Chapter 8.

Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
J. Kövári
Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations
Rome, Italy
1. LIST OF SYMBOLS, DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
2. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR CHANNEL FLOW
3. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES
4. DISCHARGE OF WELLS
5. DESIGN FORMULA FOR SCREEN
6. DESIGN FORMULA FOR FILTER
7. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR FLOW IN PIPES
8. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR PUMPING
1. LIST OF SYMBOLS, DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
A list of symbols with their dimensions and units used in the formulas is given in Table 1.
Table 1. Symbols, Dimensions and Units used
Produced by:  Fisheries and Aquaculture
Department
Title:  Inland Aquaculture Engineering...
  More details
Symbol Description Dimensions Units
A Area L
2
m
2

B Surface width of a channel L m
b Bottom width of a channel L m
D Diameter L m
d depth L m
g Acceleration due to the force of gravity L/T
2
m/sec
2

H Total head; head over a crest L m
h Head or water depth L m
h
l
Head loss L m
k Permeability coefficient L/T m/sec
L Length L m
l Length L m
n Manning's roughness coefficient T/L
1/3
sec/m
1/3

P
w
Wetted perimeter L m
Allowable pressure head for siphon L m
Pressure L m
Q Discharge L
3
/T m
3
/sec
q Unit discharge L
3
/T m
3
/sec
R Hydraulic radius L m
r Radius L m
s Drawdown L m
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Symbols for Dimensionless Quantities
2. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR CHANNEL FLOW
Manning's formula (Chow, 1959)
where
v = average velocity, m/sec
R = = hydraulic radius, m

A = cross-sectional area of the channel, m
2

P
w
= wetted perimeter of the channel, m
S = slope of the channel
n = roughness coefficient
The values of n for various channel conditions are illustrated in Table 2.
Discharge formula
Normal water depth formula
Slope formula
where
V Volume L
3
m
3

v Average velocity L/T m/sec
W Weight F kg
w Unit weight of water; width of a structure F/L
3
; L kg/m
3
; m
 Density of water F/L
3
kg/m
3

Symbol Quantity
C Discharge coefficient
K
s
Screen loss coefficient
S Bottom slope
z Ratio of the side slope for a channel cross-section (horizontal to vertical)
n Efficiency
ì Friction factor
t 3.1416
o Velocity coefficient
v Contraction coefficient
(2.1)
m
3
/sec (2.2)
, m (2.3)
(2.4)
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b = bottom width of the channel, m
z = ratio of the side slope
Table 2 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n (Simon, 1976)
Table 3 Allowable Mean Velocities against Erosion or Scour in Channels of various Soils and Materials
Channel condition Value
of n
Exceptionally smooth, straight surfaces: enamelled or glazed coating; glass; lucite; brass 0.009
Very well planed and fitted boards; smooth metal; pure cement plaster; smooth tar or paint coating 0.010
Planed lumber; smoothed mortar (1/3 sand) without projections, in straight alignment 0-011
Carefully fitted but unplaned boards, steel trowelled concrete in straight alignment 0.012
Reasonably straight, clean, smooth surfaces without projections; good boards; carefully built brick wall;
wood trowelled concrete; smooth, dressed ashlar
0.013
Good wood, metal, or concrete surfaces with some curvature, very small projections, slight moss or
algae growth or gravel deposition. Shot concrete surfaced with trowelled mortar
0.014
Rough brick; medium quality cut stone surface; wood with algae or moss growth; rough concrete;
riveted steel
0.015
Very smooth and straight earth channels, free from growth; stone rubble set in cement; shot,
untrowelled concrete deteriorated brick wall; exceptionally well excavated and surfaced channel cut in
natural rock
0.017
Well-built earth channels covered with thick, uniform silt deposits; metal flumes with excessive
curvature, large projections, accumulated debris
0.018
Smooth, well-packed earth; rough stone walls; channels excavated in solid, soft rock; little curving
channels in solid loess, gravel or clay, with silt deposits, free from growth, in average condition;
deteriorating uneven metal flume with curvatures and debris; very large canals in good condition
0.020
Small, manmade earth channels in well-kept condition; straight natural streams with rather clean,
uniform bottom without pools and flow barriers, cavings and scours of the banks
0.025
Ditches; below average manmade channels with scattered cobbles in bed 0.028
Well-maintained large floodway; unkempt artificial channels with scours, slides, considerable aquatic
growth; natural stream with good alignment and fairly constant cross-section
0.030
Permanent alluvial rivers with moderate changes in cross-section, average stage; slightly curving
intermittent streams in very good condition
0.033
Small, deteriorated artificial channels, half choked with aquatic growth, winding river with clean bed, but
with pools and shallows
0.035
Irregularly curving permanent alluvial stream with smooth bed; straight natural channels with uneven
bottom, sand bars, dunes, few rocks and underwater ditches; lower section of mountainous streams
with well-developed channel with sediment deposits; intermittent streams in good condition; rather
deteriorated artificial channels, with moss and reeds, rocks, scours and slides
0.040
Artificial earth channels partially obstructed with debris, roots, and weeds; irregularly meandering rivers
with partly grown-in or rocky bed; developed flood plains with high grass and bushes
0.067
Mountain ravines; fully ingrown small artificial channels; flat flood plains crossed by deep ditches (slow
flow)
0.080
Mountain creeks with waterfalls and steep ravines; very irregular flood plains; weedy and sluggish
natural channels obstructed with trees
0-10
Very rough mountain creeks, swampy, heavily vegetated rivers with logs and driftwood on the bottom;
flood plain forest with pools
0.133
Mudflows; very dense flood plain forests; watershed slopes 0.22
Description v, m/sec
Soft clay or very fine clay 0-2
Very fine or very light pure sand 0.3
Very light loose sand or silt 0.4
Coarse sand or light sandy soil 0.5
Average sandy soil and good loam 0.7
Sandy loam 0.8
Average loam or alluvial soil 0.9
Firm loam, clay loam 1.0
Firm gravel or clay 1.1
Stiff clay soil; ordinary gravel soil, or clay and gravel 1.4
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Table 4 Allowable Side Slopes for Trapezoidal Channels in various Soils (Davis, 1952)
Table 5 Characteristic Dimensions of Optimum Trapezoidal Channel for given Gross-sectional Area
and Side Slope
where:
h = water depth, m
b = bottom width, m
B = surface width, m
P = wetted perimeter, m
R = hydraulic radius, m
A = cross-sectional area, m
2

Example 1
A trapezoidal earth channel of 1.5:1 side slopes is to be built on a slope of S = 0.001 to carry Q = 1.0
m
3
/sec. Design the channel cross-section such that the hydraulic radius is optimal.
Solution;
Using Figure 1 first we mark off the length of the 1.0 m
3
/sec discharge on the edge of a sheet of paper.
Next, keeping the line horizontal we place the paper's edge on the upper graphs, moving it upward
along the corresponding slope S = 0.001 and shape (1.5:1) lines. Where the distance between the lines
equals the discharge length we note the magnitude of the hydraulic radius R.
R = 0.40 m
The corresponding velocity in the channel is
v = 0.70 m/sec
Broken stone and clay 1.5
Grass 1.2
Coarse gravel, cobbles, shale 1.8
Conglomerates, cemented gravel, soft slate, tough hardpan, soft sedimentary rock 1.8 - 2.5
Soft rock 1.4 - 2.5
Hard rock 3.0 - 4.6
Very hard rock or cement concrete (1:2:4 minimum) 4.6-7.6
Type of soil z
Light sand, wet clay 3:1
Wet sand 2.5:1
Loose earth, loose sandy loam 2:1
Ordinary earth, soft clay, sandy loam, gravelly loam or loam 1.5:1
Ordinary gravel 1.25:1
Stiff earth or clay, soft moorum 1:1
Tough hard pan, alluvial soil, firm gravel, hard compact earth, hard moorum 0.5:1
Soft rock 0.25:1
Side slope
0.5:1 0.759 0.938 1.698 2.640 0.379
1:1 0.739 0.612 2.092 2.705 0.370
1.5:1 0.689 0.417 2.483 2.905 0.344
2:1 0.636 0.300 2.844 3.145 0.318
2.5:1 0.589 0.227 3.169 3.395 0.295
3:1 0.549 0.174 3502 3.645 0.275
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obtained from the slope graph. The cross-sectional area is:
A = 1.43 m
2


from the shape graph.
Entering the left bottom graph along the R = 0.40 curve, we find the intercept with the radial line
indicating optimum conditions. In this case for
R = R
opt
= 0.40 m

we get
b = 0.50 m
and
h = 0.82 m
Example 2
Design a channel in firm loam, for a discharge of 1 500 l/sec, at maximum permissible velocity.
Solution
From Table 3, the maximum allowable velocity in firm loam is v = 1,0 m/sec. From Table 4 assume side
slopes of 1.5:1. From Table 2 the roughness coefficient is defined as n = 0.025.
Canal properties


From Table 5
Figure 1. Lenkei's channel design graphs
Table 6 Channel section geometry
The slope of the channel is obtained from the Equation 2.4 as


3. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES
3.1 Design Formulas for Intakes
3.2 Design Formulas for Inlets
3.3 Design Formulas for Outlets
3.4 Design Formulas for Culvert
3.5 Design Formulas for Vertical Falls
3.6 Design Formulas for Spillways
3.7 Design Formulas for Siphon



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3.1 Design Formulas for Intakes
3.1.1 Open intake (sluice)
3.1.2 Pipe intake
3.1.1 Open intake (sluice)
Figure 2. Open intake

(A) Free discharge formula
where
o = velocity coefficient
H
l
= contracted water depth, m
b = width of the gate, m
= upstream energy level, m

H = upstream water depth, m
v
0
= approach velocity, m/sec
g = 9.81 = acceleration due to gravity, m/sec
2

Table 7 Values of Velocity Coefficient o
Contracted water depth:
where o = contraction coefficient.
Table 8 Values of Contraction Coefficient v
m
3
/sec (3.1)
Types of gate 
Broad crested gate 0.85 - 0.95
Uncrested gate 0.95 - 1.00
H
1
= v ×a
(3.2)
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(B) Submerged discharge formula
where
C = o.v = discharge coefficient
a = opening height of the gate, m
b = width of the gate, m
h = H
o
- H
2
= head, m
H
o
= upstream energy level, m
H
2
= downstream water depth, m
g = 9.81, m/sec
2

The subcritical conjugate depth:
where
H
1
= contracted water depth

(C) Discharge formula influenced by downstream
where
k = coefficient (Figure 3)
Q = free discharge, m
3
/sec (see Equation (3.1))
Figure 3. Values of coefficient k








0.00 0.611 0.30 0.625 0.55 0.650 0.80 0.720
0.10 0.615 0.35 0.628 0.60 0.660 0.85 0.745
0.15 0.618 0.40 0.630 0.65 0.675 0.90 0.780
0.20 0.620 0.45 0.638 0.70 0.690 0.95 0.835
0.25 0.622 0.50 0.645 0.75 0.705 1.00 1.000
, m
3
/sec (3.3)
, m (3.4)
(3.5)
(3.6)
Q
retarded
= k.Q, m
3
/sec (3.7)
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Figure 4. The range of downstream influence on flow under gates

(D) Apron and floor length formulas
Total length of the apron:
where

d
s
= depth of the sill from the downstream floor, m

4 h
2
= length of the hydraulic jump, m
h
2
= subcritical conjugate depth, m
Bligh's method
Total length of the floor:
(3.8)
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L
f

