HOW ELECTRICITY IS HOW ELECTRICITY IS DELIVERED TO YOUR DELIVERED TO YOUR HOME HOME

GENERATION

TRANSMISSION 230kV DELIVERY POINT SUBSTATION

SUB-TRANSMISSION DISTRIBUTION

DEFINATION’S
SUBSTATION:AN ASSEMBLAGE OF EQUIPMENT THROUGH WHICH ELECTRICAL ENERGY IN BULK IS PASSED FOR THE PURPOSE OF SWITCHING OR MODIFYING ITS CHARACTERISTICS

SWITCHYARD:AN ASSEMBLAGE OF SWITCHES, POWER CIRCUIT BREAKERS, BUSES AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT THAT IS USED TO COLLECT POWER FROM THE GENERATORS OF A POWER PLANT AND DISTRIBUTE IT TO THE TRANSMISSION LINES AT A LOAD POINT. AS FAR AS STRUCTURES ARE CONCERNED, THE TERMS SUBSTAION AND SWITCHYARD WILL BE USED INTERCHANGEABLY.

Switchyard Type
• Conventional Air Insulated Type. • Gas Insulated type. • Outdoor Gas Insulated type.

Switchyard Type
AIR INSULATED SUBSTATION :• AN AIR INSULATED SUBSTATION OR SWITCHYARD HAS THE INSULATING MEDIUM OF AIR

GAS INSULATED SUBSTATION:• SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE (SF6) GAS INSULATED SUBSTATION

SUBSTATION & SWITCHYARD STRUCTURE’S
• TO SUPPORT ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS SUCH AS • CABLE BUS, • RIGID BUS, • STRAIN BUS CONDUCTORS; • SWITCHES; • SURGE ARRESTERS; • INSULATORS

» CONCRETE » STEEL » ALUMINUM » WOOD .SUBSTATION & SWITCHYARD STRUCTURE’S • COMMON MATERIALS USED ARE.

SQUARE & RECTANGULAR) PIPES POLYGONAL TUBES (STRAIGHT OR TAPERED) .SUBSTATION & SWITCHYARD STRUCTURE’S • • • • • LATTICED ANGLES ( CHORDS & TRUSSES) WIDE FLANGES TUBES (ROUND.

GANTRY BEAM & TOWER .

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EQUIPMENT SUPPORTING BOX / TUBE TYPE STRUCTURE .

• CABLE BUS SYSTEM:Low-tension. • STRAIN BUS SYSTEM:A stranded wire conductor installed under tension. . The conductor material is usually an aluminum alloy / also be Copper.BUSWORK SYSTEM • RIGID BUS SYSTEM :An Extruded Metallic Conductor. stranded conductors supported on station post insulators.

ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES PROVIDE THE PHYSICAL SEPRATION NEEDED FOR PHASE-TO-PHASE. . PHASE-TO-STRUCTURE AND PHASE-TO-GROUND AIR GAPS TO PROVIDE SAFE WORKING AREAS AND TO PREVENT FLASHOVERS.

LIGHTNING OR OTHER WEATHER-RELATED CAUSES. SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS ARE THE RESULT OF ELECTRICAL FAULTS CAUSED BY EQUIPMENT OR MATERIAL FAILURE.SHORT-CIRCUIT FORCE SHORT-CIRCUIT FORCES ARE STRUCTURE LOADS THAT ARE CAUSED BY SHORTCIRCUIT CURRENTS. AND ACCIDENTS .

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORTS POWER TRANSFORMER & AUTOTRANSFORMER – SUPPORT :. SHUNT REACTOR – SUPPORT :.THE POWER TRANSFORMER AND AUTOTRANSFORMER ARE SUPPORTED DIRECTLY ON A FOUNDATION.THE SHUNT REACTOR IS SUPPORTED DIRECTLY ON A FOUNDATION .

GENERAL DEFINITION: TRANSFORMER IS AN ELECTRICAL DEVICE THAT TRANSFERS ENERGY FROM ONE CIRCUIT TO ANOTHER BY MAGNETIC COUPLING WITH NO MOVING PARTS TRANSFORMERS ARE USED TO CONVERT BETWEEN HIGH AND LOW VOLTAGES. TO CHANGE IMPEDANCE. AND TO PROVIDE ELECTRICAL ISOLATION BETWEEN CIRCUITS .

TRANSFORMER FOUNDATION .

