Promoting Growth and Development o The preschooler 3 – 5 y/o

- GROSS: Walk, run, climb and jump are well established. - Refinement in eye-hand and muscle coordination. *Drawing, art work, skillful manipulation

Preparation for most significant lifestyles change: GOING TO SCHOOL

3 y/o GROSS

o Experience brief and prolonged separation

Ride tricycles

Use language for mental symbolization Increase attention span and memory

• Jump off bottom of stairs


Go upstairs w/ alternate feet

• Broad jumps • Pulls on shoes

Biologic Development

• Tower of 9 – 10 cubes • Copies a circle LANGUAGE • 900 words • complete sentences • Talk incessantly • Ask a lot • Gives full name and gender SOCIALIZATION • Dresses completely

Physical growth slows and stabilizes Average weight gain remains about 5lbs/year Average height increases 2 ½ - 3 yrs.



o Body systems mature and stabilize, can adjust to mod. Change of stress

Gross and Fine Motor Behavior

• Feeds self completely • Have fears • Know own sex • Parallel Play 4 y/o GROSS • Skips and hops on 1 foot • GROSS • Skips and hops on alternate feet • Jump ropes FINE • Tie Shoelaces • Use scissors and pencils very well Draws a stick figure Walks downstairs with alternating fee • FINE • LANGUAGE • 2100 words • Use scissors • Copies a square Sentences of 6 – 8 words • Names 4 or more colors • LANGUAGE • 1800 words • Sentences(4 – 5 words) • Knows time associated words SOCIALIZATION • > quarrelsome • Exaggerate stories “Tall Tales” Independent but trust worthy SOCIALIZATION • Very independent • • Eager to do things right • Selfish and impatient “Stormy age” Associative Play . almost no help • • Providing free form of play 5y/o PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT .Imaginary friend Cares for self w.Play to pretend .

DEVELOPMENT of Sexuality • Pre-conceptual – 2 – 4 yrs • Intuitive thought = 4 – 7 yrs Form of strong attachment to the opposite sex parent while identifying w. differences in appearances and biases • COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • Readiness for school • Readiness for scholastic learning 5 -6 y/o PIAGET: Preoperational Phase • Spans 2 – 7 yrs • Divided into 2 stages • • Poor defined body boundaries and fear that if skin is “broken” all blood and “insides can leak out and intrusive experiences are frightening. the same sex parent • Oedipal period . anxiety and fear may result from thoughts that differ from expected behavior Development of superego(CONSCIENCE) Learning right from wrong (Moral development) • • • • • DEVELOPMENT of Body Image • • Increase comprehension of “eversible appearance” Aware of racial identity.*Erikson: Developing Sense of Initiative • • • Magical Thinking Egocentric though -> Social awareness Egocentrism is still evident Able to consider other viewpoints Chief psychosocial task of preschool “Energetic” learners Feelings of guilt.

Age 3 – 5 Personal-Social Behavior • • Self Dressing • Willing to please • • Social DEVELOPMENT • Have internalized values and standards of family and culture May begin to challenge parental values Individuation separation process is completed Overcome stranger anxiety and fear of separation from parents Still need parental security and guidance • • Coping with Concerns Related to Normal Growth and Development Preschool and Kinder • • Security from familiar objects • Play therapy beneficial for working through fears. anxieties and fantasies Developmental screening tool to assess readiness Infection control (School setting) • • Introduction of child to schools Language DEVELOPMENT • Major mode of communication and social interaction Sex Education • Find out what children thinks .• Modesty becomes a concern • • Sex role limitation “Dressing up like mommy and daddy” Sexual exploration more pronounces manipulates genitalia Questions arise about sexual reproduction Vocabulary increases dramatically bet.

socio cultural. gender. Chances of reversing a speech problem are good until 5 yrs. Swearing . frustration.Property rights . but don’t reinforce • Prepare child for upcoming changes to maximize coping strategies Aggression Sharing = selfish. modeling and reinforcement.• Be honest • • Avoid “over answering” the question Sexual exploration/sexual curiosity • Behavior that attempts to hurt person or destroy property May be influenced by biologic. etc.Allow imagination.) Speech Problems • Stuttering and stammering • Undue emphasis on the prob.Overactive imagination Imaginary Friends .correction should be unemotional Stress • Minimum amounts of stress can be beneficial Parental awareness of sings in child’s life • • • Prevention of stress • Schedule adequate rest • Behavior Problems • Tall Tales . and familiar variables Factors that increases aggressive behavior. • Fears • Dark • Being left alone • • Animals (Snakes. • • • Ghosts • Persons associated with pain Tech of desensitization May actually worsen it. large dogs. no sense of ownership .

“Yours”.Accept dream as real fear .Interest in adult who may lead them to exploring . if child is not calmed. child . have food fads and strong taste preference = FOOD FADS Remember that the quality of food is more important That the quantity Calories req.. • Nightmares Concerns • • Sleep terrors • Promoting safety . Different methods . 90cal/kg (1800cal/day) 100ml/kg/day fluids depending on activity • Sleeps around 12 hours w. infrequent naps .Provide consistent bedtime rituals .Sleep problems *Nightmares *Refusal to go to bed . approx.Orient child to “Mine”.Slow down activities at bed time . eaters.Sit w. and “Ours” • Thorough assessment of sleep probs.Project an attitude of independence and ability to take of themselves .Must be reminded repeatedly of safety and potential harm from strangers Encourage consistent bedtime routine Sleep and Act • Nutrition • Fairly similar to toddlers • May be finicky.Professional help for recurrent nightmares • • • Dental Health Sleep Problems • eruption of deciduous teeth is complete .Lie down and allow to sleep with you.

• Professional care and prophylaxis Fluoride supplements • Injury Prevention • Safety Education • Development of long term behaviors * Bike helmets .

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