=
C × H
FS-b
, m
where
C = Bligh's coefficient
H
FS-b
= difference between the full upstream supply level and the downstream bed level of
the channel
Table 9 Values of Bligh's Coefficient C
Example 3
A 3.0 m wide vertical uncrested gate discharges into a feeder channel in which the water level is 1.2 m.
The upstream water level is 2.0 m and the gate opening is 0.70 m. The approach velocity is 0.75 m/sec.
Determine the discharge through the structure and the length of the required apron.
By Figure 4 we find the type of flow condition existing






Observing the location of the point described, we note that the outflow is free. Therefore the free
discharge is obtained using Equation (3.1)


where from Table 7
o = 0.97 and


from Table 8
v = 0.628
then
H
1
= v ×a = 0.628×0.70 = 0.44 m

therefore
Type of soil C
Soft clay and silt 3.0
Medium clay 2.0
Loam 5.0
Light sand and mud 8.0
Peat 9.0
Coarse grained sand 12.0
Fine micaceous sand 15.0
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Total length of the apron is defined from Equation (3.8)


where
H
0
= 2.03 m

d
s
= 0


H
1
= 0.44 m




then


therefore


3.1.2 Pipe intake
Figure 5. Pipe intake

Calculating formulas
where
C = discharge coefficient
A = pipe cross-sectional area, m
2

h = head, difference in upstream and downstream water surface levels, m
Value of the discharge coefficient C is obtained by the formula
m
3
/sec (3.9)
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where
k
e
=0.5
=
entrance friction coefficient

ì = 0.03 = friction factor for concrete pipe
l = pipe length, m
D = pipe diameter
Protection length on the downstream side is determined from the following formula:
where
v
p
= velocity in pipe, m/sec

v
s
= scouring velocity, m/sec (Table 3)
Example 1
Determine the discharge of the intake and the required protection length on its downstream side with
the data below
D = 45 cm
l = 12.5 m
H
o
= 2.0 m
H
2
- 1.6 m
Bed soil = sandy loam
Solution
Determine discharge from the formula (3.9)


where




h = H
0
-H
2
= 2.0-1.6 = 0.4 m



From Table 3 the allowable velocity is defined as v
s
= 0.8 for sandy loam.

Then
(3.10)
(3.11)
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therefore


3.2 Design Formulas for Inlets
3.2.1 Free fall pipe inlet
3.2.2 Submerged pipe inlet
3.2.3 Open flume inlet
3.2.1 Free fall pipe inlet
Figure 6. Free fall pipe inlet

where
Q = discharge of the inlet, m
3
/sec

u = discharge coefficient
A
=
internal cross-sectional area of the pipe, m
2

g = 9.81 = acceleration due to gravity, m/sec
2

H = head of the upstream water surface over the centre of the pipe, m
Figure 7. Discharge coefficient  for flow through free fall pipe inlet
(3.12)
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Example 2
Determine the discharge of the free fall inlet with a diameter of 15 cm if its length is 4.0 m and the water
depth in the feeder channel is 50 cm.
Solution
Determine the discharge from Equation (3.12)


The discharge coefficient is defined as u = 0.7 from Figure 7




then


3.2.2 Submerged pipe inlet
Calculating formulas given for pipe intake may be used.
3.2.3 Open flume inlet
Figure 8. Open flume inlet l/sec

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where
Q = design discharge of the inlet, l/sec
B = width of the throat, cm
H = height of the designed full supply level in the feeder channel above the sill level of the
inlet
C = discharge coefficient
Table 10 Values of Discharge Coefficient C for open Flume Inlet
Figure 9. Relationships of discharge to B and H
Example 3
Design an open flume inlet for a discharge of 150 l/sec if the water depth in the feeder canal is 45 cm
and 1.50 m in the pond.
Solution
The corresponding width of the throat to the water depth of 150 l/sec is defined from Figure 9.
then
B = 30 cm
d
g
= 0.5×H = 0.5×0.45 = 0.23 m
l
c
= 0.8×H
2
= 0.8×1.50 = 1.20 m
d
c
= 0.1×H
2
= 0.1×1.50 = 0.15 m
3.3 Design Formulas for Outlets
3.3.1 Types of outlets
3.3.1 Types of outlets
1. Open outlet (sluice)
2. Pipe outlet
Formulas given for intakes can be used.
The insertion of the stoplogs into the outlet creates over-shot flow conditions. The discharge formula
(neglecting the approach velocity), for over-shot flow is:


B in cm C
6 to 10 0.0160
10 to 15 0.0164
over 15 0.0166
Length of the cistern: l
c
= 0.82 H
2
, m
Depth of the cistern: d
c
= 0.1 H
2
, m
where H
2
= water depth in the pond, m
Depth of the glacis d
g
= 0.5 H, m
where H = maximum water depth above the sill level of the inlet, m
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where
B = internal width of the outlet monk, m
H = head, the difference between the pond water level and the stoplog crest, m
Time for emptying ponds or tanks:
where
T = emptying time in seconds
A
1
= average cross-sectional area of the pond or tank, m
2

A
2
= cross-sectional area of the outlet, m
2

H
1
= water depth in the pond at the beginning, m
H
2
= water depth in the pond at the end, m
If the pond is completely emptied H
2
will be = 0

Example 4
Determine the emptying time of 2 ha pond having its water depth of 1.5 m if the diameter of the outlet is
45 cm.
Solution
To obtain the required emptying time we use Equation (3.13)


where
A
1
= 2 ha = 20 000 m
2


H
1
= 1.5 m
H
0
= 0
then


3.4 Design Formulas for Culvert
3.4.1 Discharge formulas
 
Figure 10. Culvert
(3.13)
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3.4.1 Discharge formulas
A) Submerged discharge formula
The formulas given for pipe intake can be used, but the following entrance friction coefficients should
be used to calculate the discharge coefficient C.
Table 11 Values of Entrance Friction Coefficients for Culverts Flowing Full
B) Unsubmerged discharge formula
where
Q = design discharge of the culvert, m
3
/sec


A
2
= actual flow area of the culvert, m
2

n = roughness coefficient for concrete pipe = 0.012 for corrugated metal pipe = 0.024

P
w
= wetted perimeter of the culvert
S = slope of the culvert
Entrance head:
where
H = head on entrance above the bottom of the culvert, m
d
c
= water depth in the culvert, m
To solve Equation (3.15), it is necessary to try different values of d
c
and corresponding values of R until
a value is found that satisfies the equation. If the head on a culvert is high, a value of d
c
less than the
culvert diameter will not satisfy Equation (3.15). This means the flow is under pressure and discharge
can be calculated by submerged discharge formula.
3.5 Design Formulas for Vertical Falls
3.5.1 Discharge formulas
Entrance condition k
e

Sharp-edged projecting entrance 0.9
Flush entrance, square edge 0.5
Well rounded entrance 0.08
(3.14)
(3.15)
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Figure 11. Vertical fall

3.5.1 Discharge formulas
A) Free discharge for vertical fall with a trapezoidal cross-sectional area
where
Q
1
= design discharge of the vertical fall, m/sec
A
1
= contracted cross-sectional area of the flow, m v


H = upstream water depth in the channel, m
v = approach velocity, m/sec
H
1
= contracted depth = 0.92 h
c
, m
h
2
= critical depth, m
The critical depth can be obtained from the formulas (3.5) and (3.6).
B) Submerged discharge
where
A = cross-sectional area of the flow, m
2

h
s
= H
2
- p, m
H
2
= downstream water depth, m
p
s
= height of sill over-downstream bed level, m
h
2
= subcritical conjugate level = 1.14 h
c

C) Length and depth of the basin
The length of the basin is given by empirical formula
(3.16)
(3.17)
L
b
= 5 (H×h)
1/2
, m (3.18)
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where
H = upstream water depth, m
h = head, difference in upstream and downstream water surface levels, m
The depth of the basin is
3.6 Design Formulas for Spillways
3.6.1 Recommended design floods for the spillways
3.6.2 Types of spillways
3.6.3 Discharge formulas
3.6.1 Recommended design floods for the spillways
1/
In case the failure of the dam would create danger to human life or would cause great
property damage, Q
0,1%
has to be used to design the spillway
3.6.2 Types of spillways
1. Side channel spillways
1.1 Side earthen channel spillway
1.2 Side lined channel spillway
2. Overfall spillway
3. Shaft spillways
3.1 Circular crest
3.2 Standard crest
3.3 Flat crest
4. Siphon spillway
3.6.3 Discharge formulas
3.6.3.1 Side earthen channel spillway
Figure 12. Side earthen channel spillway

d
b
= 0.17 (H×h)
1/2
, m (3.19)
Reservoir Design flood
Volume Height of dam (m/sec)
(m
3
) (m)
10
5
or max. 2.5 Q
2%

10
5
- 10
6
2.5 - 6.0 Q
1%

10
6
- 3.10
6
6.0 -10.0 Q
0.5%
- Q
0.1%
1/

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A) Discharge over the crest
where
L = overflow crest length, m
h = water depth above the crest, m
Q = designed discharge, m
3
/sec
B) Velocity in the earthen channel
Using Manning's formula (2.1):


To prevent erosion in the earthen channel the calculated velocity should be less than the scouring
velocity of the material concerned as shown in Table 3.
C) Length of the crest protection
where
v = velocity of the designed discharge, m/sec
v
s
= scouring velocity, m/sec
h = water depth above the crest, m
3.6.3.2 Side lined channel spillway
The side channel has to be lined when the valley side has such great gradient that the calculated
velocity in the side channel is higher than the scouring velocity concerned.
Example 5
Design a side earthen channel spillway for a discharge of 12 m
3
/sec in stiff clay soil if the gradient of the
valley side along the axis of the channel is 4 percent.
Solution
The scouring velocity of stiff clay soil is defined as v
s
=1.4 m/sec from Table 3.

Considering the channel as an unkempt artificial channel with considerable aquatic growth the value of
n equals to 0.030 from Table 2. The next step is to determine the measurements of the spillway.
Assuming that the water depth over the crest is h = 0.30 m the length of the crest is determined by the
use of Equation (3.20).


