Unit-V Welding

Gas Welding Gas Welding Processes - Gas welding is a fusion welding process. It joins metals, using the heat of combustion of an oxygen/air and fuel gas (i.e acetylene, hydrogen, propane or butane) mixture. The intense heat (flame) thus produced melts and fuses together the edges of the parts to be welded, generally with the addition of a filler metal

Oxy Acetylene Welding Principle of Operation - When acetylene is mixed with oxygen in correct proportions in the welding torch and ignited, the flame resulting at the tip of the torch is sufficiently hot to melt and join the parent metal. The oxyacetylene flame reaches a temperature of about 3200°C and thus can melt all commercial metals which, during welding, actually flow together to form a complete bond. A filler metal rod is generally added to the molten metal pool to build up the seam slightly for greater strength. Oxyacetylene welding does not require the components to be forced together under pressure until the weld forms and solidifies. Gas Welding Equipment The basic equipments used to carry out gas welding are: 1. Oxygen gas cylinder. 2. Acetylene gas cylinder. 3. Oxygen pressure regulator. 4. Acetylene pressure regulator. 5. Oxygen gas hose(Blue). 6. Acetylene gas hose(Red). 7. Welding torch or blow pipe with a set of nozzles and gas lighter 8. Trolleys for the transportation of oxygen and acetylene cylinders 9. A set of keys and spanners. 10. Filler rods and fluxes. 11. Protective clothing for the welder (e.g., asbestos apron, gloves, goggles, etc

Oxygen Gas Cylinder - Oxygen cylinders are painted black and the valve outlets are screwed right handed. The usual sizes of oxygen cylinders are 3400, 5200 and 6800 litre. Oxygen cylinder is a solid drawn cylinder out of mild steel or alloy steel. Mild steel cylinder is charged to a pressure of 13660 KN/m2 (136.6 bar) and alloy steel cylinders to 17240 KN/m2 (172 bar). The oxygen volume in a cylinder is directly proportional to its pressure. In other words, if the original pressure of a full oxygen cylinder drops by 5% during welding, it means 1/20 of the cylinder contents have been consumed. Because of the possibility of the oxygen pressure becoming high enough to rupture the steel cylinder in case the temperature rises, an oxygen cylinder is equipped with a safety nut that allows the oxygen to drain slowly in the event the temperature increases the gas pressure beyond the safety load of the cylinder. An oxygen cylinder has an inside diameter of 21.6 cm, wall thickness 6.50 mm and length 127.5 cm. In order to protect cylinder valve from getting damaged, a removable steel cap is screwed on the cylinder at all times when the cylinder is not in use. The cylinder valve is kept closed when the cylinder is not in use and even when cylinder is empty. Acetylene Gas Cylinder - An acetylene cylinder is painted maroon and the valves are screwed left handed; to make this easily recognizable they are chamfered or grooved. An acetylene cylinder is also a solid drawn steel cylinder which is charged to a pressure of 1552 KN/m2 (15.5 bar). The usual size of acetylene cylinders are 2800 and 5600 litre. An acetylene cylinder has an inside diameter of 30 cm, wall thickness 4.38 mm and a length of 101.25 cm. An acetylene cylinder is filled with a spongy (porous) material such as balsa wood or some other absorptive material which is saturated with a chemical solvent called acetone. Since high pressure acetylene is not stable, it is dissolved in acetone, which has the ability to absorb a large volume of the gas and release it as the pressure falls. The small compartments in the porous material (filled in the cylinder) prevent the sudden decomposition of the acetylene throughout the mass, should it be started by local heating or other causes. An acetylene cylinder is always kept upright for safety reasons. The acetone in the cylinder must not be permitted to enter the blowpipe, otherwise an explosion could result. The acetylene cylinder valve can only be opened with a special wrench and this wrench is kept in place whenever the cylinder is in use. An acetylene cylinder has a number of fusible plugs, at its bottom, designed to melt at 104°C. These plugs melt and release the pressure in case the cylinder is exposed to excessive heat. Acetylene Gas Generator - If large quantities of acetylene gas are being consumed, it is much cheaper to generate the gas at the place of use with the help of acetylene gas generators. Acetylene gas is generated by carbide to water method, i.e., the generator unit feeds controlled amounts of calcium carbide into the water. When these ingredients are mixed, acetylene gas is produced.

A pressure regulator is fitted with two pressure gauges. various devices are incorporated in it. (ii) Medium pressure generator which delivers the gas at a pressure of up to 0. Pressure Regulators . 2. In order to make the operation of acetylene generators safe. There are two types of acetylene generators. A pressure regulator is connected between the cylinder/generator and the hose leading to welding torch.1. whereas the acetylene hose is coloured red or maroon and has left handed thread connections with . Low pressure generator is considered portable and it produces acetylene above 15litres per minute. This automatically regulates the amount of calcium carbide falling in water. (ii)Gas pressure regulators may be classified as: 1. Acetylene generators have certain disadvantages: Greater safety precautions are required. (i) Low pressure generator which delivers the gas at pressures of less than 0. Two stage Regulator.There is a tendency towards pressure fluctuations with resultant unsteady flame. With this kind of generator only the injector type of blow pipes can be used.Single stage Regulator 2. therefore (i) to reduce the high pressure of the gas in the cylinder to a suitable working pressure. 3. This generator is the one that is more commonly used. 4. Welding Hoses and Clamps(a) Hoses: The hose for the supply of oxygen (from the pressure regulator) to the welding torch is coloured blue or black and has right handed thread connections.6 bar.The purpose of using a gas pressure regulator is.The pressure of the gases obtained from cylinders/generators is considerably higher than the gas pressure used to operate the welding torch. and (ii) to produce a steady flow of gas under varying cylinder pressures.1 bar. Medium pressure generator is considered stationary and it can produce acetylene up to 3000 litres per minute. if the low pressure type of generator is used. In control valve opens and closes automatically as the acetylene in the chamber decreases or increases. Labour is required to charge carbide and clean out sludge. Gas obtained is not so pure as available in cylinders. One indicates the gas pressure in the cylinder and the other shows the reduced pressure at which the gas is going out.

it is less troublesome since it does not suffer from . (iii) Hot metal (job) should never be placed on the hose. (ii) The hose should never be patched or repaired. The high pressure oxygen passes through a small opening in the injector nozzle. (iii) In operation. (a) Working of a low pressure blowpipe: It is termed as a low pressure blowpipe because it can be operated at low acetylene pressures. flexible and not subject to kinking. An advantage of low pressure torch is that small fluctuations in the oxygen supplied to it will produce a corresponding change in the amount of acetylene drawn. The hose is resistant to the action of gases normally used in welding. (b) Working of a high pressure blowpipe: In this type of blowpipe both the oxygen and acetylene are fed to the blow pipe at equal pressures and the gases are mixed in a mixing chamber prior to being fed to the nozzle tip.chamfers or grooves on the nuts. Some precautions are to be taken when using reinforced rubber hoses: (i) Only one gas should be used in a hose. For welding purposes. it is necessary to use oxygen at a high pressure (2.5 bar). thereby making the proportions of the two gases constant while the torch is in operation. enters the mixing chamber and pulls (or draws) the acetylene in after it. the hoses to be used should be strong. (ii) Low pressure (or injector) type. The hose is very robust and capable of withstanding high pressure. The clamp squeezes the hose around the nipple to prevent it from working loose. Welding hose has a seamless lining which is manufactured from rubber (or a rubber compound) which is reinforced with canvas or wrapped cotton plies.02 bars). Welding Torch and Blow Pipe . The oxygen passage is surrounded by the one carrying the acetylene. (ii) It does not need an injector. Low pressure blowpipes are used with acetylene obtained from an acetylene generator at a pressure of 200 mm head of water (approximately 0. There are two types of welding torches. it is frequently used with acetylene generators. High pressure blowpipes or torches are used with (dissolved) acetylene stored in cylinders at a pressure of 8 bars. The outer casing is made of tough abrasion resistant rubber. The oxygen enters the mixing chamber through a passage located in the centre of the torch. non porous. The equal pressure or high pressure type of blowpipe is the one most generally used because (i) It is lighter and simpler. For example. (b) Hose Clamps (Clips): A metal clamp is used to attach the welding hose to a nipple. namely: (i) High pressure (or equal pressure) type. using an oxygen hose to carry acetylene could cause a serious accident. A nut on the other end of the nipple is connected to the regulator or torch.Oxygen and the fuel gas having been reduced in pressure by the gas regulators are fed through suitable hoses to a welding torch which mixes and controls the flow of gases to the welding nozzle or tip where the gas mixture is burnt to produce a flame for carrying out gas welding operation. As acetylene is of low pressure.

A welding nozzle enables the welder to guide the flame and direct it with the maximum ease and efficiency. a set of tips which screw onto the head of the blowpipe. As the orifice size increases. welding tips are made in various sizes. The welding nozzle or tip is that portion of the torch which is located at the end of the torch and contains the opening through which the oxygen and acetylene gas mixture passes prior to ignition and combustion. A chart giving sizes of tips for welding various thicknesses of metal along with oxygen and acetylene pressures used is generally provided by the manufacturers. it is only necessary to change the nozzle tip (size) and increase or decrease the gas pressures appropriately Welding Nozzles or Tips: Depending upon the design of the welding torch (or the blow pipe) the interchangeable nozzles may consist of :(i) Either. The size of a welding tip is determined by the diameter of the opening or orifice in the tip. To provide for different amounts of heat.backfires to the same extent. to weld metals of different thicknesses.(iv) The metal/alloy to be welded. The following factors are important in the selection of appropriate welding nozzle: (i) The position of the weld. . To change the power of the welding torch. The choice of the proper tip size is very important to good welding.(iii) Job thickness and the size of welding flame required for the job. greater amounts of the welding gases pass through and are burnt to supply a greater amount of heat.(ii) The type of joint. or(ii) As a set of gooseneck extensions fitting directly onto the mixer portion of the blowpipe.


Spark lighters are constructed from flint and steel. It is surrounded by an outer flame envelope. produced by the combination of oxygen in the air and superheated carbon monoxide and hydrogen gases from the inner cone.Trolleys should be capable of accommodating one oxygen cylinder and one acetylene cylinder required for gas welding. The correct type of flame is essential for the production of satisfactory welds. The flame has a nicely defined inner cone which is light blue in colour. but where work has to be done on plant with access only by narrow gangways the. Match sticks should never be used for this purpose because the puff of the flame produced by the ignition of the acetylene flowing from the tip is likely to burn the welder's hand. . Neutral Flame . has an advantage. The gas cylinders are held in place with chains and supported on the bottom with a steel platform. The flame must be of the proper size. This envelope is usually a much darker blue than the inner cone. Reducing Flame (Excess of acetylene) In oxyacetylene welding.Gas Lighter A gas (spark) lighter provides a convenient. safe and inexpensive means of lighting the torch. Trolleys may have rubber tires or steel rim wheels.A neutral flame is produced when approximately equal volumes of oxygen and acetylene are mixed in the welding torch and burnt at the torch tip. Types of Flames 1. (More accurately the oxygen-to-acetylene ratio is 1. All the welding equipment simply serves to maintain and control the flame. shape and condition in order to operate with maximum efficiency. Neutral Flame (Acetylene oxygen in equal proportions) 2. Normally cylinders can be mounted on a trolley side by side. Oxidising Flame (Excess of oxygen) 3. Gas Cylinder Trolleys . The temperature of the neutral flame is of the order of about 3260ºC.1 to 1). flame is the most important tool.

