibly being developed by trial and error. For use in the production of weldments for the aerospace industry with delicate materials Hot-pressure-welding can be carried out in closed chambers with vacuum or a shielding medium. Hot-pressurewelding is similar in a way to both friction welding and flash welding. • Only simple sections readily butt weldable. In either case flash material is expelled and a bulge is formed at the joint. Advantages • Simple process • Simple joint preparation • Relatively low cost equipment • Quick weld production • High quality joints • No filler metal needed • Minimally skilled operators required Limitations • Not all metals are weldable • Not easily automated • Length of cycle dependent on time for heating • Removal of flash and bulge required after welding. low alloy steels. also by electrical induction. Materials that easily form on the surface adherent oxides upon heating cannot be eaasily welded in air by this process.

Aluminum and copper can be joined together by cold welding. so that the parts can be joined with the application of pressure. their thicknesses. The current may be obtained from a single phase step down transformer supplying alternating current. If surfaces are rust free then pickling is not required but surface cleaning can be done through some solvent such as acetone to remove oil and grease. oil and grease. when high amperage is required then three phase rectifier may be used to obtain DC supply and to balance the load on three phase power lines. For this purpose components may be given pickling treatment i. When cold welding heavier sections a press is usually required to exert sufficient pressure to make a successful weld. Indentations are usually made in the parts being cold welded. Heat is generated in localized area which is enough to heat the metal to sufficient temperature. After that components may be dried through the jet of compressed air. The process is readily adaptable to joining ductile metals. dipping in diluted acid bath and then washing in hot water bath and then in the cold water bath. Welding is accomplished by using extremely high pressures on extremely clean interfacing materials. The process employs currents of the order of few KA. Aluminum and copper are readily cold welded. However. The necessary pressure shall vary from 30 to 60 N mm-2 depending upon material to be welded and other welding conditions. all process variables are preset and maintained constant. Resistance Welding Resistance welding processes are pressure welding processes in which heavy current is passed for short time through the area of interface of metals to be joined.e. These processes differ from other welding processes in the respect that no fluxes are used. Copper base alloys may consist of copper as base and alloying elements such as cadmium or silver or chromium . and filler metal rarely used. therefore. Apart from proper setting of welding parameters. Sufficiently high pressure can be obtained with simple hand tools when extremely thin materials are being joined. type and size of electrodes. The heat generated during resistance welding is given by following expression: H=I2RT Where. component should be properly cleaned so that surfaces to be welded are free from rust. For good quality welds these parameters may be properly selected which shall depend mainly on material of components. All resistance welding operations are automatic and. Pressure is applied through the electrodes. during and after the flow of current to avoid arcing between the surfaces and to forge the weld metal during post heating. dust. The material of electrode should have higher electrical and thermal conductivities with sufficient strength to sustain high pressure at elevated temperatures. voltages range from 2 to 12 volts and times vary from few ms to few seconds. H is heat generated I is current in amperes R is resistance of area being welded T is time for the flow of current.Cold pressure Welding: Cold pressure welding is a solid state welding process which uses pressure at room temperature to produce coalescence of metals with substantial deformation at the weld. Force is normally applied before. Commonly used electrode materials are pure copper and copper base alloys.

1. Fig 11. tear and deformation of electrodes. cooling through water circulation is required. Figure 11. The area of metals in contact shall be rapidly raised to welding temperature. To reduce wear. components are in butting position and butt joints are produced.or nickel or beryllium or cobalt or zirconium or tungsten. The work pieces are held under pressure and only then heavy current is passed between the electrodes for preset time. Pure tungsten or tungsten-silver or tungsten-copper or pure molybdenum may also be used as electrode material. seam and projection welding which produce lap joints except in case of production of welded tubes by seam welding where edges are in butting position. two or more sheets of metal are held between electrodes through which welding current is supplied for a definite time and also force is exerted on work pieces.1: Water Cooling of Electrodes (a) Spot Welding (b) Seam Welding.2.2: Principle of Resistance spot Welding The welding cycle starts with the upper electrode moving and contacting the work pieces resting on lower electrode which is stationary. In butt and flash welding. due to the flow of .1 shows the water cooling system of electrodes. Spot Welding In resistance spot welding. The principle is illustrated in Figure 11. Fig 11. Commonly used resistance welding processes are spot.

automobile and home appliances industries. aircraft. This total cycle is known as resistance spot welding cycle and illustrated in Figure 11. Pointed tip or truncated cones with an angle of 120° .3: Resistance Spot Welding Cycle Spot welding electrodes of different shapes are used. high speed of operation and dissimilar metal combination welding. The weld nugget formed is allowed to cool under pressure and then pressure is released. The radius of dome generally varies from 50-100 mm.current through the contacting surfaces of work pieces. electrical. Fig 11.140° are used for ferrous metal but with continuous use they may wear at the tip. . however. it is applicable only for limited thickness of components. Domed electrodes are capable of withstanding heavier loads and severe heating without damage and are normally useful for welding of nonferrous metals. Ease of mechanism. has made is widely applicable and acceptable process. The pressure between electrodes. squeezes the hot metal together thus completing the weld.3 Fig 11. It is widely being used in electronic. A flat tip electrode is used where minimum indentation or invisible welds are desired.4: Electrode Shapes for Spot Welding Most of the industrial metal can be welded by spot welding.

