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The evaluation of vehicle vibration and seats
M.J. Griffin Human Factors ResearchUnit, Institute of Sound and Vibration Research,University of Southampton Measurements of vibration in a variety of road vehicles in common use are compared with the guidance provided in ISO 2631-1974(E) (Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to vibration). For typical journey durations many of the vibration levels are in excess of the levels corresponding to the 'reduced comfort boundaries' and 'fatigue decreased proficiency boundaries' defined in the ISO Standard. Some of the problems inherent in comparing the measured vibration levels with the Standard are outlined and the need for a revised format for the Standard is discussed. A method of summarising the vibration attenuation of vehicle seats is defined and it is shown that the isolation provided by many of the seats of the 16 vehicles used in the study is poor.
Introduction In 1974 the International Organization for Standardization published a Standard entitled: Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration (ISO, 1974). Although the form of this and a similar guide (BSI, 1974) have been known for many years there have been few detailed studies of how the recommended vibration levels relate to common vibration environments. As part of a continuing programme of research on human response to vibration, many measurements of vehicle vibration have been made by the Human Factors Research Unit of the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research at Southampton University. The present paper demonstrates the application of the ISO Standard to the evaluation of three-axis translational vibration in road vehicles and also reports on the vibration isolation provided by the seats in the vehicles investigated in the study. The limits apply separately to motion in the three translational axes and, although some summation of effects occurs across axes (Griffin and Witham, 1977), the separate evaluation of motion in each axis is used in this paper. The limits in the Standard are to be considered 'very tentive' for motions which contain occasional peak levels. The 'crest factors' of the vibrations measured in the vehicles were therefore of some interest and the values found are discussed. The vibration levels determined in any study of road vehicle vibration are highly dependent on a large number of variables whose effects may interact with each other. The most obvious interacting variables are the nature of the road surface and the speed and suspension characteristics of
Exposure limits Fotigue-decreosed proficiency boundory R e d u c e d c o m f o r t boundory
The ISO Standard provides a procedure for evaluating translational vibration within the frequency range 1 to 80 Hz Ioo in terms of the periods of exposure that may (a) impair health //// or safety ('exposure limits') (b) impair working efficiency ('fatigue-decreased proficiency boundaries') and (c) impair I minute ~ / / / comfort ('reduced comfort boundaries'). In Fig. 1 the levels expmlurul / // of these boundaries for 1 min and 24 h exposures are shown Io for the three translational axes (longitudinal (ie, foot-tohead) and transverse (ie, fore-and-aft or lateral) directions). " For complex motions containing multiple frequency, narrow or broad-band vibration there is a choice of two analysis E IO methods. However, recent research (eg, Griffin, 1976; ~, 24 hour / / " ,," / Fothergill and Griffin, 1977) has shown that the 'recommended' exposures / ./ , method (comparing only the most dominant sinusoidal / component or the one-third octave band against the limits) ,~ ____j'/ / gives rise to inconsistencies in the assessment of discomfort oI ~. / due to vibration. In the present study the alternative method (weighting the entire 1 to 80 Hz spectra by the function Longitudinal (z-axis) vibration Transverse (x and y axis)vibration corresponding to the alledged relative effect of different frequencies) has therefore been employed, ool I I lililll I I I IIII I I IIIIIII I I IIIIII iO iO0 10 100 The ISO vibration evaluation procedure applies to the Frequency Hz level of vibration entering the body (ie, at the man-seat interface of a seated person) but does not apply to the effects Fig. 1 ISO limits for longitudinal (z-axis) and transverse (x- and y-axis) whole-body vibration of rotational vibration (roll, pitch or yaw) at this point.
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67 Description of vehicle Seat construction Metal and foam (bench) Mainly foam Metal springs and foam Metal springs and foam Metal springs and foam Rubber and foam Rubber and foam Country of origin France UK UK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Small low cost 5-door car Luxury car Family saloon Popular small car Estate Sports verson of popular small car Popular light car Popular small car Popular small car Small estate Small van 12 seat light bus Double deck bus with 40 passengers. metal. However. rubber and foam Measurements middle top deck. b = good. Foam seat Table 2: Road and vehicle speed conditions R oad number 1 the vehicle. Four test roads were used for the measurements and vibration recordings were obtained for 1 min on each road. Two public transport vehicles were studied on only part of the test route and a train ride (a British Rail VEP Unit at approximately 113 km/h (70 mile/h on Southern Region) was included as an example of a different type of transport. length 19. This bar is identical The principal test was conducted with 13 different vehicles in everyday use on British roads. A ranking of the ride in different vehicles is dependent on the nature of the vibration evaluation procedure which is employed.14 4.60 4"27 3"99 4"30 3. A further three channels were obtained from accelerometers mounted triaxially within an aluminium bar (290 by 45 by 20 mm) placed on the left-hand seat.2631 may be the best method currently available it has not yet been proven as a reliable indicator of vehicle ride. Although the procedure recommended in ISO. different answers would be obtained on other British road surfaces and on some foreign roads. d = poor. With the exception