A neutral flame is named so because it effects no chemical change in the molten metal and therefore will not oxidize or carburize the metal. the resulting flame will be a carburising or reducing flame.If the volume of oxygen supplied to the neutral flame is reduced. creates a base metal oxide that protects the base metal. such as manganese steel and cast iron The oxidizing atmosphere. An oxidising flame burns with a decided loud roar. This chemical change makes the metal unfit for many applications in which the weld may . the supply of oxygen is further increased. much bluer in colour and more pointed than that of the neutral flame. The outer flame envelope is much shorter and tends to fan out at the end on the other hand the neutral and carburizing envelopes tend to come to a sharp point. brittle substance known as iron carbide.e.If. an excess of oxygen causes the weld bead and the surrounding area to have a scummy or dirty appearance. Reducing Flame . an oxidising flame is of limited use in welding. A reducing flame can be recognized by acetylene feather which exists between the inner cone and the outer envelope. the zinc has a tendency to separate and fume away. A slightly oxidising flame is helpful when welding most (i) Copper base metals (ii) Zinc base metals.5: 1) would be an advantage if it were not for the fact that the excess oxygen. after the neutral flame has been established. Moreover. in these cases. its burning temperature is lower and the left over carbon is forced into the molten metal. A reducing flame does not completely. tends to combine with many metals to form hard. consume the available carbon. It is not used in the welding of steel. An oxidising flame tends to be hotter than the neutral flame. low strength oxides. i. With iron and steel it produces very hard. and (iii) A few types of ferrous metals. especially at high temperatures. The formation of a covering copper oxide prevents the zinc from dissipating. The outer flame envelope is longer than that of the neutral flame and is usually much brighter in colour. brittle. rich in acetylene. An oxidising flame can be recognized by the small white cone which is shorter. the result will be an oxidising flame. therefore. in welding brass. The high temperature of an oxidizing flame (O2: C2H2 = 1. This is because of excess oxygen and which causes the temperature to rise as high as 3500°C. The neutral flame is commonly used for the welding of: (i) Mild steel (ii) Stainless steel (iii) Cast Iron (iv) Copper (v) Aluminium Oxidising Flame . For these reasons. For example.

non ferrous) that do not tend to absorb carbon. A carburizing flame is used in the welding of lead and for carburizing (surface hardening) purposes. It is used for welding with low alloy steel rods and for welding those metals. more sharplypointed inner cone than the neutral flame.g. The neutral flame. (e. The oxidizing flame. The well-defined core of the flame (extremely bright pale blue) is known as the “inner cone”. does not carburize the metal. e.g. for most welding operations the Neutral Flame is correct. whilst zinc bearing alloys may need an oxidising flame for welding purposes. rather it ensures the absence of the oxidizing condition. which has a whitish feather around and beyond the inner cone. which results from an excess of oxygen in the gas mixture. The excess acetylene flame.need to be bent or stretched. which results from burning a mixture containing approximately equial volumes of oxygen and acetylene. on the other hand. has a shorter. A reducing flame has an approximate temperature of 3038°C. but the other types of flames are sometimes needed for special welds. the acetylene valve on the torch is opened slightly and lighted with the help of a friction spark lighter. Welding Technique: To light the flame. A reducing flame may be distinguished from a carburizing flame by the fact that a carburizing flame contains more acetylene than a reducing flame. This flame is very well used for welding high carbon steel To conclude. Metals that tend to absorb carbon should not be welded with reducing flame. The flame draws the oxygen from the atmosphere and thus results in a reducing flame. The oxygen valve is then slowly opened till . non-ferrous alloys and high carbon steels may require a reducing flame. Then the acetylene valve is opened to get the required flow of acetylene.. A reducing flame.

the first pass (root pass) is very critical in any welding operation.5 to 3. This welding allows a better penetration as well as form bigger weld. This is done with the help of a welding rod whose composition depends on the parent metal of the joint. Backhand welding is generally used for thicker materials. When the welding rod is used to provide filler material. Thicker plates require more than one pass of the gas torch along the length to complete the joint. The outer blue flames are directed on the already welded joint. This allows the joint to be continuously annealed relieving the welding stresses. . The actual adjustment of the flame depends on the type of material to be joined. Oxy-fuel welding can be used for all the types of joints in all positions.0 mm from the plate. it is necessary to hold it at a distance of 10 mm from the flame and 1. Larger torch tip sizes cause higher amount of oxygen and fuel to flow out causing the release of more heat. the torch is moved in the direction of the tip. This tends to preheat before the white cone of the tip melts it. Overhead usage requires additional skill to safeguard the welder. The torch tip should be positioned above the metal plate so that the white cone is at a distance of 1.5 to 3. This way the rod gets preheated and when dipped into the puddle would readily get melted. The various butt joint edge preparations are shown in the adjacent figure.the intermediate flame feather of the reducing flame recedes into the inner white cone. In backhand welding the torch moves backwards. In multi pass welding. All joints except outside corner joint require a filler metal to be added to fill the joint. The torch should be held at an angle of 30 to 450 from the horizontal plane. The choice of the torch size depends on the thickness of the metal to be joined.0 mm from the surface of the weld metal pool or puddle. In forehand welding. The torch movement along the joint should be either oscillating or circular.

moving the torch in the forehand direction to achieve the desired cut. the oxygen jet burns the metal and blows it away causing the cut. The cutting tip should be chosen for the intended application. This process is used for cutting steel plates of various thicknesses (can go up to 2 m) mainly because the equipment required is simple and can be carried anywhere without handling the heavy steel plates. and hence preheating flames may have to be continued as somewhat lower rate. After the plate has reached the kindling temperature. it gets readily combined with oxygen giving iron oxide with the following reactions: 3 Fe + 2 O2 -.Fe3O4 + 6.67 MJ/Kg of iron 2Fe + O2 -. Here the torch tip has a provision for preheating the plate as well as providing the oxygen jet. About 30 to 40 % of metal is simply blown away.Gas Cutting: It is possible to rapidly oxidise (burn) iron and steel when it is heated to a temperature between 800 to 1000 0C. Oxy-acetylene gas cutting outfit is similar to that of the oxy-acetylene welding except for the torch tip. Thus the tip has a central hole for oxygen jet with surrounding holes for preheating flames. Drag is the amount by which the lower edge of the drag line trails from the top edge. But this energy may not be sufficient to bring the steel to its kindling temperature.18 MJ/Kg of iron 4 Fe + 3 O2 -. The size is normally dependent on the thickness of the plate which determines the amount of preheating as well as the oxygen jet flow required for cutting. The cutting can start at the edge or in the middle of the plate.90 MJ/Kg of iron All the above reactions are exothermic in nature and as such would provide a good amount of heat to preheat the steel. while the rest is oxidised. The heat generated causes the metal to melt and get blown away by the oxygen pressure. the operator should release the oxygen jet to start the cutting. .2FeO + 3. After the steel is heated to the kindling temperature which is about 870 0C. When a high pressure oxygen jet with a pressure of the order of 300 KPa is directed against a heated steel plate.2Fe2O3 + 4.

. When the torch is moved slowly. There is provision in the machine to hold more than one torch so that large number of identical pieces can be cut at the same time. Gas cutting can be done manually or by a machine. all the preheated metal is burnt away by the oxygen jet and a large amount of slag is generated. If small tips are not available. The manual cutting is used for general purpose work and for straight line cutting.A good cut is characterised by very small or negligible drag. Tip size chosen should be as small as possible. In machine cutting the torch is mounted on a rail and both rail and the torch can move simultaneously along the two mutually perpendicular axes in the horizontal plane with the help of servo motors. then the tip is inclined at an angle of 15 to 20 degrees. Though the gas cutting is more useful with thick plates. thin sheets (less than 3 mm) can also be cut by this process taking special precautions. the metal at the bottom does not get sufficient heat to get oxidized and cut and hence there is a large drag. When the torch is moved too rapidly.

throat and lungs. . the metal deposition can be easily controlled and heat properly adjusted giving rise to a satisfactory weld. Cutting of high carbon steels and cast irons require special attention due to formation of heat affected zone (HAZ) where structural transformation occurs. or a rod or wire that melts and supplies filler metal to the joint. cutting. Arc Welding Arc welding is the fusion of two pieces of metal by an electric arc between the pieces being joined – the work pieces – and an electrode that is guided along the joint between the pieces. • Welding equipment is portable and can be operated at remote places. bronze. Applications: • For joining of thin materials. Advantages of gas welding: • It is one of the versatile methods of welding. • For joining materials in whose case excessively high temperature or rapid heating and cooling of the job would produce unwanted changes in the metal. • Heat affected zone (HAZ) is very narrow. nose. So it is most widely used for ferrous materials. • The cost of equipment is not so high. • For heavy sections proper penetration may not be achieved. But it cannot be used for materials like aluminium.Oxygen cutting would be useful only for those materials which readily get oxidised and the oxides have lower melting points than the metals. • In automotive &aircraft industries. stainless steel which resist oxidation. • Rate of heat generation is less so thin sheets can be welded. project site works. The electrode is either a rod that simply carries current between the tip and the work. • Slower speed of welding compared electric arc welding. workshops etc. • More safety is recommended in gas welding. • For welding both ferrous and non-ferrous metals. • As the source of heat and filler metal are separated. • Flux used in the filler metal provides fumes which are irritating to the eyes. • Acetylene and oxygen are expensive gases. Limitations of gas welding: • Heavy sections cannot be joined efficiently. • Prolonged heating of the joint may results in large HAZ. The same equipment with a range of torches would be used for welding. brazing and braze welding.

An ionized column of gas develops to complete the circuit. Non-consumable electrodes do not melt. The arc produces a temperature of about 3600°C at the tip and melts part of the metal being welded and part of the electrode. Granular flux. Consumable electrode tips melt. When the electrode is positioned close to the work piece. an arc is created across the gap between the metal and the hot cable electrode. vapour or slag. Instead. Most arc welding processes minimize contact between the molten metal and the air with a shield of gas. filler metal is melted into the joint from a separate rod or wire. There are two types of electrodes. thus improving the weld. This produces a pool of molten metal that cools and solidifies behind the electrode as it is moved along the joint. adds deoxidizers that create a shield to protect the molten pool. for example. The strength of the weld is reduced when metals at high temperatures react with oxygen and nitrogen in the air to form oxides and nitrides. The Five Most Common Arc Welding Processes .The basic arc welding circuit is an alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) power source connected by a “work” cable to the work piece and by a “hot” cable to an electrode. and molten metal droplets detach and mix into the weld pool.

require less maintenance and are less expansive. • Constant potential or constant voltage or flat characteristic power source. The conventional welding power sources are: Power Source Supply Power Source (i) Welding Transformer (ii) Welding Rectifier (iii) Welding Generators Supply AC DC AC or DC (Depending on generator) Types of Power Source sand characteristics Two types of electrical devices can be used to produce low-voltage. welding voltages are lower as compared to open circuit voltage of the power source.Welding Power Sources: The main requirement of a power source is to deliver controllable current at a voltage according to the demands of the welding process being used. The power source shall supply necessary current to melt the electrode at the rate required to maintain the preset voltage or relative arc length. both in the form of process controls required to accomplish a given operating condition and the consequent demands on the power source. Due to some internal or external fluctuation . Selection of power source is mainly dependent on welding process and consumable. The other types use step-down transformers. higher efficiency and lower maintenance as compared to generators. Welding transformers. they are now the industry standards. It has a slightly downward or negative slope because of sufficient internal electrical resistance and inductance in the welding circuit to cause a minor droop in the output volt ampere characteristics. The use of such power source in conjunction with a constant electrode wire feed results in a self regulating or self adjusting arc length system. However. The open circuit voltage normally ranges between 70-90 V in case of welding transformers while in case of rectifiers it is 50-80 V. With constant voltage power supply the arc voltage is established by setting the output voltage on the source. Based on the static characteristics power sources can be classified in two categories • Constant current or drooping or falling characteristic power source. Normally rectifiers and transformers are preferred because of low noise. are more energy efficient. Therefore. high-amperage current combination that arc welding requires. Constant voltage power source does not have true constant voltage output. Each welding process has distinct differences from one another. One type uses electric motors or internal combustion engines to drive alternators or generators. The speed of electrode drive is used to control the average welding current. engine-powered generators are still widely used for portable welding. rectifiers and DC generators are being used in shop while engine coupled AC generators as well as sometimes DC generators are used at site where line supply is not available. Because transformer-type welding transformers are quieter. arc welding power sources are playing very important role in welding. However.

2: Drooping or Constant current or Falling Characteristic.if the change in welding current occurs. A change in either control will change the slope of the volt ampere curve.1: Constant Potential or Constant Voltage or Flat Characteristic. These power sources are required for processes using relatively thicker consumable electrodes which may sometimes get stubbed to workpiece or with nonconsumable tungsten electrode where during touching of electrode for starting of arc may lead to damage of electrode if current is unlimited. electrode melting rate would remain fairly constant with a change in arc length. With a change in arc voltage. therefore. . it will automatically increase or decrease the electrode melting rate to regain the desired arc length. Fig 4. with a consumable electrode welding process. Fig 4. The volt ampere output curves for constant current power source are called �drooper' because of substantial downward or negative slope of the curves. the change in current is small and. The power source may have open circuit voltage adjustment in addition to output current control. Under these conditions the short circuiting current shall be limited leading to safety of power source and the electrode.

Some power sources need high frequency unit to start the arc. with the reduction of duty cycle current drawn can be of higher level. At 100% duty cycle minimum current is to be drawn i.4 mm ) Constant Potential (if electrode  = 2. Duty cycle and associated currents are important as it ensures that power source remains safe and its windings are not getting damaged due to increase in temperature beyond specified limit. Table 4.4 mm ) Constant Potential . High frequency unit is a device which supplies high voltage of the order of few KV along with high frequency of few KHz with low current. Although high voltage may be fatal for the operator but when it is associated with high frequencies then current does not enter body but it causes only skin effect i. type of insulation and cooling system of the power source. Type of Current and Static Characteristic Type ofStatic Characteristic of Welding Process Current The Power Source Manual Metal Arc Welding Tungsten Inert Gas Welding Plasma Arc Welding Submerged Arc Welding Gas Metal Arc Welding / Metal Inert Gas Welding / Metal Active Gas Welding Constant Current Constant Current Constant Current Constant Current (if electrode  = 2. The maximum current which can be drawn from a power source depends upon its size of winding wire. which may be requirement of processes like TIG and plasma arc. Welding cycle time is either 5 minutes as per European standards or 10 minutes as per American standard and accordingly power sources are designed. filters are required so that high frequency may not flow through control circuit and damage it. current passes through the skin of operator causing no damage to the operator. Duty Cycle: Duty cycle is the ratio of arcing time to the weld cycle time multiplied by 100. The welding current which can be drawn at a duty cycle can be evaluated from the following equation. High frequency unit is introduced in the welding circuit but in between the control circuit and HF unit. It arcing time is continuously 5 minutes then as per European standard it is 100% duty cycle and 50% as per American standard.e.e. This high voltage ionizes the medium between electrode and workpiece/nozzle starting pilot arc which ultimately leads to the start of main arc.1: Welding Processes.

