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HW Set 1 Solutions – Kimel
2
1.3 In general we take the charge density to be of the form fr
, where fr
is determined by
physical constraints, such as Þ d
3
x Q.
a) variables: r, , . d
3
x ddcos r
2
dr
fr
r ࢤ R frr ࢤ R fRr ࢤ R
Þ d
3
x fR Þ r
2
drddr ࢤ R 4fRR
2
Q fR
Q
4R
2
r
Q
4R
2
r ࢤ R
b) variables: r, , z. d
3
x ddzrdr
r
fr
r ࢤ b fbr ࢤ b
Þ d
3
x fb Þ dzdrdrr ࢤ b 2fbbL L fb
2b
r
2b
r ࢤ b
c) variables: r, , z. d
3
x ddzrdr Choose the center of the disk at the origin, and the zaxis
perpendicular to the plane of the disk
r
fr
zR ࢤ r fzR ࢤ r
where R ࢤ r is a step function.
Þ d
3
x f Þ zR ࢤ rddzrdr 2
R
2
2
f Q f
Q
R
2
r
Q
R
2
zR ࢤ r
d) variables: r, , . d
3
x ddcos r
2
dr
r
fr
cos R ࢤ r frcos R ࢤ r
Þ d
3
x Þ frcos R ࢤ rddcos r
2
dr Þ
0
R
frrrdrd 2NÞ
0
R
rdr R
2
N Q
where I’ve used the fact that rdrd is an element of area and that the charge density is uniformly
distributed over area.
r
Q
R
2
r
cos R ࢤ r
PHY 5346
HW Set 1 Solutions – Kimel
3. 1.4 Gauss’s Law:
Þ E
da
Q
enclosed
0
a) Conducting sphere: all of the charge is on the surface
Q
4a
2
E4r
2
0, r a E4r
2
Q
0
, r ࢣa
E 0, r a E
Q
4
0
r
2
rĮ, r ࢣa
b) Uniform charge density:
Q
4
3
a
3
, r a, 0, r ࢣa.
E4r
2
Qr
3
0
a
3
E
Qr
4
0
a
3
, r a
E4r
2
Q
0
E
Q
4
0
r
2
, r ࢣa
c) A r
n
Q 4 Þ r
2
drAr
n
4Aa
n3
/n 3
n 3Q
4a
n3
r
n
, r a
0, r ࢣa
E4r
2
n 3Q
4
0
a
n3
4r
n3
/n 3 E
Q
4
0
r
2
r
n3
a
n3
, r a
E
Q
4
0
r
2
, r ࢣa
1. n ࢤ2.
E
Q
4
0
ra
, r a
E
Q
4
0
r
2
, r ࢣa
2. n 2.
E
Qr
3
4
0
a
5
, r a
E
Q
4
0
r
2
, r ࢣa
PHY 5346
HW Set 1 Solutions – Kimel
4. 1.5
r
qe
ࢤr
1
r
2
4
0
r
2
r
ࢤ
0
,
2
1
r
2
r
r
2
r
2
q
4
0
1
r
2
r
r
2
r
e
ࢤr
r
2
e
ࢤr
Using
2 1
r
ࢤ4r
2
q
4
0
1
r
2
r
ࢤre
ࢤr
e
ࢤr
r
2
r
1
r
ࢤ
2
2
r
2
e
ࢤr
q
4
0
ࢤ
r
2
e
ࢤr
2
e
ࢤr
r
e
ࢤr
r
2
ࢤ 4r
ࢤ
2
e
ࢤr
r
3
e
ࢤr
2
ࢤ
1
0
qr
ࢤ
q
3
8
e
ࢤr
r
qr
ࢤ
q
3
8
e
ࢤr
That is, the charge distribution consists of a positive point charge at the origin, plus an
exponentially decreasing negatively charged cloud.
PHY 5346
HW Set 2 Solutions – Kimel
2. 1.8 We will be using Gauss’s law Þ E
da
Qenc
0
a) 1) Parallel plate capacitor
From Gauss’s law E
0
Q
A
0
12
d
Q
A
0
12
d
W
0
2
Þ E
2
d
3
x
0
E
2
Ad
2
0
Q
A
0
2
Ad
2
1
2
0
Q
2
A
d
1
2
0
A
0
12
d
2
A
d
1
2
0
A
12
2
d
2) Spherical capacitor
From Gauss’s law, E
1
4
0
Q
r
2
, a r b.
12
Þ
a
b
Edr
Q
4
0
Þ
a
b
r
ࢤ2
dr
1
4
Q
0
b ࢤ a
ba
Q
4
0
ba
12
b ࢤ a
W
0
2
Þ E
2
d
3
x
0
2
Q
4
0
2
Þ
a
b
4
r
2
dr
r
4
0
2
Q
4
0
2
ࢤ4
ࢤb a
ba
1
8
0
Q
2
b ࢤ a
ba
W
1
8
0
4
0
ba
12
bࢤa
2
b ࢤ a
ba
2
0
ba
12
2
b ࢤ a
3) Cylindrical conductor
From Gauss’s law, E2rL
L
0
Q
0
12
Þ
a
b
Edr
Q
2
0
L
Þ
a
b
dr
r
Q
2
0
L
ln
b
a
W
0
2
Þ E
2
d
3
x
0
2
Q
2
0
L
2
2L Þ
a
b
rdr
r
2
1
4
0
Q
2
L
ln
b
a
W
1
4
0
2
0
L
12
ln
b
a
2
L
ln
b
a
0
L
12
2
ln
b
a
b) w
0
2
E
2
1) wr
0
2
Q
A
0
2
1
2
0
Q
2
A
2
0 r d, 0 otherwise.
2) wr
0
2
1
4
0
Q
r
2
2
1
32
0
2
Q
2
r
4
, a r b, 0, otherwise
3) wr
0
2
Q
2
0
Lr
2
1
8
0
Q
2
2
L
2
r
2
, 0 otherwise.
PHY 5346
HW Set 2 Solutions – Kimel
3. 1.9 I will be using the principle of virtual work. In the figure below, Fl is the work done by an
external force. If F is along l (ie. is positive), then the force between the plates is attractive. This
work goes into increasing the electrostatic energy carried by the electric field and into forcing charge
into the battery holding the plates at constant potential
12
.
Conservation of energy gives
Fl W Q
12
or
F
W
l
Q
l
12
From problem 1.8,
a) Charge fixed.
1) Parallel plate capacitor
W
1
2
0
A
12
2
d
,
12
dQ
A
0
W
1
2
0
A
dQ
A
0
2
d
d
2
0
A
Q
2
Q
l
0, F
W
l
Q
2
2
0
A
(attractive)
2) Parallel cylinder capacitor
12
0
ln
d
a
, a a
1
a
2
W
1
2
Q
12
F
W
l
1
2
Q
0
d
ln
d
a
1
2
Q
0
d
(attractive)
b) Potential fixed
1) Parallel plate capacitor
Using Gauss’s law, Q
12
A
0
d
,
l
Q
12
A
0
d
2
F ࢤ
1
2
0
A
12
2
d
2
12
2
A
0
d
2
1
2
0
A
12
2
d
2
1
2
0
A
Qd
0
A
2
d
2
1
2
0
A
Q
2
2) Parallel cylinder capacitor
W
1
2
Q
12
, and Q
0
L
12
ln
d
a
so
W
1
2
0
L
12
2
ln
d
a
,
W
l
ࢤ
1
2
0
L
12
2
ln
2 d
a
d
Q
l
0
L
12
ln
2 d
a
d
F ࢤ
1
2
0
L
12
2
ln
2 d
a
d
0
L
12
2
ln
2 d
a
d
1
2
0
L
12
2
ln
2 d
a
d
PHY 5346
HW Set 2 Solutions – Kimel
4. 2.1 We will work in cylidrical coordinate, (, z, , with the charge q located at the point
d
dzĮ, and the conducting plane is in the z 0 plane.
Then we know from class the potential is given by
x
1
4
0
q
x ࢤ d
ࢤ
q
x d
E
z
ࢤ
q
4
0
z
1
z ࢤ d
2
2
1/2
ࢤ
1
z d
2
2
1/2
E
z
q
4
0
z ࢤ d
z ࢤ d
2
2
3/2
ࢤ
z d
z d
2
2
3/2
a)
0
E
z
z 0
0
q
4
0
ࢤd
ࢤd
2
2
3/2
ࢤ
d
d
2
2
3/2
ࢤ
q
2d
2
1
1
2
d
2
3
2
Plotting
ࢤ1
1
2
r
2
3
2
gives
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1 2 3 4 5
r
b) Force of charge on plane
F
1
4
0
qࢤq
2d
2
ࢤzĮ
1
4 4
0
q
2
d
2
zĮ
c)
F
A
w
0
2
E
2
2
2
0
1
2
0
ࢤ
q
2d
2
1
1
2
d
2
3
2
2
1
8
0
q
2
2
d
4
1
2
d
2
3
F 2
q
2
8
0
2
d
4
Þ
0
1
2
d
2
3
d 2
q
2
8
0
2
d
4
1
4
d
2
1
4 4
0
q
2
d
2
d)
W Þ
d
Fdz
q
2
4 4
0
Þ
d
dz
z
2
q
2
4 4
0
d
e)
W
1
2
1
4
0
i,j,ij
q
i
q
j
x
i
ࢤ x
j

ࢤ
q
2
2 4
0
d
Notice parts d) and e) are not equal in magnitude, because in d) the image moves when q moves.
f) 1 Angstrom 10
ࢤ10
m, q e 1. 6 10
ࢤ19
C.
W
q
2
4 4
0
d
e
e
4 4
0
d
e
1. 6 10
ࢤ19
4 10
ࢤ10
9 10
9
V 3.6 eV
PHY 5346
HW Set 2 Solutions – Kimel
5. 2.2 The system is described by
a) Using the method of images
x
1
4
0
q
x ࢤ y

q
߰
x ࢤ y
߰

with y
߰
a
2
y
, and q
߰
ࢤq
a
y
b) ࢤ
0
n

xa
0
x

xa
0
1
4
0
x
q
x
2
y
2
ࢤ 2xycos
1/2
q
߰
x
2
y
߰2
ࢤ 2xy
߰
cos
1/2
ࢤq
1
4
a 1 ࢤ
y
2
a
2
y
2
a
2
ࢤ 2aycos
3/2
Note
q
induced
a
2
Þ d ࢤq
1
4
a
2
2a 1 ࢤ
y
2
a
2
Þ
ࢤ1
1
dx
y
2
a
2
ࢤ 2ayx
3/2
, where x cos
q
induced
ࢤ
q
2
aa
2
ࢤ y
2
2
aa
2
ࢤ y
2
ࢤq
c)
F
qq
߰
4
0
y
߰
ࢤ y
2
1
4
0
q
2
ay
a
2
ࢤ y
2
, the force is attractive, to the right.
d) If the conductor were fixed at a different potential, or equivalently if extra charge were put on
the conductor, then the potential would be
x
1
4
0
q
x ࢤ y

q
߰
x ࢤ y
߰

V
and obviously the electric field in the sphere and induced charge on the inside of the sphere would
remain unchanged.
PHY 5346
HW Set 3 Solutions – Kimel
2. 2.3 The system is described by
a) Given the potenial for a line charge in the problem, we write down the solution from the figure,
T
4
0
ln
R
2
x ࢤ x
o
2
ࢤ ln
R
2
x ࢤ x
o1
2
ࢤ ln
R
2
x ࢤ x
o2
2
ln
R
2
x ࢤ x
o3
2
Looking at the figure when y 0, x ࢤ x
o
2
x ࢤ x
o1
2
, x ࢤ x
o2
2
x ࢤ x
o3
2
, so
T