Weld times range from 0. Both water and a brine solution may be used as coolants in spot welding mechanisms. It is used in a wide range of industries but notably for the assembly of sheet steel vehicle bodies in the automobile manufacturing industry. Tool holding methods include a paddle-type. The current from the electrodes is then applied briefly after which the current is removed but the electrodes remain in place in order for the material to cool. usually copper. and many of the industrial robots found on assembly lines are spot welders. Thickness of the parts to be welded should be equal or the ratio of thickness should be . and regular offset. it is cooled via the coolant holes in the center of the electrodes. Spot welding is primarily used for joining parts that are normally up to 3 mm in thickness.01 sec to 0.This is a type of resistance welding where the spot welds are made at regular intervals on overlapping sheets of metal. Workpiece thickness can range from 0. The two materials being welded together are known as the workpieces and must conduct electricity.2 to 30 mm After the current is removed from the workpiece.Spot Welding machine Spot welding involves three stages. universal. The equipment used in the spot welding process consists of tool holders and electrodes. and are designed in many different shapes and sizes depending on the application needed. The tool holders function as a mechanism to hold the electrodes firmly in place and also support optional water hoses which cool the electrodes during welding.63 sec depending on the thickness of the metal. The electrodes generally are made of a low resistance alloy. the electrode force and the diameter of the electrodes themselves. where it is used almost universally to weld the sheet metal to form a car. the first of which involves the electrodes being brought to the surface of the metal and applying a slight amount of pressure. light duty. Spot welders can also be completely automated. Spot welding is one of the oldest welding processes. The width of the workpieces is limited by the throat length of the welding apparatus and ranges typically from 125 to 1250 mm.

The process of welding is illustrated in Figure 11. Fig 11. making welding possible. Seam Welding: In seam welding overlapping sheets are gripped between two wheels or roller disc electrodes and current is passed to obtain either the continuous seam i. Galvanized steel (i. higher levels of current are required to weld galvanized steel. aluminium's melting point is much lower than that of copper. making welding relatively easy. During the weld. the zinc can combine with the steel and lower its resistivity. weld nuggets are equally spaced. However.e. Higher carbon content or alloy steel tend to form hard welds that are brittle and could crack. Zinc has a low melting point.5.e. Therefore. The zinc coating must first be melted off before the steel is joined. Aluminium has an electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity that is closer to that of copper.less than 3:1. Low carbon steel is most suitable for spot welding. Higher levels of current must be used for welding aluminium because of its low resistivity. Welding current may be continuous or in pulses.6: Type of Seam Welds .e. 2. overlapping weld nuggets or intermittent seam i. so a pulse of current before welding will accomplish this. Spot-weld diameters range from 3 mm to 12. steel coated with zinc to prevent corrosion) requires a different welding approach than uncoated steel. Materials suitable for spot welding Steel has a higher electrical resistivity and lower thermal conductivity than the copper electrodes. The strength of the joint depends on the number and size of the welds.5 mm.

the process is limited to components of thickness less than 3 mm. Seam welding is relatively fast method of welding producing quality welds. muffler. The Seam Welding machines are precision and robust construction suitable for long trouble-free service. drums and other components of domestic applications. fuel tank welding and other special items. Overlap welds are used for air or water tightness. Further. Resistance Butt Welding (UW) Resistance Butt Welding is a Resistance Welding (RW) process. however in . equipment is costly and maintenance is expensive. in which ends of wires or rods are held under a pressure and heated by an electric current passing through the contact area and producing a weld. shell welding (Longitudinal). The process is similar to Flash Welding.Fig 11. It is the method of welding which is completely mechanized and used for making petrol tanks for automobiles. tub cover welding (circumferential).7: Electrode Shapes of Seam Welding Overlapping of weld nuggets may vary from 10 to 50 %. seam welded tubes. silencer. When it is approaching around 50 % then it is termed as continuous weld. shock absorber welding. The application of these machines are in the manufacture of drums and barrels. However. fuel tank.

If the parts are small. The parts to be welded are aligned with a gap between them. The super heated steel is contained in a crucible located immediately above the weld joint. Since it is almost twice as hot as the melting temperature of the base metal. Normal heat losses cause the mass of molten metal to solidify. preheating is often eliminated. and the weld is completed. The super heated steel runs into a mold which is built around the parts to be welded. It is very similar to the foundry practice of pouring a casting. Thermite Welding Thermite welding (TW) (sometimes called thermit welding) is a process which joins metals by heating them with super heated liquid metal from a chemical reaction between a metal oxide and aluminum or other reducing agent. preheating within the mold cavity may be necessary to bring the pats to welding temperature and to dry out the mold. which causes the molten metal to fill the cavity between the parts being welded.Butt Welding pressure and electric current are applied simultaneously in contrast to Flash Welding where electric current is followed by forging pressure application. The exothermic reaction is relatively slow and requires 20 to 30 seconds. In contrast to Flash Welding. Butt Welding provides joining with no loss of the welded materials. The . coalescence occurs. it continues until completion. melting occurs at the edges of the joint and alloys with the molten steel from the crucible. with or without the application of pressure. Butt welding is used for welding small parts. If the parts to be welded are large. Once the reaction is started. Themite welding utilizes gravity. regardless of the amount of chemicals involved. The thermit welding process is applied only in the automatic mode. The heat for welding is obtained from an exothermic reaction or chemical change between iron oxide and aluminum. This reaction is shown by the following formula: 8A1 + 3fe304 = 9Fe + 4A1203 + Heat The temperature resulting from this reaction is approximately 2482°C. Filler metal is obtained from the liquid metal. The process is highly productive and clean.