Few. high-amperage current. . Available in either the constant current or the constant voltage type. They are used extensively on jobs beyond commercial power lines and also as mobile repair units. The placing an iron core in the center of these coils will increase the concentration of the magnetic field as shown in Fig. Motor-Generators 2. silicon diodes or silicon controlled rectifiers. The rectifier types are commonly called "Welding Rectifiers" and produce DC or. some manufacturers offer units that are a combination of both and can be used for coated electrode welding. These machines produced excellent welds. the power (Watts) into a transformer equals the power (Watts) out because the volts and amperes are mutually increase and decreased. Both types are available as constant current or constant voltage models. AC Transformers or AC welding machine: A welding transformer uses the alternating current (AC) supplied to the welding shop at a high voltage to produce the low-voltage power. low-amperage current changes it into a low-voltage. Engine-Driven. The transformer type produce only alternating current.Static type power sources are all of those that use commercially generated electrical power to energize a transformer that.Rotating type power sources may be divided into two classifications: 1. By placing a second or secondary winding of wire in the magnetic field produced by the first or primary winding a current will be induced in the secondary winding. Because the current being used is alternating or reverse each 1/60 of a second. As electrons flow through a wire they produce a magnetic field around the wire." All AC types utilize single-phase primary power and are of the constant current type. are being built today. A step-down transformer takes a highvoltage. If the wire is wound into a coil the weak magnetic field of each wire is concentrated to produce a much stronger central magnetic force. They are commonly called "Welding Transformers. in turn. Engine driven types consist of a gasoline or diesel engine coupled to a generator or alternator that produces the desired welding power.Static Type Power Sources . Except for some power lost by heat within a transformer. if any. A transformer with more turns of wire in the primary winding than in the secondary winding is known as step-down transformer. Motor-generator types consist of an electric motor coupled to a generator or alternator that produces the desired welding power. required considerable maintenance. AC and DC welding current. Both rotating types can deliver either AC or DC welding power. but due to the moving parts. but rectify the AC or DC by the use of selenium rectifiers.3-14. They may utilize either single phase or three phase input power. They contain a transformer. or a combination of both. steps the line voltage down to useable welding voltages. the magnetic field is constantly being built and allowed to collapse. Rotating Type power Sources . The two major categories of static power sources are the transformer type and the rectifier type. non-consumable electrode welding and for welding with solid or flux cored wires.

See Figure 16 SILICON RECTIFIER SELENIUM RECTIFIER Fig. Two types of rectifiers have been used extensively in welding machines. hundredths. and inverter type. DC Welding Machine: Although much welding is accomplished with AC welding power sources.A transformer welder is step-down transformer. movable coil or movable core. Welding machines can be classified by the method by which control or adjust the welding current. These machines may have a large number of fixed amperes or they may have two or more amperages that can be adjusted further with a fine adjusting knob. the majority of industrial welding is done with machines that produce a direct current arc. the higher is the amperage induced in the turns. 440 V etc. 60 A etc. or it may be marked in tenths. 3-15.)and changes it into 17V to 45V at 190A to 590 A. called taps. The commercially produced AC power that operates the welding machine must then be changed (rectified) to direct current for the DC arc. It takes the high line voltage (220V. This is accomplished with a device called a rectifier. The major classifications are multiple-coil. Fig. The fine adjusting knob may be marked in amperes. the old selenium rectifiers and the more modern silicon rectifiers. 16 . The multiple-coil or tap-type machine. The greater the number of turns. or in any other unit.) and low –amperage current (50A. often referred to as diodes. allows the selection of different current settings by tapping into the secondary coil at a different turn value.

The polarity selected for welding depends upon the kind of electrode . Machines with a 150. half-wave rectification takes place as shown in Figure 17. 17 SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE RECTIFICATION Fig. a bridge rectifier is created.stabilizing capacitors.A DC welding generator produces direct current in either straight or reverse polarity. and job/shop welding.The function of a rectifier in the circuit can best be shown by the use of the AC sine wave. One such method is an adjustable reactor that is set by turning a crank until the appropriate setting is found. a relatively smooth DC voltage results as shown in Figure 19. as shown in figure.ampere rating are used in light industrial.phase power. Arc blow causes the arc to wander while you are welding in corners on heavy metal or using large coated electrodes. DC Generator Sets . and 400 ampere ratings. 3 PHASE FULL WAVE RECTIFICATION Alternating-Current Transformer Welding Machines. 300. The negative half-wave is simply cut off and a pulsating DC is produced. These types of machines are the smallest. During the negative half-cycle. 18 SINGLE PHASE FULL WAVE RECTIFICATION Three-phase AC can be rectified to produce an even smoother DC than single-phase AC. Current control is provided in several ways by the welding transformer manufacturers. 1 Cycle Fig. the current is blocked. Another method is by plugging the electrode cable into different sockets located on the front of the machine. Fig. producing a considerably smoother direct current than half-wave rectification. and the lightest type of welders made. garage. — Practically all the alternating current (AC) arc-welding machines in use are the static-transformer type. Since three-phase AC power produces three times as many half-cycles per second as single. current is allowed to flow through the rectifier. With one diode in the circuit. By using four rectifiers connected in a certain manner. During the positive half-cycle. which often occurs when welding with direct-current (dc) machines. One major advantage of ac transformers is the freedom from arc blow. The transformers are usually equipped with arc. Industrial applications for manual operation use machines having 200. least expensive. The bridge rectifier results in 120 positive half-cycles per second. 19. See Figure 18. This produces a DC composed of 60 positive pulses per second. producing full wave rectification.

the electrons flow from the workpiece to the electrode. Constant voltage characteristics are preferred for semi. you can weld with either straight polarity or reverse polarity. (vi) DC is most universal in application. (ii) Higher maintenance cost. In straight polarity. (ii) Welding can be carried out in all positions. Diesel operated generator sets are suitable for out-door applications or other areas where power is not available. A polarity switch on most machines provides reversed or straight polarity. The open circuit voltage is between 50 and 100 volts. because they maintain a preset voltage regardless of the amount of current being drawn from the machine. (iii) Nearly all ferrous and non-ferrous metals can be welded. (v) Generator output (as it does in transformer and rectifier sets) is not affected by normal variations in power line voltage. The armature is rotated by an electric motor or an engine. Current output will vary depending upon the type of unit. the electrons flow from the electrode to the workpiece. In reverse polarity. Polarity is the direction of the current flow in a circuit. it can be used in practically all welding operations. Generator supplies voltage usually in the range from 15 to 45 volts across the arc.used and the material to be welded. Disadvantages of DC generator sets (i) Higher initial cost. 1800 or 3600 rpm to give optimum current values. An exception is TIG welding of Al and Mg. as the current increases. arc voltage rises and the current decreases and vice versa. Machine with drooping characteristics is used for standard shielded arc manual welding. In drooping characteristics as the arc length increases. To help you remember the difference. the electrode is positive and the workpiece negative. A generator is designed such that it will compensate for any change in the arc column voltage. When using dc welding machines. Generators are designed to rotate at speeds of 1500. (iii) Rising arc voltage. (ii) Constant arc voltage. With ac welding machines. Advantages of DC Generator Sets (i) Straight and reverse polarities can be employed to advantage. thus ensuring a stabilized arc. Three V-I (Voltage-current) characteristics used in arc welding DC machines to help control fluctuating currents are: (i) Drooping arc voltage or constant current. The current is drawn off for welding use by a commutator. The current supplied by a DC generator is created by an armature rotating in an electrical field. (iii) Noisy machine operation. usually done with AC. as shown in figure 7-9. voltage also increases. the electrode is negative and the workpiece positive. .automatic (MIG) or automatic welding processes. polarity is not a problem. A DC generator is powered either by an electric motor or a diesel engine. (iv) Diesel driven generators form self-contained units. In rising voltage characteristics. Fully automatic welding processes use rising voltage characteristic machines.

When you use reverse polarity. With these types of electrodes. This allows the filler metal to cool faster.think of straight polarity as a SENator and reverse polarity as a REPresentative. Reverse polarity is also used with some types of electrodes for making vertical and overhead welds. or lightly coated electrodes. Use only the first three letters of each key word. workpiece. However. Direct current flowing through the electrode. in overhead welding it is necessary to rapidly freeze the filler metal so the force of gravity will not cause it to fall. you should use straight polarity. you can direct the amount of heat to where it is needed. The arc is usually deflected forward or backward along the line of travel and may cause excessive spatter and incomplete fusion. By changing polarity. the workpiece. while another type of coating on the same electrode may provide a more desirable heat balance with reverse polarity. Reverse polarity is used in the welding of nonferrous metals. . straight polarity is used for all mild steel. less heat is concentrated at the workpiece. Polarity affects the amount of heat going into the base metal. it is desirable to have more heat on the workpiece because of its size and the need for more heat to melt the base metal than the electrode. On some of the older machines. the heat is concentrated on the electrode. bronze. In general. One disadvantage of direct-current welding is “arc blow. arc blow causes the arc to wander while you are welding in corners on heavy metal or when using largecoated electrodes. It also has the tendency to pull atmospheric gases into the arc. Monel. when heavy-coated electrodes are used. the polarity can be changed by turning a switch on the machine. or by changing the position of the workpiece. Cast-iron arc welding is another good example of the need to keep the workpiece cool. the majority of heat is developed at the positive side of the current. and nickel. You can recognize the proper polarity for a given electrode by the sharp. reverse polarity permits the deposits from the electrode to be applied rapidly while preventing overheating in the base metal. and the welding bead is difficult to control. crackling sound of the arc. bare. SEN stands for Straight Electrode Negative. when making large heavy deposits. and ground clamp generates a magnetic field around each of these units.” As stated earlier. When you use straight polarity. When you use reverse polarity. REP for Reverse Electrode Positive. In some welding situations. therefore. Electrode coatings affect the heat conditions differently. giving it greater holding power. Arc blow can often be corrected by one of the following methods: by changing the position of the ground clamp. resulting in porosity. The wrong polarity causes the arc to emit a hissing sound. such as aluminum. One type of heavy coating may provide the most desirable heat balance with straight polarity. the gases given off in the arc may alter the heat conditions so the opposite is true and the greatest heat is produced on the negative side. This field can cause the arc to deviate from the intended path. by welding away from the ground clamp. On the other hand. polarity is changed by switching cables. On many of the newer machines. the majority of the heat is directed toward the workpiece.

so the electrical characteristics of the welding power can be changed by software in real time updates. known as welding circuit. electrode holder. . The arc is struck between a flux covered stick electrode and the workpieces. it can drastically reduce the bulk of the step down transformer.000 Hz or higher.2 shows the fine molten droplets of metal and molten flux coming from the tip of the coated electrode. Figure 5. Figure 5. variable ratios and current densities through a welding cycle. and automatic spot-welding. They generally first rectify the utility AC power to DC. The switching frequency is typically 10.1 Shows details of welding circuit. The high frequency inverter-based welding machines can be more efficient and have better control than non-inverter welding machines. The circuitry can also provide features such as power control and overload protection. then they switch (invert) the DC power into a step down transformer to produce the desired welding voltage or current. variable frequencies. all of which would be prohibitively expensive in a transformer-based machine but require only program space in software-controlled inverter machine Manual Metal Arc Welding: Manual metal arc welding (MMAW) or shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) is the oldest and most widely used process being used for fabrication. These designs are known as inverter welding units.Inverter Since the advent of high-power semiconductors such as the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). Typically the controller software will implement features such as pulsing the welding current. welding cables. it is now possible to build a switching power supply capable of coping with the high loads of arc welding. The workpieces are made part of an electric circuit. earth clamp and the consumable coated electrode. The IGBTs in an inverter based machine are controlled by a microcontroller. Although the high switching frequency requires sophisticated components and circuits. It includes welding power source. The flux melts along with the metallic core wire and goes to weld pool where it reacts with molten metal forming slag which floats on the top of molten weld pool and solidifies after solidification of molten metal and can be removed by chipping and brushing.

optimum Electrode overheats. A value of 80 V is sufficient for most electrodes but certain types may require more or less than this value. Current less than Slag difficult to control. The steeper the slope of the volt-ampere curve within the welding range. Difficulty in slag control.1: Welding Variables and Their Influence Welding Condition Main Effects Current in excess of Excess spatter. The constant-current or drooping type of power source is preferred for manual metal arc welding since it is difficult to hold a constant arc length.e. This results into stable arc. Travel speed in excess of Narrow thin weld bead. The welding voltages range from 20 to 30 V depending upon welding current i. Spatter. Porosity. Arc extinctions. The output voltage of the power source on “no load” or “open circuit” must be high enough to enable the arc to be started. The approximate average welding current for structural steel electrodes is 35. Arc wander. optimum Voltage less than Irregular piling of weld metal.Welding power sources used may be transformer or rectifier for AC or DC supply. core diameter.d (where d is electrode diameter in mm) with some variations with the type of coating of electrode. uniform penetration and better weld seam in-spite of fluctuations of arc length. optimum Optimum Welding Smooth even weld deposit. which in turn produces a change in welding current. Poor optimum penetration. The changing arc length causes arc voltage to increase or decrease. optimum Travel speed less than Wide thick deposit.e. higher the current. Easily conditions controlled slag. . Table 5. higher the voltage. The requirement depends on the type of electrode coating and sometimes on the material to be welded. Flat wide deposit. Voltage in excess of Deposit irregular and flat. Deep crater. Little spatter produced. Table 5. Undercut. Little optimum penetration. Poor dead shape. the smaller the current change for a given change in arc voltage.1 shows influence of welding parameters on weld characteristics. Welding current depends on the size of the electrode i. Stable arc condition. Deep penetration. Metal piles up.