y0
0
Similarly, when x 0, x ࢤ x
o
2
x ࢤ x
o2
2
, x ࢤ x
o1
2
x ࢤ x
o3
2
, so
T

x0
0
On the surface
T
0, so
T
0, however,
T
T
x
t
x
t
0
T
x
t
0 E
t
0
b) We remember
ࢤ
0
T
y
ࢤ
y
0
x ࢤ x
0
2
y
0
2
ࢤ
y
0
x x
0
2
y
0
2
where I’ve applied the symmetries derived in a). Let
/
ࢤ1
y
0
x ࢤ x
0
2
y
0
2
ࢤ
y
0
x x
0
2
y
0
2
This is an easy function to plot for various combinations of the position of the original line charge
(x
0
, y
0
.
c) If we integrate over a strip of width Ɗz, we find, where we use the integral
Þ
0
Ý
1
x ࢥ x
0
2
y
0
2
dx
1
2
2arctan
x
0
y
0
y
0
ƊQ Þ
0
Ý
dxƊz
ƊQ
Ɗz
Þ
0
Ý
dx
ࢤ2
tan
ࢤ1
x
0
y
0
and the total charge induced on the plane is ࢤÝ, as expected.
d)
Expanding
ln
R
2
x ࢤ x
0
2
y ࢤ y
0
2
ࢤ ln
R
2
x ࢤ x
0
2
y y
0
2
ࢤ ln
R
2
x x
0
2
y ࢤ y
0
2
ln
R
2
x x
0
2
y y
to lowest nonvanishing order in x
0
, y
0
gives
16
xy
x
2
y
2
2
y
0
x
0
so
asym
4
0
xy
x
2
y
2
2
y
0
x
0
This is the quadrupole contribution.
PHY 5346
HW Set 3 Solutions – Kimel
3. 2.5
a)
W Þ
r
Ý
Fdy
q
2
a
4
0
Þ
r
Ý
dy
y
3
1 ࢤ
a
2
y
2
2
q
2
a
8
0r
2
ࢤ a
2
Let us compare this to disassemble the charges
ࢤ W
߰
ࢤ
1
8
0
ࢣ
iࣔj
q
i
q
j
x
i
ࢤx
j 
1
4
0
aq
2
r
1
r 1 ࢤ
a
2
r
2
q
2
a
4
0r
2
ࢤ a
2
W
The reason for this difference is that in the first expression W, the image charge is moving and
changing size, whereas in the second, whereas in the second, they don’t.
b) In this case
W Þ
r
Ý
Fdy
q
4
0
Þ
r
Ý
Qdy
y
2
ࢤ qa
3
Þ
r
Ý
2y
2
ࢤ a
2
yy
2
ࢤ a
2
2
dy
Using standard integrals, this gives
W
1
4
0
q
2
a
2r
2
ࢤ a
2
ࢤ
q
2
a
2r
2
ࢤ
qQ
r
On the other hand
ࢤ W
߰
1
4
0
aq
2
r
2
ࢤ a
2
ࢤ
qQ
a
r
q
r
1
4
0
aq
2
r
2
ࢤ a
2
ࢤ
q
2
a
r
2
ࢤ
qQ
r
The first two terms are larger than those found in W for the same reason as found in a), whereas the
last term is the same, because Q is fixed on the sphere.
PHY 5346
HW Set 3 Solutions – Kimel
4. 2.6 We are considering two conducting spheres of radii r
a
and r
b
respectively. The charges on
the spheres are Q
a
and Q
b
.
a) The process is that you start with q
a
1 and q
b
1 at the centers of the spheres, and sphere a
then is an equipotential from charge q
a
1 but not from q
b
1 and vice versa. To correct this we use
the method of images for spheres as discussed in class. This gives the iterative equations given in the
text.
b) q
a
1 and q
b
1 are determined from the two requirements
j1
q
a
j Q
a
and
j1
q
b
j Q
b
As a program equation, we use a doloop of the form
j2
n
q
a
j
ࢤr
a
q
b
j ࢤ 1
d
b
j ࢤ 1
and similar equations for q
b
j, x
a
j, x
bj, d
a
j, d
b
j. The potential outside the spheres is given
by
x
1
4
0
j1
n
q
a
j
x ࢤ x
a
jk
Į
j1
n
q
b
j
x ࢤ d
b
jk
Į
This potential is constant on the surface of the spheres by construction.
And the force between the spheres is
F
1
4
0
j,k
q
a
jq
b
k
d ࢤ x
a
j ࢤ x
b
k
2
c) Now we take the special case Q
a
Q
b
, r
a
r
b
R, d 2R. Then we find, using the iteration
equations
x
a
j x
b
j xj
x1 0, x2 R/2, x3 2R/3, or xj
j ࢤ 1
j
R
q
a
j q
b
j qj
qj q, q2 ࢤq/2, q3 q/3, or qj
ࢤ1
j1
j
q
So, as n
j1
qj q
j1
ࢤ1
j1
j
qln2 Q q
Q
ln2
The force between the spheres is
F
1
4
0
q
2
R
2
j,k
ࢤ1
jk
jk 2 ࢤ
jࢤ1
j
ࢤ
kࢤ1
k
2
1
4
0
q
2
R
2
j,k
ࢤ1
jk
jk
j k
2
Evaluating the sum numerically
F
1
4
0
q
2
R
2
0. 0739
1
4
0
Q
2
R
2
1
ln2
2
0. 0739
Comparing this to the force between the charges located at the centers of the spheres
F
p
1
4
0
Q
2
R
2
4
Comparing the two results, we see
F 4
1
ln2
2
0. 0739F
p
0. 615F
p
On the surface of the sphere
1
4
0
j1
qj
R ࢤ xj
q
4
0
R
j1
ࢤ1
j1
Notice
1
1 1
j1
ࢤ1
j1
So
1
4
0
q
2R
1
4
0
Q
2ln2R
Q
C
C
4
0
R
2ln2 1. 386
PHY 5346
HW Set 3 Solutions – Kimel
5. 2.7 The system is described by
a) The Green’s function, which vanishes on the surface is obviously
Gx , x
߰
1
x ࢤ x
߰

ࢤ
1
x ࢤ x
I
߰

where
x
߰
x
߰
î y
߰
*Į z
߰
k
Į
, x
I
߰
x
߰
î y
߰
*Į ࢤ z
߰
k
Į
b) There is no free charge distribution, so the potential everywhere is determined by the potential
on the surface. From Eq. (1.44)
x ࢤ
1
4
Þ
S
x
߰
Gx , x
߰
n
߰
da
߰
Note that nĮ
߰
is in the ࢤz direction, so
n
߰
Gx , x
߰

z
߰
0
ࢤ
z
Gx , x
߰

z
߰
0
ࢤ
2z
x ࢤ x
߰
2
y ࢤ y
߰
2
z
2
3/2
So
x
z
2
VÞ
0
a
Þ
0
2
߰
d
߰
d
߰
x ࢤ x
߰
2
y ࢤ y
߰
2
z
2
3/2
where x
߰
߰
cos
߰
, y
߰
߰
sin
߰
.
c) If 0, or equivalently x y 0,
z
z
2
VÞ
0
a
Þ
0
2
߰
d
߰
d
߰
߰2
z
2
3/2
zVÞ
0
a
d
2
z
2
3/2
z zV ࢤ
z ࢤ a
2
z
2
z a
2
z
2
V 1 ࢤ
z
a
2
z
2
d)
x
z
2
VÞ
0
a
Þ
0
2
߰
d
߰
d
߰
ࢤ
߰
2
z
2
3/2
In the integration choose the x ࢤaxis parallel to , then
߰
߰
cos
߰
x
z
2
VÞ
0
a
Þ
0
2
߰
d
߰
d
߰
2
߰2
ࢤ 2
߰
z
2
3/2
Let r
2
2
z
2
, so
x
z
2
V
r
3
Þ
0
a
Þ
0
2
߰
d
߰
d
߰
1
߰2
ࢤ2
߰
r
2
3/2
We expand the denominator up to factors of O1/r
4
, ( and change notation
߰
,
߰
, r
2
1
2
x
z
2
V
r
3
Þ
0
a
Þ
0
2
dd
1
2
ࢤ2
r
2
3/2
where the denominator in this notation is written
1
1
2
2
ࢤ 2cos
3/2
or, after expanding,
x
z
2
V
r
3
Þ
0
a
d Þ
0
2
1 ࢤ
3
2
2
2
3
2
cos
15
8
4
4
ࢤ
15
2
4
3
cos
15
2
4
2
2
cos
2
d
Integrating over gives
x
z
2
V
r
3
Þ
0
a
2
15
4
4
4
ࢤ 3
2
2
15
2
4
2
2
d
Integrating over yields
x
z
2
V
r
3
5
8
4
a
6
ࢤ
3
4
a
4
2
15
8
a
4
4
2
a
2
or
x
Va
2
2
2
z
2
3/2
1 ࢤ
3
4
a
2
2
z
2
5
8
a
4
3
2
a
2
2
z
2
2
PHY 5346
HW Set 4 Solutions – Kimel
1. 2.8 The system is pictured below
a) Using the known potential for a line charge, the two line charges above give the potential
r
1
2
0
ln
r
߰
r
V, a constant. Let us define V
߰
4
0
V
Then the above equation can be written
r
߰
r
2
e
V
߰
or r
߰2
r
2
e
V
߰
Writing r
߰2
r
ࢤ R
2
, the above can be written
r
zĮ
R
e
V
߰
ࢤ 1
2
R
2
e
V
߰
e
V
߰
ࢤ 1
2
The equation is that of a circle whose center is at ࢤzĮ
R
e
V
߰
ࢤ1
, and whose radius is a
Re
V
߰
2
e
V
߰
ࢤ1
b) The geometry of the system is shown in the fugure.
Note that
d R d
1
d
2
with
d
1
R
e
Va
߰
ࢤ1
, d
2
R
e
ࢤV
b
߰
ࢤ1
and
a
Re
Va
߰
2
e
Va
߰
ࢤ 1
, b
Re
ࢤV
b
߰
2
e
ࢤV
b
߰
ࢤ 1
Forming
d
2
ࢤ a
2
ࢤ b
2
R
R
e
Va
߰
ࢤ1
R
e
ࢤV
b
߰
ࢤ1
2
ࢤ
Re
Va
߰
2
e
Va
߰
ࢤ 1
2
ࢤ
Re
ࢤV
b
߰
2
e
ࢤV
b
߰
ࢤ 1
2
or
d
2
ࢤ a
2
ࢤ b
2
R
2
e
Va
߰
ࢤV
b
߰
1
e
Va
߰
ࢤ 1e
ࢤV
b
߰
ࢤ 1
Thus we can write
d
2
ࢤ a
2
ࢤ b
2
2ab
e
Va
߰
ࢤV
b
߰
1
2e
Va
߰
2
e
ࢤV
b
߰
2
e
Va
߰
ࢤV
b
߰
2
e
ࢤ Va
߰
ࢤV
b
߰
2
2
cosh
V
a
߰
ࢤ V
b
߰
2
or
V
a
ࢤ V
b
1
2
0
cosh
ࢤ1 d
2
ࢤ a
2
ࢤ b
2
2ab
Capacitance/unit length
C
L
Q/L
V
a
ࢤ V
b
V
a
ࢤ V
b
2
0
cosh
ࢤ1 d
2
ࢤa
2
ࢤb
2
2ab
c) Suppose a
2
d
2
, and b
2
d
2
, and a
߰
ab , then
C
L
2
0
cosh
ࢤ1 d
2
ࢤa
2
ࢤb
2
2a
߰2
2
0
cosh
ࢤ1
d
2
1ࢤa
2
b
2
/d
2
2a
߰2
cosh
ࢤ1
d
2
1 ࢤ a
2
b
2
/d
2
2a
߰2
2
0
L
C
d
2
1 ࢤ a
2
b
2
/d
2
2a
߰2
e
2
0
L
C
2
negligible terms if
2
0
L
C
1
or
ln
d
2
1 ࢤ a
2
b
2
/d
2
a
߰2
2
0
L
C
or
C
L
2
0
ln
d
2
1ࢤa
2
b
2
/d
2
a
߰2
Let us defind
2
a
2
b
2
/d
2
, then
C
L
2
0
ln
d
2
1ࢤ
2
a
߰2
2
0
ln
d
2
a
߰2
2
0
ln
2 d
2
a
߰2
2
O
4
The first term of this result agree with problem 1.7, and the second term gives the appropriate
correction asked for.
d) In this case, we must take the opposite sign for d
2
ࢤ a
2
ࢤ b
2
, since a
2
b
2
d
2
. Thus
C
L
2
0
cosh
ࢤ1 a
2
b
2
ࢤd
2
2a
߰2
If we use the identiy, lnx x
2
ࢤ 1 cosh
ࢤ1
x, G.&R., p. 50., then for d 0
C
L
2
0
ln
a
2
b
2
2ab
a
2
ࢤb
2
2ab
2
0
ln
a
b
in agreement with problem 1.6.
PHY 5346
HW Set 4 Solutions – Kimel
2. 2.9 The system is pictured below
a) We have treated this probem in class. We found the charge density induced was
3
0
E
0
cos
We also note the radial force/unit area outward from the surface is
2
/2
0
. Thus the force on the
right hand hemisphere is, using x cos
F
z
1
2
0
Þ
2
zĮ da
1
2
0
3
0
E
0
2
2R
2
Þ
0
1
x
3
dx
1
2
0
3
0
E
0
2
2R
2
/4
9
4
0
E
0
2
R
2
An equal force acting in the opposite direction would be required to keep the hemispheres from
sparating.
b) Now the charge density is
3
0
E
0
cos
Q
4R
2
3
0
E
0
x
Q
4R
2
3
0
E
0
x
Q
12
0
E
0
R
2
F
z
1
2
0
Þ
2
zĮ da
1
2
0
3
0
E
0
2
2R
2
Þ
0
1
x x
Q
12
0
E
0
R
2
2
dx
Thus
F
z
9
4
0
E
0
2
R
2
1
2
QE
0
1
32
0
R
2
Q
2
An equal force acting in the opposite direction would be required to keep the himispheres from
separating.
PHY 5346
HW Set 4 Solutions – Kimel
3. 2.10 As done in class we simulate the electric field E
0
by two charges at Ý
3
0
E
0
cos
a) This charge distribution simulates the given system for cos 0. We have treated this probem
in class. The potential is given by
x
ࢤE
0
1 ࢤ
a
3
r
3
r cos
Using
ࢤ
0
n

surface
We have the charge density on the plate to be
plate
ࢤ
0
z

z0
0
E
0
1 ࢤ
a
3
3
For purposes of plotting, consider
plate
0
E
0
1 ࢤ
1
x
3
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
2 4 6 8 10
x
boss
3
0
E
0
cos
For plotting, we use
boss
3
0
E
0
cos
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
b)
q 3
0
E
0
2a
2
Þ
0
1
xdx 3
0
E
0
a
2
c) Now we have
r
1
4
0
q
r
ࢤ d
q
߰
r
ࢤ d
߰
ࢤ
q
r
d
ࢤ
q
߰
r
d
߰
where q
߰
ࢤq
a
d
, d
߰
a
2
d
.
ࢤ
0
r