FIRE PROTECTION WALL .

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORTS CURRENT-LIMITING INDUCTOR OR AIR CORE REACTOR – SUPPORT :. .THE SUPPORTING PEDESTALS ARE BOLTED DIRECTLY TO THE FOUNDATION. THE LINE TRAP CAN ALSO BE SUSPENSION MOUNTED FROM A STRUCTURE.THE LINE TRAP CAN BE MOUNTED VERTICALLY OR HORIZONTALLY ON EITHER A SINGLE OR MULTIPLE PEDESTAL SUPPORT STRUCTURE. LINE TRAP / WAVE TRAP – SUPPORT :.

THE CCVT IS USUALLY SUPPORTED ON A SINGLE PEDESTAL. CENTER BREAK.ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORTS COUPLING CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER – SUPPORT :. DISCONNECT SWITCH (VERTICAL BREAK.THE DISCONNECT SWITCH IS SUPPORTED ON A COMMON STRUCTURE FOR VOLTAGE LESS THAN 500kV. SINGLE SIDE BREAK OR DOUBLE SIDE BREAK) – SUPPORT :. .

DISCONNECTOR SUPPORTING STRUCTURE .

INCLUDING THEIR SUPPOTING FRAMES.ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORTS LOAD INTERRUPTER SWITCH / CIRCUIT SWITCHER / LINE CIRCUIT BREAKER – SUPPORT :. CIRCUIT BREAKER – SUPPORT :. ARE ANCHORED DIRECTLY ON THE FOUNDATION. .CIRCUIT BREAKERS.THE CIRCUIT SWITCHER SUPPORTED ON A COMMON STRUCTURE FOR VOLTAGE LESS THAN 500kV.(DYNAMIC LOAD ON OPENING OR CLOSING .

. IF ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE IS NOT PROVIDED.ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORTS POTENTIAL AND CURRENT TRANSFORMERS – SUPPORT :.USUALLY SUPPORTED ON A SINGLE PEDESTAL OR LATTICE STAND STRUCTURE.PTs & CTs ARE USUALLY SUPPORTED ON A SINGLE PEDESTAL OR LATTICE STAND STRUCTURE. CAPACITOR BANK – SUPPORT :.OUTER PERIPHERY OF THE BANK SHOULD BE ENCLOSED INSIDE A FENCE FOR PROTECTION OF PERSONNEL.

EQUIPMENT SUPPORTING LATTICE TYPE STRUCTURE .

SURGE ARRESTER CAN BE SUPPORTED ON A SINGLE PEDESTAL OR LATTICE STAND STRUCTURE OR DIRECTLY MOUNTED ON TRANSFORMER. SURGE ARRESTER – SUPPORT :. .THE PLATFORM MUST BE MOUNTED ON INSULATORS THAT ARE BOLTED TO THE FOUNDATION.ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORTS SHUNT CAPACITOR – SUPPORT :.THE SUPPORT IS PROVIDED BY A METAL PLATFORM.

EQUIPMENT SUPPORTING LATTICE TYPE STRUCTURE .

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORTS NEUTRAL GROUNDING RESISTOR – SUPPORT :. . CABLE TERMINATOR / POTHEAD – SUPPORT :.SUPPORT STRUCTURES OF CABLES TERMINATORS OF INDIVIDUAL PHASES CAN BE COLUMNS RESTING ON A FOUNDATION.RESISTORS ARE SOMETIMES MOUNTED ON SEPARATE STRUCTURES BUT ARE USUALLY MOUNTED ON THE TRANSFORMER TANK. A STRUCTURE SUPPORTING THREE PHASES CAN ALSO BE USED.

.GLASS & COMPOSITE MATERIALS ARE USED FOR SUSPENSION & POST INSULATORS) – SUPPORT :INSULATORS CAN BE SUPPORTED ON A SINGLE-PHASE OR THREE PHASE STRUCTURE.ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORTS INSULATOR (PORCELAIN.

LOADING CRITERIA FOR SUBSTATION STRUCTURES • DEAD LOADS • EQUIPMENT OPERATING LOADS • TERMINAL CONNECTION LOADS FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT • WIRE TENSION LOADS • WIND LOADS • COMBINED ICE AND WIND LOADS • EARTHQUAKE LOADS • SHORT CIRCUIT LOADS • CONSTRUCTION & MAINTENANCE LOADS .