While most of the electrodes are designed to be used on AC or DC. Welding power source 2. Welding Position . . AC seldom causes this problem because of the rapidly reversing magnetic field produced. This type of power source will deliver a relatively constant amperage or welding current regardless of arc length variations by the operator. Even though welding cables are made of copper or aluminum (both good conductors). When using a DC power source. In other words. Metal Thickness . magnetic fields are set up throughout the weldment. wire brush) 6. it is more suitable for overhead and vertical welding than AC.DC power sources may be used for welding both heavy sections and light gauge work. 1. the question of whether to use electrode negative or positive polarity arises. the power source selected must be of the constant current type. etc. DC. the resistance in the cables becomes greater as the cable length increases. This condition is especially troublesome when welding in corners. and others on DC negative or DC positive polarity only. Direct current flows in one direction in an electrical circuit and the direction of current flow and the composition of the electrode coating will have a definite effect on the welding arc and weld bead.If the distance from the work to the power source is great. slag removal etc. Protective equipment (helmet. Sheet metal is more easily welded with DC because it is easier to strike and maintain the DC arc at low currents. Electrode holder 3. This is known as voltage drop. Some electrodes operate on both DC straight and reverse polarity. but in either case.One reason for the wide acceptance of the SMAW process is the simplicity of the necessary equipment. some will work properly only on DC. AC can successfully be used for outof-position work if proper electrodes are selected. Distance from Work . Whether to use an AC. In weldments that have varying thickness and protrusions.When welding with DC. Equipment & Operation . Accessory equipment (chipping hammer.A manual welding power source is never loaded continuously because of operations such as. the weld beads produced will be uniform in size and shape.) Welding Power Sources . a voltage reading taken between the electrode and the work will be somewhat lower than a reading taken at the output terminals of the power source. Combination power sources that produce both AC and DC are available and provide the versatility necessary to select the proper welding current for the application. Welding cables and connectors 5. Ground clamp 4.Using a DC power source allows the use of a greater range of electrode types.Because DC may be operated at lower welding currents.Shielded metal arc welding may utilize either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC). or AC/DC power source depends on the type of welding to be done and the electrodes used. The following factors should be considered: Electrode Selection . The equipment consists of the following items. gloves. electrode changing. Arc Blow . this magnetic field can affect the arc by making it stray or fluctuate in direction. Figure 3 shows the connections and effects of straight and reverse polarity. The amperage determines the amount of heat at the arc and since it will remain relatively constant. AC is the best choice since the voltage drop through the cables is lower than with DC. Most MMA welding equipment has a duty cycle of around 40% at maximum welding current.

however. construction of steel structures such as bridges. the ground clamp.The ground clamp is used to connect the ground cable to the work piece. sodium silicate and . Nickel-copper. and at the power source lugs must be soldered or well crimped to assure low electrical resistance. It may be connected directly to the work or to the table or fixture upon which the work is positioned.ducts the welding current to the electrode. Coating ingredients are basically rutile. Being a part of the welding circuit. Stainless steel wires are also used for welding in fertilizer. Therefore M.Various types of coated electrodes are used in shielded metal arc welding. factory sheds. Nickel irons are also used in MIG & TIG welding. nickel. Electrode holders are available in different sizes and are rated on their current carrying capacity.The electrode holder connects to the welding cable and con. DC Power Source A Higher burn-off rate Less penetration Electrode B Low burn-off rate Deep penetration Electrode DC Power Source Fig. Connections at the electrode holder. The cross-sectional area of the cable must be sufficient size to carry the welding current with a minimum of voltage drop. Vehicles and engineering equipment. Welding electrodes are used in welding various metals in the fabrication of equipment for chemical & Allied industries. chemical & surgical instrument making industry. Mild steel is welded by electrodes to a maximum among all the metals & Alloys. The weld bead is rather wide and shallow as shown at "A" in Figure 3. special grade electrodes are being developed for specific applications. the ground clamp must be capable of carrying the welding current without overheating due to electrical resistance. potassium silicate.S. The insulated handle is used to guide the electrode over the weld joint and feed the electrode over the weld joint and feed the electrode into the weld puddle as it is consumed. Electrode Holder . in the manufacture of ships. Besides mild steel. the electrode melt-off rate is high. Welding Cables .3 Workpiece Workpiece Straight polarity Reverse polarity While polarity affects the penetration and burn-off rate. Welding Electrode is the most widely used core wire. Welding electrodes comprise basically of steel core wire and coating ingredients or flux mild steel core wires are used in majority of unalloyed steel electrodes. Coated Electrodes .The electrode cable and the ground cable are important parts of the welding circuit. Ground Clamp .Electrode negative (-) produces welds with shallow penetration. Electrode positive (+) produces welds with deep penetration and a narrower weld bead as shown at "B" in Figure 3. Besides this. They must be very flexible and have a tough heat-resistant insulation. Increasing the cable length necessitates increasing the cable diameter to lessen resistance and voltage drop. the electrode coating also has a strong influence on arc characteristics.

structural steel electrodes can be classified in the following classes.0 mm Length L 250/300 350 350/450 450 450 450 mm Welding I 50-80 70-100 90-130 120-160 160-200 190-240 Current A Electrode coating performs many functions depending upon coating constituents. (c) Protects solidified hot metal from atmospheric gases. clay. These are all position electrodes and produce deep penetration because of extra heat generated during burning of cellulosic materials. . (a) Influences size of droplet. calcium fluoride. calcite and mica. These electrodes are widely used for general work and are called general purpose electrodes.0 6.2 gives the details of electrode sizes and currents. 3. Improve the electric conductivity in the arc region to improve the arc ignition and stabilization of the arc. (b) Protects the droplet during transfer and molten weld pool from atmospheric gases. 2. Formation of slag. Rutile Electrodes Coating consists of TiO 2 up to 45% and SiO2 around 20%. Commonly used electrode diameters are 2. 4.minerals like quartz. titanium dioxide. 4. Ni. 5 and 6 mm. Acidic Electrodes 1. Ferro-alloys are also used in the formulations of fluxes. ferro-maganese. Cellulosic Electrodes Coating consists of high cellulosic content more than 30% and TiO2 up to 20%. during welding to improve weld metal properties. special electrodes may be of 8-10 mm diameter. Alloying with certain elements such as Cr. 3. Electrode metallic core wire is the same but the coating constituents give the different characteristics to the welds. 2. Based on the coating constituents. (d) Reduces the cooling rate of weld seam. Each constituent performs either one or more than one functions. 5.5 3.0 2.e. Improve deposition rate with addition of iron powder in coating. 2. Mo to improve weld metal properties. silica etc. which. powdered alloys. Various constituents of electrode coating are cellulose. 3.0 5. However. The important functions are as follows: 1. Table 5. calcium carbonate. asbestos.18. Provide deoxidizers like Si and Mn in form of FeSi and FeMn. high spatter losses are associated with these electrodes. Coated Electrodes are specified based on core wire diameter. 6. Length of electrodes may depend on diameter of core wire ranging from 250 to 450 mm i. Table 5. iron oxide. talc.2: Size and Welding Current for Stick Mild Steel Electrodes Diameter d 2.5. Formation of shielding gas to protect molten metal. larger the core diameter larger the length.18(1/8") 4. iron powder. potassium / sodium silicate. However.

improved metal transfer. Slag former Increase in current carrying capacity. In either method. These electrodes normally require baking at temperature of approximately 250 ° C for 1-2 hrs or as per manufacturer's instructions. H2 removal Clay (Aluminum Silicate) Slag former Coating strength Talc (Magnesium Silicate) Slag former Arc stabilizer Rutile (TiO2 ) Arc stabilizer. Sodium Silicate / Potassium Binder. forming HF acid as CaF2 generates fluorine on dissociation in the heat of arc. This is because hydrogen is removed from weld metal by the action of fluorine i.3: Coating Constituents and Their Functions Functions Main Functions Other Functions Cellulose Gas former Coating Strength and Reducing agent Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) Slag basicity and metal Slag former fluidity. Such electrodes produce high quality weld deposits which has high resistance to cracking. Slag removal and bead Fluidity appearance Iron Oxides Fluidity. The surge of high current causes the end of the electrode and a small spot on the base metal beneath the electrode to melt instantly. Such electrodes produce self detaching slag and smooth weld finish and are used normally in flat position. Table 5. the arc is started by short circuiting the welding current between the electrode and the work surface. Slag former Asbestos Coating strength Slag former Quartz (SiO2 ) Slag fluidity. Basic Electrodes Coating consist of CaCO3 around 40% and CaF2 15-20%. Arc stabilizer Slag former Silicate FeMn / FeSi Deoxidizer Iron Powder Deposition Rate Powdered Alloys Alloying Starting the Arc: Two basic methods are used for starting the arc: the striking or brushing method (fig. 7-10) and the tapping method (fig. Calcium Carbonate Gas former. In Coating Constituent . Coating consists of iron oxide more than 20%. 7-11). Slag former.e. other constituents may be TiO2 10% and CaCO3 10%. Arc stabilizer Slag basicity.4. Sometimes it may be up to 40%. Slag former Arc Stabilizer.

If this occurs. you can usually free the electrode by a quick sideways wrist motion to snap the end of the electrode from the plate. When the proper arc length is obtained. final current settings and adjustments need to be made during the welding operation. a sharp. As a rule. crackling sound. or at 95 amperes. it will stick or freeze to the plate or base metal. make your final adjustments by either increasing or decreasing the current. When the current is too high. After starting the weld. crackling sound is heard. The arc is started by tapping or bouncing it on the work surface and then raising it to a distance equal to the diameter of the electrode (fig. . the usual practice is to set the controls midway between the two limits.the striking or brushing method. High current also leaves a groove in the base metal along both sides of the weld. the electrode melts faster and the molten puddle will be excessively large and irregular. when the recommended current range for an electrode is 90-100 amperes. and an example is shown in figure 7-12. Manufacturers of electrodes usually specify a current range for each type and size of electrode. higher currents and larger diameter electrodes are better for welding in the flat position than the vertical or overhead position. The arc length or gap between the end of the electrode and the work should be equal to the diameter of the electrode. 7-11). immediately release the electrode from the holder or shutoff the welding machine. Setting the Current The amount of current used during a welding operation depends primarily upon the diameter of the electrode. This is called undercutting. Since most recommended current settings are only approximate. 7-10). When the proper length of arc is established. For example. this information is normally found on the face of the electrode container. In the tapping method. If this method fails. As soon as the electrode touches the work surface. Use alight blow with a chipping hammer or a chisel to free the electrode from the base metal. When the electrode is withdrawn too slowly with either of the starting methods described above. you hold the electrode in a vertical position to the surface of the work. the electrode is brought down to the work with a lateral motion similar to striking a match. it must be raised to establish the arc (fig. it produces a sharp. view C.

7 Slag Use a chipping hammer and wire brush to remove slag. Arc length for 1/16 and 3/32 in diameter electrodes should be about 1/16 in (1. When the electrode. a good arc produces a sharp. A small diameter electrode requires less current than a large one. This piling up of molten metal is called overlap. 2 Work Clamp Place as close to the weld as possible. view B. arc length for 1/8 and 5/32 in electrodes should be about 1/8 in (3 mm). crackling sound. insert an electrode in the electrode holder. there is not enough heat to melt the base metal and the molten pool will be too small. . 3 Electrode Before striking an arc. as shown in figure 7-12. 4 Insulated Electrode Holder 5 Electrode Holder Position 6 Arc Length Arc length is the distance from the electrode to the workpiece. Procedure for Welding 1 Workpiece Make sure workpiece is clean before welding. Remove slag and check weld bead before making another weld pass. The result is poor fusion and a irregular shaped deposit that piles up. A short arc with correct amperage will give a sharp. current.6 mm). When any of these conditions are incorrect. crackling sound. such as steam escaping. Follow recommendations of the electrode manufacturer when setting weld amperage . and polarity are correct. Examine the weld bead to determine if the arc length is correct. Both undercutting and overlapping results in poor welds. the arc produces a steady.With current that is too low. hissing sound. The molten metal from the electrode lays on the work without penetrating the base metal. Correct arc length is related to electrode diameter.