ra
ࢤq
4
d
2
ࢤ a
2
a a
ࢤ d
3
ࢤ
d
2
ࢤ a
2
a a
d
3
q
ind
2a
2
ࢤq
4
Þ
0
1
d
2
ࢤ a
2
a a
ࢤ d
3
ࢤ
d
2
ࢤ a
2
a a
d
3
dx
q
ind
ࢤqa
2
d
2
ࢤ a
2
2a
1
da
1
d ࢤ a
ࢤ
1
a
2
d
2
1
d a
ࢤ
1
a
2
d
2
q
ind
ࢤ1
2
q
d
2
ࢤ a
2
d
2d
d
2
ࢤ a
2
ࢤ
2
a
2
d
2
ࢤq 1 ࢤ
d
2
ࢤ a
2
d a
2
d
2
PHY 5346
HW Set 4 Solutions – Kimel
4. 2.11 The system is pictured in the following figure:
a) The potential for a line charge is (see problem 2.3)
r
2
0
ln
r
Ý
r
Thus for this system
r
2
0
ln
r
Ý
r
ࢤ R
߰
2
0
ln
r
Ý
r
ࢤ R
߰
To determine
߰
and R
߰
, we need two conditions:
I) As r Ý, we want 0, so
߰
ࢤ.
II) r
b r
ࢤb or
ln
b ࢤ R
߰
R ࢤ b
ln
b R
߰
b R
or
b ࢤ R
߰
R ࢤ b
b R
߰
b R
This is an equation for R
߰
with the solution
R
߰
b
2
R
The same condition we found for a sphere.
b)
r
4
0
ln
r
2
b
4
R
2
ࢤ 2r
b
2
R
cos
r
2
R
2
ࢤ 2rRcos
as r Ý
r
4
0
ln
1 ࢤ 2b
2
cos /rR
1 ࢤ 2Rcos /r
4
0
ln 1 ࢤ
2
rR
b
2
ࢤ R
2
cos
Using
ln1 x x ࢤ
1
2
x
2
1
3
x
3
Ox
4
r
ࢤ
2
0
1
rR
b
2
ࢤ R
2
cos
c)
ࢤ
0
r

rb
ࢤ
4
r
ln
r
2
b
4
R
2
ࢤ 2r
b
2
R
cos
r
2
R
2
ࢤ 2rRcos
rb
2b
1 ࢤ y
2
y
2
1 ࢤ 2ycos
where y R/b. Plotting /
2b
1ࢤy
2
y
2
1ࢤ2ycos
, for y 2, 4, gives
gy
1 ࢤ y
2
y
2
1 ࢤ 2ycos
g2, g4 ࢤ
3
5ࢤ4cos
, ࢤ
15
17ࢤ8cos
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
d) If the line charges are a distance d apart, then the electric field at from
߰
is, using Gauss’s law
E
߰
2
0
d
The force on is LE, ie,
F
߰
L
2
0
d
ࢤ
2
L
2
0
d
, and the force is attractive.
PHY 5346
HW Set 5 Solutions – Kimel
1. 2.13 The system is pictured in the following figure:
a) Notice from the figure, , ࢤ , ; thus from Eq. (2.71) in the text,
, a
0
ࢣ
n1
a
n
n
cosn
Þ
ࢤ/2
3/2
b, 2a
0
V
1
V
2
a
0
V
1
V
2
2
Using
Þ
ࢤ/2
3/2
cos mcos nd
nm
Applying this to , only odd terms m contribute in the sum and
a
m
2V
1
ࢤ V
2
mb
m
ࢤ1
mࢤ1
2
Thus
,
V
1
V
2
2
2V
1
ࢤ V
2
Im
ࢣ
m odd
i
m
m
e
im
mb
m
Using
2
ࢣ
m odd
x
m
m
ln
1 x
1 ࢤ x
and
Im lnA iB tan
ࢤ1
B/A
we get
,
V
1
V
2
2
V
1
ࢤ V
2
tan
ࢤ1
2
b
cos
1 ࢤ
2
b
2
as desired.
b)
ࢤ
0
, 
b
ࢤ
0
V
1
ࢤ V
2
tan
ࢤ1
2
b
cos
1 ࢤ
2
b
2
b
ࢤ2
0
V
1
ࢤ V
2
bcos
b
2
2
b
4
ࢤ 2b
2
2
4
4
2
b
2
cos
2

b
ࢤ
0
V
1
ࢤ V
2
bcos
:
PHY 5346
HW Set 5 Solutions – Kimel
2. 2.23 The system is pictured in the following figure:
a) As suggested in the text and in class, we will superpose solutions of the form (2.56) for the two
sides with Vx, y, z V.
1) First consider the side Vx, y, a z :
1
x, y, z
ࢣ
n,m1
Ý
A
nm
sin
n
x sin
m
y sinh
nm
z
with
n
n
a
,
m
m
a
,
nm
a
n
2
m
2
. Projecting out A
nm
using the orthogonality of the
sine functions,
A
nm
16V
sinh
nm
anm
2
where both n, and m are odd. (Later we will use n 2p 1, m 2q 1
2) In order to express
2
x, y, z in a form like the above, we make the coordinate transformation
x
߰
y, y
߰
x, z
߰
ࢤz a
So
2
x, y, z
1
x
߰
, y
߰
, z
߰
1
y, x, z a
x, y, z
1
x, y, z
2
x, y, z
b)
a
2
,
a
2
,
a
2
16 V
2
ࢣ
p,q0
Ý
ࢤ1
pq
2p 12q 1 cosh
nm
a
2
where I have used the identity
sinh
nm
a 2sinh
nm
a
2
cosh
nm
a
2
Let fp, q ࣕ ࢣ
p,q0
Ý ࢤ1
pq
2p12q1 cosh 2p1
2
2q1
2
2
(p,q) fp, q Error Sum
0,0 0.213484 4.4% .214384
1,0 ࢤ0. 004641 2.13% 0.20974
0,1 ࢤ0. 004641 0.013% 0.20510
1,1 0.0002835 0.015% 0.20539
The first three terms give an accuracy of 3 significant figures.
a
2
,
a
2
,
a
2
16 0. 20539
2
V 0. 33296V
av
a
2
,
a
2
,
a
2
2
6
V 0. 333. . . . V
c)
x, y, a ࢤ
0
z

za
x, y, a ࢤ
16
0
2
V
ࢤ
16
0
2
V
ࢣ
n,m odd
Ý
sin
n
x sin
m
y
cosh
nm
a ࢤ 1
sinh
nm
a
x, y, a ࢤ
16
0
2
V
ࢣ
n,m odd
Ý
sin
n
x sin
m
y tanh
nm
a
2
PHY 5346
HW Set 5 Solutions – Kimel
3. 3.1 The system is pictured in the following figure:
Þ
0
1
P
l
xdx
The problem is symmetric around the z axis so
r,
ࢣ
l
A
l
r
l
B
l
r
ࢤlࢤ1
P
l
cos
The A
l
and B
l
are determined by the conditions
1)
Þ
ࢤ1
1
a, xP
l
xdx
2
2l 1
A
l
a
l
B
l
a
ࢤlࢤ1
2)
Þ
ࢤ1
1
b, xP
l
xdx
2
2l 1
A
l
b
l
B
l
b
ࢤlࢤ1
Solving these two equations gives
A
l
2l 1
2a
2l1
ࢤ b
2l1
a
l1
Þ
ࢤ1
1
a, xP
l
xdx ࢤ b
l1
Þ
ࢤ1
1
b, xP
l
xdx
B
l
a
l1 2l 1
2
Þ
ࢤ1
1
a, xP
l
xdx ࢤ A
l
a
2l1
Using
Þ
ࢤ1
1
a, xP
l
xdx VÞ
0
1
P
l
xdx
Þ
ࢤ1
1
b, xP
l
xdx VÞ
ࢤ1
0
P
l
xdx Vࢤ1
l
Þ
0
1
P
l
xdx
So
A
l
2l 1
2a
2l1
ࢤ b
2l1
Va
l1
ࢤ b
l1
ࢤ1
l
Þ
0
1
P
l
xdx
B
l
a
l1 2l 1
2
VÞ
0
1
P
l
xdx ࢤ A
l
a
2l1
Note that
Þ
0
1
P
l
xdx
1
2
Þ
ࢤ1
1
P
l
xdx
for l even. For even l ࢣ0, Þ
0
1
P
l
xdx 0. Thus we have
Þ
0
1
P
0
xdx 1; Þ
0
1
P
1
xdx
1
2
, Þ
0
1
P
3
xdx ࢤ
1
8
and
A
0
V
2
, A
1
3
4a
3
ࢤ b
3
Va
2
b
2
, A
3
ࢤ
7
16a
7
ࢤ b
7
Va
4
b
4
B
0
1
2
Va ࢤ
1
2
Va 0
B
1
3
4
a
2
V ࢤ
3
4a
3
ࢤ b
3
Va
2
b
2
a
3
3
4
Va
2
b
2 b a
ࢤa
3
b
3
B
3
ࢤ
7
16
a
4
V ࢤ a
7
ࢤ
7
16a
7
ࢤ b
7
Va
4
b
4
ࢤ
7
16
Va
4
b
4 b
3
a
3
ࢤa
7
b
7
As b Ý, only the B
l
terms (and A
0
survive. Thus using the general expression for Þ
0
1
P
l
xdx
given by (3.26)
r,
V
2
P
0
x
3
2
a
3
r
2
P
1
x ࢤ
7
8
a
4
r
4
P
3
x . . . . .
Let’s now solve the problem neglecting the outer sphere (since b Ý using the Green’s function
result
(2.19) this integral give, for cos 1
r,
V
2
1 ࢤ
2
1
1 ࢤ
ࢤ
1
1
2
with a/r. Expanding the above,
r,
V
2
a
r
3
2
a
2
r
2
ࢤ
7
8
a
4
r
4
. . . . . .
Comparing with our previous solution with x 1, we see the Green’s function solution differs by
having a B
0
term and by not having an A
0
term. All the other higher power terms agree in the series.
This difference is due to having a potential at Ý in the original problem.
PHY 5346
HW Set 5 Solutions – Kimel
4. 3.4 Slice the sphere equally by n planes slicing through the z axis, subtending angle Ɗ about
this axis with the surface of each slice of the pie alternating as V.
r, ,
l,m
A
lm
r
l
Y
l
m
,
so
A
lm
1
a
l
Þ dY
l
m
,
ࢩ
a, ,
Symmetries:
A
lࢤm
ࢤ1
m
A
lm
ࢩ
r, , 2Ɗ r, ,
where
Ɗ
2
2n
Thus
m n, and integral multiples thereof
ࢤr
ࢤr
, n 1
ࢤr
r
, n 1
Since
PY
l
m
, ࢤ1
l
Y
l
m
,
Then
l is odd for n 1; l is even for n 1
Thus we only have contributions of l ࣙ n. Using
A
lm
1
a
l
Þ dY
l
m
,
ࢩ
a, ,
The integral over can be done trivially, since the integrand is just e
ࢤim
leaving the desired answer
in terms of an integral over cos.
n 1 case: I am going to keep only the lowest novanishing terms, involving A
11
and A
1ࢤ1
.
rA
11
Y
1
1
A
1ࢤ1
Y
1
ࢤ1
rA
11
Y
1
1
A
11
Y
1
1
ࢩ
2r ReA
11
Y
1
1
Y
1
1
ࢤ
3
8
1 ࢤ x
2
1/2
e
i
A
11
ࢤ
1
a
3
8
V Þ
ࢤ1
1
1 ࢤ x
2
1/2
dx Þ
0
e
ࢤi
d ࢤ Þ
2
e
ࢤi
d
A
11
2i
a
3
8
V
2r Re
2i
a
3
8
V ࢤ
3
8
sine
i
3r
2a
Vsinsin
From the figure
we see
sinsin cos
߰
So
3r
2a
Vcos
߰
V
3
2
r
a
P
1
cos
߰
. . . . . .
The other terms, for l 2, 3, can be obtained in the same way in agreement with the result of
(3.36)
PHY 5346
HW Set 6 Solutions – Kimel
2. 3.10 This problem is described by
a) From the class notes
, z,
ࢣ
n
A
n
sin B
n
cos I
n
L
sin
nz
L
where
A
n
2
L
1
I
nb
L
Þ
0
L
Þ
0
2
V, z sin
na
L
sinddz, ࢣ0
B
n
2
L
1
I
nb
L
Þ
0
L
Þ
0
2
V, z sin
na
L
cosddz, 0
B
n
1
L
1
I
nb
L
Þ
0
L
Þ
0
2
V, z sin
na
L
ddz, 0
Noting
Þ
ࢤ
2
2
sind ࢤ Þ
2
3
2
sind 0
we conclude A
n
0. Similarly, noting
Þ
ࢤ
2
2
cos d ࢤ Þ
2
3
2
cos d
4ࢤ1
m
2m 1
, m 0, 1, 2, . . . .
where I’ve recognized that must be odd, ie, 2m 1. Also
Þ
0
L
sin
nz
L
dz
2
2l 1
, l 0, 1, 2, . . . . .
where again I’ve recognized that n must be odd, ie, n 2l 1. Thus
B
n
16ࢤ1
m
V
2
I
2m1
nb
L
2l 12m 1
b) Now z L/2, L ࢣࢣb, L ࢣࢣ. Then from the class notes
I
2m1
2l 1
L
1
Ɖ2m 2
2l 1
2L
m1
Also
sin
2l 1
L
ࢤ1
l
so
, z,
ࢣ
l,m
16ࢤ1
lm
V
2
2l 12m 1
b
2m1
cos2m 1
Using
tan
ࢤ1x
ࢣ
l0
Ý
x
2l1
1l 1
ࢤ1
l
4
tan
ࢤ1
1
ࢣ
l0
Ý
ࢤ1
l
2l 1
so
, z,
4V
ࢣ
m
ࢤ1
m
2m 1
b
2m1
cos2m 1
Remembering from problem 2.13 that
ࢣ
m
ࢤ1
m
2m 1
b
2m1
cos2m 1
1
2
tan
ࢤ1
2
b
cos
1 ࢤ
2
b
2
we find
, z,
2V
tan
ࢤ1
2
b
cos
1 ࢤ
2
b
2
which is the answer for problem 2.13.
PHY 5346
HW Set 6 Solutions – Kimel
3. 4.1
q
lm
Þ r
l
Y
l
mࢩ
, x d
3
x
i
q
i
r
l
l
Y
l
mࢩ
i
,
i
Using
Y
l
mࢩ
,
2l 1l ࢤ m!
4l m!
P
l
m
xe
ࢤࢤm
N
l
m
P
l
m
xe
ࢤࢤm
From the figure we get
q
lm
a
l
N
l
m
P
l
m
0q1 ࢤ ࢤ1
m
1 ࢤ i
m
0, for m even, so m 2n 1, n 0, 1, 2, . . .
q
lm
2qa
l
N
l
m
P
l
m
01 ࢤ ࢤ1
n
i
b) The figure for this system is
Since the sum of the charges equals zero, l ࣙ 1.
q
lm
qa
l
Y
l
mࢩ
x 1, Y
l
mࢩ
x ࢤ1, qa
l
N
l
m
P
l
m
1 P
l
m
ࢤ1
From the Rodrigues formula for P
l
m
x, we see P
l
m
1 0, for m ࣔ 0. So
q
lm
qa
l
N
l
0
1 ࢤ1
l
P
l
1
Thus l is even, but l ࣔ 0
q
lm
2qa
l
N
l
0
c) Using the fact that N
l
0
2l1
4
and Y
l
0
2l1
4
P
l
x
l2
2qa
l
P
l
x
r
l1
2qa
2
r
3
P
2
x 0 on xy plane)
x ࢤ
qa
2
r
3
Let us plot x /ࢤq/a, ie,
1
r
a
3
1
x
3
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
x
The exact answer on the xy plane is
x
ࢤq
a
2
x
ࢤ
2
x 1
1
x
2
ࢤq
a
1
x
3
ࢤ
3
4
1
x
5
5
8
1
x
7
ࢤ
35
64
1
x
9
. . . .
So let’s plot
1
x
3
,
2
x
ࢤ
2
x 1
1
x
2
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
1 2 3 4 5
x
where the smaller is the exact answer.
PHY 5346
HW Set 7 Solutions – Kimel
2. 4.2 We want to show that we can obtain the potential and potential energy of an elementary
diplole:
x
1
4
0
p
x
r
3
W ࢤp
E
0
from the general formulas
x
1
4
0
Þ
x
߰
d
3
x
߰
x ࢤ x
߰