all unwanted excess metal may be removed by oxygen cutting. A mold made of refractory sand is built around the wax pattern and joint to hold the molten metal after it is poured. If necessary.difference is the extremely high temperature of the molten metal. alined. A wax pattern is then made around the joint in the size and shape of the intended weld. the parts to be welded must be cleaned. The mold should be properly vented to permit the escape of gases and to allow the proper distribution of the thermite metal at the joint. The crucible is charged by placing the correct quantity of thoroughly mixed thermit material in it. metal is removed from the joint to permit a free flow of the thermite metal into the joint. The surface of the completed weld is usually sufficiently smooth and contoured so that it does not require additional metal finishing. which is covered with a fire-resistant washer and refractory sand. . At the bottom of the crucible. or grinding. The hole through the thimble is plugged with a tapping pin. This thimble provides a passage through which the molten steel is discharged into the mold. Thermite Welding Equipment (Tw) Thermite material is a mechanical mixture of metallic aluminum and processed iron oxide. The sand mold is then heated to melt out the wax and dry the mold. and held firmly in place. In preparing the joint for thermite welding. machining. A thermite welding crucible and mold is shown in figure 5-41. Molten steel is produced by the thermite reaction in a magnesite-lined crucible. into which a magnesite stone thimble is fitted. The making of a thermit weld is shown in figure 6-12. a magnesite stone is burned. When the filler metal has cooled.

. Figure 9. Equipment similar to the above sketches is set up at the welding joint. The arc is shielded by a shielding gas and if this is inert gas such as argon or helium then it is termed as metal inert gas (MIG) and if shielding gas is active gas such as CO2 or mixture of inert and active gases then process is termed as metal active gas (MAG) welding. the thermite fixture is removed. After the process has been completed and the weld has cooled enough.1 illustrates the process of GMA welding. The slag is chipped off and the excess weld is ground off to conform with the shape of the rails Gas Metal Arc Welding Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is the process in which arc is struck between bare wire electrode and workpiece.Thermite Welding Use (Tw) Thermite Welding has been successfully used for many years in the Railroad industry to weld rails together.

Direct current flat characteristic power source is the requirement of GMAW process. The electrode wire passing through the contact tube is to be connected to positive terminal of power source so that stable arc is achieved.2 and 1. If the electrode wire is connected to negative terminal then it shall result into unstable spattery arc leading to poor weld bead. Solid filler electrode wires are normally employed and are available in sizes 0. Flat characteristic leads to self adjusting or self regulating arc leading to constant arc length due to relatively thinner electrode wires. Similar to submerged arc welding electrode wires of mild steel and low alloyed steel. The electrode wire feeding system is shown in Figure 9. increase current carrying capacity and for smooth movement through contact tube. 1. 1. are coated with copper to avoid atmospheric corrosion.8. .2.6 mm diameter.0. GMA welding requires consumables such as filler wire electrode and shielding gas.

e.6 150-380 18-34 . mode of molten drop formed at the tip of electrode and its transfer to the weld pool. Electrode Wire DiameterCurrent Range (A) Voltage Range (V) (mm) 0. Table 9. Further. The range of current and voltage for a particular size of electrode wire. mild steel electrodes of different sizes.Pressure adjusting screw is used to apply required pressure on the electrode wire during its feeding to avoid any slip.1 gives the total range of currents and voltages for different sizes of structural steel i.e. electrode size and mode of metal transfer i.0 70-250 16-26 1. Depending on the size and material of the wire. shall change if material of electrode wire is changed. The range of welding current and voltage vary and is dependent on material to be welded. Welding of medium thickness plates in horizontal and vertical positions are welded with medium current and voltage levels. Thin sheets and plates in all positions or root runs in medium plates are welded with low currents while medium and heavy plates in flat position are welded with high currents and high voltages. With lower currents normally lower voltages are employed while higher voltages are associated with higher currents during welding. This process exhibits most of the metal transfer modes depending on welding parameters.2 120-320 17-30 1. different pressures are required for the smooth feeding of wire with minimum deformation of the wire.8 50-180 14-24 1. wire feeding rolls have grooves of different sizes and are to be changed for a particular wire size.

Table 9.1: Welding Current and Voltage Ranges for Mild Steel Electrodes Both inert gases like argon and helium and active gases like CO2 and N2 are being used for shielding depending upon the metal to be welded. Mixtures of inert and active gases like CO2 and O2 are also being used in GMA welding process. For mild steel carbon dioxide is normally used which gives high quality, low current out of position welding i.e. also in welding positions other than flat position. Low alloyed and stainless steels require argon plus oxygen mixtures for better fluidity of molten metal and improved arc stability. The percentage of oxygen varies from 1-5% and remaining is argon in argon and oxygen mixtures. However, low alloy steels are also welded with 80% argon and 20% CO2 mixture. Nickel, monel, inconel, aluminum alloys, magnesium, titanium, aluminum bronze and silicon bronze are welded with pure argon. Nickel and nickel alloys may sometimes be welded with mixture of argon and hydrogen (upto 5%). Copper and aluminum are also welded with 75% helium and 25% argon mixture to encounter their thermal conductivity. Nitrogen may be used for welding of copper and some of its alloys, but nitrogen and argon mixtures are preferred over pure nitrogen for relatively improved arc stability. The process is extremely versatile over a wide range of thicknesses and all welding positions for both ferrous and nonferrous metals, provided suitable welding parameters and shielding gases are selected. High quality welds are produced without the problem of slag removal. The process can be easily mechanized / automated as continuous welding is possible. However, process is costly and less portable than manual metal arc welding. Further, arc shall be disturbed and poor quality of weld shall be produced if air draught exists in working area. GMA welding has high deposition rate and is indispensable for welding of ferrous and specially for nonferrous metals like aluminum and copper based alloys in shipbuilding, chemical plants, automobile and electrical industries. It is also used for building structures. TIG Welding Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) or Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welding is the arc welding process in which arc is generated between non consumable tungsten electrode and workpiece. The tungsten electrode and the weld pool are shielded by an inert gas normally argon and helium. Figures 10.1 & 10.2 show the principle of tungsten inert gas welding process.