3-6. 3-6. A joint of this type may be either square or grooved. Corner and tee joints are used to join two members located at right angles to each other (fig. view D). Various joint designs of both types have uses in many types of metal structures. it is more fixquently used in sheet metal work An edge joint should only be used for joining metals 1/4 inch or less in thickness that are not subjected to heavy loads. PARTS OF JOINTS . and the tee joint has the shape of the letter T. however. corner. 3-6. The above paragraphs discussed only the five basic types of joints. as the name implies. however. sheet metal. view E. The five basic types of weld joints are the butt. for maximum joint efficiency. This is one of the strongest types of joints available. While this type of joint has some applications in platework. Lap joints are commonly used with torch brazing and spot welding applications. as shown in figure 3-6. tee. Inmost cases. In cross section. views B and C). as shown in figure 3-6.WELD JOINTS The weld joint is where two or more metal parts are joined by welding. A lap joint. and edge. and pipe work. view A). you should overlap the metals a minimum of three times the thickness of the thinnest member you are joining. there are many possible variations. This joint is frequently used in plate. the corner joint forms an L-shape. lap. one of the members is flanged. An edge joint is used to join the edges of two or more members lying in the same plane. A butt joint is used to join two members aligned in the same plane (fig. is made by lapping one piece of metal over another (fig.

also shown in view A. As shown in figure 3-7. the parts of the joint are described by standard terms. A given joint may have a root face or a root edge. the root face has relatively small dimensions. the groove face and the root face are the same metal surfaces in some joints. A groove (fig. As you can see. As you can see in views C and D of the illustration. A brief description of each term is shown in figure 3-9. The root edge is basically a root face of zero width. as shown in figure 3-8. The groove face is that surface of a metal part included in the groove. The root face. The specified requirements for a particular joint areexpressed in such terms as bevel angle. is the portion of the prepared edge of a part to be joined by a groove weld that has not been grooved. as shown in view B. groove angle. a line. view A. 3-8) is an opening or space provided between the edges of the metal parts to be welded. The root of a joint is that portion of the joint where the metals are closest to each other. and root opening. or an area. the root may be a point. groove radius.While there are many variations of joints. The bevel angle is . when viewed in cross section.

however. depending upon whether it is used with a groove weld or a fillet weld. groove angle. and better penetration can be achieved. at . In a fillet weld. In this position. depends on the of the base metal and the welding position. Butt joints are the primary type of joints used in the flat position of welding. The groove radius is the radius used to form the shape of a J. The root opening refers to the separation between the parts to be joined at the root of the joint. This isoften referred to as the “included angle” between the parts to be joined by a groove weld. Flat-Position Welding The welding can be done in any position.or U-groove weld joint. This. and welding positions used in manual-shielded metal arc welding are very similar to those used in oxygas welding. Often the work must be done in the horizontal position. try to position the work so you can weld in the flat position. It is used only for special groove joint designs. The root opening is usually governed by the diameter of the thickness filler material.29). It is sometimes called the “root gap. the molten puddle is not as likely to run. the face of the weld is approximately horizontal. Whenever possible. you must consider the thickness of the weld material. joints. the work is less tiring. In the flat position. but it is much simpler when done in the flat position. and root opening for a joint. The horizontal position has two basic forms. the type of joint to be made. Horizontal-Position Welding You will discover that it is impossible to weld all pieces in the flat position. the groove angle would be 60 degrees. An inexperienced welder usually finds the horizontal position of arc welding difficult. the techniques are somewhat different because of the equipment involved is different. Welding Positions The types of welds.” To determine the bevel angle. The groove angle is the total angle of the groove between the parts to be joined. if the edge of each of two plates were beveled to an angle of 30 degrees. the axis of the weld lies in a relative horizontal plane and the face of the weld is in a vertical plane (fig. 3. Having an adequate root opening is essential for root penetration. For example. and the welding process to be used. As a general rule. Naturally.the angle formed between the prepared edge of a member and a plane perpendicular to the surface of the member. In a groove weld. the welding is performed on the up per side of a relatively horizontal surface and against an approximately vertical plane. flat-position welding can be made on just about any type of joint providing you can rotate the section you are welding on to the appropriate position. welding speed is faster. gas welding requires a larger groove angle than manual metal-arc welding. in turn.

tanks. Vertical-Position Welding A “vertical weld” is defined as a weld that is applied to a vertical surface or one that is inclined 45 degrees or less. you should use fast-freeze or fill- .least until he has developed a fair degree of skill in applying the proper technique. pontoons. Welding on a vertical surface is much more difficult than welding in the flat or horizontal position due to the force of gravity. require welding in this position. lap joints. and pipelines. To counteract this force. such as buildings. Horizontal-position welding can be used on most types of joints. The primary difficulty is that in this position you have no “shoulder” of previously deposited weld metal to hold the molten metal. The most common types of joints it is used on are tee joints. Gravity pulls the molten metal down. Erecting structures. and butt joints.

Whichever technique you choose. . Vertical welding is done in either an upward or downward position. not to stand in the way. Some prefer a simple. with practice it is possible to make welds equal to those made in the other positions. and the two bodies. lap joints. Upon reaching the correct temperature (about 1200 0C). Others will make a "C" shape with the tip of the rod as they weld for better coverage and a slick-looking end product. straight-line drag at a slow and steady pace to get the job done. and substantial plastic deformation is generated. complete coverage over the entire weld area. Vertical welding is used on most types of joints. and butt joints. Electrode Movements Each welder has a preference in this area. Some of the electrode movements are shown below. are brought to contact and upset together under pressure. Pressure Welding Hot pressure welding: Hot-pressure-welding is a solid state process that produces joints between the faying surfaces of two bodies. Overhead-Position Welding Overhead welding is the most difficult position in welding. Furthermore. the goal is to get strong. Nevertheless. Not only do you have to contend with the force of gravity but the majority of the time you also have to assume an awkward stance. Fusion temperature is not reached. filler metal is not needed. The types of joints you will most often use it on are tee joints. pausing for a second or two on each side before moving diagonally to the next and pausing there. vertical down welding is faster which is very important in production work. The terms used for the direction of welding are vertical up or vertical down. Heat is generally applied by flames of oxy-fuel torches directed on the surfaces to be joined. usually by hydraulic equipment. Most beginning welders simply use the straight drag technique. You also can use a zig-zag technique. by application of heat and of pressure. solid bars or hollow sections. Vertical down welding is suited for welding light gauge metal because the penetration is shallow and diminishes the possibility of burning through the metal. the torches are suddenly removed.freeze electrodes.

although the source of heating is different.This variant is properly called the open joint process. For use in the production of weldments for the aerospace industry with delicate materials Hot-pressure-welding can be carried out in closed chambers with vacuum or a shielding medium. possibly being developed by trial and error. The materials commonly joined by Hotpressure-welding are carbon. • Only simple sections readily butt weldable. typically among them aluminum alloys and stainless steels. low alloy steels. Hot-pressure-welding can be an economic and successful process for performing butt joints of simple shapes if the materials are easily weldable. Some beveling can be used to control the amount of upset. The process as described is performed as a manual operation. Hot-pressurewelding is similar in a way to both friction welding and flash welding. Certain dissimilar materials combinations are weldable by Hot-pressure-welding. refer to butt Hot-pressure-welding of railroad rails sections and steel reinforcing bars. Mechanical properties tend to be near those of the base materials. Pressure in the range of 40 to 70 MPa must be available. Tests were performed in a vacuum chamber. Typical application reported. it is called the closed joint process. but depend upon materials composition. especially in Japan. also by electrical induction. cooling rate and quality. Alternatively. Materials that easily form on the surface adherent oxides upon heating cannot be eaasily welded in air by this process. when the parts are making contact under pressure before heat application from the outside. Therefore cast iron cannot be Hot-pressure-welded. and certain nonferrous metals. The materials to be welded must exhibit hot ductility or forgeability. Advantages • Simple process • Simple joint preparation • Relatively low cost equipment • Quick weld production • High quality joints • No filler metal needed • Minimally skilled operators required Limitations • Not all metals are weldable • Not easily automated • Length of cycle dependent on time for heating • Removal of flash and bulge required after welding. In either case flash material is expelled and a bulge is formed at the joint. The most important parameter is the pressure sequence cycle. For obtaining the best results the surfaces should be machined square and clean. .

Copper base alloys may consist of copper as base and alloying elements such as cadmium or silver or chromium .Cold pressure Welding: Cold pressure welding is a solid state welding process which uses pressure at room temperature to produce coalescence of metals with substantial deformation at the weld. The necessary pressure shall vary from 30 to 60 N mm-2 depending upon material to be welded and other welding conditions. The heat generated during resistance welding is given by following expression: H=I2RT Where. and filler metal rarely used. during and after the flow of current to avoid arcing between the surfaces and to forge the weld metal during post heating. Welding is accomplished by using extremely high pressures on extremely clean interfacing materials. If surfaces are rust free then pickling is not required but surface cleaning can be done through some solvent such as acetone to remove oil and grease.e. therefore. Indentations are usually made in the parts being cold welded. their thicknesses. Sufficiently high pressure can be obtained with simple hand tools when extremely thin materials are being joined. all process variables are preset and maintained constant. However. so that the parts can be joined with the application of pressure. when high amperage is required then three phase rectifier may be used to obtain DC supply and to balance the load on three phase power lines. Aluminum and copper are readily cold welded. When cold welding heavier sections a press is usually required to exert sufficient pressure to make a successful weld. These processes differ from other welding processes in the respect that no fluxes are used. Aluminum and copper can be joined together by cold welding. Heat is generated in localized area which is enough to heat the metal to sufficient temperature. H is heat generated I is current in amperes R is resistance of area being welded T is time for the flow of current. voltages range from 2 to 12 volts and times vary from few ms to few seconds. The process employs currents of the order of few KA. Commonly used electrode materials are pure copper and copper base alloys. type and size of electrodes. Pressure is applied through the electrodes. For this purpose components may be given pickling treatment i. dipping in diluted acid bath and then washing in hot water bath and then in the cold water bath. The material of electrode should have higher electrical and thermal conductivities with sufficient strength to sustain high pressure at elevated temperatures. Apart from proper setting of welding parameters. All resistance welding operations are automatic and. oil and grease. For good quality welds these parameters may be properly selected which shall depend mainly on material of components. component should be properly cleaned so that surfaces to be welded are free from rust. After that components may be dried through the jet of compressed air. Resistance Welding Resistance welding processes are pressure welding processes in which heavy current is passed for short time through the area of interface of metals to be joined. Force is normally applied before. dust. The process is readily adaptable to joining ductile metals. The current may be obtained from a single phase step down transformer supplying alternating current.

cooling through water circulation is required. The area of metals in contact shall be rapidly raised to welding temperature.1: Water Cooling of Electrodes (a) Spot Welding (b) Seam Welding. 1. Commonly used resistance welding processes are spot.1 shows the water cooling system of electrodes. To reduce wear. due to the flow of . Fig 11. two or more sheets of metal are held between electrodes through which welding current is supplied for a definite time and also force is exerted on work pieces.2.2: Principle of Resistance spot Welding The welding cycle starts with the upper electrode moving and contacting the work pieces resting on lower electrode which is stationary. Fig 11. The work pieces are held under pressure and only then heavy current is passed between the electrodes for preset time. seam and projection welding which produce lap joints except in case of production of welded tubes by seam welding where edges are in butting position. Spot Welding In resistance spot welding. In butt and flash welding.or nickel or beryllium or cobalt or zirconium or tungsten. The principle is illustrated in Figure 11. Pure tungsten or tungsten-silver or tungsten-copper or pure molybdenum may also be used as electrode material. components are in butting position and butt joints are produced. Figure 11. tear and deformation of electrodes.

high speed of operation and dissimilar metal combination welding. It is widely being used in electronic. squeezes the hot metal together thus completing the weld. it is applicable only for limited thickness of components. .4: Electrode Shapes for Spot Welding Most of the industrial metal can be welded by spot welding. has made is widely applicable and acceptable process. aircraft. Fig 11.140° are used for ferrous metal but with continuous use they may wear at the tip.current through the contacting surfaces of work pieces. A flat tip electrode is used where minimum indentation or invisible welds are desired. This total cycle is known as resistance spot welding cycle and illustrated in Figure 11.3: Resistance Spot Welding Cycle Spot welding electrodes of different shapes are used. Domed electrodes are capable of withstanding heavier loads and severe heating without damage and are normally useful for welding of nonferrous metals. however. The weld nugget formed is allowed to cool under pressure and then pressure is released.3 Fig 11. electrical. Pointed tip or truncated cones with an angle of 120° . Ease of mechanism. automobile and home appliances industries. The radius of dome generally varies from 50-100 mm. The pressure between electrodes.

