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Kapatagan - isang lugar kung saan walang pagtaas o pagbaba ng lupa, patag at pantay ang lupa rito. Maaaring itong taniman ng mga palay,mais,at gulay. Bundok - isang pagtaas ng lupa sa daigdig, may matatarik na bahagi at hamak na mas mataas kaysa burol. Bulkan - isang uri ng bundok sa daigdig na kung saan ang tunaw na bato ay maaaring lumabas dito mula sa kailaliman ng daigdig. May dalawang uri ng bulkan, una ang tinatawag na tahimik na kung saan matagal na hindi ito sumasabog, tulad ng Bulkang Makiling na matatagpuan sa lalawigan ng Laguna; at ang ikalawang uri naman ay aktibo na kung saan maaari itong sumabog anumang oras. Mapanganib ang ganitong bulkan. Maaari itong sumabog at magbuga ng kumukulong putik at abo. Halimbawa nito ay ang bulkang Pinatubo. Burol - higit na mas mababa ito kaysa bundok at ang halimbawa nito ay ang tanyag na Chocolate Hills ng Bohol sa Pilipinas. Pabilog ang hugis nito at tinutubuan ng mga luntiang damo sa panahon ng tag-ulan at kung tag-araw ay nagiging kulay tsokolate. Lambak - isang kapatagan ngunit napaliligiran ng mga bundok. Marami ring mga produkto tulad ng gulay, tabako, mani, mais, at palay ang maaaring itanim dito. Talampas - patag na anyong lupa sa mataas na lugar. Maganda ring taniman dahil mataba ang lupa rito. Malamig at mahangin sa lugar na ito. Tangway - isang pahaba at naka-usling anyong lupang na halos napalilibutan ng tubig. Baybayin - bahagi ng lupa na malapit sa tabing dagat Bulubundukin - matataas at matatarik na bundok na magkakadikit at sunud-sunod. Pulo - mga lupain na napalilibutan ng tubig. Yungib - mga likas na butas na may sapat na laki at lawak na maaaring pasukin ng tao at hayop. Tangway - pahaba at nakausling anyong lupa na naliligiran ng tubig. Tangos - mas maliit sa tangway.
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Karagatan - ang pinakamalaking anyong tubig. Dagat - malaking anyong tubig, ngunit mas maliit sa karagatan Ilog - isang mahaba at makipot na anyong tubig na umaagos patungong dagat. Nagmula ito sa maliit na sapa o itaas ng bundok o burol. Golpo - bahagi ito ng dagat. Lawa - isang anyong tubig na naliligiran ng lupa. Look - malaking bahagi ng katubigang papasok sa kalupaan. Bukal - tubig na nagmula sa ilalim ng lupa. Kipot- makitid na daang-tubig na nag-uugnay sa dalawang malaking anyong tubig tulad ng dagat o karagatan. Talon - matarik na pagbaba ng tubig sa isang sapa Batis - ilug-ilugan o saluysoy na patuloy na umaagos. Sapa - anyong tubig na dumadaloy. Kipot - May kabuuang 200 ang kipot sa Pilipinas dahil sa pagiging arkipelago nito. Look - daungan ng mga barko at iba pang sasakyang dagat.
literally 'god from the machina¶ refers to the machina . This is particularly the case with mystery writers. Origin This Latin term is a translation from the original Greek and owes its origin to Greek drama. who want to bury clues to a mystery in information that is partially true and partially false. or it may be complex use of symbols. Sometimes an author may deliberately use false hints. that are then connected to later turns in the plot. The term is used these days as an implied criticism of implausible happy endings when the intervention of some improbable fairy godmother-like figure is considered too easy or cliched. in Solid philosophy asserted against the fancies of the Ideists." In the Greek dramas a common plot device was to lower the gods into the action to sort things out and bring about a tidy conclusion. Troilus glimpses Criseyde and feels the ³dreadful joy´ of love at looking at her. This began being used in English texts from around the middle of the 17th century. 'Deus ex machina'. For example in Chaucer¶s Troilus and Criseyde. Both Chaucer and Shakespeare employed foreshadowing. foreshadowing is very effective and important. The modern-day version would be the cavalry riding over the horizon. to send readers or viewers off in the wrong direction. Uses of it occur before the development of the novel in the 18th century. when our selves are at a loss to give a Reason for our Thesis. to bring in a Deus è Machiná at every turn. . called red herrings. foreshadowing may not be particularly effective. which were frequently the writing style of the Middle Ages. John Sergeant. This is foreshadowing because it connotes that Troilus will have joy in his love. but in longer poems. Foreshadowing Foreshadowing is used in written art and film to give hints about things to come in later plot developments. as did Dante. or some character awaking and realizing the previous action had all been a bad dream. but also suffer as a result of it.the device by which gods were suspended above the stage in the Greek theatre. especially in works of fiction. Foreshadowing is an old literary device. It can be very broad and easily understood.DEUS EX MACHINA Meaning Something or someone that comes in the nick of time to solve a difficulty. In short poems. 1697: "Nor is it at all allowable in Philosophy.
