Faculty of Engineering Engineering Undergraduate Office Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

GenE 123: Electrical Engineering

ME 123: Electrical Engineering for Mechanical Engineers

Laboratory 1: DC Concepts and Measurements

Contributors: Last Revision: Source:

DJ Brush, J Lowe, Z Zayouna January 2008 GE 123 Laboratory Manual, JD Aplevich, JD Cross, JD Leslie, MMA Salama, 1994

Note that it is possible to have a negative voltage. the Pre-Lab which presents exercises that must be completed prior to starting the lab. The PS provides the power to drive electric charge around the circuit in the direction of the arrow. and current. For example. the Practical which presents the exercises performed in the lab. and the Lab Write-Up which is where all measured data and question answers are recorded. no energy loss).1. resistance.e.1: Illustration of a simple circuit. and power are fundamental circuit properties that are introduced below.1 shows the polarity of the power supply voltage VPS. Current: Current I quantifies the movement of charge through the wires and devices in the circuit with units of C/s = amps. A. Figure 2. .UW – GenE/ME 123 – Lab 1 Manual 2/11 1 Introduction In this lab you will gain “hands-on” circuits experience by building simple DC circuits containing a power supply and resistors. The remainder of this lab is divided into 4 sections: the Background which summarizes the circuit concepts studied in the lab. which indicates that the voltage at the top of the PS is higher than at the bottom. You will also use two types of meters to measure resistance. Note that it is possible to have a negative current.. voltage. Voltage is expressed using a sign convention called polarity that labels the assumed higher voltage point with “+” and the lower voltage point with “−”. which means that voltages and currents in the circuit will be constant in time. Voltage. You will be required to hand in your Pre-Lab exercises and Write-Up at the end of the lab period. The resistor resists the flow of charge and consumes the power supplied by the PS. + VPS – PS I + VR – R Figure 2. current. The wire acts as a charge pipeline between the devices and is assumed to be a perfect conductor (i. Voltage: Voltage V is the difference in electric potential between two points in a circuit with units of joules/coulomb or J/C = volts or V.1 symbolically shows a Power Supply (PS) and a Resistor (R) connected by conducting wire. Current is mathematically defined as dq / dt which is the amount of charge dq moving past a point in the circuit over a time interval dt. Figure 2. Current direction is expressed using an arrow sign convention as shown in Figure 2. which means the actual current direction is opposite to the one assumed. which means that the actual polarity is opposite to the one assumed. 2 Background An electric circuit is a closed loop of circuit devices interconnected by conducting material. This lab examines direct current (DC) circuits.

Figure 2. The first and second bands represent the first two digits of the resistance value.2 shows the band positions and labels. .2: Resistor bands. a resistor having 4 bands coloured red-violet-orange-gold has a resistance of 27. Colour Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White Digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Multiplier 1 10 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 Colour Gold Silver None Tolerance 5% 10 % 20 % For example. Table 2. multiplier.1: Resistor band colour codes. Typically the units used with Ohm’s law are V = mA×kΩ. and tolerance band colour codes are listed in Table 2.1. The digit. Rearranging Ohm’s law as R = V / I shows that the units of resistance are V/A = ohm or Ω.UW – GenE/ME 123 – Lab 1 Manual 3/11 Resistance: Resistance is the property of resisting current flow in a circuit. Resistors: Resistors are used to control voltage and current in circuits ranging from low power electronics to high power hydro grids. the third band gives the number of trailing zeros. The third band is a multiplier (power of 10) that is multiplied to the two digits to give the total resistance value. In this lab you will use carbon resistors with a fixed resistance that is coded on the resistor casing using 3 coloured bands. Circuit devices that are primarily designed to resist current flow are called resistors. An optional forth band indicates the manufacturer’s tolerance (acceptable error) in meeting the encoded resistance. Figure 2.000 Ω with a tolerance of ± 5%. The resistance R of a resistor is related to the voltage V across it and the current I passing through it by Ohm’s law: V =I R (Ohm’s law) where I enters the high voltage (+) side of the resistor and leaves the low voltage (−) side. In other words.