W Þ x x d
3
x
using the effective charge density
eff
ࢤp
x
where I’ve chosen the origin to be at x
0
.
x
1
4
0
Þ
ࢤp
߰
x
߰
d
3
x
߰
x ࢤ x
߰

ࢤ
1
4
0
p
Þ
1
x ࢤ x
߰

x
߰
d
3
x
߰
x
1
4
0
p
x
r
3
Similarly,
W Þ x x d
3
x ࢤÞ p
x x d
3
x p
Þ x
x d
3
x ࢤp
E
0
PHY 5346
HW Set 7 Solutions – Kimel
3. 4.7 a) Since does not depend on , we can write it in terms of spherical harmonics with
m 0. First note
Y
2
0
5
4
3
2
1 ࢤ sin
2
ࢤ
1
2
or
sin
2
ࢤ
2
3
4
5
Y
2
0
4
2
3
Y
0
0
Thus only the m 0, l 0, 2 multipoles contribute.
q
00
2 4
3
Þ
0
r
2 1
64
r
2
e
ࢤr
dr
2 4
3
3
8
1
2
q
20
ࢤ
2
3
4
5
Þ
0
r
4 1
64
r
2
e
ࢤr
dr ࢤ
2
3
4
5
45
4
ࢤ3
5
x
1
4
0
4q
00
Y
0
0
r
4q
20
Y
2
0
5r
3
1
4
0
4 q
00
P
0
r
4
5
q
20
P
2
r
3
x
1
4
0
P
0
r
ࢤ 6
P
2
r
3
b)
x
1
4
0
Þ
x
߰
d
3
x
߰
x ࢤ x
߰

Using
1
x ࢤ x
߰

4
lm
1
2l 1r
r
r
l
Y
l
mࢩ
߰
,
߰
Y
l
m
,
, we see only the l 0, 2 and m 0 terms of the expansion contribute in the potential. Next take
r
߰
r.
x
1
4
0
4
lm
1
2l 1
r
l
Y
l
m
, Þ Y
l
mࢩ
߰
,
߰
r
߰2
d
߰
x
߰
r
߰l1
dr
߰
x
1
4
0
4 Y
0
0
4
2
3
Þ
0
1
64
r
2
e
ࢤr
rdr
Y
2
0
5
r
2
ࢤ
2
3
4
5
Þ
0
1
64
r
2
e
ࢤr 1
r
dr
x
1
4
0
4 Y
0
0
4
2
3
3
32
Y
2
0
5
r
2
ࢤ
2
3
4
5
1
64
x
1
4
0
4 P
0
2
3
3
32
P
2
5
r
2
ࢤ
2
3
1
64
1
4
0
P
0
4
ࢤ
r
2
P
2
120
PHY 5346
HW Set 7 Solutions – Kimel
4. 4.9 a) The system is described by
Since there is azimuthal symmetry, choosing the zaxis through q,
out
1
4
0
ࢣ
l
B
l
r
ࢤlࢤ1
P
l
q
x ࢤ x
߰

out
1
4
0
ࢣ
l
B
l
r
ࢤlࢤ1
P
l
q
r
ࢣ
l
r
r
l
P
l
in
1
4
0
ࢣ
l
A
l
r
l
P
l
q
r
ࢣ
l
r
r
l
P
l
Boundary conditions: At the surface, r
߰
d r
, r a r
.
1)
out
in

ra
, or
B
l
A
l
a
2l1
2)
r
in
r
out

ra
, or letting k
0
k
ࢣ
l
lA
l
a
lࢤ1
P
l
q
d
l
a
lࢤ1
d
l
P
l
ࢣ
l
ࢤl 1B
l
a
ࢤlࢤ2
P
l
q
d
l
a
lࢤ1
d
l
P
l
ࢣ
l
ࢤl 1A
l
a
lࢤ1
P
l
q
d
l
a
lࢤ1
d
l
P
l
or
A
l
a1 ࢤ kl
1 kl 1d
l1
B
l
a1 ࢤ kla
2l1
1 kl 1d
l1
Remember that P
l
4
21
Y
l
0
, and substitute the above coefficients into the expansion to get the
answer requested by the problem.
PHY 5346
HW Set 6 Solutions – Kimel
3. 4.10 The system is described by
a) Since there is azimutal symmetry,
r,
ࢣ
l
A
l
r
l
B
l
r
ࢤlࢤ1
P
l
cos
Also
D
x
E
ࢤx
r,
D
r
ࢤx
ࢣ
l
lA
l
r
lࢤ1
ࢤ l 1B
l
r
ࢤlࢤ2
P
l
cos
between the spheres,
Þ D
r
dr
2
Q, and is independent of r.
Thus
A
l
0, B
l
0, l 0 D
r
x B
0
r
2
Þ D
r
dr
2
2B
0
0 Þ
ࢤ1
0
dcos Þ
0
1
dcos 2B
0
0
Q
B
0
Q
2
01
0
E
Q
2
01
0
r
2
rĮ
b)
Þ D
r
dA D
r
A
f
A
f
D
r
x
E
r
f
Q
2
01
0
r
2
, cos ࣙ 0
f
Q
21
0
r
2
, cos 0
c)
Þ
pol
dV
pol
A Þ ࢤ
P
dV ࢤPA
pol
ࢤP ࢤ
0
e
E
pol
ࢤx /
0
ࢤ 1
Q
21
0
r
2
Notice
pol
f
tot
Q
21
0
r
2
0
E, as expected.
PHY 5346
Homework Set 10 Solutions – Kimel
1. 5.1 The system is described by
We want to show
m
ࢤ
0
I
4
Suppose the observation point is moved by a displacement x , or equivlently that the loop is
displaced by ࢤx .
If we are to have B
ࢤ
m
, then
m
ࢤx B
Using the law of Biot and Savart,
m
ࢤ
0
I
4
Þ x
dl
߰
r
r
3
ࢤ
0
I
4
Þ r
x dl
߰
r
3
ࢤ
0
I
4
Þ rĮ
x dl
߰
r
2
m
ࢤ
0
I
4
Þ
rĮ dA
r
2
ࢤ
0
I
4
Or,
m
ࢤ
0
I
4
PHY 5346
Homework Set 10 Solutions – Kimel
2. 5.2 a) The system is described by
First consider a point at the axis of the solenoid at point z
0
. Using the results of problem 5.1,
d
m
0
4
NIdz
From the figure,
Þ
rĮ dA
r
2
Þ
dAcos
r
2
2z Þ
0
R
d
2
z
2
3/2
2 ࢤ
z
R
2
z
2
1
m
0
2
NI Þ
z
0
z ࢤ
1
R
2
z
2
1
z
dz
0
2
NI ࢤz
0
R
2
z
0
2
B
r
ࢤ
0
2
NI
z
0
ࢤz
0
R
2
z
0
2
0
2
NI
ࢤz
0
R
2
z
0
2
R
2
z
0
2
In the limit z
0
0
B
r
0
2
NI
By symmetry, thej loops to the left of z
0
give the same contribution, so
B B
l
B
r
0
NI
H NI
By symmetry, B
is directed along the z axis, so
m
ࢤ B
0
if is directed to the z axis. Thus for a given z,
m
is independent of , and consequently
H NI
everywhere within the solenoid.
If you are on the outside of the solenoid at position z
0
, by symmetry the magnetic field must be in
the z direction. Thus using the above argument,
m
must not depend on . Set us take far away
from the axis of the solenoid, so that we can replace the loops by elementary dipoles m
directed along
the z axis. Thus for any point z
0
we will have a contributions
m
m
r
1
r
1
3
m
r
2
r
2
3
where m
r
1
ࢤm
r
2
and r
1
r
2
. Thus
H 0
PHY 5346
Homework Set 10 Solutions – Kimel
3. 5.8 Using the same arguments that lead to Eq. (5.35), we can write
A
0
4
Þ
d
3
x
߰
cos
߰
J
r
߰
,
߰
x ࢤ x
߰

Choose x in the x ࢤ z plane. Then we use the expansion
1
x ࢤ x
߰

l,m
4
2l 1
r
l
r
l1
Y
l
mࢩ
߰
,
߰
Y
l
m
, 0
The cos
߰
factor leads to only an m 1 contribution in the expansion. Using
Y
l
m
, 0
2l 1
4
l ࢤ m!
l m!
P
l
m
cos
and
lࢤ1!
l1!
1
ll1
, we have on the inside
A
0
4
l
1
ll 1
r
l
P
l
1
cos Þ d
3
x
߰
P
l
1
cos
߰
J
r
߰
,
߰
r
߰l1
which can be written
A
ࢤ
0
4
l
m
l
r
l
P
l
1
cos
with
m
l
ࢤ
1
ll 1
Þ d
3
x
߰
P
l
1
cos
߰
J
r
߰
,
߰
r
߰l1
A similar expression can be written on the outside by redefining r
and r
.
PHY 5346
Homework Set 9 Solutions – Kimel
1. 5.10
a) From Eq. (5.35)
A
r,
0
4
I
a
Þ
r
߰2
dr
߰
d
߰
sin
߰
cos
߰
cos
߰
r
߰
ࢤ a
x ࢤ x
߰