01 sec to 0. and many of the industrial robots found on assembly lines are spot welders. The equipment used in the spot welding process consists of tool holders and electrodes. Spot welders can also be completely automated. Both water and a brine solution may be used as coolants in spot welding mechanisms. The electrodes generally are made of a low resistance alloy. Spot welding is primarily used for joining parts that are normally up to 3 mm in thickness. and regular offset. universal. it is cooled via the coolant holes in the center of the electrodes. Spot welding is one of the oldest welding processes. The width of the workpieces is limited by the throat length of the welding apparatus and ranges typically from 125 to 1250 mm. Tool holding methods include a paddle-type. the first of which involves the electrodes being brought to the surface of the metal and applying a slight amount of pressure. usually copper. light duty.2 to 30 mm After the current is removed from the workpiece.Spot Welding machine Spot welding involves three stages. It is used in a wide range of industries but notably for the assembly of sheet steel vehicle bodies in the automobile manufacturing industry.63 sec depending on the thickness of the metal. Workpiece thickness can range from 0. The two materials being welded together are known as the workpieces and must conduct electricity. Weld times range from 0. and are designed in many different shapes and sizes depending on the application needed. the electrode force and the diameter of the electrodes themselves. Thickness of the parts to be welded should be equal or the ratio of thickness should be .This is a type of resistance welding where the spot welds are made at regular intervals on overlapping sheets of metal. The current from the electrodes is then applied briefly after which the current is removed but the electrodes remain in place in order for the material to cool. where it is used almost universally to weld the sheet metal to form a car. The tool holders function as a mechanism to hold the electrodes firmly in place and also support optional water hoses which cool the electrodes during welding.

During the weld. Materials suitable for spot welding Steel has a higher electrical resistivity and lower thermal conductivity than the copper electrodes. However. The zinc coating must first be melted off before the steel is joined. The strength of the joint depends on the number and size of the welds.e. making welding possible. Higher levels of current must be used for welding aluminium because of its low resistivity. so a pulse of current before welding will accomplish this. weld nuggets are equally spaced. Low carbon steel is most suitable for spot welding.e.5 mm.6: Type of Seam Welds . Galvanized steel (i. 2. making welding relatively easy. Fig 11. Higher carbon content or alloy steel tend to form hard welds that are brittle and could crack.e. The process of welding is illustrated in Figure 11. Aluminium has an electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity that is closer to that of copper. aluminium's melting point is much lower than that of copper. Zinc has a low melting point.5. overlapping weld nuggets or intermittent seam i. Seam Welding: In seam welding overlapping sheets are gripped between two wheels or roller disc electrodes and current is passed to obtain either the continuous seam i.less than 3:1. Spot-weld diameters range from 3 mm to 12. the zinc can combine with the steel and lower its resistivity. steel coated with zinc to prevent corrosion) requires a different welding approach than uncoated steel. Therefore. Welding current may be continuous or in pulses. higher levels of current are required to weld galvanized steel.

When it is approaching around 50 % then it is termed as continuous weld. in which ends of wires or rods are held under a pressure and heated by an electric current passing through the contact area and producing a weld. However. shell welding (Longitudinal). fuel tank welding and other special items. however in . The Seam Welding machines are precision and robust construction suitable for long trouble-free service. Seam welding is relatively fast method of welding producing quality welds.7: Electrode Shapes of Seam Welding Overlapping of weld nuggets may vary from 10 to 50 %. The process is similar to Flash Welding. muffler.Fig 11. It is the method of welding which is completely mechanized and used for making petrol tanks for automobiles. equipment is costly and maintenance is expensive. Resistance Butt Welding (UW) Resistance Butt Welding is a Resistance Welding (RW) process. seam welded tubes. the process is limited to components of thickness less than 3 mm. shock absorber welding. Overlap welds are used for air or water tightness. Further. The application of these machines are in the manufacture of drums and barrels. silencer. drums and other components of domestic applications. tub cover welding (circumferential). fuel tank.

In contrast to Flash Welding. Since it is almost twice as hot as the melting temperature of the base metal. with or without the application of pressure. regardless of the amount of chemicals involved. and the weld is completed. Normal heat losses cause the mass of molten metal to solidify.Butt Welding pressure and electric current are applied simultaneously in contrast to Flash Welding where electric current is followed by forging pressure application. If the parts to be welded are large. The super heated steel is contained in a crucible located immediately above the weld joint. The heat for welding is obtained from an exothermic reaction or chemical change between iron oxide and aluminum. The process is highly productive and clean. Filler metal is obtained from the liquid metal. The super heated steel runs into a mold which is built around the parts to be welded. it continues until completion. Themite welding utilizes gravity. melting occurs at the edges of the joint and alloys with the molten steel from the crucible. It is very similar to the foundry practice of pouring a casting. preheating within the mold cavity may be necessary to bring the pats to welding temperature and to dry out the mold. Butt welding is used for welding small parts. This reaction is shown by the following formula: 8A1 + 3fe304 = 9Fe + 4A1203 + Heat The temperature resulting from this reaction is approximately 2482°C. The parts to be welded are aligned with a gap between them. The thermit welding process is applied only in the automatic mode. The . If the parts are small. The exothermic reaction is relatively slow and requires 20 to 30 seconds. coalescence occurs. which causes the molten metal to fill the cavity between the parts being welded. Butt Welding provides joining with no loss of the welded materials. Once the reaction is started. preheating is often eliminated. Thermite Welding Thermite welding (TW) (sometimes called thermit welding) is a process which joins metals by heating them with super heated liquid metal from a chemical reaction between a metal oxide and aluminum or other reducing agent.

The hole through the thimble is plugged with a tapping pin. The crucible is charged by placing the correct quantity of thoroughly mixed thermit material in it. into which a magnesite stone thimble is fitted. all unwanted excess metal may be removed by oxygen cutting. This thimble provides a passage through which the molten steel is discharged into the mold. At the bottom of the crucible. which is covered with a fire-resistant washer and refractory sand. a magnesite stone is burned. A mold made of refractory sand is built around the wax pattern and joint to hold the molten metal after it is poured. The making of a thermit weld is shown in figure 6-12. and held firmly in place. alined. machining. or grinding. If necessary.difference is the extremely high temperature of the molten metal. the parts to be welded must be cleaned. Thermite Welding Equipment (Tw) Thermite material is a mechanical mixture of metallic aluminum and processed iron oxide. The surface of the completed weld is usually sufficiently smooth and contoured so that it does not require additional metal finishing. The sand mold is then heated to melt out the wax and dry the mold. The mold should be properly vented to permit the escape of gases and to allow the proper distribution of the thermite metal at the joint. Molten steel is produced by the thermite reaction in a magnesite-lined crucible. A wax pattern is then made around the joint in the size and shape of the intended weld. A thermite welding crucible and mold is shown in figure 5-41. metal is removed from the joint to permit a free flow of the thermite metal into the joint. . In preparing the joint for thermite welding. When the filler metal has cooled.

. After the process has been completed and the weld has cooled enough. The arc is shielded by a shielding gas and if this is inert gas such as argon or helium then it is termed as metal inert gas (MIG) and if shielding gas is active gas such as CO2 or mixture of inert and active gases then process is termed as metal active gas (MAG) welding. The slag is chipped off and the excess weld is ground off to conform with the shape of the rails Gas Metal Arc Welding Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is the process in which arc is struck between bare wire electrode and workpiece.1 illustrates the process of GMA welding.Thermite Welding Use (Tw) Thermite Welding has been successfully used for many years in the Railroad industry to weld rails together. Equipment similar to the above sketches is set up at the welding joint. the thermite fixture is removed. Figure 9.

The electrode wire feeding system is shown in Figure 9. .0.Direct current flat characteristic power source is the requirement of GMAW process. 1.6 mm diameter.2.2 and 1. increase current carrying capacity and for smooth movement through contact tube. 1. The electrode wire passing through the contact tube is to be connected to positive terminal of power source so that stable arc is achieved. are coated with copper to avoid atmospheric corrosion. If the electrode wire is connected to negative terminal then it shall result into unstable spattery arc leading to poor weld bead. Flat characteristic leads to self adjusting or self regulating arc leading to constant arc length due to relatively thinner electrode wires. Solid filler electrode wires are normally employed and are available in sizes 0. Similar to submerged arc welding electrode wires of mild steel and low alloyed steel. GMA welding requires consumables such as filler wire electrode and shielding gas.8.

Welding of medium thickness plates in horizontal and vertical positions are welded with medium current and voltage levels.6 150-380 18-34 . With lower currents normally lower voltages are employed while higher voltages are associated with higher currents during welding.2 120-320 17-30 1. electrode size and mode of metal transfer i.0 70-250 16-26 1.Pressure adjusting screw is used to apply required pressure on the electrode wire during its feeding to avoid any slip. Table 9. mode of molten drop formed at the tip of electrode and its transfer to the weld pool. shall change if material of electrode wire is changed. different pressures are required for the smooth feeding of wire with minimum deformation of the wire. The range of current and voltage for a particular size of electrode wire. mild steel electrodes of different sizes.1 gives the total range of currents and voltages for different sizes of structural steel i. Thin sheets and plates in all positions or root runs in medium plates are welded with low currents while medium and heavy plates in flat position are welded with high currents and high voltages. This process exhibits most of the metal transfer modes depending on welding parameters.e. Electrode Wire DiameterCurrent Range (A) Voltage Range (V) (mm) 0.8 50-180 14-24 1. Depending on the size and material of the wire. Further. The range of welding current and voltage vary and is dependent on material to be welded.e. wire feeding rolls have grooves of different sizes and are to be changed for a particular wire size.

Table 9.1: Welding Current and Voltage Ranges for Mild Steel Electrodes Both inert gases like argon and helium and active gases like CO2 and N2 are being used for shielding depending upon the metal to be welded. Mixtures of inert and active gases like CO2 and O2 are also being used in GMA welding process. For mild steel carbon dioxide is normally used which gives high quality, low current out of position welding i.e. also in welding positions other than flat position. Low alloyed and stainless steels require argon plus oxygen mixtures for better fluidity of molten metal and improved arc stability. The percentage of oxygen varies from 1-5% and remaining is argon in argon and oxygen mixtures. However, low alloy steels are also welded with 80% argon and 20% CO2 mixture. Nickel, monel, inconel, aluminum alloys, magnesium, titanium, aluminum bronze and silicon bronze are welded with pure argon. Nickel and nickel alloys may sometimes be welded with mixture of argon and hydrogen (upto 5%). Copper and aluminum are also welded with 75% helium and 25% argon mixture to encounter their thermal conductivity. Nitrogen may be used for welding of copper and some of its alloys, but nitrogen and argon mixtures are preferred over pure nitrogen for relatively improved arc stability. The process is extremely versatile over a wide range of thicknesses and all welding positions for both ferrous and nonferrous metals, provided suitable welding parameters and shielding gases are selected. High quality welds are produced without the problem of slag removal. The process can be easily mechanized / automated as continuous welding is possible. However, process is costly and less portable than manual metal arc welding. Further, arc shall be disturbed and poor quality of weld shall be produced if air draught exists in working area. GMA welding has high deposition rate and is indispensable for welding of ferrous and specially for nonferrous metals like aluminum and copper based alloys in shipbuilding, chemical plants, automobile and electrical industries. It is also used for building structures. TIG Welding Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) or Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welding is the arc welding process in which arc is generated between non consumable tungsten electrode and workpiece. The tungsten electrode and the weld pool are shielded by an inert gas normally argon and helium. Figures 10.1 & 10.2 show the principle of tungsten inert gas welding process.

Fig 10.1: Principle of TIG Welding.