81.mi fs fs = w.Lc2 8.T fs = maximum conductor sag (m) wi = weight of conductor (kg/m) Lc = conductor span length (m) T = tension per conductor (kg) .SAG DUE TO CONDUCTOR Lc T 9.

Construction and commissioning of sub station Construction and commissioning of sub station is a subject describing the actual execution details. So that the land development is carried out economically. • The land development is then carried out accordingly • The sub station equipments and gantry foundations are then cast. • The control room is also constructed as per drawing. • These sub station land is initially selected and the final level to be kept for construction of substation is decided on the basis of contour survey of the sub station land. .

SITE WORK FOR EQUIPMENT FOUNDATION .

PEDESTAL WITH ANCHOR BOLT .

CONNECTION BETWEEN STRUCTURE & PEDESTAL .

etc.Construction and commissioning of sub station • The construction of sub station includes some of following activities. by carrying out jumpering work as specified in the lay out . • Stringing of various buses in the sub station. to bus. • Erection of equipment structures and equipments • Erection of equipment in control room • The earthing mesh and earthing electrodes work • The equipments are connected to each other. • The clamps and connectors are used while jumpering . • The arrangement of 3 phase supply up to 200 KVA • Erection of sub station columns and beams.

INDOOR CABLE TRENCH .

INSIDE CABLE TRENCH WITH PERFORATED TRAYS .

CABLE ENTRY TO INDOOR TRENCH .

Construction and commissioning of sub station • Commissioning of breakers. • Commissioning of C & R panels relays etc. charger commissioning making DC supply available for testing purposes. . • Metal spreading • Commissioning after proper testing is carried out. isolator alignments are carried out. • The transformer erection filtration and testing Lightening in control room and switch yard. • Battery charging.

OUTSIDE CABLE TRENCH .

CABLE TRENCH WITH COVER .

CHAIN LINK FENCE .

COMPLETED SUBSTATION VIEW .

given the following information.5 m Schedule 40 aluminum bus = 100 mm (mass = 5.0 m Insulator Diameter (Di) = 0.66 Bus Support Spacing = 6.51 kg/m) Maximum Short Circuit force = 550 N/m Short Circuit reduction factor = 0.28 m Insulator Weight (Wi) = 140 kg Basic Wind Speed (Vb) = 33 m/sec (Zone = 1) Reliability level = 2 (Return period of design loads 150 yrs) Terrain Category = 2 .-: Design Example :Design a Single Phase Bus Support for a Substation in Nagpur. – – – – – – – – – – – Height of Bus Centerline above foundation = 5.0 m Insulator Height (hi) = 2.

Inclined = ISA45x45x5 @ 3. = 380 mm .LATTICE STRUCTURE DETAILS:Main Leg = ISA65x65x6 @ 5.8kg/m Bracing.4kg/m Plan = ISA45x45x5 @ 3.4kg/m Part of Structure = 04 Each Part Length = 850 mm Inclined Length = 931 mm Back to Back of Str.

5 m x 2178 N Mom @ Base = 11979 N.66 x 550 N/m Fsc = 2178 N Mom @ Base = 5.m .• Short-Circuit Loading:• • • • Fsc = 6.0 m x 0.

(cl. where K0 = 1.08 x 1.8.1) K1 = 1.0 = 25.Wind Loading :• • • • • • • • • • • IS 802 (Part 1 / Sec 1) :1995. Basic wind speed Vb = 33 m/sec Metrological Reference wind speed VR is.2 pg 3) VR = 33 / 1. Where K1 = Risk Coeff.3.375 = 24 m/sec Design wind speed Vd = VR x K1 x K2.08 (Table 2) Where K2 = Terrain roughness coeff.92 m/sec . (cl.3. 8.2) K2 = 1. VR = Vb / K0 .375 (cl. 8.00 (Table 3) Design wind speed Vd = 24 x 1.

m ============================================== Wind load on Conductor Fwc (cl 9. being sum of half the span on either side of supporting point in meters d = diameter of cable / tube Gc = gust response factor (Table 7) = 1.0 for conductor L = wind span.1 x 1.4) Pd = 0.6 x 25.0 x 6 x 0.615 N (737.92 = 403.Wind Loading :Design wind pressure Pd = 0. 8.83 Fwc = 403.92 x 25. taken as 1.7 N/sq.2) Fwc = Pd x Cdc x L x d x Gc.6 Vd2 (cl.11 x 1.11 N/sq.m) . Cdc = Drag coeff. Where.83 Fwc = 442.