Using the expansion of 1/x ࢤ x
߰
 given by Eq. (3.149),
1
x ࢤ x
߰

4
Þ
0
dkcoskz ࢤ z
߰
1
2
I
0
k
K
0
k
m1
cosm ࢤ
߰
I
m
k
K
m
k
We orient the coordinate system so 0, and because of the cos
߰
factor, m 1. Thus,
A
r,
0
4
I
a
4
Þ
0
dk Þ r
߰2
dr
߰
dcos
߰
sin
߰
cos
߰
r
߰
ࢤ a coskzI
1
k
K
1
k
A
r,
0
aI Þ
0
dkcoskzI
1
k
K
1
k
where
is the smaller (larger) of a and .
b) From problem 3.16 b),
1
x ࢤ x
߰

mࢤ
Þ
0
dke
imࢤ
߰
J
m
kJ
m
k
߰
e
ࢤkz
Note z
߰
0, and 0, so
A
0
Ia
2
Þ
0
dke
ࢤkz
J
1
kJ
1
ka
PHY 5346
Homework Set 10 Solutions – Kimel
4. 5.16 a) The system is shown in the figure
I shall use the magnetic potential approach and will call inside the sphere region 1 and outside the
sphere region 2.
1
loop
l
A
l
r
l
P
l
2
loop
l
B
l
r
ࢤlࢤ1
P
l
where H
ࢤ
, and we have the boundary conditions,
H
1
H
2
1
r b
2
r b
0
r
1
r b
r
2
r b
We are given that b a, so
loop
1
4
mcos
r
2
with m a
2
I. (From the form of
loop,
only the l 1 term contributes.) The boundary
conditions give
A
1
b
1
B
1
b
ࢤ1ࢤ1
ࢤ
2
0
m
4b
3
0
A
1
ࢤ
2m
4b
3
ࢤ 2B
1
b
ࢤ3
So
A
1
ࢤ
2
4
m
b
3
ࢤ
0
2
0
On the inside, at the center of the loop
H
ࢤ
loop
ࢤ
A
1
r cos
From Eq. (5.40), we are given ࢤ
loop
at the center of the loop, which is directed in the z direction.
H
z
1
0
ࢤB
ࢤ A
1
If
0
A
1
ࢤ
1
4
m
b
3
and from (5.40), at r 0
H
z
I
2a
1
4
m
b
3
I
2a
I
4
a
2
b
3
I
2a
1
a
3
2b
3
PHY 5346
Homework Set 9 Solutions – Kimel
2. 5.18
a) From the results of Problem 5.17, we can replace the problem stated by the system
where I
ࢩ
is equidistant from the interface and is equal to I
ࢩ
rࢤ1
r1
I. The radius of each current
loop is a. Now from Eq. (5.7)
F
on I I Þ dl
Br
dl
B
dl
B
r
dl
B
dlB
r
ࢤ
Į
dlB
rĮ
By symmetry, only the z ࢤ component survives, so, from the figure
dl
B
zĮ dlB
r
a
4d
2
a
2
dlB
2d
4d
2
a
2
So
F
z
2aI
4d
2
a
2
aB
r
2dB
with B
r
and B
given by Eqs. (5.48) and (5.49) and cos
2d
4d
2
a
2
, r 4d
2
a
2
, and I I
ࢩ
.
c) To determine the limiting term, simply let r 2d and take the lowest nonvanishing term in the
expansion of the magnetic flux density.
F
z
aI
d
aB
r
2dB
F
z
aI
d
a
0
I
ࢩ
a
4d
a
2d
2
2d ࢤ
0
I
ࢩ
a
2
4
1
2d
3
ࢤ
a
2d
F
z
ࢤ
3
0
32
a
4
I I
ࢩ
d
4
The minus sign shows the force is attractive if I and I
ࢩ
are in the same direction. This same result
can be gotten more directly, using
F
z
zmB
z
with m a
2
I, and (from Eq. (5.64))
B
z
0
4
2m
ࢩ
z
3
with m
ࢩ
a
2
I
ࢩ
, and z 2d
F
z
0
4
2a
2
I
ࢩ
a
2
I ࢤ
3
2d
4
ࢤ
3
0
32
a
4
I I
ࢩ
d
4
with agrees with out previous result.
PHY 5346
Homework Set 9 Solutions – Kimel
3. 5.19 The system is described by
The effective volume magnetic charge density is zero, since M
is constant within the cylinder. The
effective surface charge density (nĮ M
from Eq. (5.99)) is M
0
, on the top surface and ࢤM
0
on the
bottom surface. From the bottom surface the potential is (for z 0
b
1
4
ࢤM
0 2 Þ
0
a
d
2
z
2
1/2
ࢤ
M
0
2
a
2
z
2
ࢤ z
By symmetry, the potential from the top surface is (on the inside)
t
M
0
2
a
2
L ࢤ z
2
ࢤ L ࢤ z
The total magnetic potential is
b
t
ࢤ
M
0
2
a
2
z
2
ࢤ z
M
0
2
a
2
L ࢤ z
2
ࢤ L ࢤ z
So, on the inside of the cylinder,
H
z
ࢤ
z
ࢤ
M
0
2
a
2
z
2
ࢤ z
M
0
2
a
2
L ࢤ z
2
ࢤ L ࢤ z
H
z
ࢤ
M
0
2
2 ࢤ
z
a
2
z
2
ࢤ
L ࢤ z
a
2
L ࢤ z
2
while above the cylinder,
H
z
ࢤ
M
0
2
ࢤ
z
a
2
z
2
z ࢤ L
a
2
L ࢤ z
2
with a similar expression below the cylinder.
B
0
H
M
Thus inside the cylinder,
B
z
0
ࢤ
M
0
2
2 ࢤ
z
a
2
z
2
ࢤ
L ࢤ z
a
2
L ࢤ z
2
M
0
B
z
0
M
0
2
z
a
2
z
2
L ࢤ z
a
2
L ࢤ z
2
while above the cylinder,
B
z
0
M
0
2
z
a
2
z
2
ࢤ
z ࢤ L
a
2
L ࢤ z
2
First we plot B
z
in units of a for L 5a
gz
1
2
z
1z
2
5ࢤz
15ࢤz
2
if z 5
1
2
z
1z
2
ࢤ
zࢤ5
15ࢤz
2
if 5 z
gz
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
2 4 6 8 10
z
And similarly, H
z
in units of a for L 5a.
fz
ࢤ
1
2
2 ࢤ
z
1z
2
ࢤ
5ࢤz
15ࢤz
2
if z 5
ࢤ
1
2
ࢤ
z
1z
2
zࢤ5
15ࢤz
2
if 5 z
fz
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
2 4 6 8 10 z
PHY 5346
Homework Set 11 Solutions – Kimel
1. 5.26 The system is described by
Since the wires are nonpermeable,
0
. The system is made of parts with cylindrical
symmetry, so we can determine B using Ampere’s law.
B
0
J
, or Þ B
dl
0 Þ J
da
On the outside of each wire,
Þ B
dl
B2
0
I B
out
0
I
2
On the inside of each wire
Þ B
dl
B2
0
I
2
R
2
, B
in
0
I
2
R
2
with R a, b
From the righthand rule, the B from each wire is in the Į direction. From the above figure, using
the general expression for the vector potential, we see A
is in the zĮ direction. Since
A
B
,
B
z
ࢤ
A
z
A
z
ࢤÞ B
z
d
Thus
A
z
ࢤ
0
I
2
ln
R
C ࢤ
0
I
4
ln
2
R
2
1 on the outside
ࢤ
0
I
4
2
R
2
, on the inside
where I’ve determined C 1/2, from the requirement that A
z
be continuous at R. Let l be the
length of the wire. Then we know the total potential energy is given by
W
1
2
Þ J
A
d
3
x
l
2
ÞJ
a
Ada
a
J
b
Ada
b
Consider the second term
l
2
Þ J
b
Ada
b
. The system is pictured as
From the figure
a
d
b
,
a
2
d
2
b
2
ࢤ 2d
b
cos
so, since J
b
I
b
2
l
2
Þ J
b
Ada
b
l
2
I
b
2
ÞA
out
a
A
in
b
b
d
b
d
l
2
I
b
2
0
I
4
Þ ln
a
2
a
2
1 ࢤ
b
2
b
2
b
d
b
d
ࣃ
l
2
I
b
2
0
I
4
2 Þ
0
b
ln
d
2
a
2
1 ࢤ
b
2
b
2
b
d
b
l
2
I
b
2
0
I
4
2
1
4
b
2
1 2ln
d
2
a
2
l
2
0
4
1
2
2ln
d
a
I
2
The first term
l
2
Þ J
a
Ada
a
is equal to
l
2
Þ J
a
Ada
a
l
2
0
4
1
2
2ln
d
b
I
2
Thus
W
l
2
0
4
1 2ln
d
2
ab
I
2
l
2
L
l
I
2
or
L
l
0
4
1 2ln
d
2
ab
PHY 5346
Homework Set 11 Solutions – Kimel
2. 5.27 The system is described by
Using Ampere’s law in integral form
Þ B
dl
0
I
enclosed
we get
B
0
I
2
b
2
, b
B
0
I
2
1
, b a
B 0, a
Now the energy in the magnetic field is given by ( l is the length of the wires)
W
1
2
Þ B
H
d
3
x
1
2
0
Þ B
2
d
3
x
1
2
0
0
I
2
2
l 2 Þ
0
b
b
2
2
d 2 Þ
b
a
1
2
d
1
2
0
0
I
2
2
l
1
2
2ln
a
b
l
2
L
l
I
2
L
l
0
4
1
2
2ln
a
b
If the inner wire is hollow, B 0, b, so
L
l
0
2
ln
a
b
PHY 5346
Homework Set 11 Solutions – Kimel
3. 5.29 The system is described by
This problem is very much like 5.26, except the wires are superconducting. We know from section
5.13 that the magnetic field within a superconductor is zero. We will be using
W
1
2
Þ J
A
d
3
x
l
2
ÞJ
a
Ada
a
J
b
Ada
b
Using the same arguments as applied in problem 5.26,
A
z
ࢤ
I
2
ln
R
C ࢤ
I
4
ln
2
R
2
0 on the outside
0, on the inside
Thus if we consider the second term
l
2
Þ J
b
Ada
b
,
l
2
Þ J
b
Ada
b
l
2
I
b
2
ÞA
out
a
A
in
b
b
d
b
d
ࣃ
l
2
I
b
2
I
4
2 Þ
0
b
ln
d
2
a
2
b
d
b
l
2
4
2ln
d
a
I
2
The first term
l
2
Þ J
a
Ada
a
is equal to
l
2
Þ J
a
Ada
a
l
2
4
2ln
d
b
I
2
Thus
W
l
2
4
2ln
d
2
ab
I
2
l
2
L
l
I
2
so
L
l
4
2ln
d
2
ab
Now using the methods of problem 1.6, assuming the left wire has charge Q, and the right wire charge
ࢤQ, we find
12
Þ
b
dࢤa
Edr
Q
l
2
Þ
b
dࢤa
1
r
1
d ࢤ r
dr ࣃ
Q
l
2
ln
d
2
ab
C
l
Q
l
12
2
ln
d
2
ab
Thus
L
l
C
l
4
2ln
d
2
ab
2
ln
d
2
ab
PHY 5346
Homework Set 12 Solutions – Kimel
1. 6.11
a) Consider the momentum contained in the volume
Ɗp ƊtcƊAg
F
Ɗp
Ɗt
cƊAg
P
F
ƊA
cg
where I’m using the time averaged quantities. In class we found
cg
1
c
S
1
2
0
E
0

2
u
Thus
P u
b) We are given
S 1. 4 10
3
W/m
2
But we know P u
S
c
. From Newton’s second law
a
F
m
F/A
m/A
S/c
m/A
1. 4 10
3
W/m
2
3 10
8
m/s 1 10
ࢤ3
kg/m
2
4. 66 10
ࢤ3
m/s
2
In the solar wind, there are approximately 10 10
4
protons/m
2
ࢤ sec, with average velocity
v 4 10
5
m/s.
Ɗp
ƊtA
P 10 10
4
4 10
5
1. 67 10
ࢤ27
6. 68 10
ࢤ17
N/m
2
:
a
F
m
F/A
m/A
P
m/A
6. 68 10
ࢤ17
N/m
2
1 10
ࢤ3
kg/m
2
6. 68 10
ࢤ14
m/s
2
PHY 5346
Homework Set 12 Solutions – Kimel
2. 7.1 I shall apply Eqs.(26), (27), and (28)
s
0
s
1
2
a
1
s
0
ࢤ s
1
2
a
2
l
2
ࢤ
1
sin
ࢤ1
s
3
2a
1
a
2
s
0
s
3
2
a
s
0
ࢤ s
3
2
a
ࢤ
c
ࢤ
ࢤ
sin
ࢤ1
s
2
2a
a
ࢤ
a) s
0
3, s
1
ࢤ1, s
2
2, s
3
ࢤ2
a
1
1, a
2
2
l
sin
ࢤ1 ࢤ2
2 2
ࢤ
1
4
rad
a
1
2
, a
ࢤ
5
2
c
sin
ࢤ1 2
2
1
2
5
2
1. 1071 rad
b) s
0
25, s
1
0, s
2
24, s
3
7
a
1
25
2
, a
2
25
2
l
sin
ࢤ1
s
3
2a
1
a
2
sin
ࢤ1 7
2
25
2
25
2
0. 28379 rad
a
32
2
4, a
ࢤ
s
0
ࢤ s
3
2
3
c
ࢤ
ࢤ
sin
ࢤ1 24
24 3
1
2
rad
To plot the two cases ReE
x
ࣕ X cos x, ReE
y
ࣕ Y rcoxx ࢤ
l
, where r a
2
/a
1
and x t.
Case a) cos x, 2 cosx
4
1
0.5
0.5
1
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Case b) cos x, cosx ࢤ 0. 28379
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
PHY 5346
Homework Set 13 Solutions – Kimel
1. 7.2
a) The figure describes the muliple internal reflections which interfere to give the overall
reflection and refraction:
For the ij interface I shall use the notation
r
ij
E
0
߰
E
0
2n
i
n
i
n
j
R
ij
E
0
߰߰
E
0
n
i
ࢤ n
j
n
i
n
j
Thus from the figure
E
0
߰߰
E
0
R
12
r
12
E
0
R
23
r
21
e
i
r
12
E
0
R
23
R
21
R
23
r
21
e
i2
. . . .
E
0
߰߰
E
0
R
12
r
12
E
0
R
23
r
21
e
i
n0
R
21
R
23
e
i
n
E
0
߰߰
E
0
R
12
r
12
r
21
R
23
e
ࢤi
ࢤ R
21
R
23
Similarly
E
0
߰
E
0
r
12
r
23
E
0
r
12
R
23
R
21
r
23
e
i
. . . .
E
0
߰
E
0
r
12
r
23
1 ࢤ R
21
R
23
e
i
where the phase shift for the internally reflected wave is given by
22d
2
n
22d
c
Now for a plane wave
S
i
1
2v
i
E
0i