For the length of the crest protection using Equation (3.21)


where
(3.20)
(3.21)
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v
s
= 1.4 m/sec

h = 0.30 m
Entering these values into Equation (3.21)


To check the velocity in the channel first the measurements of the channel are defined as follows:
The cross-sectional area of the channel is:


Assume that the channel has a bottom width of 30 m and its side slope of 1:1 then the normal water
depth can be calculated by the following formula:
where
z = ratio of the side slope (horizontal to one vertical)
with
b = 30 m
z = 1
A = 8.6 m
2

then


The wetted perimeter is:


The hydraulic radius is


The velocity in the channel is then equal to


Since this velocity is higher than the scouring velocity, therefore, the channel should be lined or its
gradient can be lowered by some falls. The slope of the bottom in the channel is obtained from
Equation (2.1)
(3.22)
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3.6.3.3 Overfall spillway
Figure 13. Overfall spillway

A) Discharge over the crest
where
L = overflow crest length, m
h = water depth above the crest, m
Q = designed discharge, m
B) Design formulas for the glacis and the stilling basin
Critical depth is from Equation (3.5)


where


The velocity of the flow at the toe of the spillway may be computed by
where

e = g×q
P = the crest height above the stilling basin
and


The head loss along the glacis can be determined by the formula
Q = 1.7×L×h
3/2
, m
3
/sec (3.23)
(3.24)
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where
n = roughness coefficient, sec/m
1/3

1 = length of the glacis, m
The subcritical conjugate depth is defined by the formula
The depth of the stilling basin is:
d
s
= h
2
- h
3
, m

The length of the stilling basin can be calculated by the formula:
Example 3.6
Design an overfall spillway with the following data
Q = 30 m
3
/sec

h = 1.0 m
P = 5.0 m
gradient of the glacis = 2:1
n = 0.012
h
3
= 1.20 m
Solution
From Equation (3.23) the length of the crest is:


Discharge per unit width is


The critical depth is then


The length of the glacis is defined as


The head loss along the glacis is obtained from Equation (3.25)
(3.25)
(3.26)
(3.27)
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where
Q = 30 m
3
/sec

n = 0.012
l = 11.18 m
A = h
c
×L = 0.66×18.0 = 11.88 m
2


P
w
= L + 2 h
c
= 18.0 + 2×0.66 = 19.32 m



then


The velocity of the flow at the toe of the spillway is defined from Equation (3.24)


where


P = 5.0 m
h
c
= 0.66 m

h
0
= 1.63 m



then




e = g×q = 9.81×1.67 = 16.38
now


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then


The water depth at the toe of the spillway is


The subcritical conjugate depth in the stilling basin is defined from Equation (3.26)


The depth of the stilling basin is
d
s
= h
2
- h
3
= 1.65 - 1.20 = 0.45 m

The length of the stilling basin is obtained from Equation (3.27)


where


then


3.6.3.4 Shaft spillways
Figure 14. Types of the shaft spillways

(A) Discharge over the crest
1. Circular crest
Page 24 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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where
C
1
= discharge coefficient (Table 12)

r = radius of the circular
h = water depth above the crest, m
Table 12 Values of the Discharge Coefficient C
1
,

2. Standard crest
Table 13 Values of the Discharge Coefficient C
2


3. Flat crest
3.6.3.5 Siphon spillway
Figure 25. Siphon spillway

where
C = discharge coefficient
A = cross-sectional area of the throat, m
h = head, m
Value of the discharge coefficient is determined by the formula
where
ì = friction factor = 0.03 (concrete pipe)
1 = length of the siphon, m
d = diameter of the siphon, m
(3.28)
h/r 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
C
1
1.82 1.78 1.63 1.33 1.12 0.93 0.80 0.70 0.62 0.57
Q = 2×C
2
×r×t ×h
1/3
, m
3
/sec
(3.29)
h/r 0.1 0.2 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50
C
2
1.83 1.825 1.815 1.80 1.785 1.76 1.74 1.72
Q = 3.2×r×t ×h
3/2
, m
3
/sec
(3.30)
(3.31)
(3.32)
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E k = all local loss coefficients (Table 19)
In order to determine the approximate size of the siphon the value of C can be considered as follows:
3.7 Design Formulas for Siphons
3.7.1 Types of siphons
3.7.2 Discharge of siphon
3.7.1 Types of siphons
Table 14 Recommended Minimum Velocities in Pipes for Siphons
3.7.2 Discharge of siphon
Figure 16. Details of the siphon

Calculating formulas
where
Types of siphons Diameter (mm) C
medium 120 - 200 0.4 - 0.6
large 200 - 1 200 0.6 - 0.8
Diameter (mm) Length (m) Discharge (m
3
/sec)
a) Small, mobile 25 - 120 < 5 0.00025 - 0.015
b) Medium, movable 120 - 200 < 10 0.015 - 0.050
c) Large, stabile 200 - 1 200 < 100 0.050 - 3.10
Pipe diameter (mm) Velocity (m/sec)
120 1.0
200 1.5
250 1.55
300 1.6
400 1.7
450 1.8
500 1.9
600 2.2
800 2.4
1 000 2.6
1 200 2.6
(3.33)
Page 26 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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C = discharge coefficient
A = cross-sectional area of the pipe, m
2

H = head, m
The discharge coefficient C can be calculated by the formula
where
ì = friction factor = 0.02 (steel pipe)
1 = length of the siphon, m
d = diameter of the siphon, m
E k = all local loss coefficients along the siphon
Table 19 lists local loss coefficients for a variety of the fixtures.
The allowable pressure head for siphon
where




The allowable suction head of the siphon is:
where
v = velocity in the pipe, m/sec


The maximum allowable downstream head of the siphon is:
(3.34)
(3.35)
Altitude in m 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 3 000
10.3 9.8 9.2 8.6 8.1 7.2
Water temperature °C 10 20 30
0.123 0.24 0.43
(3.36)
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where


Depth of water above the entrance of the siphon
(a) Entrance with vertical axis
(b) Entrance with horizontal axis
where
k
e
= entrance loss coefficient

(c) Entrance with inclined axis
where o = angle of the tilt in degree
Example 7
Design the siphon shown in Figure 17 for a discharge of 350 l/sec if water temperature is 30°C.
Figure 17. Details of the siphon

Solution
3 Considering the designed discharge Q = 0.35 m
3
/sec the siphon is a large one. The velocity is
calculated by the following formula assuming that its diameter is 400 mm.
(3.37)
v D h
(m/sec) (m) (m)
1.5 0.1 - 0.3 2 D, but min. 0.3
1.5 - 2.5 0.3 - 0.8 1 D 0.7
> 2.5 > 1.0 1.7 D 2.0
(3.38)
(3.39)
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As this velocity is higher than the recommended minimum one in Table 14 hence, the selected
diameter is satisfactory.
The next step is to determine the water depth above the entrance of the siphon by using Equation
(3.38)


then


The discharge coefficient of the siphon is defined from Equation (3.34)


ì = 0.02
l = l
1
+ l
2
+ l
3
+ l
4
+ l
5
+ l
6
= 1.80 + 14.0 + 8.70 + 13.0 + 5.0 + 1.50 = 44 m
d = 0.40 m
Computation of the local loss coefficient using Table 19
Substitution of the above values into the equation gives:


The allowable suction head of the siphon is obtained if we use Equation (3.35)


where


v = 2.79 m k
e
= 0.1
Diffusor inlet 0.1
Fraction bends (30°) 4×0.09 = 0.36
Fraction bends (90°) 0.34
Valve 0.07
Outlet diffusor 0.5
E k = 1.37
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then


The suction head of the siphon is defined from Equation (3.36)


where



then
H
s
= 7.35 - 1.03 = 6.32 m

H
effs
= 550 - 545 - 5.0 m
The allowable downstream head of the siphon is determined from Equation (3.37)


where



then
H
T
= 7.35 + 0.88 = 8.23 m

H
effT
= 550 - 543 = 7.00 m
The design of the siphon is satisfactory because both H
effs
and H
effT
are below their allowable values.

The discharge of the siphon is defined by the formula (3.33)


where
C = 0.47
A = 0.126 m
2

H = 545 - 543 = 2.0 m
then
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This is acceptable, since the designed Q = 0.35 m
3
/sec.

4. DISCHARGE OF WELLS
4.1 Well Types
4.2 Well Discharge in a Confined Aquifer
4.3 Well Discharge in an Unconfined Aquifer
4.4 Radius of Influence
4.5 Screen Entrance Velocity
4.6 Recommended Well Diameter
4.1 Well Types
Figure 18. Generalized cross section defining well types

4.2 Well Discharge in a Confined Aquifer
Figure 19. Radial flow in a confined aquifer
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Thiem's method
where
k = permeability coefficient, m/sec
b = thickness of the aquifer, m
h
0
= original piezometric head at the well
h
w
= piezometric head at the well, m
r
0
radius of the influence, m
r
w
= radius of the well, m
4.3 Well Discharge in an Unconfined Aquifer
Figure 20. Radial flow in an unconfined aquifer

Dupuit's method
(4.1)
(4.2)
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4.4 Radius of Influence
where
s = drawdown = h
0
- h
w
, m, m

4.5 Screen Entrance Velocity
To ensure a long service life of the well, movement of the finer fractions of the aquifer material,
resulting in subsequent clogging of the screen openings, has to be minimised. Therefore, the screen
entrance velocities have to be kept below the values recommended in Table 15.
Table 15 Permissible Screen Entrance Velocities (Walton, 1962)
4.6 Recommended Well Diameter
In order to install the required pumping equipment properly in the well, the diameter of the well should
be determined on the basis of the well discharge as recommended in Table 16.
Table 16 Recommended Well Diameter (Smith, 1961)
Example 1
Determine the discharge of a well with the diameter of 20 cm and the length of the screen of 30 m if k
equals 10 m/day, the thickness of the unconfined aquifer is 40 m and the water table is at the depth of 6
m below the ground level.
In order to determine the well discharge the approximate value of drawdown is chosen as 4.0 m.
From Equation (4.3) we get



(4.3)
Permeability coefficient (m/day) Screen velocity (cm/sec)
> 250 6.1
250 5.6
200 5.1
150 4.3
100 3.5
50 2.0
20 1.5
< 20 1.0
Pumping rate (m
3
/hour) Well diameter (m)
30 0.15
60 0.20
120 0.25
300 0.30
450 0.35
600 0.40
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where
s = 4.0 m
k = 10 m/day = 1.2×10
-4
m/sec
hence

From Equation (4.2) we get


where
h
0
= 34 m

h
w
= 30 m
r
w
= 0.10 m
Substitution of these values into Equation (4.2) gives


Determination of the entrance velocity of the screen:
The open area of the screen is assumed as 15 per cent of the total surface area of the screen. Then
the screen entrance area is obtained by
A
s
= 0.15×2r
w
×t ×L
s


where
L
s
= 30 m

now
A
s
= 0.15×2×0.10×3.14×30 = 2.82 m
2


The effective open area accounting for blockage by grains is estimated to be 50 per cent of the actual
open area i.e. 1.41 m . Hence the entrance velocity for a discharge of 0.015 m/sec is defined as


Since v
e
is equal to the optimum screen velocity, the selected screen is adequate.

Diameter of well:
Checking the well discharge per hour
q = 3 600×Q = 3 600×0.014 = 51 m
3
/sec

As this value is almost equal to the pumping rate of 60 m
3
/sec, hence, the selected diameter of 20 cm is
adequate.
Page 34 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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Example 2
Design a well for an indoor hatchery with a peak discharge of 700 1/min in an unconfined aquifer of 20
m. The fluctuation of the water table level is 4.0 m with a maximum level of 3.0 m below the ground
level. Assume the value of k as 100 m/day.
(i) Selection of well diameter
Q = 700 l/min = 42 m
3
/hour = 0.012 m
3
/sec
For this discharge the recommended well diameter is 2r
w
= 0.15 m from Table
16.
(ii) Screen length
For k = 100 m/day = 1.16×10
-3
m/sec the permissible screen entrance velocity
is obtained from Table 15 as v
e
=3.5 cm/sec = 0.035 m/sec. The screen length
is calculated from the formula below (Garg, 1978).
Q = v
e
×A
sef


where
A
sef
= effective open area of the screen = 0.5×0.15×A
s
m
2


Assuming that the screen's open area of 15 per cent is blocked by 50 per cent
due to obstruction by aquifer grains
then

Substituting the values into the formula gives

(iii) Radius of influence
From Equation (4.3) we get

Assuming s = 1.5 m then


(iv) Discharge of the well
From Equation (4.2) we get


where
k = 1.16×10
-3
m/sec

Page 35 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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h
0
=13 m, considering the minimum water table level
h
w
=11.5 m
r
0
=153 m
r
w
0.075 m
Substitution of these values into Equation (4.2) gives


Since the calculated discharge is larger than the required one, the above calculations have to be
repeated with a lowered value of the drawdown.
Assume s = 1,0 m

then


This is equal to the peak water demand of the hatchery, hence the tube well with a diameter of 15 cm
and a screen length of 10 m as well as a drawdown of 1.0 m yields the required 700 1/min for the
hatchery.
5. DESIGN FORMULA FOR SCREEN
Figure 21. Head loss in screens, values of screen loss coefficient K
s
for various bar shapes)
Mosonyi, 1963)