Fig 10.1: Principle of TIG Welding.

Fig 10.2: Schematic Diagram of TIG Welding System. The tungsten arc process is being employed widely for the precision joining of critical components which require controlled heat input. The small intense heat source provided by the tungsten arc is ideally suited to the controlled melting of the material. Since the electrode is not consumed during the process, as with the MIG or MMA welding processes, welding without filler material can be done without the need for continual compromise between the heat input from the arc and the melting of the filler metal. As the filler metal, when required, can be added directly to the weld pool from a separate wire feed system or manually, all aspects of the process can be precisely and independently controlled i.e. the degree of melting of the parent metal is determined by the welding current with respect to the welding speed, whilst the degree of weld bead reinforcement is determined by the rate at which the filler wire is added to the weld pool. In TIG torch the electrode is extended beyond the shielding gas nozzle. The arc is ignited by high voltage, high frequency (HF) pulses, or by touching the electrode to the workpiece and withdrawing to initiate the arc at a preset level of current. Selection of electrode composition and size is not completely independent and must be considered in relation to the operating mode and the current level. Electrodes for DC welding are pure tungsten or tungsten with 1 or 2% thoria, the thoria being added to improve electron emission which facilitates easy arc ignition. In AC welding, where the electrode must operate at a higher temperature, a pure tungsten or tungsten-zirconia electrode is preferred as the rate of tungsten loss is somewhat lesser than with thoriated electrodes and the zirconia aids retention of the �balled' tip. Table 10.1 gives chemical composition of tungsten electrodes as per American Welding Society (AWS) classification. AWS Tungsten, min.Thoria, percent Zirconia, Total other Classification percent percent elements, max. percent EWP 99.5 0.5 EWTh-1 98.5 0.8 to 1.2 0.5 EWTh-2 97.5 1.7 to 2.2 0.5 EWZr 99.2 0.15 to 0.40 0.5 Table 10.1: Chemical Composition of TIG Electrodes. Tungsten electrodes are commonly available from 0.5 mm to 6.4 mm diameter and 150 200 mm length. The current carrying capacity of each size of electrode depends on whether it is connected to negative or positive terminal of DC power source. AC is used

only in case of welding of aluminum and magnesium and their alloys. Table 10.2 gives typical current ranges for TIG electrodes when electrode is connected to negative terminal (DCEN) or to positive terminal (DCEP). DCEN DCEP Electrode Pure and Pure and Thoriated Dia. (mm) Thoriated Tungsten Tungsten 0.5 5-20 1.0 15-80 1.6 70-150 10-20 2.4 150-250 15-30 3.2 250-400 25-40 4.0 400-500 40-55 4.8 500-750 55-80 6.4 750-1000 80-125 Table 10.2: Typical Current Ranges for TIG Electrodes The power source required to maintain the TIG arc has a drooping or constant current characteristic which provides an essentially constant current output when the arc length is varied over several millimeters. Hence, the natural variations in the arc length which occur in manual welding have little effect on welding current. The capacity to limit the current to the set value is equally crucial when the electrode is short circuited to the workpiece, otherwise excessively high current shall flow, damaging the electrode. Open circuit voltage of power source ranges from 60 to 80 V. Argon or helium may be used successfully for most applications, with the possible exception of the welding of extremely thin material for which argon is essential. Argon generally provides an arc which operates more smoothly and quietly, is handled more easily and is less penetrating than the arc obtained by the use of helium. For these reasons argon is usually preferred for most applications, except where the higher heat and penetration characteristic of helium is required for welding metals of high heat conductivity in larger thicknesses. Aluminum and copper are metals of high heat conductivity and are examples of the type of material for which helium is advantageous in welding relatively thick sections. Pure argon can be used for welding of structural steels, low alloyed steels, stainless steels, aluminum, copper, titanium and magnesium. Argon hydrogen mixture is used for welding of some grades of stainless steels and nickel alloys. Pure helium may be used for aluminum and copper. Helium argon mixtures may be used for low alloy steels, aluminum and copper. TIG welding can be used in all positions. It is normally used for root pass(es) during welding of thick pipes but is widely being used for welding of thin walled pipes and tubes. This process can be easily mechanised i.e. movement of torch and feeding of filler wire, so it can be used for precision welding in nuclear, aircraft, chemical, petroleum, automobile and space craft industries. Aircraft frames and its skin, rocket body and engine casing are few examples where TIG welding is very popular.