2
Thus
R
S
߰߰
S
E
0
߰߰

2
E
0

2
T
v
1
v
3
S
߰
S
n
3
n
1
S
߰
S
From the above
R R
12
2
2r
12
r
21
R
23
R
12cos ࢤ R
21
R
23 R
12
r
21
R
23
2
1 R
21
R
23
2
ࢤ 2R
21
R
23
cos
T
n
3
n
1
r
12
r
23
2
1 R
21
R
23
2
ࢤ 2R
21
R
23
cos
Since these two equations are simple functions of , which is linearly proportional to the
frequency, they are simple functions of frequency which you should plot.
b) Since in part a) we used the convention that the incident wave is from the left, I will rephrase
this question so that n
1
is are, n
2
is the coating, and n
3
is glass. In this case, we will have
n
1
n
2
n
3
, and R
21
R
23
0. Thus for T to be a maximum, from the above equation cos ࢤ1, or
.
22d
2
d
2
4
where
2
is the wavelength in the medium
1
n
2
PHY 5346
Homework Set 13 Solutions – Kimel
2. 7.4 We have a nonpermeable conducting material, so
0
, and we have J E, where is
the conductivity. The following figure describes the system:
The two boundary conditions that we must satisfy for plane waves are
E
0
E
0
߰߰
ࢤ E
0
߰
0
kE
0
ࢤ E
0
߰߰
ࢤ k
߰
E
0
߰
0
Or
E
0
߰߰
E
0
k ࢤ k
߰
k k
߰
We must take into account the fact that J
E
. Adding in this term in Maxwell’s equations for a
plane wave, we get
k
c
k
߰2
2
1 i
Thus we can write
k
߰
i
with
1
2
1
2
1/2
1
2
ࢤ 1
2
1/2
Thus
E
0
߰߰
E
0
1 ࢤ
0
c ࢤ i
0
c
1
0
c i
0
c
1) For a very poor conductor is very small, so keeping only first order in
1
2
1
2
1/2
1
1
2
ࢤ 1
2
1/2
2
2) For the case of a very good conductor,
1, so
2
2
0
2
2
1
0
2
1
0
where I have used (5.165) to relate the conductivity to the skin depth.
2
0
2
E
0
߰߰
E
0
1 ࢤ
c
ࢤ i
c
1
c
i
c
ࢤ
c
ࢤ i
c
c
i
c
ࢤ1
c
2
1 i
ࢤ1
c
1 ࢤ i
R
E
0
߰߰
E
0
2
ࢤ1 /c
2
c
2
1 ࢤ 2/c
PHY 5347
Homework Set 1 Solutions – Kimel
1. 8.3
x
y
z
a)
t
2
2
0, E
z
TM or H
z
TE
As in class, we will use cylindrical coordinates, and assume
, RQ
We get the two equations
2
2
Q ࢤm
2
Q with solns Q e
im
, m 0, 1, 2, . . .
d
2
dx
2
Rx
1
x
dRx
dx
1 ࢤ
m
2
x
2
Rx Bessel eqn.
with regular solutions J
m
x, and singular solution (which we reject as nonphysical) N
m
x. Here
x .
Solutions:
TM: BC: J
m
x
mn
0, and
E
z
, E
0
J
m
mn
e
im
, m 0, 1, 2, . . . . ; n 1, 2, 3, . . . ;
mn
x
mn
/R
Lowest cutoff frequencies:
mn
mn
x
mn
R
Using the results of Jackson, p. 114,
x
0n
2. 405, 5. 52, 8. 654, . . .
x
1n
3. 832, 7. 016, 10. 173, . . . .
x
2n
5. 136, 8. 417, 11. 620, . . . .
TE: BC: J
m
߰
x
mn
߰
0, and
E
z
µ, ¢ E
0
J
m
/
mn
߰
µe
im¢
, m 0, 1, 2, . . . . ; n 1, 2, 3, . . . ; /
mn
߰
x
mn
߰
/R
Lowest cutoff frequencies:
o
mn
/
mn
߰
j
x
mn
߰
R j
Using the results of Jackson, p. 370,
x
0n
߰
3. 832, 7. 016, 10. 173, . . .
x
1n
߰
1. 841, 5. 331, 8. 536, . . . .
x
2n
߰
3. 054, 6. 706, 9. 970, . . . .
From the above we see the lowest cutoff frequency is the TE mode
o
11
߰
1. 841K, with K 1/ R j
The next four lowest cutoff frequencies are:
o
01
2. 405K 1. 31o
11
߰
o
21
߰
3. 054K 1. 66o
11
߰
o
01
߰
3. 832K 2. 08o
11
߰
o
11
3. 832K 2. 08o
11
߰
b) From Eq. (8.63) in the text
[
z
o
1 ࢤ
o
z
2
o
2
1/2
c
z
n
z
o
z
o
2
For TM modes, n
z
0, and for TE mode, c
z
n
z
is of order unity. So for comparison purposes,
I’ll take
[
11
TE f
1
x
x
1 ࢤ
1.841
2
x
2
1/2
1
1. 841
2
x
2
[
01
TM f
2
x
x
1 ࢤ
2.405
2
x
2
1/2
where I’ve expressed the functions in terms of x o/K.
1
1.841
2
x
2
x
1ࢤ
1.841
2
x
2
1/2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
2 4 6 8 10
x
x
1ࢤ
2.405
2
x
2
1/2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
x
PHY 5347
Homework Set 1 Solutions – Kimel
1. 8.4
a) TM:
t
2
2
0; 
B
0; E
z
x, ye
ikzࢤit
; B
z
0
Since we have a node along y x, then we just take the antisymmetrized version for the square
waveguide, developed in class, ie,
x, y E
0
sin
mx
a
sin
ny
a
ࢤ sin
nx
a
sin
my
a
Again
mn
2
c
2
a
2
m
2
n
2
, m, n 1, 2, 3. . . . , but m ࣔ n
TE:
t
2
2
0;
n

B
0; H
z
x, ye
ikzࢤit
; E
z
0
Now the BC require
n

B
0, but using a 45
0
rotation of coordinates, we see
n
1
2
ࢤ
x
y
Thus the combination
x, y H
0
cos
mx
a
cos
ny
a
cos
nx
a
cos
my
a
satisfies the above BC on the diagonal, as you can see by direct substitution.
mn
2
c
2
a
2
m
2
n
2
, m, n 0, 1, 2, 3. . . . , but m ࣔ n 0
b) The lowest cutoff freq. are: TM:
12
or
21
. TE:
01
or
10
. From Eq. (8.63) in the text
12
TM
1 ࢤ
12
2
/
2
1/2
01
TE
1 ࢤ
12
2
/
2
1/2
1
01
2
2
For the square wave guide, we don’t have the antisymmetrization, but the formulas for the cutoff
frequencies are the same without the present restrictions on m and n. So for the square guide, the cut
off frequencies are
TM:
11
TE:
01
(as before)
PHY 5347
Homework Set 2 Solutions – Kimel
1. 8.5 a)
R
L
For the TM modes, we saw in class the resonance frequencies are
TM:
mnp
1
x
mn
2
R
2
p
2
2
L
2
p 0, 1, 2, . . . .
m 0, 1, 2, . . . .
n 1, 2, 3, . . . .
TE:
mnp
߰
1
x
mn
߰2
R
2
p
2
2
L
2
p 1, 2, 3, . . . .
m 0, 1, 2, . . . .
n 1, 2, 3, . . . .
Thus
mnp
1
x
mn
2
R
2
p
2
2
L
2
mnp
߰
1
x
mn
߰2
R
2
p
2
2
L
2
The lowest four frequencies are (in these units)
010
2. 405
110
3. 832
111
߰
1. 841
2
2 R
L
2
211
߰
3. 054
2
2 R
L
2
2. 405, 3. 832, 1. 841
2
2
x
2
, 3. 054
2
2
x
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
x
where x R/L.
The answer is ”No.”
111
߰
and
010
cross when
1. 841
2
2
x
2
2. 405
or x 0. 49258. For frequencies smaller than this cross over frequency,
111
߰
is lowest, whereas for
larger frequencies,
010
is lowest.
PHY 5347
Homework Set 3 Solutions – Kimel
3. 9.1 a)
x , t qzy ࢤ sin
0
tx ࢤ dcos t
To illustrate the equivalence of the two methods, I’ll consider the lowest two moments.
n 0 : Qt Þ x , td
3
x q Reqe
ࢤi0t
n 1 : p
t Þ x , tx d
3
x qdî cos t sint Reqdî i e
ࢤi1t
So we identify p
qdî i as the quantity to be used in Jackson’s formulas.
Arbitrary n: The n’th multipoles will contribute with maximum frequencies of
n
n.
b) The proof that we can write
x , t
0
x
ࢣ
n1
Re2
n
x e
ࢤint
with
n
x
1
Þ
0
x , te
int
dt
was presented in lecture and will not be repeated here.
c) We have already calculated the n 0, 1 moments by the method of part a). Now we
compute these moments by the method of part b).
n 0 :
0
x
1
Þ
0
qzy ࢤ sin
0
tx ࢤ dcos tdt
Q Þ
0
x d
3
x
q
Þ
0
dt Þ d
3
xzy ࢤ sin
0
tx ࢤ dcos t q
n 1 :
1
x
1
Þ
0
qzy ࢤ sin
0
tx ࢤ dcos te
it
dt
p
x Þ d
3
xx
2
1
x
2q
Þ
0
dt Þ d
3
xx
zy ࢤ sin
0
tx ࢤ dcos t
2qd
Þ
0
dte
it
î cos t sint qdî i
as before.
PHY 5347
Homework Set 3 Solutions – Kimel
3. 9.2 First consider a rotating charge which is at an angle at time t 0.
Compared to the lecture notes for this problem, where we assumed 0, we should let
t t . Thus using the result developed in class, we can write for this problem
Q
t Re
3
2
qd
2
1 i 0
i ࢤ1 0
0 0 0
e
ࢤi2a
e
ࢤi2t
From the figure
Q
tot
t Q
1
t Q
2
t Q
3
t Q
4
t
Re
3
2
qd
2
ࢤe
ࢤi
2
e
ࢤi
3
2
ࢤ e
ࢤi
5
2
e
ࢤi
7
2
1 i 0
i ࢤ1 0
0 0 0
e
ࢤi2t
Q
tot
3
2
qd
2
4i
1 i 0
i ࢤ1 0
0 0 0
Thus from the class notes
dP
d
c
2
Z
0
k
6
1152
2
qd
2 3
2
2
161 ࢤ cos
4
1
32
2
c
2
Z
0
k
6
q
2
d
4
1 ࢤ cos
4
P
c
2
Z
0
k
6
360
qd
2 3
2
2
16
1
10
c
2
Z
0
k
6
q
2
d
4
And, of course, the frequency of the radiation is 2.
PHY 5347
Homework Set 3 Solutions – Kimel
3. 9.3
Since the problem has azimuthal symmetry, we can expand Vr
, t (in the radiation zone) in terms
of Legendre polynomials:
Vr
, t
ࢣ
l
b
l
tr
ࢤlࢤ1
P
l
cos
Using the orthogonality of the Legendre polynomials, the leading term of the expansion in the
radiation zone will be the l 1 term.
b
1
t
3
2
R
2
Þ
ࢤ1
1
xVr
, tdx
3
2
VR
2
cos t
So,
Vr
, t
3
2
VR
2
cos t /r
2
p
rĮ
r
2
cos t Re
p
rĮ
r
2
e
ࢤit
with p
3
2
VR
2
zĮ, which should be used in the radiation formulas developed in lecture.
dP
d
c
2
Z
0
k
4
32
2
p