Kirschmer's formula
where
h
s
= loss of head, m

K
s
= screen loss coefficient
t = thickness of bars, m
b = clear spacing between bars, m
v = velocity of approach, m/sec
(5.1)
Page 36 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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o = angle of bar inclination, degree
Example 1
Design a Screen chamber for a pumping station with the following data
Procedure:
(i) Head loss of screen
Head loss of screens is obtained from Equation (5.1) with
Substituting these values into Equation (5.1) gives


(ii) Width of the pumping chamber
The width of the pumping chamber is calculated first without any screens as below


the number of spacing


now
t + b = 0.01 + 0.02 = 0.03 m
Hence, the total width of the screen chamber is obtained as
w
ef
= n
s
×(t +b) = 45×0.03 = 1.35 m

6. DESIGN FORMULA FOR FILTER
Figure 22. Flow through filter
Q = 0.50 m
3
/sec
o = 70°
h = 0.80 m
v = 0.70 m/sec
t = o 10 mm
b = 2 cm
K
s
= 1.79
t = 0.01 m
b = 0.02 m
v = 0.70 m/sec
sin o = sin 70°= 0.9397
Page 37 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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Darcy's Formula (Morris, 1963)
where
Q = discharge of the filter, m
3
/sec

k = permeability coefficient, m/sec
h = head, m
L = thickness of the filter media, m
A = surface of the filter, m
2

Table 17 Permeability Coefficient k
Example 1
Design a filter box of a feeder channel against trash fish for a discharge of 200 l/sec. The thickness of
the filter gravel with average grain size of 7 mm is 35 cm and the head is 30 cm.
Solution
Assuming that the length of the filter box is l = 3.0 m
From Equation (6.1)




where
A = l×w = 3.0m
L = 0.35 m
Q = 0.2 m
3
/sec
From Table 17 for average grain size of 7 mm we obtain k = 4.0×10
-2


h = 0.30 m
(6.1)
Soil type Average grain size (mm) Range of k (m/sec)
Medium gravel 4-7 (2.5 - 4.0)×10
-2

Fine gravel 2-4 (1.0 - 2.5)×10
-2

Coarse sand 0.5 - 2 10
-4
- 10
-2

Medium sand 0.3 - 0.5 5.0×10
-5
- 10
-4

Fine sand 0.1 - 0.3 (1.0 - 5.0)×10
-5

Page 38 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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then


so


Therefore, the required width of the filter box with the selected length of 3.0 m shall be 2.0 m.
7. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR FLOW IN PIPES
7.1 Conveyance Method
7.2 Minor Losses
7.3 Local Losses
7.1 Conveyance Method
Calculating Formulas
where
Q = design discharge of the pipe, l/sec
S = H/L = slope of the energy line, m
H = head, m
L = length of the pipe, m
V = velocity in the pipe, m/sec
M = velocity modulus, m/sec
K = conveyance factor of the pipe, l/sec
Table 18 Velocity Moduli and Conveyance Factors of the Pipes
(7.1)
(7.2)
(7.3)
Page 39 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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7.2 Minor Losses
Minor losses along the pipe may be expressed in the equivalent length of pipe that has the same head
loss for the same discharge. The chart in Fig. 23 shows a convenient method of estimating these
losses
Example 1
Determine the discharge of a 200 mm diameter galvanized pipe if the length of the pipe is 1 000 m and
the head loss is 5.0 m.
Solution
The above given conditions imply that:
L = 1 000 m
D = 200 mm
H = 5.0 m
Figure 23. Minor losses of valves and fittings to flow of water (Coronel, 1978)
Page 40 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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From Equation (7.1)


from which


From Table 18 K for the galvanized pipe of 200 mm in diameter is 476.9 l/sec.


Example 2
Determine the required head loss for a discharge of 50 l/sec in the pipe described in Example 1.
Page 41 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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Solution
Using Equation (7.2) modified below


where
L = 1.0 km
From Table 18


Then
H = 50
2
×1.0×0.0044 = 11.0 m

7.3 Local Losses
In the hydraulic design of pipelines the energy loss through friction along the pipe is dominant for pipes
of 50 m or longer. For shorter pipe lengths the aggregate of local energy losses at elbows, valves, inlet
devices etc., may be equal or more than the frictional losses along the pipe. Local losses in piping
fixtures were found to be proportional to the amount of kinetic energy entering the fixture. The
configuration of the fixture determines the constant of proportionality. Accordingly, local loss in a pipe
fixture is computed by


in which k is the so-called local loss coefficient and v is the velocity in the pipe before the fixture, unless
otherwise specified. Table 19 lists local loss coefficients for a variety of fixtures.
Table 19 Local loss coefficients
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Page 43 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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Table 20 Recommended Velocities in Pipes for Water Supply
8. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR PUMPING
8.1 Types of Pumps Used in Aquaculture
8.2 Total Dynamic Heads
8.3 Specific Speed
8.4 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
8.5 Power Requirement
8.6 Determination of the Most Economical Pipe Diameter
8.1 Types of Pumps Used in Aquaculture
1. Propeller pumps
2. Centrifugal pumps
3. Turbine pumps
8.2 Total Dynamic Heads
Figure 24. Details of a pump station

Calculating formulas (Hicks, 1957)
where
H
ST
= H
e
+ H
SS
+H
SV
+ H
Sf
= tota1 suction head, m

H
DT =
H
DS
+ H
DV
+ H
Df
= total discharge head, m

Pipe diameter (mm) Velocity (m/sec) Pipe diameter (mm) Velocity (m/sec)
25-50 0.60 400 1.25
60 0.70 500 1.40
100 0.75 600 1.60
150 0.80 800 1.90
200 0.90 900 1.95
250 1.00 1 000 2.00
300 1.10 1 200 2.20
H
T
= H
ST
+ H
DT
= total dynamic head, m (8.1)
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k
e
= local loss coefficient of the mouthpiece (Table 19)

v
s
= suction velocity in the suction pipe, m/sec s

H
SS
= suction static head is the vertical distance in metre between the downstream water surface and
the centreline of the pump. It may be either positive or negative, depending upon the location of the
pump centreline with respect to the water surface
suction velocity head is the equivalent head through which the water would have to fall to
acquire the velocity it has in the suction.


ì = 0.02 = friction factor (steel pipe)
l
s
= length of the straight suction pipe, m

D
s
= inside diameter of the suction pipe, m



E k
s
= local losses of the suction pipe, m

Q = discharge of the pump, m
3
/sec

A = pipe cross-sectional area, m
2


H
DS
= discharge static head is the vertical distance in metre between the centerline of the pump and
the point of discharge


v
d
= velocity of flow in the discharge, m/sec

v
s
= velocity of flow in the suction, m/sec
If the suction and discharge openings are of equal diameter, the discharge velocity head will be zero.


l
d
= length of the straight discharge pipe, m

D
d
= inside diameter of the discharge pipe, m
E k
d
= local losses of the discharge pipe, m
8.3 Specific Speed
(8.2)
Page 45 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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where
n = impeller speed, rpm
Q = discharge, m
3
/sec
H = head, m
Specific speed n is a widely used criterion for pump selection. It is the impeller speed corresponding t
§a discharge of 1.0 m
3
/sec at 1.0 m of head for the most efficient design. The recommended design
range of n
s
is shown in Table 24.
Table 24 Recommended Design Range of n
s


8.4 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
where




To prevent cavitation, the pump should be placed such that the total suction head H
ST
is less than the
head available, based on the local atmospheric pressure minus the vapour pressure of the water.
8.5 Power Requirement
Power required by a pump motor is commonly expressed in terms of brake horsepower and may be
computed as follows:
where
¸ = 1 000 kg = unit weight of water in m
Q = discharge of the pump, m
3
/sec
H
T
= total dynamic head, m
n
p
= efficiency of the pump
n
m
= efficiency of the motor

Type of pump n
s

Centrifugal pumps radial flow with
narrow impeller 10 - 30
medium impeller 30 - 45
wide impeller 45 - 80
Centrifugal pumps mixed flow 80 -150
Propeller pumps 135 -320
(8.3)
(8.4)
Page 46 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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Efficiency of a pump varies with Q and H. The value is included in the manufacturer's characteristic
curves of the pumps available in pump catalogues, an example of which is shown in Figure 25.
Figure 25. Characteristic curves for pump AGROFIL 500-D
The electric motor's power requirement must be expressed in kilowatts
1 horsepower = 0.7457 kW
Therefore, if Equation (8.4) is expressed in kilowatt we obtain:
Efficiency of the motor depends upon the type of the driven motors as follows:
8.6 Determination of the Most Economical Pipe Diameter
To ensure the minimum operation cost and the amortization of a pump station having a longer pipeline,
its most economical pipe diameter can be defined by the following function as Agroszkin (1952)
recommended.
where
¸ = 1 000 kg = unit weight of water in m
Q = discharge of Q the pump, m
3
/sec
T = yearly pumping hours
R
c
= unit cost of a horsepower-hour
n = n
p
×n
m
= total efficiency
pa = percentage of the amortization
C
p
= unit cost of one metre diameter pipe per metre
The values of function F
D
are shown in Table 22.

Table 22 Values of Function F
D


(8.5)
Types of the driven motors 
m

Direct-coupled electric motor 0.90 - 0.95
Diesel engine 0.65 - 0.80
(8.6)
Diameter Types of pipes
(inches) (mm) Plastic, G.I. new cast iron Concrete
2 50 0.000002 0.000001
3 75 0.00002 0.000013
4 100 0.00012 0.000082
5 125 0.00049 0.00033
6 150 0.0015 0.00105
7 175 0.0040 0.0028
8 200 0.009 0.013
9 225 0.019 0.01364
10 250 0.036 0.026
12 300 0.114 0.081
14 350 0.296 0.213
Page 47 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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Example 1
A pump with the designed arrangement as shown in Figure 24 delivers 175 l/sec. Determine the total
dynamic head and the required brake horsepower.
Solution:
The total dynamic head is obtained by Equation (8.1)
H
T
= H
ST
+ H
DT


where
H
ST
= H
e
+ H
SS
+ H
SV
+ H
Sf
,

and
H
DT
= H
DS
+ H
DV

+
H
Df


The first step is to determine the various heads which are computed as follows:


From Table 19 for strainer bucket without foot valve
ke = 5.5
From Figure 24
D = 300 mm


then


hence


H
SS
= 4.0m

16 400 0.679 0.490
18 450 1.409 1.022
20 500 2.71 1.97
24 600 8.4 6.2
28 700 21.9 16.1
30 750 33.5 24.8
32 800 50.0 37.0
36 900 103.6 76.9
40 1 000 199.1 148.3
Page 48 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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l
s
= 2.5 + 4.0 = 6.5 m

ì = 0.02
D = 0.30 m
kb = 0.17 (45°bend. Table 19)
Substituting these values in Equation H
Sf
we get



The total suction head is, therefore
H
ST
= 1.68 + 4.00 + 0.305 + 0.184 = 6.169 m

From Figure 24
H
DS
= 3.0 m

As the discharge and suction pipes have the same diameter, hence
H
DV
= 0



l
D
= 3.0 + 28.0 + 1.0 = 32.0 m

From Table 19 for gate valve with e/D = 1/3
kv = 0.07
for two 90°bends with R/d = 1
kb = 2×0.53 = 1.06
then


The total discharge head is, hence
H
DT
= 3.0 + 0 + 0.995 = 3.995 m

Then the total dynamic head is
H
T
= 6.169 + 3.995 = 10.164 m say 10.20 m

The brake HP is determined by the use of Equation (8.4)