Prior to welding. a thin layer of flux powder is placed on the workpiece surface. Welding parameters: current. but it can be semiautomatic. joint type and size of component. Remaining fused slag layers can be easily removed after welding. This produces a thermal efficiency as high as 60% (compared with 25% for manual metal arc). A shielding gas is not required. depth of penetration and chemical composition of the deposited weld metal. There is no visible arc light. The arc moves along the joint line and as it does so. welding is spatter-free and there is no need for fume extraction.Submerged Arc Welding Similar to MIG welding. Common variants are: . heat loss is extremely low. Wire SAW is normally operated with a single wire on either AC or DC current. Process variants According to material thickness. Operating characteristics SAW is usually operated as a fully-mechanised or automatic process. excess flux is recycled via a hopper. As the arc is completely covered by the flux layer. arc voltage and travel speed all affect bead shape. greater reliance must be placed on parameter settings. Because the operator cannot see the weld pool. and to add alloying elements to the weld pool. submerged arc welding involves formation of an arc between a continuously-fed bare wire electrode and the workpiece. The process uses a flux to generate protective gases and slag. varying the following can increase deposition rate and improve bead shape.

which utilises a two or three bead per layer deposition technique. It is common practice to refer to fluxes as 'active' if they add manganese and silicon to the weld. provided a suitable joint preparation is adopted. cooled and ground to the required particle size. low alloy steels and stainless steels. aluminium. two-pass or multipass weld procedures can be carried out. Applications SAW is ideally suited for longitudinal and circumferential butt and fillet welds. Most bonded fluxes contain metallic deoxidisers which help to prevent weld porosity. welding is generally carried out on butt joints in the flat position and fillet joints in both the flat and horizontal-vertical positions. with welding currents up to 2000A and consistent weld metal properties. The the main types of flux for SAW are: • Bonded fluxes . silicon. See What is narrow gap welding? Flux Fluxes used in SAW are granular fusible minerals containing oxides of manganese.twin wire multiple wire (tandem or triple) single wire with hot or cold wire addition metal powder addition tubular wire All contribute to improved productivity through a marked increase in weld metal deposition rates and/or travel speeds. then melting them in an electric furnace to form a chemically homogeneous product. There is virtually no restriction on the material thickness. Depending on material thickness. either single-pass. because of high fluidity of the weld pool. • • • • • Brazing and Soldering: . the workpiece is rotated under a fixed welding head with welding taking place in the flat position. The flux is specially formulated to be compatible with a given electrode wire type so that the combination of flux and wire yields desired mechanical properties. For circumferential joints. then bonding them with a low melting point compound such as a sodium silicate. • Fused fluxes . A narrow gap process variant is also established. Most commonly welded materials are carbon-manganese steels. zirconium.produced by mixing the ingredients. are the main attraction of these fluxes. calcium. although the process is capable of welding some nonferrous materials with judicious choice of electrode filler wire and flux combinations. All fluxes react with the weld pool to produce the weld metal chemical composition and mechanical properties. Smooth stable arcs. molten slag and loose flux layer.produced by drying the ingredients. These fluxes are effective over rust and mill scale. the amount of manganese and silicon added is influenced by the arc voltage and the welding current level. However. titanium. magnesium and other compounds such as calcium fluoride.

• Furnace Brazing Self fixturing assembly with preplaced filler metal is placed inside electrically heated furnace with temperature control for heating and cooling. Copper base alloys may be available in the form of rod. Another variant is to dip assembled parts in metallic bath and metal of bath fills the joint. Preplaced preform melts and fills the joint. 15-28% Zn. Filler metal is to be preplaced in the joint. strip and wire. 1% Ni. • Infra-red Brazing The heat for brazing is obtained from infra-red lamps. 15-35% Cu. However. Such method of brazing requires automation and parts to be joined should be self fixturing. Borax and boric acid are commonly used fluxes for brazing with copper base filler metals. powders or may be fed manually in form of rod. if the melting temperature of filler metal is lower than 450°C and also lower than the melting point of the material of components then it is know as soldering or soft soldering. formed strips.e. If the filler metal is having melting temperature more than 450°C but lower than the melting temperature of components then it is termed as process of brazing or hard soldering. The strength of brazed joint is higher than soldered joint but lower than welded joint. rods and powders. Various commonly used method of brazing are followings: • Torch Brazing Torch brazing utilizes the heat of oxy-acetylene flame with neutral or reducing flame. However. 18-24% Cd and sometimes 2-3% Ni or 5% Sn. which is brass and termed as 'spelter'. • Dip Brazing In dip brazing components with filler metal in proper form is preplaced at the joint and assembly is dipped in bath of molten salt which acts as heat source as well as flux for brazing. Many other commercial fluxes may be available in the form of paste or liquid solution leading to ease of application and adherence to the surface in any position. in between welding and brazing there is another process termed as ‘braze welding'. These furnaces may also be using protective atmosphere with inert gases like argon and helium or vacuum for brazing of reactive metal components. • Reduce surface tension of molten filler metal i. 0.Both brazing and soldering are the metal joining processes in which parent metal does not melt but only filler metal melts filling the joint with capillary action. strip. Silver brazing filler metal may consists of 30-55% Ag.7 % Fe and traces of Si and Mn. increasing its wetting action or spreadability. • Induction Brazing . • Protect the surface from oxidation during joining operation. In some cases around 10% Ni may also be added to filler alloys. Brazing: The most commonly used filler metal is copper base zinc alloy consisting of normally 5060% Cu. Filler metal may be either preplaced in form of washers. rings. approximately 40% Zn. During brazing or soldering flux is also used which performs the following functions: • Dissolve oxides from the surfaces to be joined. Heat rays can be concentrated at desired area or spot with concave reflectors. The operation can be performed in air or in inert atmosphere or in vacuum. Silver brazing alloys are available in form of wire.