2
sin
2
P
c
2
Z
0
k
4
32
2
8
3
1
12
c
2
Z
0
k
4
p

2
with p
3
2
VR
2
zĮ.
PHY 5347
Homework Set 4 Solutions – Kimel
1. 9.11 We are working with small sources in the radiation zone.
From the notes and Eqs (9.170) and (9.172),
Q
lm
Þ r
l
Y
l
mࢩ
d
3
x
M
lm
ࢤ
1
l 1
Þ r
l
Y
l
mࢩ
r
J
d
3
x
a) Electric Dipole Radiation:
Q
1m
Þ rY
1
mࢩ
d
3
x
Þ rxyࢤqz ࢤ acos
0
t ࢤ qz acos
0
t 2qzY
1
mࢩ
dxdydz
ࢤqacos
0
tY
1
mࢩ
0, Y
1
mࢩ
, ࢤqa
m0
cos
0
tY
1
0
0 Y
1
0
0
b) Magnetic Dipole Radiation: Since the particles move in an orbit with no area,
r
J
0 M
1m
0
c) Electric Quadrupole Radiation:
Q
2m
Þ r
2
Y
2
mࢩ
d
3
x
ࢤq
m0a
2
cos
2
0
tY
2
0
0 a
2
cos
2
0
tY
2
0
ࢤq
m0
a
2
Y
2
0
0cos 2
0
t 1
where I have used cos
2
0
t cos 2
0
t 1/2. Thus the Fourier Series decomposition of this
moment yields terms with frequency 0, and 2
0
. The first term does not contribute to radiation, and
the second can be written
Q
20
t Reࢤ2qa
2
Y
2
0
0e
ࢤ2i
0
t
so Q
20
ࢤ2qa
2
Y
2
0
0 is the quantity that is used in the radiation formulas of Jackson. Using Eq.
(9.151)
dP
d
2, 0
Z
0
2k
2
a2, 0
2
X
20
2
and from Eq. (9.169)
a2, 0
ck
4
i5 3
3
2
Q
20
ck
4
i5 3
3
2
ࢤ2qa
2
5
4
where I have used Y
2
0
0
5
4
. Thus
a2, 0
2
1
30
c
2
k
8
q
2
a
4
dP
d
2, 0
Z
0
2k
2
1
30
c
2
k
8
q
2
a
4 15
8
sin
2
cos
2
1
32
2
Z
0
k
6
c
2
q
2
a
4
sin
2
cos
2
P2, 0
2
32
2
Z
0
k
6
c
2
q
2
a
4
Þ
ࢤ1
1
1 ࢤ x
2
x
2
dx
2
32
2
Z
0
k
6
c
2
q
2
a
4
4
15
P2, 0
1
60
Z
0
k
6
c
2
q
2
a
4
PHY 5347
Homework Set 5 Solutions – Kimel
1. The system is described by
and is azimuthally symmetric
R R
01 tP
2
cos ; t
0
cos t; kR 1
Q Þ r
2
drddcos 2 Þ
ࢤ1
1
dcos Þ
0
R
r
2
dr
2
3
Þ
ࢤ1
1
R
0
3
1 3P
1
P
2
dcos O
2
4
3
R
0
3
3
4R
0
3
Q
where I’ve used the fact that 1 P
0
. Since the system is azimuthally symmetric, Q
lm
m0
Q
l0
.
Q
lm
2
m0 Þ
ࢤ1
1
dxY
l
0
Þ
0
R
r
l2
dr
2
m0
l 3
Þ
ࢤ1
1
dxR
0
l3
1 l 3P
2
Y
l
0
Using Y
l
0
2l1
4
P
l
and 1 P
0
,
Q
lm
2
m0
l 3
2l 1
4
R
0
l3
2
l0
l 3
2
2l 1
l2
Notice that the l 0 term is time independent and thus does not contribute to the radiation.
Next consider the l 2 term.
Q
20
t
2
5
5 R
0
5
3
4R
0
3
Q
2
5
5 R
0
5
3
20
R
0
2
Qt
Q
20
t Re
3
20
R
0
2
Q
0
e
ࢤit
Q
20
3
20
R
0
2
Q
0
dP2, 0
d
Z
0
2k
2
a2, 0
2
X
20
2
a
E
2, 0
ck
4
i5 3
3
2
Q
20
X
20
2
15
8
sin
2
cos
2
dP2, 0
d
Z
0
2k
2
ck
4
5 3
3
2
Q
20
2
15
8
sin
2
cos
2
1
160
Z
0
k
2
ck
4
Q
20

2
sin
2
cos
2
1
160
Z
0
k
2
ck
4
2
3
20
R
0
2
Q
0
2
sin
2
cos
2
9
3200
2
Z
0
k
6
c
2
R
0
4
Q
2
0
2
sin
2
cos
2
P
9
3200
2
Z
0
k
6
c
2
R
0
4
Q
2
0
2
2 Þ
ࢤ1
1
1 ࢤ x
2
x
2
dx
9
3200
2
Z
0
k
6
c
2
R
0
4
Q
2
0
2
2
4
15
P
3
2000
Z
0
k
6
c
2
R
0
4
Q
2
0
2
PHY 5347
Homework Set 5 Solutions – Kimel
2. The system is described by
It I
0
cos t ReI
0
e
ࢤit
J
t
1
a
Itr ࢤ acos Į
where I determined the normalization constant
1
a
by the condition Þ J
da
I
J
t Re
I
0
a
r ࢤ acos Į e
ࢤit
J
I
0
a
r ࢤ acos Į
We use the general expression for H
and E
in the radiation zone given by Eq.(9.149). Since this
system has no net charge density and there is no intrisic magnetization, the the expansion coefficients in
these equations are given by
a
E
l, m
k
2
i ll 1
Þ Y
l
mࢩ
ik r
J
j
l
krd
3
x
a
M
l, m
k
2
i ll 1
Þ Y
l
mࢩ
r
J
j
l
krd
3
x
a) r
J
0 in the first equation, so there is no electric multipole radiation. In spherical coordinates
r
J
ࢤaJ
Į
Using the formulas for
A
in spherical coordinates given in the back of the book,
r
J
ࢤ
1
sin
JsinJ ࢤ
cos
sin
J ࢤ
J
The first term does not contribute, because cos 0, while the second term can be written, using
the chain rule,
r
J
sin
cos
J
The problem has azimuthal symmetry, so m 0. Realizing derivatives of ࢤfunctions are defined
by integration by parts,
a
M
l, m
m0
k
2
i ll 1
Þ Y
l
0ࢩ
sin
cos
J j
l
krd
3
x
ik
2
ll 1
Þ
cos
sinY
l
0ࢩ
Jj
l
krd
3
x
a
M
l, 0
i2k
2
ll 1
I
0
a
a
2
j
l
ka
cos
sinY
l
0

cos0
a
M
l, 0
i2k
2
ll 1
I
0
a
a
2
j
l
ka1 ࢤ x
2
1/2
d
dx
Y
l
0
x
x0
Since Y
l
0
x is either an even or odd polynomial in x, then only odd l contribute to a
M
l, 0. This
determines the expansion coefficients, and thus H
and E
in the radiation zone are known through
Eq.(9.149). The power distribution is given by Eq. (9.151)
b) From our previous answers, we see a
E
l, m 0, and that the lowest magnetic multipole
contribution is a
M
1, 0.
a
M
1, 0
i2k
2
2
I
0
aj
1
ka1 ࢤ x
2
1/2
d
dx
Y
1
0
x
x0
Using
j
1
ka
ka
3
;
d
dx
Y
1
0
x
x0
3
4
a
M
1, 0 i2k
3
I
0
a
2 1
24
ik
3
3
2 M
l0
M
l0
i2k
3
I
0
a
2 1
24
ik
3
3
2
3
4
I
0
a
2
Note that you would get the same answer, if you used Eq. (9.172) directly.
From Eq. (9.151)
dP
d
Z
0
2k
2
2k
3
Fa
2 1
24
2
3
8
sin
2
1
32
2
Z
0
k
4
I
0
a
2
2
sin
2
If we compare this result with the one that we get for an elementary magnetic dipole, which is
given by Eq. (9.23)
with the substitution p
m
/c,
dP
d
1
32
2
Z
0
k
4
m

2
sin
2
Thus we may identify
m
 I
0
a
2
as would be expected.
PHY 5347
Homework Set 6 Solutions – Kimel
1. 10.1
a) Let us first simplify the expression we want to get for the cross section. Using nĮ
0
zĮ,
d
d
Į
0
, nĮ
0
, nĮ k
4
a
6 5
4
ࢤ Į
0
nĮ 
2
ࢤ
1
4
nĮ zĮ Į
0 
2
ࢤ zĮ nĮ
Orienting the system as
and using
Į
0
0
xĮ
0
, with 
0

2

0

2
1
nĮ cos zĮ sinxĮ
then
d
d
Į
0
, nĮ
0
, nĮ k
4
a
6 5
4
ࢤ 
0

2
sin
2
ࢤ
1
4

0

2
sin
2
ࢤ cos
Using the result for the perfectly conducting sphere Eq. (10.14)
d
d
nĮ, Į, Į
0
, nĮ
0
k
4
a
6
Į
ࢩ
Į
0
ࢤ
1
2
zĮ Į
0 nĮ Į
ࢩ
2
Using Į
d
d
nĮ, Į
, Į
0
, nĮ
0
k
4
a
6
0
ࢤ
1
2
0
cos
2
k
4
a
6

0

2
1 ࢤ
1
2
cos
2
Similarly Į

xĮ
߰
d
d
nĮ, Į

, Į
0
, nĮ
0
k
4
a
6
0
cos ࢤ
1
2
0
2
k
4
a
6

0

2
cos ࢤ
1
2
2
By definition
d
d
Į
0
, nĮ
0
, nĮ
d
d
nĮ, Į
, Į
0
, nĮ
0
d
d
nĮ, Į

, Į
0
, nĮ
0
k
4
a
6

0

2
1 ࢤ
1
2
cos
2

0

2
cos ࢤ
1
2
2
which simplifies to
d
d
Į
0
, nĮ
0
, nĮ k
4
a
6 5
4
ࢤ 
0

2
sin
2
ࢤ
1
4

0

2
sin
2
ࢤ cos
using 
0

2

0

2
1, and cos
2
1 ࢤ sin
2
.
b) If Į
0
is linearly polarized making an angle with respect to the x axis, then
Į
0
0
xĮ
0
cos xĮ sin , so
0
cos ,
0
sin
Then from part a)
d
d
Į
0
, nĮ
0
, nĮ k
4
a
6 5
4
ࢤ 
0

2
sin
2
ࢤ
1
4

0

2
sin
2
ࢤ cos
k
4
a
6 5
4
ࢤ cos
2
sin
2
ࢤ
1
4
sin
2
sin
2
ࢤ cos
Using cos2 cos
2
ࢤ sin
2
, this expression simplifies to
d
d
Į
0
, nĮ
0
, nĮ k
4
a
6 5
8
1 cos
2
ࢤ
3
8
sin
2
cos 2 ࢤ cos
as desired.
PHY 5347
Homework Set 7 Solutions – Kimel
1. 11.3 Let us just focus on the 0, 1 component transformation, since the 2, 3 components
remain unchanged, if we take the relative velocities between Lorentz frames to be along the x 
direction. We want to relate a single Lorentz transformation to two sequential transformations as
described by
Thus we require
A A
2
A
1
where A is a Lorentz transformation. Rewritten explicitly, the above equation reads
ࢤ
ࢤ
2
ࢤ
2
2
ࢤ
2
2
2
1
ࢤ
1
1
ࢤ
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
ࢤ
2
1
1
ࢤ
2
2
1
ࢤ
2
1
1
ࢤ
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
So
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
Or
v
v
1
v
2
1
v
1
v
2
c
2
as required.
PHY 5347
Homework Set 7 Solutions – Kimel
2. 11.5
From the class notes, and Eq. (11.31), we know
u

u

߰
v
1
vu

߰
c
2
; u
u
߰
1
vu

߰
c
2
and
dt dt
߰
1
vu

߰
c
2
Thus taking the differential of the first equation above and using the second equation for dt,
du

dt
ࣕ a

1
vu

߰
c
2
a

߰
ࢤ u

߰
v
v
c
2
a

߰
1
vu

߰
c
2
3
1 ࢤ
v
2
c
2
3/2
1
vu

߰
c
2
3
a

߰
Similarly,
du
dt
ࣕ a
1
vu

߰
c
2
a
߰
ࢤ u
߰ v
c
2
a

߰
2
1
vu

߰
c
2
3
This is equal to the expression we want to prove,
du
dt
ࣕ a
1 ࢤ
v
2
c
2
1
vu

߰
c
2
3
a
߰
v
c
2
a
߰
u
߰
since the BAC  CAB theorem shows that
a
߰
v
c
2
a
߰
u
߰
1
vu