Fig 10.2: Schematic Diagram of TIG Welding System. The tungsten arc process is being employed widely for the precision joining of critical components which require controlled heat input. The small intense heat source provided by the tungsten arc is ideally suited to the controlled melting of the material. Since the electrode is not consumed during the process, as with the MIG or MMA welding processes, welding without filler material can be done without the need for continual compromise between the heat input from the arc and the melting of the filler metal. As the filler metal, when required, can be added directly to the weld pool from a separate wire feed system or manually, all aspects of the process can be precisely and independently controlled i.e. the degree of melting of the parent metal is determined by the welding current with respect to the welding speed, whilst the degree of weld bead reinforcement is determined by the rate at which the filler wire is added to the weld pool. In TIG torch the electrode is extended beyond the shielding gas nozzle. The arc is ignited by high voltage, high frequency (HF) pulses, or by touching the electrode to the workpiece and withdrawing to initiate the arc at a preset level of current. Selection of electrode composition and size is not completely independent and must be considered in relation to the operating mode and the current level. Electrodes for DC welding are pure tungsten or tungsten with 1 or 2% thoria, the thoria being added to improve electron emission which facilitates easy arc ignition. In AC welding, where the electrode must operate at a higher temperature, a pure tungsten or tungsten-zirconia electrode is preferred as the rate of tungsten loss is somewhat lesser than with thoriated electrodes and the zirconia aids retention of the �balled' tip. Table 10.1 gives chemical composition of tungsten electrodes as per American Welding Society (AWS) classification. AWS Tungsten, min.Thoria, percent Zirconia, Total other Classification percent percent elements, max. percent EWP 99.5 0.5 EWTh-1 98.5 0.8 to 1.2 0.5 EWTh-2 97.5 1.7 to 2.2 0.5 EWZr 99.2 0.15 to 0.40 0.5 Table 10.1: Chemical Composition of TIG Electrodes. Tungsten electrodes are commonly available from 0.5 mm to 6.4 mm diameter and 150 200 mm length. The current carrying capacity of each size of electrode depends on whether it is connected to negative or positive terminal of DC power source. AC is used

only in case of welding of aluminum and magnesium and their alloys. Table 10.2 gives typical current ranges for TIG electrodes when electrode is connected to negative terminal (DCEN) or to positive terminal (DCEP). DCEN DCEP Electrode Pure and Pure and Thoriated Dia. (mm) Thoriated Tungsten Tungsten 0.5 5-20 1.0 15-80 1.6 70-150 10-20 2.4 150-250 15-30 3.2 250-400 25-40 4.0 400-500 40-55 4.8 500-750 55-80 6.4 750-1000 80-125 Table 10.2: Typical Current Ranges for TIG Electrodes The power source required to maintain the TIG arc has a drooping or constant current characteristic which provides an essentially constant current output when the arc length is varied over several millimeters. Hence, the natural variations in the arc length which occur in manual welding have little effect on welding current. The capacity to limit the current to the set value is equally crucial when the electrode is short circuited to the workpiece, otherwise excessively high current shall flow, damaging the electrode. Open circuit voltage of power source ranges from 60 to 80 V. Argon or helium may be used successfully for most applications, with the possible exception of the welding of extremely thin material for which argon is essential. Argon generally provides an arc which operates more smoothly and quietly, is handled more easily and is less penetrating than the arc obtained by the use of helium. For these reasons argon is usually preferred for most applications, except where the higher heat and penetration characteristic of helium is required for welding metals of high heat conductivity in larger thicknesses. Aluminum and copper are metals of high heat conductivity and are examples of the type of material for which helium is advantageous in welding relatively thick sections. Pure argon can be used for welding of structural steels, low alloyed steels, stainless steels, aluminum, copper, titanium and magnesium. Argon hydrogen mixture is used for welding of some grades of stainless steels and nickel alloys. Pure helium may be used for aluminum and copper. Helium argon mixtures may be used for low alloy steels, aluminum and copper. TIG welding can be used in all positions. It is normally used for root pass(es) during welding of thick pipes but is widely being used for welding of thin walled pipes and tubes. This process can be easily mechanised i.e. movement of torch and feeding of filler wire, so it can be used for precision welding in nuclear, aircraft, chemical, petroleum, automobile and space craft industries. Aircraft frames and its skin, rocket body and engine casing are few examples where TIG welding is very popular.

welding is spatter-free and there is no need for fume extraction. but it can be semiautomatic. a thin layer of flux powder is placed on the workpiece surface. heat loss is extremely low. excess flux is recycled via a hopper. A shielding gas is not required. Operating characteristics SAW is usually operated as a fully-mechanised or automatic process. Wire SAW is normally operated with a single wire on either AC or DC current. Remaining fused slag layers can be easily removed after welding. The arc moves along the joint line and as it does so. Welding parameters: current. joint type and size of component.Submerged Arc Welding Similar to MIG welding. Common variants are: . and to add alloying elements to the weld pool. Process variants According to material thickness. Because the operator cannot see the weld pool. submerged arc welding involves formation of an arc between a continuously-fed bare wire electrode and the workpiece. The process uses a flux to generate protective gases and slag. There is no visible arc light. Prior to welding. depth of penetration and chemical composition of the deposited weld metal. varying the following can increase deposition rate and improve bead shape. arc voltage and travel speed all affect bead shape. greater reliance must be placed on parameter settings. As the arc is completely covered by the flux layer. This produces a thermal efficiency as high as 60% (compared with 25% for manual metal arc).

either single-pass. because of high fluidity of the weld pool. A narrow gap process variant is also established. which utilises a two or three bead per layer deposition technique. magnesium and other compounds such as calcium fluoride. cooled and ground to the required particle size.produced by mixing the ingredients. These fluxes are effective over rust and mill scale. are the main attraction of these fluxes. zirconium. For circumferential joints. then melting them in an electric furnace to form a chemically homogeneous product. with welding currents up to 2000A and consistent weld metal properties. See What is narrow gap welding? Flux Fluxes used in SAW are granular fusible minerals containing oxides of manganese. titanium. Smooth stable arcs. However. aluminium. The flux is specially formulated to be compatible with a given electrode wire type so that the combination of flux and wire yields desired mechanical properties. provided a suitable joint preparation is adopted. although the process is capable of welding some nonferrous materials with judicious choice of electrode filler wire and flux combinations. low alloy steels and stainless steels. • Fused fluxes . calcium.produced by drying the ingredients. welding is generally carried out on butt joints in the flat position and fillet joints in both the flat and horizontal-vertical positions. Depending on material thickness.twin wire multiple wire (tandem or triple) single wire with hot or cold wire addition metal powder addition tubular wire All contribute to improved productivity through a marked increase in weld metal deposition rates and/or travel speeds. Most commonly welded materials are carbon-manganese steels. the amount of manganese and silicon added is influenced by the arc voltage and the welding current level. • • • • • Brazing and Soldering: . Most bonded fluxes contain metallic deoxidisers which help to prevent weld porosity. It is common practice to refer to fluxes as 'active' if they add manganese and silicon to the weld. The the main types of flux for SAW are: • Bonded fluxes . silicon. Applications SAW is ideally suited for longitudinal and circumferential butt and fillet welds. All fluxes react with the weld pool to produce the weld metal chemical composition and mechanical properties. There is virtually no restriction on the material thickness. two-pass or multipass weld procedures can be carried out. the workpiece is rotated under a fixed welding head with welding taking place in the flat position. then bonding them with a low melting point compound such as a sodium silicate. molten slag and loose flux layer.

Filler metal may be either preplaced in form of washers. Another variant is to dip assembled parts in metallic bath and metal of bath fills the joint. Many other commercial fluxes may be available in the form of paste or liquid solution leading to ease of application and adherence to the surface in any position. approximately 40% Zn. Filler metal is to be preplaced in the joint. Copper base alloys may be available in the form of rod. These furnaces may also be using protective atmosphere with inert gases like argon and helium or vacuum for brazing of reactive metal components. 15-28% Zn. 1% Ni. In some cases around 10% Ni may also be added to filler alloys. 18-24% Cd and sometimes 2-3% Ni or 5% Sn. rods and powders. Such method of brazing requires automation and parts to be joined should be self fixturing. • Protect the surface from oxidation during joining operation. 0. Various commonly used method of brazing are followings: • Torch Brazing Torch brazing utilizes the heat of oxy-acetylene flame with neutral or reducing flame. • Dip Brazing In dip brazing components with filler metal in proper form is preplaced at the joint and assembly is dipped in bath of molten salt which acts as heat source as well as flux for brazing. Brazing: The most commonly used filler metal is copper base zinc alloy consisting of normally 5060% Cu. in between welding and brazing there is another process termed as ‘braze welding'. strip and wire. Silver brazing alloys are available in form of wire. which is brass and termed as 'spelter'. If the filler metal is having melting temperature more than 450°C but lower than the melting temperature of components then it is termed as process of brazing or hard soldering. Preplaced preform melts and fills the joint.Both brazing and soldering are the metal joining processes in which parent metal does not melt but only filler metal melts filling the joint with capillary action. The strength of brazed joint is higher than soldered joint but lower than welded joint. if the melting temperature of filler metal is lower than 450°C and also lower than the melting point of the material of components then it is know as soldering or soft soldering. Silver brazing filler metal may consists of 30-55% Ag. increasing its wetting action or spreadability. • Furnace Brazing Self fixturing assembly with preplaced filler metal is placed inside electrically heated furnace with temperature control for heating and cooling. During brazing or soldering flux is also used which performs the following functions: • Dissolve oxides from the surfaces to be joined.7 % Fe and traces of Si and Mn. • Reduce surface tension of molten filler metal i. Borax and boric acid are commonly used fluxes for brazing with copper base filler metals.e. However. formed strips. • Induction Brazing . However. The operation can be performed in air or in inert atmosphere or in vacuum. rings. • Infra-red Brazing The heat for brazing is obtained from infra-red lamps. 15-35% Cu. Heat rays can be concentrated at desired area or spot with concave reflectors. strip. powders or may be fed manually in form of rod.

shallow is the heating effect while lower frequencies of current lead to deeper heating and so it can be employed for thicker sections. lower the melting point of alloy. This heat melts the solder and fills the joint by capillary action. resistance soldering. Solder is brought to molten state by touching it to the tip of the soldering iron so that molten solder can spread to the joint surface. dip soldering. Flux Residue Treatment: . consists of insulated handle and end is fitted with copper tip which may be heated electrically or in coke or oil/gas fired furnace. high frequency vibrations which break the oxides on the surface of workpieces and heat shall be generated due to rubbing between surfaces. sheet. High frequencies employed vary from 5 to 400 kHz. Only those fluxes are used which are electrically conductive and filler metal is preplaced. oven soldering. cadmium-silver solder (95% cadmium and 5% silver). rosin and rosin dissolved in alcohol. Various soldering methods are soldering with soldering irons. Higher the contents of tin. zinc chloride. solid and flux cored wires. Fluxes may or may not be used during brazing. tin-zinc solder (91 to 30% tin and 9 to 70% zinc).e. 1. Higher the frequency of current. lead-silver solder (97% lead. ribbon and paste or cream. The components are connected to high current and low voltage power supply through two electrodes under pressure. tin-silver solder (tin 96% and silver 4%). The most commonly used solder is lead and tin alloy containing tin ranging from 5 to 70% and lead 95 to 30%. Other filler metal are tin-antimony solder (95% tin and 5% antimony). Ultrasonic soldering uses ultrasonics i. • Resistance Brazing In resistance brazing the heat is generated at the interfaces to be brazed by resistive heating. foil.5 silver).The heat is generated by induced current into the workpiece from a water cooled coil which surrounds the workpieces to be brazed. Fig 3. induction soldering.5 tin and 1. These are available in the form of bars. Soldering iron being used for manual soldering. preforms.2: Typical Self Fixturing Brazing Assembly Soldering: The soldering filler metal is called solder. Fluxes used in soldering are ammonium chloride. torch soldering. infra-red and ultrasonic soldering.