shallow is the heating effect while lower frequencies of current lead to deeper heating and so it can be employed for thicker sections. Flux Residue Treatment: . Only those fluxes are used which are electrically conductive and filler metal is preplaced. Fluxes used in soldering are ammonium chloride. lower the melting point of alloy. Fig 3. Higher the frequency of current. rosin and rosin dissolved in alcohol.5 tin and 1. Fluxes may or may not be used during brazing.5 silver). The most commonly used solder is lead and tin alloy containing tin ranging from 5 to 70% and lead 95 to 30%. tin-zinc solder (91 to 30% tin and 9 to 70% zinc). Various soldering methods are soldering with soldering irons. The components are connected to high current and low voltage power supply through two electrodes under pressure. Other filler metal are tin-antimony solder (95% tin and 5% antimony). • Resistance Brazing In resistance brazing the heat is generated at the interfaces to be brazed by resistive heating. Solder is brought to molten state by touching it to the tip of the soldering iron so that molten solder can spread to the joint surface. consists of insulated handle and end is fitted with copper tip which may be heated electrically or in coke or oil/gas fired furnace. 1. induction soldering. This heat melts the solder and fills the joint by capillary action. torch soldering. Soldering iron being used for manual soldering. dip soldering. solid and flux cored wires. tin-silver solder (tin 96% and silver 4%). High frequencies employed vary from 5 to 400 kHz. preforms. foil. These are available in the form of bars.The heat is generated by induced current into the workpiece from a water cooled coil which surrounds the workpieces to be brazed. cadmium-silver solder (95% cadmium and 5% silver). Higher the contents of tin. zinc chloride. high frequency vibrations which break the oxides on the surface of workpieces and heat shall be generated due to rubbing between surfaces. sheet. Ultrasonic soldering uses ultrasonics i. resistance soldering.e. infra-red and ultrasonic soldering.2: Typical Self Fixturing Brazing Assembly Soldering: The soldering filler metal is called solder. oven soldering. ribbon and paste or cream. lead-silver solder (97% lead.

Simple workpieces are just removed from the mandrel. but more complex shapes may require a multi-piece mandrel. elongated radially. The mandrel and workpiece are then rotated together at high speeds. also known as a form. A pre-sized metal disk is then clamped against the mandrel by a pressure pad. cookware. brass instrument bells. The force is usually applied via various levered tools. Extremely complex shapes can be spun over ice forms. A localized force is then applied to the workpiece to cause it to flow over the mandrel. or buckle circumferentially. The diameter and depth of formed parts are limited only by the size of the equipment available. A more involved process.e. also known as spin forming or spinning. Organic flux residues are soluble in hot water so double rising in warm water shall remove it. Soldering flux residues of rosin flux can be left on the surface of joint. heating and quenching. A mandrel. which then melt away after spinning.When brazing or soldering is completed then the flux residues are to be removed because without removal the residues may lead to corrosion of assemblies. Residue removal of zinc chloride base fluxes can be achieved by washing first in 2% hydrochloric acid mixed in hot water followed by simple hot water rinsing. gas cylinders. Sometimes steam jet may be applied followed by wire brushing. is mounted in the drive section of a lathe. Commercial applications include rocket nose cones. which is attached to the tailstock. is a metalworking process by which a disc or tube of metal is rotated at high speed and formed into an axially symmetric part. acetone or carbon tetrachloride can be used. Because the final diameter of the workpiece is always less than the starting diameter the workpiece must thicken. Brazing flux residues can be removed by rinsing with hot water followed by drying. Metal Spinning Metal spinning. Virtually any ductile metal may be formed. Process The spinning process is fairly simple. If rosin residues removal is required then alcohol. decorative household goods and urns. If the residue is sticky then it can be removed by thermal shock i. allows a spun workpiece to include reentrant geometries. from aluminum or stainless steel. Spinning can be performed by hand or by a CNC lathe. Artisans use the process to produce architectural detail. however. and public waste receptacles. activated rosin flux and other flux residues require proper treatment. If surface finish and form are not critical. to high-strength. specialty lighting. Metal spinning ranges from an artisan's specialty to the most advantageous way to form round metal parts for commercial applications. known as reducing or necking. then the . high-temperature alloys.

Some metal spinning tools are allowed to spin on bearings during the forming process. Rotating tools are commonly used during CNC metal spinning operations. Parts can then be shaped or necked down to a smaller diameter with little force exerted. Spinning tools can be made of hardened steel for using with aluminium or solid brass for spinning stainless steel or mild steel.workpiece is "spun on air". Hot spinning process involves spinning a piece of metal on a lathe and with high heat from a torch the metal is heated. the metal is then shaped as the tool on the lathe presses against the heated surface forcing it to distort as it spins. This reduces friction and heating of the tool. . Once heated. Tools The basic hand metal spinning tool is called a spoon. Rotating tools may also be coated with thin film of ceramic to prolong tool life. providing a seamless shoulder. no mandrel is used. though many other tools (be they commercially produced. If the finish or form are critical then an eccentrically mounted mandrel is used. ad hoc. or improvised) can be used to effect varied results. extending tool life and improving surface finish.