and the advice to so use it. usually at the end of a narrative or dramatic work. usually a µfitting retribution¶ by which a villain is ruined by some process of his own making. such mysterious settings. The "opening" may consist of several paragraphs for a short story. with the narrator in the frame story telling the story to answer the curiosity of his listeners. must be in want of a wife. Shakespeare¶s use of foreshadowing can also be quite subtle. the term may also refer to a strikingly appropriate reward or punishment. The story may begin with a dramatic moment and. However. a hook. However. stemming from Aristotle. One of the most common forms is dramatic action. in itself. Or it may be told as a story-within-a-story. then. That is what Fiction means. "It is a truth universally acknowledged. in the sense that it occurs more often in the fictional plots of plays than in real life. Overly dramatic openings may leave the reader indifferent because the characters acting or being acted on are non-entities. The use of action as the hook. as with Jane Austen's opening line. or what caused the actions to occur.¶ In a slightly different but commonly used sense. flashback to the history necessary to understand it. Romeo and Juliet both talk about dying. and critics argue about what certain symbols foreshadow. is so widespread as to sometimes lead to the use of the term to mean an action opening. Poetic justice. once the reader is curious. though some argue it only foretells Hamlet¶s death. that a single man in possession of a good fortune. or several pages for a novel. This particular form has been recommended from the earliest days. action is not. the writer may tell the story out of order to engage the reader's interest. but ideally it is the opening sentence. or engaging characters." When a story does not lend itself to a good hook when it is laid out linearly. The morally reassuring allocation of happy and unhappy fates to the virtuous and the vicious characters respectively. and the bad unhappily.Shakespeare uses foreshadowing frequently. or by warning them that the story began in an ordinary . Narrative hook A narrative hook (or hook) is a literary technique in the opening of a story that "hooks" the reader's attention so that he or she will keep on reading. without the reader's wondering what will happen next. As Miss Prism explains in Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest. or even a thematic statement. but other things can be used for narrative hooks. The ghost in Hamlet is often thought to foreshadow the death of the royalty of Denmark. µThe good ended happily. and the widely used term in medias res stems from the Roman Empire. which engages the reader into wondering what the consequences of the action will be. sometimes in quite obvious ways. The term was coined by the critic Thomas Rymer in his The Tragedies of the Last Age Consider'd (1678) with reference to Elizabethan poetic drama: such justice is µpoetic¶. even murder of a faceless character may not engage interest.
particularly in murder mysteries. in which a tale. a side story takes place within the same time frame as an existing work. thus keeping the reader interested in "whodunit". This also dates back to the One Thousand and One Nights. "The Three Apples". small scale events. insignificant in the bigger picture. and end and focus heavily on character drama while the major action occurs mostly in the background. she must keep him 'hooked' to each of the stories.seeming way. sequel. which contained numerous side stories which were loosely related to the main story of those epics. Side stories are common in epic type series. The series' true main characters may make cameo appearances or be referred to in dialogue. A spin-off takes already known characters. SIDE STORY A side story in fiction is a form of narrative that occurs alongside established stories set within a fictional universe. or reveals the reason for a previously inexplicable action. A side story is not quite the same as a spin-off. is a sudden. begins with the discovery of a young woman's dead body. especially war oriented series where it is possible to tell many stories from many different points of view. middle. The term "side story" is widely used in anime fandom. Flashback. vivid reversion to a past event. but they must follow it to understand latter actions. in order to prevent him from executing her the next morning. They tend to be one shot stories with a beginning. It is typical for side stories to be self contained. The settings for side stories are intentionally away from the major events that the main characters are known to be participating in. usually supporting or background characters and involves them in a story or series which highlights them and further develops their character. Twist ending A twist ending is a plot twist occurring near or at the conclusion of a story. A famous early example of this technique was used in the One Thousand and One Nights. or analepsis. Side stories. Narrative hooks often play an important role in suspense thrillers and mystery fiction. or interquel. As opposed to a prequel. They are commonly used in sitcoms to keep interest in the story or to use remaining time. in which the frame story consists of Sheherazade telling stories to King Shahriyar. also known as the Arabian Nights. where it is a direct translation of the Japanese word gaiden which is often used to describe such stories. focus on a completely new set of characters who have no history and typically no connections to the existing main characters. an unexpected conclusion to a work of fiction that causes the audience to reevaluate the narrative or characters. Early examples of a side story are found in the ancient Indian epics Mahabharata and Ramayana. The Alfred Hitchcock film Marnie . It is used to surprise the reader with previously unknown information that provides the answer to a mystery. places a character in a different light. rather.
Sometimes this is combined with the above category. as Sergio Leone did with Charles Bronson's character in "Once Upon a Time in the West" or Frederick Forsyth's "The Odessa File". . or that the protagonist is related to one of the villain's past victims. as the flashback may reveal the true identity of the one of the characters.employed this type of twist ending.
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