Extremely complex shapes can be spun over ice forms. which then melt away after spinning. Commercial applications include rocket nose cones. The force is usually applied via various levered tools. Spinning can be performed by hand or by a CNC lathe. Metal spinning ranges from an artisan's specialty to the most advantageous way to form round metal parts for commercial applications. however. known as reducing or necking. Process The spinning process is fairly simple. from aluminum or stainless steel. Metal Spinning Metal spinning. acetone or carbon tetrachloride can be used. A pre-sized metal disk is then clamped against the mandrel by a pressure pad. brass instrument bells. Organic flux residues are soluble in hot water so double rising in warm water shall remove it. Simple workpieces are just removed from the mandrel. The diameter and depth of formed parts are limited only by the size of the equipment available. Sometimes steam jet may be applied followed by wire brushing. which is attached to the tailstock. specialty lighting. cookware. Brazing flux residues can be removed by rinsing with hot water followed by drying. decorative household goods and urns. Because the final diameter of the workpiece is always less than the starting diameter the workpiece must thicken. If surface finish and form are not critical. A more involved process. then the . is mounted in the drive section of a lathe. If the residue is sticky then it can be removed by thermal shock i. is a metalworking process by which a disc or tube of metal is rotated at high speed and formed into an axially symmetric part. Artisans use the process to produce architectural detail. A localized force is then applied to the workpiece to cause it to flow over the mandrel. allows a spun workpiece to include reentrant geometries. elongated radially. The mandrel and workpiece are then rotated together at high speeds. Soldering flux residues of rosin flux can be left on the surface of joint. also known as a form. heating and quenching. high-temperature alloys.e. also known as spin forming or spinning. If rosin residues removal is required then alcohol. Residue removal of zinc chloride base fluxes can be achieved by washing first in 2% hydrochloric acid mixed in hot water followed by simple hot water rinsing. A mandrel. Virtually any ductile metal may be formed.When brazing or soldering is completed then the flux residues are to be removed because without removal the residues may lead to corrosion of assemblies. to high-strength. and public waste receptacles. gas cylinders. activated rosin flux and other flux residues require proper treatment. or buckle circumferentially. but more complex shapes may require a multi-piece mandrel.

though many other tools (be they commercially produced. or improvised) can be used to effect varied results. If the finish or form are critical then an eccentrically mounted mandrel is used. the metal is then shaped as the tool on the lathe presses against the heated surface forcing it to distort as it spins. ad hoc. Some metal spinning tools are allowed to spin on bearings during the forming process. . providing a seamless shoulder. Rotating tools are commonly used during CNC metal spinning operations. no mandrel is used.workpiece is "spun on air". extending tool life and improving surface finish. Rotating tools may also be coated with thin film of ceramic to prolong tool life. Once heated. This reduces friction and heating of the tool. Hot spinning process involves spinning a piece of metal on a lathe and with high heat from a torch the metal is heated. Tools The basic hand metal spinning tool is called a spoon. Parts can then be shaped or necked down to a smaller diameter with little force exerted. Spinning tools can be made of hardened steel for using with aluminium or solid brass for spinning stainless steel or mild steel.

at less cost than other metal forming techniques. The mandrel does not incur excessive forces. Forming parameters and part geometry can be altered quickly. CO2 cartridges. Forging or castings have a higher fixed cost due to the large equipment needed. One disadvantage of metal spinning is that if a crack forms or the object is dented. plastic. Advantages & disadvantages Several operations can be performed in one set-up. as found in other metalworking processes. Spin forming. often foot long hollow bars with tool steel shaped/sharpened files attached. often done by hand. Objects can be built using one piece of material to produce parts without seams. carbide or tool steel cut-off tools are used. so it can be made from wood. it must be scrapped. stamping and forging or casting. or ice. parts are being spun with thicker materials in excess of 1" thick steel. Without seams. but a lower variable cost than metal spinning. Rollers vary in diameter and thickness. Tooling and production costs are also comparatively low.Commercially. Repairing the object is not cost-effective. the thinner rollers can be used to form smaller radii. depending on the intended use. Work pieces may have re-entrant profiles and the profile in relation to the center line virtually unrestricted. In CNC applications. For hard materials or high volume use. As machinery for commercial applications has improved. Cutting of the metal is done by hand held cutters. Hydro-forming and stamping generally have a higher fixed cost. Conventional spinning also wastes a considerably smaller amount of material than other methods. Other methods of forming round metal parts include hydro-forming. is easily automated and an effective production method for prototypes as well as high quantity production runs. . For example: scuba tanks. and oxyacetylene tanks. the mandrel is usually made of metal. The wider the roller the smoother the surface of the spinning. a part can withstand higher internal or external pressure exerted on it. but generally a lower variable cost. rollers mounted on the end of levers are generally used to form the material down to the mandrel in both hand spinning and CNC metal spinning.



WELDING SYMBOLS INTRODUCTION Welding symbols are used on blueprints and drawings to show where the weld is to be placed and may also show the size. KEY POINT: the arrow points to the bevel where the bevel needs to be prepared. or the side opposite to where the arrow is pointing. ARROW SIDE One of the most important things about the reference line and the welding symbol is the top and bottom of the horizontal line. If the elements on the reference line describe the necessary details (as it does in most cases) the tail is not used. Welders that fabricate or work with drawing must be able to interpret the welding symbol to prepare the joint and apply a weld that has the required strength and soundness. specification. . It may also have a tail that has information about the process. or other notes that do not normally have an element that describes them. type of weld. number of welds. The actual symbol that shows the type of weld and the elements surrounding it that detail the weld can be placed on the top of the line or on the bottom of the line. There is also a reference line that has an arrow break. The break in the arrow is used to indicate the joint member that is to receive the edge preparation. See the examples below: In the above examples one of the reference lines has multiple arrows that are used to show the same weld in three locations that are relatively close to each other. Symbols on the top of the reference line mean apply the weld to the other side of the joint. KEY POINTS: symbols on the bottom of the reference line mean weld the side of the joint the arrow is touching or pointing to. The reference line has a leader and arrow that points to where the information applies. details about the weld and even details about the joint. All the other elements that describe the weld are on or located around this line. THE REFERENCE LINE AND ARROW The reference line is one of the most important elements on the welding symbol.

Remember the rule to apply the right weld to the right side. See the examples: OTHER ELEMENTS ON REFERENCE LINE There are two other elements that may be seen on the reference line that provide information about the weld. The other element seen on the reference line resembles a flag and is located where the leader line joins the reference line. this weld may be applied at the job site not in the shop. Sometimes clarification will be given in the welding symbol tail or as a specification on the print. This means the weld extends all the way around the joint the arrow is pointing at. KEY POINT: The all around element is only used when it is possible to weld all the way around a single surface. One is a circle around the place where the leader line connects to the reference line and indicates the weld is “ALL AROUND”. When symbols appear on both sides of the reference line it means weld both sides of the joint. The examples of the weld all around and field weld above show a fillet weld symbol so that the weld to be applied in both cases is a fillet weld. Otherwise more than on symbol is used. or may not be the same weld on both sides of the joint. For instance.This method is used because sometimes the welding symbol must be drawn on the blueprint on the other side of the joint. This element is called a field weld and means the weld will be done in another location. THE FILLET WELD The fillet weld symbol is one of the most widely used symbols and the shape placed on the reference line to indicate a fillet weld is a triangle that resembles the side profile of a fillet weld. . If the reference line has a weld symbol on both sides of the reference line they may.

The names of the parts of the fillet weld KEY POINT: Fillet sounds like fill it (pronounce the T) not fillay as in fillet a fish. THE SIZE OF THE WELD. THE LENGTH OF THE WELD. 4. Sometimes (not often) a weld of unequal legs may be required. If no size is shown on the fillet weld. a size for all fillets will be given on the drawing as a note or specification. A welded piece may have a different weld size on each side or they may be the same size. THE SIZE OF THE WELD. . For example: if one member of the joint is thinner than the other. THE LENGTH AND PITCH OF INTERMITTENT WELDS. The size of the fillet weld is determined by the legs of the triangle shape which represent the legs of the fillet. 3. 2. 1. THE CONTOUR REQUIREMENTS. 1. The important elements added to a simple fillet weld symbol are as follows.

THE LENGTH OF THE FILLETWELD. but rather is a given length of weld separated by a given space between them. If it is not obvious the location is detailed on the drawing.KEY POINT: Making the fillet welds the wrong size may lead to costly rework if you are not sure ask for clarification. This method of welding may be . 2. The length of the weld when it is not a continuous weld is shown by a number on the right side of the fillet weld triangle. THE LENGTH AND PITCH OF INTERMITTENT WELDS An intermittent weld is one that is not continuous across the joint. 3.

The welds then appear staggered. KEY POINT: The pitch is not the space between welds but a measurement from center to center of the welds. THE CONTOUR REQUIREMENTS Some welding symbols may show a contour finish that details how the fillet weld shape must be finished after welding. The pitch refers to a dimension from the center of one weld to the center of the next weld. 4. Chain intermittent the welds on both sides of the joint are opposite each other and resemble a chain. Intermittent welding can save time and money if a long weld is not necessary. The length appears first as before followed by a hyphen then the pitch is shown. The contour may be flat or convex and the element to describe this is placed above the slope on the fillet weld symbol. Used more frequently than the length alone. Staggered intermittent the welds on the opposite side are usually started in the gap between the welds on the first side. The intermittent welds may be chain intermittent or staggered intermittent. KEY POINT: If the welds are staggered the fillet weld symbol will be staggered on the reference line. . the length and pitch are two numbers located at the right of the fillet weld symbol. To get the spacing for layout subtract the length of one weld from the pitch. A letter to indicate the method of finish may be given above the finish element.used to control heat distortion or where the joint strength requirements allow.

are butted together for welding they usually have some form of a groove to allow the weld to penetrate into or through the joint. When two pieces of metal. The groove is formed by preparing the edges to be welded with a bevel edge. check the drawing for clarification. The pitch is the distance from the center of one length of weld to the center of the next length of weld. Fillet weld symbols on the top of the reference line mean apply the weld to the opposite side of the joint. Fillet weld symbols on both sides of the reference line mean apply weld to both sides of the joint. When a length of weld is shown on a fillet weld symbol the dimension is placed on the right side. This remains the case regardless of how the break in the arrow is drawn. double bevel edge. GROOVE WELDING SYMBOLS Groove welding symbols are used to show how butt joints are prepared for welding and to detail how the weld is to be applied.A letter U may be used to designate an unspecified finish. chamfer edge. When two numbers appear separated by a hyphen. the length is indicated first then the pitch. When finishing directions are shown they appear over the slope of the fillet weld symbol. other than sheet metal or thin sections. Fillet weld symbols on the bottom of the reference line mean apply the weld to the side of the joint the arrow points to. The size of a fillet weld is determined by the length of the leg of the fillet weld and is shown on the symbol to the left. SUMMARY When reading a fillet weld symbol always make sure you know what side of the joint the weld is applied to. . when the choice of finishing is given. If two numbers appear in parenthesis the legs are unequal. J groove edge or double J groove edge.

Before applying the back weld a grinder or other method may be used to prepare a V. with a backing bar or by utilizing the back weld or backing weld application. . while the backing bar is used for easier welding. The backing weld is applied before welding and acts as a backing bar. The open root assembly allows penetration through the joint. The backing bar may be removed or may be a part of the joint.When the butt joint has no edge preparation it is referred to as a square groove. while the back weld is applied after welding to finish the back side of the joint. The edge preparations may be assembled in any configuration to form the groove for welding from either one side or both sides. The most common configurations and their basic symbols are shown below. The typical edge preparations are shown below: The edge preparations may be assembled as either open root.

KEY POINT: The Groove welding symbols have the same placement relevance on the reference line as the fillet weld. Symbols on the bottom of the reference line mean weld the side of the joint the arrow is touching or pointing to. GROOVE WELDING ELEMENTS GROOVE WELD SIZE The groove weld size is given in two dimensions and like the fillet weld it is placed to the left of the weld symbol. This can be helpful to remember since symbols on a blueprint do not show the actual joint shape or edge preparation. reworking welds is costly and time consuming. If it is not clear always ask someone.KEY POINT: If two imaginary lines are drawn parallel to the horizontal line in the above symbols they show the joint shape. this is true for most of the symbols. The depth of groove is measured from the surface of the joint to the bottom of the preparation. . while symbols on the top of the reference line mean weld the opposite side of where the arrow is touching or pointing to. The first size given is THE DEPTH OF GROOVE and is the dimension used to prepare the edge preparation.

KEY PONT: The depth of groove does not include weld reinforcement or root penetration. The second size given is the ACTUAL WELD SIZE and is enclosed in parentheses to distinguish it from the groove size. On some drawings the root opening or groove angle will be covered in a note or specification on the drawing for all similar symbols. The Welder must always read all information given on a drawing. The root opening and groove angle are separate elements and may or may not appear together depending on the joint requirements. J grooves angles may be detailed elsewhere on the drawing. or depth of groove. and does not appear on the symbol. KEY POINT: The penetration into the joint shown on the weld size is not measurable by the naked eye but is given to provide information about the expected outcome. On a square groove only the weld size is given. ROOT OPENING AND GROOVE ANGLE Two other important elements for preparing and welding the groove are the root opening and the groove angle. The root opening. The weld size does not include face reinforcement or root reinforcement. . KEY POINT: The groove angle for a V groove is given as the INCLUDED angle so that means the edge bevel or chamfer for each piece is 1/2 of the degrees given. For example. The groove angle is also placed inside the weld symbol and is given in degrees. The actual weld size is again measured from the surface of the groove through the bottom of the groove but now includes the expected penetration of the weld. dimensions the space between the joint to be welded and is placed inside the weld symbol. when used. A 45 degree included angle means bevel each member at 22 1/2 degrees.

KEY POINT: If the backing bar is to be removed the symbol will contain an R for remove after welding.CONTOUR AND FINISHING The same contour symbols that apply to fillet welds may be used with groove welding and are placed above the weld symbol. Spacers may be removed before the second side is welded or they may become part of the joint. BACKING BARS BACK WELDS AND SPACERS As previously mentioned in this section some joint configurations may have a backing bar or spacer for easier welding or may employ the back or backing weld technique. . Since the back and backing weld symbol look the same you must look for details to see which weld applies. The elements for these are placed on the bottom of the reference line opposite the weld symbol or in the case of the spacer on the reference line.

SUMMARY The groove weld symbols are used to provide information for preparing and welding the groove. however. The welder should read the entire drawing before making a weld to avoid costly rework. they cannot always show every intended operation and often notes or specifications are used on the drawing. Whenever you see something you are unfamiliar with check with engineering or supervision for clarification. It is critical to produce the right size fillet and groove weld for the application so check sizes with weld gages. .

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