parts are being spun with thicker materials in excess of 1" thick steel. Rollers vary in diameter and thickness. stamping and forging or casting. Hydro-forming and stamping generally have a higher fixed cost. CO2 cartridges. Without seams. Forming parameters and part geometry can be altered quickly. but generally a lower variable cost. is easily automated and an effective production method for prototypes as well as high quantity production runs. Repairing the object is not cost-effective. a part can withstand higher internal or external pressure exerted on it. often done by hand. at less cost than other metal forming techniques. depending on the intended use. and oxyacetylene tanks. .Commercially. Tooling and production costs are also comparatively low. Other methods of forming round metal parts include hydro-forming. the mandrel is usually made of metal. Cutting of the metal is done by hand held cutters. For example: scuba tanks. The mandrel does not incur excessive forces. For hard materials or high volume use. In CNC applications. often foot long hollow bars with tool steel shaped/sharpened files attached. the thinner rollers can be used to form smaller radii. rollers mounted on the end of levers are generally used to form the material down to the mandrel in both hand spinning and CNC metal spinning. The wider the roller the smoother the surface of the spinning. Spin forming. Advantages & disadvantages Several operations can be performed in one set-up. but a lower variable cost than metal spinning. carbide or tool steel cut-off tools are used. Work pieces may have re-entrant profiles and the profile in relation to the center line virtually unrestricted. As machinery for commercial applications has improved. so it can be made from wood. Conventional spinning also wastes a considerably smaller amount of material than other methods. Forging or castings have a higher fixed cost due to the large equipment needed. Objects can be built using one piece of material to produce parts without seams. One disadvantage of metal spinning is that if a crack forms or the object is dented. as found in other metalworking processes. it must be scrapped. plastic. or ice.

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It may also have a tail that has information about the process. The reference line has a leader and arrow that points to where the information applies. ARROW SIDE One of the most important things about the reference line and the welding symbol is the top and bottom of the horizontal line.WELDING SYMBOLS INTRODUCTION Welding symbols are used on blueprints and drawings to show where the weld is to be placed and may also show the size. Symbols on the top of the reference line mean apply the weld to the other side of the joint. See the examples below: In the above examples one of the reference lines has multiple arrows that are used to show the same weld in three locations that are relatively close to each other. specification. The break in the arrow is used to indicate the joint member that is to receive the edge preparation. type of weld. All the other elements that describe the weld are on or located around this line. or the side opposite to where the arrow is pointing. . The actual symbol that shows the type of weld and the elements surrounding it that detail the weld can be placed on the top of the line or on the bottom of the line. details about the weld and even details about the joint. number of welds. KEY POINT: the arrow points to the bevel where the bevel needs to be prepared. or other notes that do not normally have an element that describes them. KEY POINTS: symbols on the bottom of the reference line mean weld the side of the joint the arrow is touching or pointing to. Welders that fabricate or work with drawing must be able to interpret the welding symbol to prepare the joint and apply a weld that has the required strength and soundness. There is also a reference line that has an arrow break. If the elements on the reference line describe the necessary details (as it does in most cases) the tail is not used. THE REFERENCE LINE AND ARROW The reference line is one of the most important elements on the welding symbol.

this weld may be applied at the job site not in the shop. KEY POINT: The all around element is only used when it is possible to weld all the way around a single surface. The examples of the weld all around and field weld above show a fillet weld symbol so that the weld to be applied in both cases is a fillet weld. Remember the rule to apply the right weld to the right side. . THE FILLET WELD The fillet weld symbol is one of the most widely used symbols and the shape placed on the reference line to indicate a fillet weld is a triangle that resembles the side profile of a fillet weld. One is a circle around the place where the leader line connects to the reference line and indicates the weld is “ALL AROUND”. This means the weld extends all the way around the joint the arrow is pointing at. Otherwise more than on symbol is used.This method is used because sometimes the welding symbol must be drawn on the blueprint on the other side of the joint. or may not be the same weld on both sides of the joint. When symbols appear on both sides of the reference line it means weld both sides of the joint. The other element seen on the reference line resembles a flag and is located where the leader line joins the reference line. This element is called a field weld and means the weld will be done in another location. If the reference line has a weld symbol on both sides of the reference line they may. Sometimes clarification will be given in the welding symbol tail or as a specification on the print. For instance. See the examples: OTHER ELEMENTS ON REFERENCE LINE There are two other elements that may be seen on the reference line that provide information about the weld.

Sometimes (not often) a weld of unequal legs may be required. THE SIZE OF THE WELD. 3. If no size is shown on the fillet weld. . 1. For example: if one member of the joint is thinner than the other. a size for all fillets will be given on the drawing as a note or specification.The names of the parts of the fillet weld KEY POINT: Fillet sounds like fill it (pronounce the T) not fillay as in fillet a fish. The size of the fillet weld is determined by the legs of the triangle shape which represent the legs of the fillet. 4. 1. A welded piece may have a different weld size on each side or they may be the same size. The important elements added to a simple fillet weld symbol are as follows. 2. THE CONTOUR REQUIREMENTS. THE SIZE OF THE WELD. THE LENGTH OF THE WELD. THE LENGTH AND PITCH OF INTERMITTENT WELDS.

2. If it is not obvious the location is detailed on the drawing. This method of welding may be . The length of the weld when it is not a continuous weld is shown by a number on the right side of the fillet weld triangle. but rather is a given length of weld separated by a given space between them. THE LENGTH AND PITCH OF INTERMITTENT WELDS An intermittent weld is one that is not continuous across the joint. THE LENGTH OF THE FILLETWELD.KEY POINT: Making the fillet welds the wrong size may lead to costly rework if you are not sure ask for clarification. 3.