which means that it supplies a constant user specified voltage. . The voltmeter is connected in parallel with the resistor and seems to provide another path for the current.4. Ammeter: An ammeter (AM) is a device that measures current through a closed circuit loop without significantly altering the circuit properties. Voltmeter: A voltmeter (VM) is a device that measures the potential difference or voltage between two points in a circuit without significantly altering the circuit properties. provided that the power rating and current limit are not exceeded. The PS used in this lab is a DC voltage source. In other words. voltmeters have a very large internal resistance. The PS supplies current to meet power demands of the rest of the circuit at the specified voltage.4: Ammeter connection in series with circuit loop.3. Power Supply: The power supply provides power (voltage and current) to the circuit. AM + I PS + VPS – VR – R Figure 2. so that the voltage across the device is very small. Power is an expression of energy and is therefore conserved over all circuit devices. However. Ohmmeter: An ohmmeter is a device that measures the resistance of an object. + I PS + VPS – VR – R VM Figure 2.3: Voltmeter connection across a resistor. Ammeters have a very small internal resistance. They must be connected in series with the circuit as shown in Figure 2. the PS sets the voltage and the rest of the circuit sets the current. In this lab you will use a voltmeter to measure the voltage across a resistor as shown in Figure 2.UW – GenE/ME 123 – Lab 1 Manual 4/11 Power: Power P is the rate of energy supplied or consumed by a device in a circuit and is defined as P = V I with units of VA = J/s = W. so that very little current flows through the device.

2 Figure 3.1: Pre-lab circuit. The voltage polarity and current direction are also shown. (d) What do you notice about the calculated current and power values as R is doubled? (e) What would happen to the calculated currents if the source voltage was doubled? + I PS + VPS – VR – R Figure 3.1 shows a simple circuit containing a power supply (PS) and a resistor (R) connected with conducting wire. On a separate piece of paper. and 20 kΩ. perform and answer the following: (a) Use Ohm’s law to calculate the loop current I in mA given that the PS voltage VPS is 5 V and the resistor resistance R is 5 kΩ.UW – GenE/ME 123 – Lab 1 Manual 5/11 Due at Start of Lab Session (one per group) Attach Pre-Lab to your Write-Up 3 Pre-Lab Ex. (b) Calculate the power consumed by the resistor.2 10 20 30 100 Band 1 Colour Band 2 Band 3 Ex.1 8.1) to complete the following table: Resistor Colour Bands R (kΩ) 1 5. (c) Repeat (a) and (b) with R values of 10. . 1 Use the resistor colour code (see Table 2.

30. It is very important to ensure that the meter is set for DC.1. • Record the measured resistance values in the write-up exercise table. wire. We will be using only the Analogue Ammeter (AM) for this lab. mA on the needle gauge. which is also identified by the units of amps. 10. You will also use the Digital Multi-Meter and Power Supply mounted on your workstation. Obtain a lab kit and a portable Analogue Ammeter mounted on a board with 2 other devices.2. Ex. • Press the button marked “kΩ” to activate the ohmmeter (OM) functionality of the DMM. and pick for this lab. • Using your Pre-Lab resistor colour table. and a Resistance Decade Box. 20. • Insert the red lead into the terminal marked “kΩ” or “Ω” and the black lead into the terminal marked “common”. • The range buttons influence the lowest and highest resistance values that can be read with the meter. 5. You will need several resistors. 1. (c) Measure the resistance of various resistors. . and a rotary dial for setting the measurement range (note that the numerical scales are printed on the gauge are associated with the range settings). 2: Building a Simple Circuit and Measuring Voltage and Current (a) Configure the DMM to function as a DC voltmeter (VM). • Remove the red and black cables or leads from the storage tube. • Determine the appropriate range and measure the resistance of each resistor by connecting the DMM leads to the springs holding the resistors.UW – GenE/ME 123 – Lab 1 Manual 6/11 4 Practical Choose a lab partner (2 students per group). the spring board. 1: Measuring Resistance using the Digital Multi-Meter (a) Find the Digital Multi-Meter (DMM) at your workstation. Ex. • Mount the resistors onto the spring board by inserting the resistor wire connectors into different springs (use the pick supplied to separate the springs). • Record your resistance in the write-up section and answer the associated question. find the following resistors in your kit: 1. The leads remain in the same terminals as in Ex. • Determine the appropriate range and read the DMM display. This ammeter has two terminals marked “+” and “−”. DC Analogue Ammeter (labeled M2). 8. and 100 kΩ. (b) Examine the portable board containing 3 black circuit devices: a DC Analogue Voltmeter (labeled M1). • Firmly hold the metal end of each lead in each hand. Complete the exercise table. (b) Measure your own resistance. • Press the power button on. A range set too high will display zeroes for all significant digits and a range set too low will display flashing numbers or “1” on the left side of the display.