Page 49 of 50 Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms
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where
¸ = 1 000 kg
Q = 0.175 m
3
/sec
H
T
= 10.20 m
Assuming
n
p
=0.75 and n
m
=0.90

then


Example 2
Determine the most economical pipe diameter for the pump station described in Example 1 with the
following data
T= 20.365 = 7 300 hours a year
Rc = US$ 0.07
pa = 10%
Cp = US$ 175
Using Equation (8.6) with the above data we obtain


From Table 22, the corresponding diameter is defined as
D = 500 mm

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Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms

Page 2 of 50

V v W w 

Volume Average velocity Weight Unit weight of water; width of a structure Density of water

L3 L/T F F/L3; L F/L3

m3 m/sec kg kg/m3; m kg/m 3

Symbols for Dimensionless Quantities
Symbol C Ks S z      Discharge coefficient Screen loss coefficient Bottom slope Ratio of the side slope for a channel cross-section (horizontal to vertical) Efficiency Friction factor 3.1416 Velocity coefficient Contraction coefficient Quantity

2. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR CHANNEL FLOW
Manning's formula (Chow, 1959)
(2.1)

where v = average velocity, m/sec R= = hydraulic radius, m A = cross-sectional area of the channel, m2 Pw = wetted perimeter of the channel, m S = slope of the channel n = roughness coefficient The values of n for various channel conditions are illustrated in Table 2. Discharge formula
m3/sec (2.2)

Normal water depth formula
, m (2.3)

Slope formula
(2.4)

where

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b = bottom width of the channel, m z = ratio of the side slope Table 2 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n (Simon, 1976)
Channel condition Exceptionally smooth, straight surfaces: enamelled or glazed coating; glass; lucite; brass Very well planed and fitted boards; smooth metal; pure cement plaster; smooth tar or paint coating Planed lumber; smoothed mortar (1/3 sand) without projections, in straight alignment Carefully fitted but unplaned boards, steel trowelled concrete in straight alignment Reasonably straight, clean, smooth surfaces without projections; good boards; carefully built brick wall; wood trowelled concrete; smooth, dressed ashlar Good wood, metal, or concrete surfaces with some curvature, very small projections, slight moss or algae growth or gravel deposition. Shot concrete surfaced with trowelled mortar Rough brick; medium quality cut stone surface; wood with algae or moss growth; rough concrete; riveted steel Very smooth and straight earth channels, free from growth; stone rubble set in cement; shot, untrowelled concrete deteriorated brick wall; exceptionally well excavated and surfaced channel cut in natural rock Well-built earth channels covered with thick, uniform silt deposits; metal flumes with excessive curvature, large projections, accumulated debris Smooth, well-packed earth; rough stone walls; channels excavated in solid, soft rock; little curving channels in solid loess, gravel or clay, with silt deposits, free from growth, in average condition; deteriorating uneven metal flume with curvatures and debris; very large canals in good condition Small, manmade earth channels in well-kept condition; straight natural streams with rather clean, uniform bottom without pools and flow barriers, cavings and scours of the banks Ditches; below average manmade channels with scattered cobbles in bed Well-maintained large floodway; unkempt artificial channels with scours, slides, considerable aquatic growth; natural stream with good alignment and fairly constant cross-section Permanent alluvial rivers with moderate changes in cross-section, average stage; slightly curving intermittent streams in very good condition Small, deteriorated artificial channels, half choked with aquatic growth, winding river with clean bed, but with pools and shallows Irregularly curving permanent alluvial stream with smooth bed; straight natural channels with uneven bottom, sand bars, dunes, few rocks and underwater ditches; lower section of mountainous streams with well-developed channel with sediment deposits; intermittent streams in good condition; rather deteriorated artificial channels, with moss and reeds, rocks, scours and slides Artificial earth channels partially obstructed with debris, roots, and weeds; irregularly meandering rivers with partly grown-in or rocky bed; developed flood plains with high grass and bushes Mountain ravines; fully ingrown small artificial channels; flat flood plains crossed by deep ditches (slow flow) Mountain creeks with waterfalls and steep ravines; very irregular flood plains; weedy and sluggish natural channels obstructed with trees Very rough mountain creeks, swampy, heavily vegetated rivers with logs and driftwood on the bottom; flood plain forest with pools Mudflows; very dense flood plain forests; watershed slopes Value of n 0.009 0.010 0-011 0.012 0.013 0.014 0.015 0.017

0.018 0.020

0.025 0.028 0.030 0.033 0.035 0.040

0.067 0.080 0-10 0.133 0.22

Table 3 Allowable Mean Velocities against Erosion or Scour in Channels of various Soils and Materials
Description Soft clay or very fine clay Very fine or very light pure sand Very light loose sand or silt Coarse sand or light sandy soil Average sandy soil and good loam Sandy loam Average loam or alluvial soil Firm loam, clay loam Firm gravel or clay Stiff clay soil; ordinary gravel soil, or clay and gravel v, m/sec 0-2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.4

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Broken stone and clay Grass Coarse gravel, cobbles, shale Soft rock Hard rock Very hard rock or cement concrete (1:2:4 minimum)

1.5 1.2 1.8 1.4 - 2.5 3.0 - 4.6 4.6-7.6

Conglomerates, cemented gravel, soft slate, tough hardpan, soft sedimentary rock 1.8 - 2.5

Table 4 Allowable Side Slopes for Trapezoidal Channels in various Soils (Davis, 1952)
Type of soil Light sand, wet clay Wet sand Loose earth, loose sandy loam Ordinary earth, soft clay, sandy loam, gravelly loam or loam Ordinary gravel Stiff earth or clay, soft moorum Soft rock z 3:1 2.5:1 2:1 1.5:1 1.25:1 1:1 0.25:1

Tough hard pan, alluvial soil, firm gravel, hard compact earth, hard moorum 0.5:1

Table 5 Characteristic Dimensions of Optimum Trapezoidal Channel for given Gross-sectional Area and Side Slope
Side slope

0.5:1 1:1 1.5:1 2:1 2.5:1 3:1

0.759 0.938 1.698 0.739 0.612 2.092 0.689 0.417 2.483 0.636 0.300 2.844 0.589 0.227 3.169 0.549 0.174 3502

2.640 2.705 2.905 3.145 3.395 3.645

0.379 0.370 0.344 0.318 0.295 0.275

where: h = water depth, m b = bottom width, m B = surface width, m P = wetted perimeter, m R = hydraulic radius, m A = cross-sectional area, m2 Example 1 A trapezoidal earth channel of 1.5:1 side slopes is to be built on a slope of S = 0.001 to carry Q = 1.0 m3/sec. Design the channel cross-section such that the hydraulic radius is optimal. Solution; Using Figure 1 first we mark off the length of the 1.0 m3 /sec discharge on the edge of a sheet of paper. Next, keeping the line horizontal we place the paper's edge on the upper graphs, moving it upward along the corresponding slope S = 0.001 and shape (1.5:1) lines. Where the distance between the lines equals the discharge length we note the magnitude of the hydraulic radius R. R = 0.40 m The corresponding velocity in the channel is v = 0.70 m/sec

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Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms

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obtained from the slope graph. The cross-sectional area is: A = 1.43 m2 from the shape graph. Entering the left bottom graph along the R = 0.40 curve, we find the intercept with the radial line indicating optimum conditions. In this case for R = Ropt = 0.40 m we get b = 0.50 m and h = 0.82 m Example 2 Design a channel in firm loam, for a discharge of 1 500 l/sec, at maximum permissible velocity. Solution From Table 3, the maximum allowable velocity in firm loam is v = 1,0 m/sec. From Table 4 assume side slopes of 1.5:1. From Table 2 the roughness coefficient is defined as n = 0.025. Canal properties

From Table 5

Figure 1. Lenkei's channel design graphs Table 6 Channel section geometry The slope of the channel is obtained from the Equation 2.4 as

3. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES

3.1 Design Formulas for Intakes 3.2 Design Formulas for Inlets 3.3 Design Formulas for Outlets 3.4 Design Formulas for Culvert 3.5 Design Formulas for Vertical Falls 3.6 Design Formulas for Spillways 3.7 Design Formulas for Siphon

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17-Jul-11

1.95 Contracted water depth: H 1 =  ×a (3.2 Pipe intake 3.fao.1 Design Formulas for Intakes 3. Open intake (A) Free discharge formula m3/sec (3.2) where  = contraction coefficient. m = upstream energy level.1.0. m v0 = approach velocity.1 Open intake (sluice) Figure 2.1) where  = velocity coefficient Hl= contracted water depth. m b = width of the gate. m H = upstream water depth. m/sec2 Table 7 Values of Velocity Coefficient  Types of gate Uncrested gate  0.00 Broad crested gate 0.95 .org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.85 .81 = acceleration due to gravity. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 6 of 50 3.Chapter 8.htm 17-Jul-11 .1.1 Open intake (sluice) 3. Table 8 Values of Contraction Coefficient  http://www. m/sec g = 9.1.

Chapter 8.620 0.705 1.628 0.15 0.35 0.611 0.630 0. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 7 of 50     0. m g = 9.6) (C) Discharge formula influenced by downstream Qretarded = k.htm 17-Jul-11 . m3/sec (3. = discharge coefficient a = opening height of the gate. m h = Ho .40 0. m (3. m/sec2 The subcritical conjugate depth: .3) where C = .45 0.60 0. m b = width of the gate.690 0. Values of coefficient k http://www.H2 = head. m3/sec (3.5) (3.1)) Figure 3.25 0.618 0.650 0.65 0.95 0.fao.85 0.50 0.745 0. m3/sec (see Equation (3.645 0.780 0.70 0.00 0.625 0.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.675 0.30 0. m Ho= upstream energy level.80 0.20 0.55 0.000 (B) Submerged discharge formula .720 0.00 1.4) where H1 = contracted water depth (3.615 0.7) where k = coefficient (Figure 3) Q = free discharge.638 0.90 0.75 0.622 0.81.Q. m H2= downstream water depth.10 0.835 0.660 0.

org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09. The range of downstream influence on flow under gates (D) Apron and floor length formulas Total length of the apron: (3. m h2 = subcritical conjugate depth. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 8 of 50 Figure 4.htm 17-Jul-11 .Chapter 8.8) where ds = depth of the sill from the downstream floor. m Bligh's method Total length of the floor: http://www. m 4 h2 = length of the hydraulic jump.fao.

628×0.0 m and the gate opening is 0.75 m/sec.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.97 and from Table 8  = 0. m where C = Bligh's coefficient HFS-b = difference between the full upstream supply level and the downstream bed level of the channel Table 9 Values of Bligh's Coefficient C Type of soil Soft clay and silt Medium clay Loam Light sand and mud Peat C 3.Chapter 8.fao.1) where from Table 7  = 0. we note that the outflow is free.0 Fine micaceous sand 15. Therefore the free discharge is obtained using Equation (3.44 m therefore http://www.70 = 0.70 m.0 9. The upstream water level is 2.htm 17-Jul-11 . Determine the discharge through the structure and the length of the required apron.2 m.0 2.0 8. The approach velocity is 0.0 5.628 then H1 =  ×a = 0.0 Example 3 A 3.0 m wide vertical uncrested gate discharges into a feeder channel in which the water level is 1.0 Coarse grained sand 12. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 9 of 50 Lf = C × HFS-b. By Figure 4 we find the type of flow condition existing Observing the location of the point described.

9) where C = discharge coefficient A = pipe cross-sectional area.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09. Pipe intake Calculating formulas m3/sec (3. m2 h = head.2 Pipe intake Figure 5.1. difference in upstream and downstream water surface levels.03 m ds = 0 H1 = 0.8) where H0 = 2. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 10 of 50 Total length of the apron is defined from Equation (3.44 m then therefore 3. m Value of the discharge coefficient C is obtained by the formula http://www.Chapter 8.fao.htm 17-Jul-11 .