The welds then appear staggered. the length and pitch are two numbers located at the right of the fillet weld symbol. Chain intermittent the welds on both sides of the joint are opposite each other and resemble a chain. Staggered intermittent the welds on the opposite side are usually started in the gap between the welds on the first side. The pitch refers to a dimension from the center of one weld to the center of the next weld. To get the spacing for layout subtract the length of one weld from the pitch. KEY POINT: The pitch is not the space between welds but a measurement from center to center of the welds. KEY POINT: If the welds are staggered the fillet weld symbol will be staggered on the reference line. . Used more frequently than the length alone. The length appears first as before followed by a hyphen then the pitch is shown. Intermittent welding can save time and money if a long weld is not necessary. 4. A letter to indicate the method of finish may be given above the finish element. The contour may be flat or convex and the element to describe this is placed above the slope on the fillet weld symbol. The intermittent welds may be chain intermittent or staggered intermittent.used to control heat distortion or where the joint strength requirements allow. THE CONTOUR REQUIREMENTS Some welding symbols may show a contour finish that details how the fillet weld shape must be finished after welding.

double bevel edge. chamfer edge. Fillet weld symbols on the top of the reference line mean apply the weld to the opposite side of the joint. The groove is formed by preparing the edges to be welded with a bevel edge. the length is indicated first then the pitch. J groove edge or double J groove edge. The pitch is the distance from the center of one length of weld to the center of the next length of weld. This remains the case regardless of how the break in the arrow is drawn. are butted together for welding they usually have some form of a groove to allow the weld to penetrate into or through the joint. GROOVE WELDING SYMBOLS Groove welding symbols are used to show how butt joints are prepared for welding and to detail how the weld is to be applied. SUMMARY When reading a fillet weld symbol always make sure you know what side of the joint the weld is applied to. When two pieces of metal. . If two numbers appear in parenthesis the legs are unequal. The size of a fillet weld is determined by the length of the leg of the fillet weld and is shown on the symbol to the left. When two numbers appear separated by a hyphen. other than sheet metal or thin sections. When finishing directions are shown they appear over the slope of the fillet weld symbol. when the choice of finishing is given. check the drawing for clarification. Fillet weld symbols on the bottom of the reference line mean apply the weld to the side of the joint the arrow points to.A letter U may be used to designate an unspecified finish. When a length of weld is shown on a fillet weld symbol the dimension is placed on the right side. Fillet weld symbols on both sides of the reference line mean apply weld to both sides of the joint.

while the backing bar is used for easier welding. . with a backing bar or by utilizing the back weld or backing weld application. The open root assembly allows penetration through the joint.When the butt joint has no edge preparation it is referred to as a square groove. The backing weld is applied before welding and acts as a backing bar. The most common configurations and their basic symbols are shown below. The edge preparations may be assembled in any configuration to form the groove for welding from either one side or both sides. The backing bar may be removed or may be a part of the joint. Before applying the back weld a grinder or other method may be used to prepare a V. The typical edge preparations are shown below: The edge preparations may be assembled as either open root. while the back weld is applied after welding to finish the back side of the joint.

This can be helpful to remember since symbols on a blueprint do not show the actual joint shape or edge preparation. Symbols on the bottom of the reference line mean weld the side of the joint the arrow is touching or pointing to. KEY POINT: The Groove welding symbols have the same placement relevance on the reference line as the fillet weld.KEY POINT: If two imaginary lines are drawn parallel to the horizontal line in the above symbols they show the joint shape. The depth of groove is measured from the surface of the joint to the bottom of the preparation. If it is not clear always ask someone. reworking welds is costly and time consuming. . The first size given is THE DEPTH OF GROOVE and is the dimension used to prepare the edge preparation. this is true for most of the symbols. GROOVE WELDING ELEMENTS GROOVE WELD SIZE The groove weld size is given in two dimensions and like the fillet weld it is placed to the left of the weld symbol. while symbols on the top of the reference line mean weld the opposite side of where the arrow is touching or pointing to.

On a square groove only the weld size is given. KEY POINT: The penetration into the joint shown on the weld size is not measurable by the naked eye but is given to provide information about the expected outcome. ROOT OPENING AND GROOVE ANGLE Two other important elements for preparing and welding the groove are the root opening and the groove angle. The second size given is the ACTUAL WELD SIZE and is enclosed in parentheses to distinguish it from the groove size. For example. A 45 degree included angle means bevel each member at 22 1/2 degrees.KEY PONT: The depth of groove does not include weld reinforcement or root penetration. and does not appear on the symbol. The root opening. The Welder must always read all information given on a drawing. The actual weld size is again measured from the surface of the groove through the bottom of the groove but now includes the expected penetration of the weld. The groove angle is also placed inside the weld symbol and is given in degrees. J grooves angles may be detailed elsewhere on the drawing. KEY POINT: The groove angle for a V groove is given as the INCLUDED angle so that means the edge bevel or chamfer for each piece is 1/2 of the degrees given. . On some drawings the root opening or groove angle will be covered in a note or specification on the drawing for all similar symbols. The weld size does not include face reinforcement or root reinforcement. The root opening and groove angle are separate elements and may or may not appear together depending on the joint requirements. or depth of groove. when used. dimensions the space between the joint to be welded and is placed inside the weld symbol.

Since the back and backing weld symbol look the same you must look for details to see which weld applies.CONTOUR AND FINISHING The same contour symbols that apply to fillet welds may be used with groove welding and are placed above the weld symbol. KEY POINT: If the backing bar is to be removed the symbol will contain an R for remove after welding. Spacers may be removed before the second side is welded or they may become part of the joint. The elements for these are placed on the bottom of the reference line opposite the weld symbol or in the case of the spacer on the reference line. BACKING BARS BACK WELDS AND SPACERS As previously mentioned in this section some joint configurations may have a backing bar or spacer for easier welding or may employ the back or backing weld technique. .

The welder should read the entire drawing before making a weld to avoid costly rework. . Whenever you see something you are unfamiliar with check with engineering or supervision for clarification.SUMMARY The groove weld symbols are used to provide information for preparing and welding the groove. however. they cannot always show every intended operation and often notes or specifications are used on the drawing. It is critical to produce the right size fillet and groove weld for the application so check sizes with weld gages.

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