It has 3 terminals. • Keep the power off for now. • Switch the connections to the PS terminals. This PS is an independent voltage source. • Record and explain your observations in the lab write-up. Repeat step (e). 2 tables and questions in the write-up. Record the AM current and the VM voltage readings in the exercise write-up table. Repeat this step for 10 and 20 V. which will be used to supply a constant DC voltage to the circuit you will build. I + + AM – + “V” VM R = 1 or 20 kΩ “common” VPS – PS VR – device terminal spring board connection cables/leads/wires Figure 4.1: Layout of simple DC circuit with Ammeter (AM) and Voltmeter (VM). (f) Power off the PS and replace the 1 kΩ resistor with a 20 kΩ resistor. Use the red and black leads and/or the wire supplied with your lab kits to connect the device terminals and the 1 kΩ resistor mounted on the spring board as shown. (e) Power on the PS and slowly turn the voltage knob clockwise until the needle gauge reads 5 V (voltage supplied by PS). (h) Complete the Ex. • Press the button marked “V” so that the needle gauge will display the voltage supplied by the device. • Power on the PS and observe the current and voltage readings. • Turn the current limiting knob all the way clockwise and turn the voltage knob all the way counter-clockwise. (g) For R = 20 kΩ and VPS = 20 V: • Power off the PS.UW – GenE/ME 123 – Lab 1 Manual 7/11 (c) Identify the Goldstar GP105 Power Supply (PS) at your workstation.1. (d) Build the circuit shown schematically in Fig. . but we will only use two: the “+” and “−” terminals. 4.

• Disconnect the VM from the resistor and connect it across the ammeter as shown in Figure 4. .2. “V” VM IAM AM + VPS PS – – + VAM – + VR 20 kΩ “common” Figure 4. • Turn the PS off. 3: Measuring Meter Loading 8/11 Ideally an ammeter has zero resistance so that the when current flows through it the voltage across it is zero. I + + VPS – PS + VR – AM – “V” VM + VVM – “common” 20 kΩ IVM Figure 4. • Measure the current IVM using the AM and voltage VVM using the VM. However. (a) Measure and record ammeter current and voltage. a real ammeter has a small resistance and therefore a small voltage when current flows through it. • Record these values in the lab write-up. • Disconnect the VM and AM and connect them across the resistor as shown in Figure 4.3. • Record these values in the lab write-up. Note that the 20 kΩ resistor is still used. (c) Calculate the internal resistance of these two meters and answer the corresponding question.UW – GenE/ME 123 – Lab 1 Manual Ex. (b) Measure and record the VM current and voltage. • Measure the current IAM using the AM and voltage VAM using the VM. Real voltmeters have large resistances and small currents when connected into a circuit. • Turn the PS on and set VPS to 30 V.3: Circuit layout to measure the VM current.2: Circuit layout to measure the AM voltage An ideal voltmeter has an infinite resistance so that zero current travels through the device.

2 10 20 30 100 Tolerance (%) Rmeas (kΩ) Difference (%) 100 (Rmeas-Rband)/Rband Meets Spec (Y/N) .1 8. 1 Body Resistance Data What factors might influence your body resistance? List the buttons that must be pushed on the DMM to measure a resistance of 3 kΩ. program and block on the Write-Up & Pre-Lab Program Block TA Pre-Lab Signature Ex. Resistor Resistance Data Rband (kΩ) 1 5.UW – GenE/ME 123 – Lab 1 Manual 9/11 5 Write-Up Group Data Name Due at End of Lab Session (one per group) Please put your full name.

Δ = 100 (Icalc-Imeas)/Imeas Rband = 20 kΩ. Δ = 100 (Icalc-Imeas)/Imeas How do the measured and calculated currents compare? Explain any large differences. Rmeas = VPS (V) 5 10 20 * Difference. Rmeas = VPS (V) 5 10 20 * Difference.UW – GenE/ME 123 – Lab 1 Manual Ex. . 2 Rband = 1 kΩ. . VR-meas (V) Imeas (mA) Calculated Currents I1 = VPS / Rband I2 = VR-meas / Rmeas *Δ (%) I2 (mA) *Δ (%) I1 (mA) VR-meas (V) Imeas (mA) Calculated Currents I1 = VPS / Rband I2 = VR-meas / Rmeas *Δ (%) I2 (mA) *Δ (%) I1 (mA) 10/11 Record and explain your observations when the PS connections were switched.

Ex. Compare and explain your calculated RVM. Determine the maximum power that the PS can supply. 11/11 Explain the use of a mirror on the Analogue Ammeter. . 3 Ammeter Loading Data VAM IAM Resistance RAM = VAM / IAM DMM-Voltmeter Loading Data VVM IVM Resistance RVM = VVM / IVM The DMM-VM resistance is actually 10 MΩ.UW – GenE/ME 123 – Lab 1 Manual List the buttons that must be pushed on the DMM to measure a DC voltage of 100 V.

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