03 = friction factor for concrete pipe l = pipe length.htm 17-Jul-11 .5 m Ho = 2. m D = pipe diameter Protection length on the downstream side is determined from the following formula: (3.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09. m/sec (Table 3) Example 1 Determine the discharge of the intake and the required protection length on its downstream side with the data below D = 45 cm l = 12.0-1.0 m H2 .9) where h = H0-H2 = 2.6 m Bed soil = sandy loam Solution Determine discharge from the formula (3.5 = entrance friction coefficient  = 0. Then http://www.10) where ke =0.4 m From Table 3 the allowable velocity is defined as vs = 0.8 for sandy loam.11) where vp = velocity in pipe.fao. m/sec vs = scouring velocity.1. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 11 of 50 (3.6 = 0.Chapter 8.

fao. m2 g = 9.81 = acceleration due to gravity.2. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 12 of 50 therefore 3.2. m3/sec  = discharge coefficient A = internal cross-sectional area of the pipe.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09. m Figure 7.2.1 Free fall pipe inlet Figure 6.3 Open flume inlet 3.htm 17-Jul-11 . Discharge coefficient  for flow through free fall pipe inlet http://www.12) where Q = discharge of the inlet.2 Submerged pipe inlet 3.2 Design Formulas for Inlets 3.1 Free fall pipe inlet 3.Chapter 8. Free fall pipe inlet (3. m/sec2 H = head of the upstream water surface over the centre of the pipe.2.

2 Submerged pipe inlet Calculating formulas given for pipe intake may be used.2. 3.2. Solution Determine the discharge from Equation (3.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09. Open flume inlet l/sec http://www.12) The discharge coefficient is defined as  = 0. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 13 of 50 Example 2 Determine the discharge of the free fall inlet with a diameter of 15 cm if its length is 4.3 Open flume inlet Figure 8.htm 17-Jul-11 .0 m and the water depth in the feeder channel is 50 cm.Chapter 8.fao.7 from Figure 7 then 3.

Relationships of discharge to B and H Length of the cistern: lc = 0.3 Design Formulas for Outlets 3. m dg = 0.3.0160 10 to 15 0.Chapter 8. Solution The corresponding width of the throat to the water depth of 150 l/sec is defined from Figure 9. The discharge formula (neglecting the approach velocity).50 m in the pond. The insertion of the stoplogs into the outlet creates over-shot flow conditions.45 = 0.5×0. m H = maximum water depth above the sill level of the inlet.1 H2.5×H = 0.8×1.3.1×1.0164 over 15 0.50 = 1.htm 17-Jul-11 .15 m 3.5 H.1 Types of outlets 1. cm H = height of the designed full supply level in the feeder channel above the sill level of the inlet C = discharge coefficient Table 10 Values of Discharge Coefficient C for open Flume Inlet B in cm C 6 to 10 0. Pipe outlet Formulas given for intakes can be used. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 14 of 50 where Q = design discharge of the inlet. m where Depth of the glacis where H2 = water depth in the pond.23 m lc = 0. for over-shot flow is: http://www.1 Types of outlets 3.82 H2.1×H2 = 0. l/sec B = width of the throat.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.0166 Figure 9. then B = 30 cm dg = 0. Open outlet (sluice) 2.8×H2 = 0. m Depth of the cistern: dc = 0.50 = 0. m Example 3 Design an open flume inlet for a discharge of 150 l/sec if the water depth in the feeder canal is 45 cm and 1.20 m dc = 0.fao.

m2 H1 = water depth in the pond at the beginning.13) where A1 = 2 ha = 20 000 m2 H1 = 1.4.fao.13) where T = emptying time in seconds A1 = average cross-sectional area of the pond or tank.4 Design Formulas for Culvert 3. Culvert http://www. m If the pond is completely emptied H2 will be = 0 Example 4 Determine the emptying time of 2 ha pond having its water depth of 1.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09. Solution To obtain the required emptying time we use Equation (3.1 Discharge formulas   Figure 10. m H2 = water depth in the pond at the end.htm 17-Jul-11 . m H = head.5 m H0 = 0 then 3. m2 A2 = cross-sectional area of the outlet.5 m if the diameter of the outlet is 45 cm. the difference between the pond water level and the stoplog crest. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 15 of 50 where B = internal width of the outlet monk.Chapter 8. m Time for emptying ponds or tanks: (3.

Chapter 8. m2 n = roughness coefficient for concrete pipe = 0.1 Discharge formulas http://www.15).5 0. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 16 of 50 3. If the head on a culvert is high.08 Sharp-edged projecting entrance 0. This means the flow is under pressure and discharge can be calculated by submerged discharge formula.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.15) where H = head on entrance above the bottom of the culvert.9 Flush entrance. a value of dc less than the culvert diameter will not satisfy Equation (3. m dc = water depth in the culvert.htm 17-Jul-11 . it is necessary to try different values of dc and corresponding values of R until a value is found that satisfies the equation.024 Pw = wetted perimeter of the culvert S = slope of the culvert Entrance head: (3.5 Design Formulas for Vertical Falls 3. 3. Table 11 Values of Entrance Friction Coefficients for Culverts Flowing Full Entrance condition ke 0.14) where Q = design discharge of the culvert.5. m To solve Equation (3. but the following entrance friction coefficients should be used to calculate the discharge coefficient C.4.1 Discharge formulas A) Submerged discharge formula The formulas given for pipe intake can be used.012 for corrugated metal pipe = 0. square edge Well rounded entrance B) Unsubmerged discharge formula (3. m3/sec A2 = actual flow area of the culvert.15).fao.

m h2 = critical depth. m h2 = subcritical conjugate level = 1.92 hc.18) http://www. Vertical fall 3.6).fao. m v H = upstream water depth in the channel. m v = approach velocity. m (3.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09. B) Submerged discharge (3. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 17 of 50   Figure 11. m/sec H1 = contracted depth = 0. m H2 = downstream water depth.p.Chapter 8.1 Discharge formulas A) Free discharge for vertical fall with a trapezoidal cross-sectional area (3.5) and (3. m ps = height of sill over-downstream bed level. m2 hs = H2 .5.16) where Q1= design discharge of the vertical fall.htm 17-Jul-11 . m The critical depth can be obtained from the formulas (3.17) where A = cross-sectional area of the flow. m/sec A1= contracted cross-sectional area of the flow.14 hc C) Length and depth of the basin The length of the basin is given by empirical formula Lb = 5 (H×h)1/2 .

6 Design Formulas for Spillways 3.6.106 1/ Design flood (m/sec) Q2% Q1% Q0.2 Side lined channel spillway 2.fao.htm 17-Jul-11 .6. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 18 of 50 where H = upstream water depth. Shaft spillways 3.1 Circular crest 3.106 106 3. Side earthen channel spillway http://www.Chapter 8.1 Recommended design floods for the spillways 3.1% has to be used to design the spillway 3.3.Q0. Side channel spillways 1. 2.1 Side earthen channel spillway Figure 12.19) 3.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.5 .5% .17 (H×h)1/2. Siphon spillway 3.2 Types of spillways 1.0 In case the failure of the dam would create danger to human life or would cause great property damage. m The depth of the basin is db = 0.6.3 Discharge formulas 3.1% 1/ Height of dam (m) or max. m h = head.2 Standard crest 3.3 Flat crest 4.5 2. difference in upstream and downstream water surface levels.0 -10.6.6.0 6.1 Recommended design floods for the spillways Reservoir Volume (m3) 105 105 . Q0.3 Discharge formulas 3. m (3.1 Side earthen channel spillway 1.6.2 Types of spillways 3.6.6. Overfall spillway 3.

fao. m h = water depth above the crest. m/sec h = water depth above the crest.20) where L = overflow crest length.4 m/sec from Table 3.3. m 3.21) where v = velocity of the designed discharge. The next step is to determine the measurements of the spillway.6. C) Length of the crest protection (3.030 from Table 2. m/sec vs = scouring velocity. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 19 of 50 A) Discharge over the crest (3.Chapter 8. For the length of the crest protection using Equation (3.20). m Q = designed discharge. Considering the channel as an unkempt artificial channel with considerable aquatic growth the value of n equals to 0.21) where http://www. Example 5 Design a side earthen channel spillway for a discharge of 12 m3/sec in stiff clay soil if the gradient of the valley side along the axis of the channel is 4 percent. Solution The scouring velocity of stiff clay soil is defined as vs =1.1): To prevent erosion in the earthen channel the calculated velocity should be less than the scouring velocity of the material concerned as shown in Table 3.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09. m3/sec B) Velocity in the earthen channel Using Manning's formula (2.htm 17-Jul-11 .2 Side lined channel spillway The side channel has to be lined when the valley side has such great gradient that the calculated velocity in the side channel is higher than the scouring velocity concerned.30 m the length of the crest is determined by the use of Equation (3. Assuming that the water depth over the crest is h = 0.

the channel should be lined or its gradient can be lowered by some falls.Chapter 8.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.21) To check the velocity in the channel first the measurements of the channel are defined as follows: The cross-sectional area of the channel is: Assume that the channel has a bottom width of 30 m and its side slope of 1:1 then the normal water depth can be calculated by the following formula: (3.30 m Entering these values into Equation (3. The slope of the bottom in the channel is obtained from Equation (2.6 m2 then The wetted perimeter is: The hydraulic radius is The velocity in the channel is then equal to Since this velocity is higher than the scouring velocity.1) http://www. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 20 of 50 vs = 1.fao. therefore.htm 17-Jul-11 .4 m/sec h = 0.22) where z = ratio of the side slope (horizontal to one vertical) with b = 30 m z=1 A = 8.

3.24) where e = g×q P = the crest height above the stilling basin and The head loss along the glacis can be determined by the formula http://www.6.7×L×h3/2.fao.Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 21 of 50 3. m3/sec (3. m h = water depth above the crest.5) where The velocity of the flow at the toe of the spillway may be computed by (3.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09. Overfall spillway A) Discharge over the crest Q = 1.23) where L = overflow crest length.3 Overfall spillway Figure 13. m B) Design formulas for the glacis and the stilling basin Critical depth is from Equation (3. m Q = designed discharge.htm 17-Jul-11 .

Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 22 of 50 (3.012 h3 = 1.fao.htm 17-Jul-11 . m The subcritical conjugate depth is defined by the formula (3.0 m gradient of the glacis = 2:1 n = 0.6 Design an overfall spillway with the following data Q = 30 m3/sec h = 1.23) the length of the crest is: Discharge per unit width is The critical depth is then The length of the glacis is defined as The head loss along the glacis is obtained from Equation (3.0 m P = 5.25) where n = roughness coefficient. sec/m1/3 1 = length of the glacis.26) The depth of the stilling basin is: ds = h2 .25) http://www.27) Example 3. m The length of the stilling basin can be calculated by the formula: (3.20 m Solution From Equation (3.h3.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.Chapter 8.

fao.63 m then e = g×q = 9.0 + 2×0.Chapter 8.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.81×1.66 = 19.012 l = 11.38 now http://www.88 m2 Pw = L + 2 hc = 18.32 m then The velocity of the flow at the toe of the spillway is defined from Equation (3.66×18.htm 17-Jul-11 .24) where P = 5.0 m hc = 0.0 = 11. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 23 of 50 where Q = 30 m3/sec n = 0.18 m A = hc×L = 0.67 = 16.66 m h0 = 1.