߰
c
2
a
߰
ࢤ u
߰ v
c
2
a

߰
PHY 5347
Homework Set 7 Solutions – Kimel
3. 11.15
From Eq. (11.149), it is clear that we should take
 zĮ, so
E
B
0. Then
E
߰
E
B
B
߰
B
ࢤ
E
The vectors in parentheses should make the same angle wrt the x axis
߰
if they are to be parallel.
This can best be seen from the figure,
From the figure
E
߰
E
0
î ࢤ 2E
0
sinî 2E
0
cos *Į
B
߰
cos 2E
0
î sin2E
0
*Į ࢤ E
0
*Į
Thus
tan
߰
2cos
1 ࢤ 2sin
2sin ࢤ
2cos
2cos 2cos ࢤ 1 ࢤ 2sin 2sin ࢤ 0
or
2
2
sin ࢤ 5 2sin 0
This quadratic equation has the solution
1
4sin
5 ࢤ 25 ࢤ 16sin
2
where I’ve chosen the solution which give 0 if 0.
If 1, then 0, and the original fields are parallel.
If /2 then
1
4
5 ࢤ 3 1/2.
2
3
E
߰
0 O ࢤ
2
*Į
B
߰
B
߰
2E
0
*Į ࢤ
1
2
E
0
*Į E
0
3
2
*Į
So in these two limits, the fields are parallel to the x and y axes, respectively.
PHY 5347
Homework Set 8 Solutions – Kimel
2. 12.1 (a)
L ࢤ
1
2
mu
u
ࢤ
q
c
u
A
(invariant Lagrangian)
Show this Lagrangian gives the correct eqn. of motion, ie, Eq. (12.2)
du
d
e
mc
F
u
The Action is A Þ
1
2
Ld.
A 0 yields the Lagrange equations of motion
d
d
L
u
ࢤ
L
x
0
d
d
L
u
ࢤm
d
d
u
ࢤ
q
c
A
x
dx
d
L
x
ࢤ
q
c
u
A
So
d
d
L
u
ࢤ
L
x
0 yields
m
d
d
u
q
c
u
A
ࢤ
q
c
A
u
q
c
u
A
ࢤ
A
or
d
d
u
q
mc
F
u
PHY 5347
Homework Set 8 Solutions – Kimel
3. 12.2 (a)
L
߰
L
d
dt
t, x
Þ
t
1
t
2
L
߰
ࢤ Ldt t
2
, x
ࢤ t
1
, x 0 L and L
߰
yield the same EulerLagrange Eqs. of Mot.
where the last equality follows from the fact that variation at the end points is zero since the end
points are held fixed.
(b) For simplicity of notation in this part, I’m going to set c 1.
L ࢤm 1 ࢤ u
2
eu A
ࢤ e with A
, A
If A
A
', then
0
'
A
a
ࢤ
'
where the minus sign in the second equation should be noticed. Thus
L ࢤm 1 ࢤ u
2
eu A
ࢤ e ࢤ eu
' ࢤ e
0
'
Now
d
dt
't, x
x
't, x
x
t
t
'
' u
Or
L ࢤm 1 ࢤ u
2
eu A
ࢤ e ࢤ e
d
dt
't, x
By the argument of part (a), this Lagrangian gives the same equations of motion as the original
Lagrangian.
PHY 5347
Homework Set 9 Solutions – Kimel
1. 12.3
a) Take E
0
along z, v
0
along y
Generally
dp
dt
e E
v
c
B
;
dE
dt
ev E
Since B
0, and E
E
0
zĮ
dp
z
dt
eE
0
dp
y
dt
0
The initial condition p
0 mv
0
and the above equations show the subsequent motion is in the
y ࢤ z plane. Consistent with this initial condition, we have
p
y
t mv
0
; p
z
t eE
0
t
Et p
2
tc
2
m
2
c
4
m
2
v
0
2
c
2
m
2
c
4
ceE
0
t
2
0
2
ceE
0
t
2
Using
p
mv
E
c
2
v
v
y
t
p
y
t
Et/c
2
mv
0
c
2
0
2
ceE
0
t
2
yt
mv
0
c
2
ceE
0
Þ
0
t
dt
2
t
2
mv
0
c
eE
0
sinh
ࢤ1
t/
where ࣕ
0
ceE
0
. So
yt
mv
0
c
eE
0
sinh
ࢤ1
tceE
0
0
Eq. (1)
Similarly
v
z
t
p
z
t
Et/c
2
eE
0
tc
2
0
2
ceE
0
t
2
Thus
zt
eE
0
c
2
ceE
0
Þ
0
t
tdt
2
t
2
c
2
t
2
ࢤ Eq.(2)
b) From Eq. (1)
t
0
ceE
0
sinh
eE
0
y
mv
0
c
sinhky, with k
eE
0
mv
0
c
Then from Eq.(2)
z c sinh
2
ky 1 ࢤ 1 Eq.(3)
Let us plot sinh
2
x 1 ࢤ 1
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
1 2 3 4 5 x
For small t : t/ 1, and ky 1. Thus we can taylor expand Eq.(3) and get
z ck
2
y
2
/2
which is quadratic in y giving a parabolic shape.
For large t : t/ 1, and we see the sinh term dominates in Eq.(3) and we get
z
ce
ky
2
which is an exponential shape.
PHY 5347
Homework Set 9 Solutions – Kimel
2. 12.5
a) The system is described by
Background: particle having m, e. Choose u to B
and E
. We want E
߰
0 E
u
c
B
.
Thus
u
c
B
ࢤE
; now B
u B
cE
B
. Using BAC  CAB on the lhs of the equation gives
u c
E
B
B
2
. Thus from the figure,
u c
E
B
B
2
c
E
B
zĮ
Then, using Eq. 11. 149
E

0; E
߰
0; B

߰
0; B
߰
1
B
1 ࢤ
u
c
2
B
So
B
߰
1 ࢤ
E
B
2
B
B
2
ࢤ E
2
B
2
BĮ
2
Now from the class notes,
du
߰
dt
߰
u
߰
B
߰ , where
B
߰
eB
߰
E
߰
, where in this case E
߰
is the energy of the particle.
I’ll choose the same boundary conditions as in class, decribed in the figure.
So
u
߰
B
߰ acos
B
߰ t
߰
Į
3
ࢤ sin
B
߰ t
߰
Į
1
where u
߰
t 0
B
߰ a (ie, the BC determine a.
x
߰
t
߰
u

߰
t
߰
Į
2
aĮ
3
sin
B
߰ t
߰
Į
1
cos
B
߰ t
߰
Consider the inverse Lorentz transformation between the frames,
ct
z
x
y
0 0
0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
ct
߰
z
߰
x
߰
y
߰
or
t t
߰
z
߰
/c t
߰
asin
B
߰ t
߰
/c ࣕ ft
߰
t
߰
f
ࢤ1
t
So
zt cf
ࢤ1
t asin
B
߰ f
ࢤ1
t
xt acos
B
߰ f
ࢤ1
t
yt u
0
߰
f
ࢤ1
t
b) If E B, one can transform to a frame where the field is a static E
field alone. Then the
solution is as we found in section 12.3 of the text, with the above transformation taking you to the
unprimed frame.
PHY 5347
Homework Set 9 Solutions – Kimel
3. 12.14
a) We are given
L ࢤ
1
8
A
A
ࢤ
1
c
J
A
which can be rewritten
L ࢤ
1
8
A
A
ࢤ
1
c
J
A
Using the EulerLagrange equations of motion,
L
A
ࢤ
L
A
0
Noting
L
A
ࢤ
1
4
A
L
A
ࢤ
1
c
J
The EulerLagrange equations of motion are
A
A
4
c
J
or
A
ࢤ
A
A
F
A
4
c
J
If we assume the Lorentz gauge,
A
0, then the above reduces to
F
4
c
J
Maxwell’s equations, given by Eq. (11.141).
b) Eq. 12. 85 gives
ࢤ
1
16
F
F
ࢤ
1
c
J
A
The term in parentheses can be written
F
F
2
A
A
ࢤ 2
A
A
2A
A
The last term vanishes if we choose the Lorentz gauge, and the second term is of the form of a
4divergence. Thus the Lagrangian of this problem differs from the usual one, of Eq. (12.85) by a
4divergence
A
A
.
The 4divergence does not change the euations of motion since the fields vanish at the limits of
integration given by the action. Using the generalized Gauss’s theorem or by integrating by parts, we
see the 4divergence gives zero contribution to the action.
PHY 5347
Homework Set 10 Solutions – Kimel
2. 14.2 Background. In the nonrelativistic approximation the LienardWiechert potenials are
x , t
e
R

ret
, A
x , t
e
R

ret
Let us assume that we observe the radiation close enough to source so R/c 1 and t
߰
ࣅ t. Then
in the radiation zone
B
A
nĮ
R
A
ࢤnĮ
ct
߰
A
e
ĳ
nĮ
cR
E
B
nĮ
dPt
d
c
4
RB
2
e
2
4c
ĳ
nĮ
2
e
2
4c
3
vĳ 
2
sin
2
where is the angle between nĮ and
ĳ
(assuming here the particle is moving linearly)
Pt
2e
2
3c
3
vĳ 
2
Let the timeaverage be defined by
ङftè ࣕ
1
Þ
0
ftdt
Then
dPt
d
e
2
4c
3
sin
2
vĳ 
2
ङPtè
2e
2
3c
3
vĳ 
2
a) Suppose x t zĮacos
0
t. Then vĳ
d
2
z
dt
2
ࢤa
0
2
cos
0
t
vĳ 
2
a
0
2
2
1
Þ
0
cos
2
0
tdt a
0
2
2
/2
So
dPt
d
e
2
8c
3
a
0
2
2
sin
2
ङPtè
e
2
3c
3
a
0
2
2
b) Suppose x t Rî cos
0
t sin
0
t. Then
vĳ t ࢤR
0
2
î cos
0
t sin
0
t
nĮ vĳ
î k
Į
sincos sinsin cos
ࢤR
0
2
cos
0
t ࢤRsin
0
t 0
dPt
d
e
2
4c
3
R
0
2
2
cos
2
sin
2
0
t cos
2
0
t sin
2
sin
2
0
t
dPt
d
e
2
4c
3
R
0
2
2
1 cos
2
2
ङPtè
e
2
4c
3
R
0
2
2
2 Þ
ࢤ1
1
1 x
2
2
dx
2e
2
3c
3
R
0
2
2
PHY 5347
Homework Set 11 Solutions – Kimel
2. 14.12
a) From Jackson, Eq (14.38)
dP
d
e
2
4c
nĮ nĮ ࢤ
ĳ
2
1 ࢤ nĮ
5
Using azimuthal symmetry, we can choose nĮ in the xz plane.
From the figure
nĮ cos zĮ sinxĮ
t
߰
ࢤ
a
c
0
sin
0
t
߰
zĮ ࢤsin
0
t
߰
zĮ
ĳ
t
߰
ࢤ
a
0
2
c
cos
0
t
߰
zĮ ࢤ
0
cos
0
t
߰
zĮ
Using
0
nĮ nĮ ࢤ
ĳ
2
nĮ
ĳ
2
and
nĮ
ĳ
0
sincos
0
t
߰
So
dP
d
t
߰
e
2
c
4
4a
2
sin
2
cos
2
0
t
߰
1 cos sin
0
t
߰
5
Defining
0
t
߰
,
ङ
dP
d
t
߰
è
e
2
c
4
4a
2
1
2
Þ
0
2
sin
2
cos
2
1 cos sin
5
d
Or, doing the integral,
ङ
dP
d
è
e
2
c
4
32a
2
4
2
cos
2
1 ࢤ
2
cos
2
7/2
sin
2
c)
4.05
2
cos
2
1ࢤ.05
2
cos
2
7/2
sin
2
0
1
2
3
4
5
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
4.95
2
cos
2
1ࢤ.95
2
cos
2
7/2
sin
2
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
PHY 5347
Homework Set 12 Solutions – Kimel
1. 16.1 It’s useful to apply in this case the Virial Theorem, familiar from classical mechanics:
ङTè
1
2
ङ
dV
dr
èr
If V ar
n
, then
ङTè
n
2
ङVè
In our case V
1
2
kr
2
, with k m
0
2
, so n 2 and
ङTè ङVè
Or,
ङ
dV
dr
è
E
r
We are given
dE
dt
ࢤ
m
ङ
dV
dr
2
è
This can be rewritten
dE
dt
ࢤ
m
kE
So
E E
0
e
ࢤ
m
kt
E
0
e
ࢤ
0
2
t
E
0
e
ࢤƉt
Similarly,
dL
dt
ࢤ
m
ङ
1
r
dV
dr
èL
But
1
r
dV
dr
m
0
2
, so
L L
0
e
ࢤ
0
2
t
L
0
e
ࢤƉt
PHY 5347
Homework Set 12 Solutions – Kimel
2. 16.2 V ࢤ, q ࢤe
dE
dt
ࢤ
m
ङ
dV
dr
2
è
If V ar
n
, then the Virial theorem tells us
ङTè
n
2
ङVè
In the present case, n ࢤ1, so
E ङTè ङVè
1
2
ङVè ࢤ
Ze
2
2r
dV
dr
Ze
2
r
2
Now
dE
dt
ࢤ
m
ङ
dV
dr
2
è
gives
d
dr
1
rt
2Ze
2
mr
4
t
or
r
2
dr ࢤ2Ze
2
dt/m
But
2
3
e
2
c
3
m
, so
r
2
dr ࢤ3Zc
3 t
Integrating both sides gives
r
3
t r
0
3
ࢤ 9Zc
3 t
b) At this point, for simplicity of notation, I’m going to take c 0 1. Then from problem
14.21,
1
T
2
3
e
2
Ze
2
4
m
n
5
We are given
r
n
2
a
0
Z
Where a
0
1
me
2
Bohr radius, and
2
3
e
2
m
ࢤ
dn
dt
ࢤ
Z
2a
0
n
dr
dt
Z
2a
0
n
3
r
2
Z
2
Z
2a
0
n
3
Z
a
0
n
2
2
Z
2
3
e
2
m
2
2
3
Z
4
m
e
6
n
5
in agreement with the result of problem 14.21.
c) From part b
t
r
0
3
ࢤ r
3
t
9Z
2
But rt
n
f
2
a
0
Z
, r
0
n
i
2
a
0
Z
t
n
i
2
a
0
Z
3
ࢤ
n
f
2
a
0
Z
3
9Z
2
1
9
a
0
3
n
i
6
ࢤ n
f
6
Z
4
2
In our present case Z 1, so
t
1
9
1
me
2
3
n
i
6
ࢤ n
f
6
2
3
e
2
m
2
1
4m
e
ࢤ10
n
i
6
ࢤ n
f
6
In these units, (from the particle data book) MeV
ࢤ1
6. 6 10
ࢤ22
s. e
2
1/137, and
m 207 . 511MeV.
t
1 6. 6 10
ࢤ22
s
4 207 . 5111/137
5
n
i
6
ࢤ n
f
6
7. 53 10
ࢤ14
n
i
6
ࢤ n
f
6
s
For the cases desired,
t
1
7. 53 10
ࢤ14
10
6
ࢤ 4
6
s 7. 5 10
ࢤ8
s
t
2
7. 53 10
ࢤ14
10
6
ࢤ 1
6
s 7. 5300 10
ࢤ8
s
Just as a check on working with these units, notice
2
3
e
2
m
2
3
1
. 511 137
6. 6 10
ࢤ22
s 6. 29 10
ࢤ24
s
in agreement with what we found before.
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