28 x 1.92 • Fwi = 260.11 x 0.m) . Cdi = drag coeff to be taken as 1.8 N/sq.(cl 9.Wind Loading :• • • • • Wind load on Insulator Strings (Fwi) :.5 x 2 x 0.1 N (928.92 • Fwi = 1.2 x 403.2 Ai = 50 % of the area of insulator string projected on a plane which is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the string • Gi = Gust response factor (Table 6) = 1.3) Fwi = Cdi x Pd x Ai x Gi Where.

Values of Cdt for different solidity ratios are given in Table 5. cross arms and secondary members of the panel projected normal to the face in m2 • Gt = Gust response factor. • Cdt = Drag coeff for panel under consideration against which the wind is blowing . Table 6 . bracing.Wind Loading :• Wind on structure Fwt = Pd x Cdt x Ae x Gt • Where. • Solidity ratio (Φ) = Aeff / Agross • Ae = Total net surface area of the legs. • Solidity ratio (Φ) is equal to the effective area of a frame normal to the wind direction divided by the area enclosed by the boundary of the frame normal to the wind direction.

292 = 0.m) .045 Area (sq.5.931 0.92 (Table 6) Fwt = 403.92 Fwt = 1049.92 N/sq.292 Total Net Surface Area Ae = Gross Surface Area Ag = 3.Member 1 2.4 0.442 0.m) 0.50 N (1547.38 m Solidity Ratio (Φ) = Ae / Ag Φ = 0.045 0.678 / 1.4 m x 0.678 1.4.068 0.7 & 9 Nos 2 4 4 Length (m) 3.0 (Table 5) Gt = 1.525 Drag Coeff Cdt = 2.11 x 2 x 0.678 x 1.38 Width (m) 0.168 0.6 & 8 3.065 0.

62 260.1 1049.22 Lever Arm (m) 5.7 Moment @ Base (N.5 4.41 1144.44 1784.00 .5 1752.15 5363.4 1.Wind load summary :Description Wind on Bus (Fwc) Wind on Insulator (Fwi) Wind on Structure (Fwt) Totals Force (N) 442.m) 2434.

Earthquake Loading:IS 1893 (Part 1) : 2002 Design Horizontal Acceleration Coeff (Ah). Ah = 0.047 .40. Ah = Z I / 2R * Sa/g Z = Zone factor = Zone II = 0.5 (Table 6) R = Response reduction factor = 4 (Table 7) Sa/g = Avg.75 = 0.085 h0.5 x 2.213 sec Sa/g = 2.5 Hence.5 / 2 x 4 = 0. Fundamental Natural Period Ta = 0. response acceleration coeff for rock or soil sites as given by fig 2 & Table 3 based on appropriate natural periods and damping of the structure.10 (Table 2) I = Importance factor = 1.10 x 1.085 x 3.75 Ta = 0.

55 180kg x 9.Earthquake Loading:IS 1893 (Part 1) : 2002 Design Seismic Base Shear VB = Ah W W = Seismic weight of the structure Description EQ on Bus EQ on Insulator EQ on Structure Force (N) L.047 = 4.m) 83.99 162.81 5.82 284.047 = 1.24 140kg x 9.5 x 0.02 141.78 .81 x 0.81 x 0.7 82.92 Totals 6m x 5.047 = 15.A (m) Moment @ Base (N.08 508.51 kg/m x 9.4 64.

78 N Moment @ Base = 11979 + 508.78 = 2340.22 = 3930.92 = 12487.Results:• SCF + WL :Force = 2178 + 1752.22 N Moment @ Base = 11979 + 5363 = 17342 N • SCF + EQ :Force = 2178 + 162. .92 N The combined loading of wind and short-circuit forces produce the greatest forces and moment at the base design for this condition. Therefore seismic forces are not critical for this structure.

45 N per leg Forces in bracing member shall be 25 % of the leg member.1 N per leg P = Applied load P + C = [140 x 9. .81 + 6 x 54] / 4 + 25221. C = Tensile or Compressive force C = 17342 N.380 – 2 x 0.1 P + C = 25645.Forces in the Member:Moment at the base causes tension and compression in the chord angles.m / [ 2(0.0181)] C = 25221.

. .Thank you.

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