6. Circular crest http://www.fao. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 24 of 50 then The water depth at the toe of the spillway is The subcritical conjugate depth in the stilling basin is defined from Equation (3.3.27) where then 3.20 = 0.4 Shaft spillways Figure 14.1.26) The depth of the stilling basin is ds = h2 .Chapter 8.htm 17-Jul-11 . Types of the shaft spillways (A) Discharge over the crest 1.45 m The length of the stilling basin is obtained from Equation (3.h3 = 1.65 .org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.

93 0.29) Table 13 Values of the Discharge Coefficient C2 h/r 0.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.785 1.72 3. m Table 12 Values of the Discharge Coefficient C1.3.1 0.815 1.78 1.Chapter 8. Siphon spillway (3.40 0.2 0.0 1.03 (concrete pipe) 1 = length of the siphon. m3/sec (3.6 0.32) where  = friction factor = 0.825 1.8 1.74 1. h/r 0.82 1.30 0.70 0.8 2.30) 3. m Value of the discharge coefficient is determined by the formula (3.83 1.6. Flat crest Q = 3.62 0.63 1.28) where C1 = discharge coefficient (Table 12) r = radius of the circular h = water depth above the crest.80 0.31) where C = discharge coefficient A = cross-sectional area of the throat. Standard crest Q = 2×C2×r× ×h1/3. m h = head.2×r× ×h3/2.5 Siphon spillway Figure 25.76 1.45 0. m http://www.2 0.57 2.80 1.50 C2 1.33 1.35 0. m d = diameter of the siphon.4 1.12 0. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 25 of 50 (3.4 0.0 C1 1.6 1.25 0. m3/sec (3.htm 17-Jul-11 .2 1.fao.

org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.0.6 0.8 1.htm 17-Jul-11 .200 200 .1 200 C 0.fao.6 1.7.0.120 120 .7.3.4 .Chapter 8.7.6 .5 1.2 Discharge of siphon 3. mobile b) Medium.050 0. stabile 25 .00025 .0 1.200 200 .33) where http://www.0.6 2.10 Table 14 Recommended Minimum Velocities in Pipes for Siphons Pipe diameter (mm) Velocity (m/sec) 120 200 250 300 400 450 500 600 800 1 000 1 200 1.2 2.1 200 <5 < 10 < 100 0.8 3. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 26 of 50  k = all local loss coefficients (Table 19) In order to determine the approximate size of the siphon the value of C can be considered as follows: Types of siphons Diameter (mm) medium large 120 .1 Types of siphons 3.1 Types of siphons Diameter (mm) Length (m) Discharge (m3/sec) a) Small. Details of the siphon Calculating formulas (3.9 2.0.015 .7 Design Formulas for Siphons 3.015 0. movable c) Large.2 Discharge of siphon Figure 16.55 1.7 1.050 .6 3.7.4 2.

35) where Altitude in m 0 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 3 000 9.36) where v = velocity in the pipe.8 Water temperature °C 10 20 30 0.fao.24 0. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 27 of 50 C = discharge coefficient A = cross-sectional area of the pipe.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.43 The allowable suction head of the siphon is: (3.Chapter 8. m  k = all local loss coefficients along the siphon Table 19 lists local loss coefficients for a variety of the fixtures. m The discharge coefficient C can be calculated by the formula (3.02 (steel pipe) 1 = length of the siphon. m2 H = head.2 8.3 9.34) where  = friction factor = 0.123 0.htm 17-Jul-11 .1 7. m/sec The maximum allowable downstream head of the siphon is: http://www.2 10. m d = diameter of the siphon. The allowable pressure head for siphon (3.6 8.

35 m3/sec the siphon is a large one.0.38) where ke = entrance loss coefficient (c) Entrance with inclined axis (3.0 1.8 (b) Entrance with horizontal axis (3.3 .2. Figure 17.0.fao.39) where  = angle of the tilt in degree Example 7 Design the siphon shown in Figure 17 for a discharge of 350 l/sec if water temperature is 30°C.7 D 0.htm 17-Jul-11 . The velocity is calculated by the following formula assuming that its diameter is 400 mm. but min.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.3 > 1.0 0.5 > 2. Details of the siphon Solution 3 Considering the designed discharge Q = 0.37) where Depth of water above the entrance of the siphon (a) Entrance with vertical axis v (m/sec) 1.3 2 D. 0.5 0. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 28 of 50 (3. http://www.1 .Chapter 8.5 .7 2.5 D (m) h (m) 1D 1.

Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 29 of 50 As this velocity is higher than the recommended minimum one in Table 14 hence.0 + 5.htm 17-Jul-11 .5  k = 1.36 0.79 m ke = 0.37 Substitution of the above values into the equation gives: The allowable suction head of the siphon is obtained if we use Equation (3. the selected diameter is satisfactory.0 + 8.38) v = 2. The next step is to determine the water depth above the entrance of the siphon by using Equation (3.1 then The discharge coefficient of the siphon is defined from Equation (3.07 0.50 = 44 m d = 0.09 = 0.35) where http://www.34)  = 0.70 + 13.34 0.40 m Computation of the local loss coefficient using Table 19 Diffusor inlet Fraction bends (30°) Fraction bends (90°) Valve Outlet diffusor 0.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.fao.1 4×0.80 + 14.02 l = l1 + l2 + l3 + l4 + l5 + l6 = 1.0 + 1.

33) where C = 0.32 m Heffs = 550 .00 m The design of the siphon is satisfactory because both Heffs and HeffT are below their allowable values.fao. The discharge of the siphon is defined by the formula (3.Chapter 8.37) where then HT = 7.5.35 + 0. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 30 of 50 then The suction head of the siphon is defined from Equation (3.543 = 7.0 m The allowable downstream head of the siphon is determined from Equation (3.35 .88 = 8.03 = 6.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.0 m then http://www.23 m HeffT = 550 .htm 17-Jul-11 .543 = 2.1.545 .47 A = 0.126 m2 H = 545 .36) where then Hs = 7.

Radial flow in a confined aquifer http://www. Generalized cross section defining well types 4.fao. since the designed Q = 0.3 Well Discharge in an Unconfined Aquifer 4.2 Well Discharge in a Confined Aquifer 4. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 31 of 50 This is acceptable. DISCHARGE OF WELLS 4.4 Radius of Influence 4. 4.5 Screen Entrance Velocity 4.6 Recommended Well Diameter 4.1 Well Types 4.Chapter 8.htm 17-Jul-11 .35 m3/sec.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.2 Well Discharge in a Confined Aquifer Figure 19.1 Well Types Figure 18.

org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.1) where k = permeability coefficient. m r0 radius of the influence. m rw = radius of the well. Radial flow in an unconfined aquifer Dupuit's method (4. m/sec b = thickness of the aquifer.3 Well Discharge in an Unconfined Aquifer Figure 20. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 32 of 50 Thiem's method (4. m 4. m h0 = original piezometric head at the well hw = piezometric head at the well.fao.Chapter 8.2) http://www.htm 17-Jul-11 .

the thickness of the unconfined aquifer is 40 m and the water table is at the depth of 6 m below the ground level. In order to determine the well discharge the approximate value of drawdown is chosen as 4.5 Screen Entrance Velocity To ensure a long service life of the well.5 2.40 Example 1 Determine the discharge of a well with the diameter of 20 cm and the length of the screen of 30 m if k equals 10 m/day.htm 17-Jul-11 . the diameter of the well should be determined on the basis of the well discharge as recommended in Table 16. movement of the finer fractions of the aquifer material. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 33 of 50 4. m 4.3) we get http://www.4 Radius of Influence (4. Table 15 Permissible Screen Entrance Velocities (Walton.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.0 m. the screen entrance velocities have to be kept below the values recommended in Table 15.25 0.15 0. 1962) Permeability coefficient (m/day) Screen velocity (cm/sec) > 250 250 200 150 100 50 20 < 20 6.fao.0 4. 1961) Pumping rate (m3/hour) Well diameter (m) 30 60 120 300 450 600 0.1 4.0 1.Chapter 8.1 5.5 1.6 5. Table 16 Recommended Well Diameter (Smith.hw. m.20 0. resulting in subsequent clogging of the screen openings. has to be minimised.35 0. Therefore.6 Recommended Well Diameter In order to install the required pumping equipment properly in the well.30 0. From Equation (4.3) where s = drawdown = h0 .3 3.

Hence the entrance velocity for a discharge of 0.15×2rw× ×Ls where Ls = 30 m now As = 0.2) gives Determination of the entrance velocity of the screen: The open area of the screen is assumed as 15 per cent of the total surface area of the screen. Then the screen entrance area is obtained by As = 0. hence.htm 17-Jul-11 . Diameter of well: Checking the well discharge per hour q = 3 600×Q = 3 600×0.41 m .10×3.015 m/sec is defined as Since ve is equal to the optimum screen velocity.e.82 m2 The effective open area accounting for blockage by grains is estimated to be 50 per cent of the actual open area i.2) we get where h0 = 34 m hw = 30 m rw = 0. 1. http://www. the selected screen is adequate.14×30 = 2.2×10-4 m/sec hence From Equation (4.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.Chapter 8.fao.0 m k = 10 m/day = 1.15×2×0. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 34 of 50 where s = 4.014 = 51 m3/sec As this value is almost equal to the pumping rate of 60 m3/sec. the selected diameter of 20 cm is adequate.10 m Substitution of these values into Equation (4.

15×As m2 Assuming that the screen's open area of 15 per cent is blocked by 50 per cent due to obstruction by aquifer grains then Substituting the values into the formula gives (iii) Radius of influence From Equation (4.5×0.0 m below the ground level. (i) Selection of well diameter Q = 700 l/min = 42 m3/hour = 0.htm 17-Jul-11 .012 m3/sec For this discharge the recommended well diameter is 2rw = 0.3) we get Assuming s = 1.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.15 m from Table 16.035 m/sec. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 35 of 50 Example 2 Design a well for an indoor hatchery with a peak discharge of 700 1/min in an unconfined aquifer of 20 m.16×10-3 m/sec http://www.16×10-3 m/sec the permissible screen entrance velocity is obtained from Table 15 as ve =3.2) we get where k = 1. Assume the value of k as 100 m/day.0 m with a maximum level of 3.Chapter 8. The screen length is calculated from the formula below (Garg. The fluctuation of the water table level is 4.5 cm/sec = 0. (ii) Screen length For k = 100 m/day = 1.fao.5 m then (iv) Discharge of the well From Equation (4. 1978). Q = ve×Asef where Asef = effective open area of the screen = 0.

m Ks = screen loss coefficient t = thickness of bars. m v = velocity of approach. considering the minimum water table level hw =11.075 m Substitution of these values into Equation (4.fao. m/sec http://www.htm 17-Jul-11 .0 m yields the required 700 1/min for the hatchery.1) where hs = loss of head. 5. hence the tube well with a diameter of 15 cm and a screen length of 10 m as well as a drawdown of 1. the above calculations have to be repeated with a lowered value of the drawdown.2) gives Since the calculated discharge is larger than the required one. DESIGN FORMULA FOR SCREEN Figure 21.0 m then This is equal to the peak water demand of the hatchery. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 36 of 50 h0 =13 m.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.Chapter 8. Head loss in screens. m b = clear spacing between bars. values of screen loss coefficient Ks for various bar shapes) Mosonyi. Assume s = 1. 1963) Kirschmer's formula (5.5 m r0 =153 m rw 0.

DESIGN FORMULA FOR FILTER Figure 22.1) with Ks t b v = 1.1) gives (ii) Width of the pumping chamber The width of the pumping chamber is calculated first without any screens as below the number of spacing now t + b = 0.79 = 0.01 m = 0.Chapter 8.70 m/sec sin  = sin 70° = 0.fao. the total width of the screen chamber is obtained as wef = ns×(t +b) = 45×0.70 m/sec t =  10 mm b = 2 cm Procedure: (i) Head loss of screen Head loss of screens is obtained from Equation (5.03 = 1.01 + 0.02 m = 0.9397 Substituting these values into Equation (5. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 37 of 50  = angle of bar inclination.50 m3/sec  = 70° h = 0.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09. degree Example 1 Design a Screen chamber for a pumping station with the following data Q = 0.03 m Hence.35 m 6.02 = 0.htm 17-Jul-11 . Flow through filter http://www.80 m v = 0.

0.0 m From Equation (6.1) where Q = discharge of the filter.5 .htm 17-Jul-11 .5.4.Chapter 8. m/sec h = head.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.0)×10-5 Example 1 Design a filter box of a feeder channel against trash fish for a discharge of 200 l/sec. The thickness of the filter gravel with average grain size of 7 mm is 35 cm and the head is 30 cm. m L = thickness of the filter media. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 38 of 50 Darcy's Formula (Morris.0×10-5 .0. m A = surface of the filter.0m L = 0.0)×10-2 (1.1 .0 .0 .5 0.2.fao. m3/sec k = permeability coefficient.5)×10-2 10-4 .35 m Q = 0.0×10-2 h = 0.2 m3/sec From Table 17 for average grain size of 7 mm we obtain k = 4. m2 Table 17 Permeability Coefficient k Soil type Medium gravel Fine gravel Coarse sand Medium sand Fine sand Average grain size (mm) Range of k (m/sec) 4-7 2-4 0.10-4 (1.30 m http://www.3 (2.1) where A = l×w = 3.5 .2 0. 1963) (6.10-2 5. Solution Assuming that the length of the filter box is l = 3.3 .

m/sec M = velocity modulus.3 Local Losses 7. the required width of the filter box with the selected length of 3.2) (7.2 Minor Losses 7.3) where Q = design discharge of the pipe. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR FLOW IN PIPES 7.0 m. m V = velocity in the pipe. m H = head. m L = length of the pipe.fao.1 Conveyance Method Calculating Formulas (7. 7.0 m shall be 2.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.1) (7.htm 17-Jul-11 .1 Conveyance Method 7.Chapter 8. l/sec S = H/L = slope of the energy line. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 39 of 50 then so Therefore. m/sec K = conveyance factor of the pipe. l/sec Table 18 Velocity Moduli and Conveyance Factors of the Pipes http://www.

1978) http://www.0 m.2 Minor Losses Minor losses along the pipe may be expressed in the equivalent length of pipe that has the same head loss for the same discharge. Minor losses of valves and fittings to flow of water (Coronel.0 m Figure 23.fao.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09. The chart in Fig. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 40 of 50 7. 23 shows a convenient method of estimating these losses Example 1 Determine the discharge of a 200 mm diameter galvanized pipe if the length of the pipe is 1 000 m and the head loss is 5. Solution The above given conditions imply that: L = 1 000 m D = 200 mm H = 5.htm 17-Jul-11 .Chapter 8.

htm 17-Jul-11 .org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.Chapter 8.9 l/sec.fao. Example 2 Determine the required head loss for a discharge of 50 l/sec in the pipe described in Example 1.1) from which From Table 18 K for the galvanized pipe of 200 mm in diameter is 476. http://www. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 41 of 50 From Equation (7.

0 km From Table 18 Then H = 502×1. local loss in a pipe fixture is computed by in which k is the so-called local loss coefficient and v is the velocity in the pipe before the fixture.2) modified below where L = 1. valves. inlet devices etc.0×0. Table 19 lists local loss coefficients for a variety of fixtures. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 42 of 50 Solution Using Equation (7.Chapter 8. For shorter pipe lengths the aggregate of local energy losses at elbows. may be equal or more than the frictional losses along the pipe.fao. Table 19 Local loss coefficients http://www. unless otherwise specified. Local losses in piping fixtures were found to be proportional to the amount of kinetic energy entering the fixture.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.0 m 7. Accordingly.. The configuration of the fixture determines the constant of proportionality.htm 17-Jul-11 .0044 = 11.3 Local Losses In the hydraulic design of pipelines the energy loss through friction along the pipe is dominant for pipes of 50 m or longer.

htm 17-Jul-11 .Chapter 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 43 of 50 http://www.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.fao.

m HDT = HDS + HDV + HDf = total discharge head.25 1. Details of a pump station Calculating formulas (Hicks. DESIGN FORMULAS FOR PUMPING 8.90 1.75 0.1) where HST = He + HSS +HSV + HSf = tota1 suction head.40 1.6 Determination of the Most Economical Pipe Diameter 8. m http://www. m (8.80 0.95 2.4 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) 8.60 1.10 400 500 600 800 900 1 000 1 200 1. Centrifugal pumps 3. Propeller pumps 2. 1957) H T = HST + HDT = total dynamic head.00 1.1 Types of Pumps Used in Aquaculture 8.fao.2 Total Dynamic Heads 8. Turbine pumps 8.htm 17-Jul-11 .90 1.1 Types of Pumps Used in Aquaculture 1.70 0.Chapter 8.3 Specific Speed 8.00 2. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 44 of 50 Table 20 Recommended Velocities in Pipes for Water Supply Pipe diameter (mm) Velocity (m/sec) Pipe diameter (mm) Velocity (m/sec) 25-50 60 100 150 200 250 300 0.60 0.5 Power Requirement 8.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.2 Total Dynamic Heads Figure 24.20 8.

m 8. m/sec vs = velocity of flow in the suction. It may be either positive or negative. m/sec If the suction and discharge openings are of equal diameter. m Q = discharge of the pump.  = 0. m Ds = inside diameter of the suction pipe.Chapter 8.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09. m Dd = inside diameter of the discharge pipe. m3/sec A = pipe cross-sectional area. m  kd = local losses of the discharge pipe.htm 17-Jul-11 . depending upon the location of the pump centreline with respect to the water surface suction velocity head is the equivalent head through which the water would have to fall to acquire the velocity it has in the suction. ld= length of the straight discharge pipe.fao. m2 HDS = discharge static head is the vertical distance in metre between the centerline of the pump and the point of discharge vd = velocity of flow in the discharge. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 45 of 50 ke = local loss coefficient of the mouthpiece (Table 19) vs = suction velocity in the suction pipe. m  ks = local losses of the suction pipe. the discharge velocity head will be zero. m/sec s HSS = suction static head is the vertical distance in metre between the downstream water surface and the centreline of the pump.3 Specific Speed (8.02 = friction factor (steel pipe) ls = length of the straight suction pipe.2) http://www.

Table 24 Recommended Design Range of ns Type of pump Centrifugal pumps radial flow with narrow impeller medium impeller wide impeller Centrifugal pumps mixed flow Propeller pumps 10 .0 m3/sec at 1.3) where To prevent cavitation. The recommended design range of ns is shown in Table 24.5 Power Requirement Power required by a pump motor is commonly expressed in terms of brake horsepower and may be computed as follows: (8.htm 17-Jul-11 .0 m of head for the most efficient design.45 45 . m3/sec HT = total dynamic head. based on the local atmospheric pressure minus the vapour pressure of the water.fao.30 30 .80 80 -150 135 -320 ns 8. m3/sec H = head.4 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) (8. the pump should be placed such that the total suction head HST is less than the head available. 8. m  p = efficiency of the pump  m = efficiency of the motor http://www. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 46 of 50 where n = impeller speed.4) where  = 1 000 kg = unit weight of water in m Q = discharge of the pump.Chapter 8. rpm Q = discharge. It is the impeller speed corresponding t §a discharge of 1.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09. m Specific speed n is a widely used criterion for pump selection.

80 Direct-coupled electric motor 0.6) where  = 1 000 kg = unit weight of water in m Q = discharge of Q the pump.000002 0. (8.036 0.95 Diesel engine 8. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 47 of 50 Efficiency of a pump varies with Q and H.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.00049 0. an example of which is shown in Figure 25.000082 0.fao.65 . The value is included in the manufacturer's characteristic curves of the pumps available in pump catalogues.0028 0.90 . Figure 25.081 0. its most economical pipe diameter can be defined by the following function as Agroszkin (1952) recommended.7457 kW Therefore.009 0.0.013 0.0040 0.0.Chapter 8.5) Efficiency of the motor depends upon the type of the driven motors as follows: Types of the driven motors m 0. G. m3/sec T = yearly pumping hours Rc = unit cost of a horsepower-hour  =  p× m = total efficiency pa = percentage of the amortization Cp = unit cost of one metre diameter pipe per metre The values of function FD are shown in Table 22.296 0.I. Characteristic curves for pump AGROFIL 500-D The electric motor's power requirement must be expressed in kilowatts 1 horsepower = 0.01364 0.00033 0. if Equation (8.026 0.213 (inches) (mm) Plastic.00105 0.000013 0. new cast iron Concrete http://www. Table 22 Values of Function FD Diameter 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 350 Types of pipes 0.0015 0.019 0.000001 0.4) is expressed in kilowatt we obtain: (8.6 Determination of the Most Economical Pipe Diameter To ensure the minimum operation cost and the amortization of a pump station having a longer pipeline.htm 17-Jul-11 .114 0.00012 0.00002 0.

1 0. and HDT = HDS + HDV + HDf The first step is to determine the various heads which are computed as follows: From Table 19 for strainer bucket without foot valve ke = 5.Chapter 8.97 6.fao.490 1. Determine the total dynamic head and the required brake horsepower.8 37.9 148.2 16.6 199. Solution: The total dynamic head is obtained by Equation (8.4 21.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.3 Example 1 A pump with the designed arrangement as shown in Figure 24 delivers 175 l/sec.1) HT = HST + HDT where HST = He + HSS + HSV + HSf.9 33.409 2. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 48 of 50 16 18 20 24 28 30 32 36 40 400 450 500 600 700 750 800 900 1 000 0.1 24.71 8.679 1.5 From Figure 24 D = 300 mm then hence HSS = 4.0 76.0m http://www.0 103.htm 17-Jul-11 .022 1.5 50.

hence HDV = 0 lD= 3.5 m  = 0.68 + 4. therefore HST = 1.0 + 28.305 + 0. Table 19) Substituting these values in Equation HSf we get The total suction head is.5 + 4.07 for two 90° bends with R/d = 1 kb = 2×0.995 m Then the total dynamic head is HT = 6.4) http://www.53 = 1.0 + 0 + 0.0 m As the discharge and suction pipes have the same diameter.164 m say 10.Chapter 8. hence HDT = 3.169 m From Figure 24 HDS = 3.169 + 3.0 m From Table 19 for gate valve with e/D = 1/3 kv = 0.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09.30 m kb = 0.0 = 6.20 m The brake HP is determined by the use of Equation (8.htm 17-Jul-11 .0 = 32.995 = 10.00 + 0.06 then The total discharge head is. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 49 of 50 ls = 2.17 (45° bend.0 + 1.184 = 6.fao.02 D = 0.995 = 3.

20 m Assuming  p =0.07 pa = 10% Cp = US$ 175 Using Equation (8.6) with the above data we obtain From Table 22.75 and  m =0.fao. the corresponding diameter is defined as D = 500 mm http://www.175 m3/sec HT = 10.Chapter 8.365 = 7 300 hours a year Rc = US$ 0.org/docrep/X5744E/x5744e09. Hydraulic Formulas Used in Designing Fish Farms Page 50 of 50 where  = 1 000 kg Q = 0.90 then Example 2 Determine the most economical pipe diameter for the pump station described in Example 1 with the following data T= 20.htm 17-Jul-11 .

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