of these three public service vehicles the measurements were made with three persons (or the approximate equivalent weight) in the vehicles and with tyres inflated to the recommended pressures. Six channels of vibration data were recorded simultaneously for all conditions.Table 1: Vehicle characteristics Vehicle number Engine capacity (cc) 850 2000 1593 1298 1498 1998 875 1157 1500 1098 1000 1724 Overall length (m) 3"63 4.39 Overall width (m) 1-50 1.06 3.82 m. Vehicles were driven at constant speed along each road . the vehicles used in the study are identified by type and not their common commercial name. rear end of 3rd of 4 cars. at least in theory. the vibration level in one vehicle may be lower than that in another vehicle on one road (or at one speed) but higher than that in the other vehicle on another road (or at another speed).42 1 "88 Metal springs and foam Wood.78 3"28 4. Light metal frame & foam seat Common 5995 cc truck (unladen) gross weight 9750 kg. In view of this uncertainty and the variable effects of the road surfaces and vehicle speeds. c = average. Some of the characteristics of the vehicles are summarised in Table 1.60 1"59 1-52 t'52 UK Sweden UK UK UK 1"64 1-55 1-52 Metal springs and foam Coiled metal springs Rubber and foam Germany UK UK UK UK UK UK UK 1. 1972). Foam seat Electric train (98 seats) 7 passengers. The present study was not designed to investigate such effects but to consider a range of typical conditions by measuring the motions in a variety of common vehicles travelling over a selection of normal roads at typical speeds. Whether the ride in a vehicle is 'good' or 'bad' therefore depends on the operating conditions lbr the vehicle. Measurements on rear seat. 1 "70 1.the average speeds did not differ by more than 5% from those listed in Table 2. Foam seat Single deck 48 seat bus with 12 passengers. The measurements obtained in this study enable the vehicles to be ranked in terms of their vibration levels in general use on several British roads. There were no 16 Applied Ergonomics March 1978 . width 2.88 3-25 4. The interaction of the above variables means that. A subjective rating of the roughness of the roads (see Table 2) was made on the basis of a proposed road surface classification system (see BSI. Method Road type Esti mated road roughness Speed (kin/h) Trunk road (dual carriageway) Suburban road Urban main road Country lane b c/d b/c d 80 50 65 50 2 3 4 a = very good. e = very poor known mechanical defects that would result in abnormal vibration in any of the vehicles. Three channels were obtained from a triaxial accelerometer mount located beneath the left-hand front seat on the structure of each vehicle.32 m. A 75 kg passenger sat on this bar which was adjusted so that when in a normal seated position the upper fiat surface was horizontal and located beneath the subject's ischial tuberosities.
Also shown in this figure are the corresponding power spectral densities determined from the first 40 s of each recording with a resolution of 1 Hz. 2 Time histories and power spectral densities of acceleration recorded in vehicle 5 Applied Ergonomics March 1978 17 .0 0.2 i i i 0 O. g 0.axis) 0. That study showed that in some cases the shape of the bar used for this purpose can affect the seat's transmissibility). The weighted power spectral density functions were then integrated over the frequency range 1 to 80 Hz to give. 2 provides an example of the vibration acceleration waveforms of the motion recorded in a typical vehicle (number 5).oo~ o.0 0 0. 5 0.~ I00 0 20 40 60 80 I00 0 20 40 60 80 tO0 0 20 40 60 80 10o Frequency. Fore and aft (x.ol o. In the other two directions the vibration spectra on the seats were generally similar to those on the floor.axis ) Vertical ( z .25 0. 3). the high frequency vertical vibration on the vehicle floor is attenuated by the seat so that the vertical seat acceleration is predominantly at frequencies below about 20 Hz. In each of the three axes 90% or more of the weighted power was at frequencies greater than 1 Hz.5 Seconds 0.4 0. after taking the square root of the integrated values. Hz Frequency~ Hz Seat Seat Seat ~0.ooo) L i i i E . Hz Frequency. Comparisons with 1SO-2631 Power spectral density functions were determined for all six channels of data and for each vehicle -. o.0 Floor Floor Floor 0. 25 O.75 !. the root mean square weighted values of acceleration for each condition.4 o L Seat ® 0.road combination. As may be expected. (These values are approximately the same as would have been Results Fig.o.4 .1 ~. The recorded data were analysed with the aid of the digital computation facilities in the Data Analysis Centre of the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research.1 g. The 1 Hz frequency band containing the greatest weighted power varied greatly between vehicles but was most often in the range 1 to 3 Hz for the fore-and-aft and lateral vibration and in the range 6 to 12 Hz for vertical vibration.2 ~o 0. All the seat power spectral density functions were then weighted in accordance with the frequency weighting functions defined by the ISO Standard (see Fig.2 N Floor Floor E 0.5 0. 1977.ol 0.001 % o. For all vehicles and on all routes 90% or more of the weighted power was at frequencies less than 38 Hz in the fore-and-aft (x-axis) direction.25 0. 18 Hz in the lateral (y-axis) direction and 12 Hz in the vertical (z-axis) direction.75 1.2 o 0.75 1. The passenger did not wear a seat belt.to that described in a more recent study of methods of measuring vibration on soft seats (see Witham and Griffin.axis) Lateral ~ y .0 Seconds Seconds IOO I0 1.oool i o 20 40 60 80 !00 0 20 40 60 80 !00 0 20 40 60 80 I00 Frequency ~ Hz Frequency ~Hz Frequency~ Hz Fig.
. (Some recent laboratory work (Griffin. in several cases. x ~m • " x =. Lower measured values would have been given in Figs. . It can be seen that when driving on a good road surface similar to road 1 in the study..and z-axis acceleration. The crest factors were generally greater than the suggested ISO limit of 3-0 and. greater than 3 ) . fatigue decreased proficiency and exposure limits defined in the ISO Standard.0 recommended in ISO 2631 .0 Fi t\ Sz(f)=lO ~ ) I o8 \ o. However. I X t 2 X • X X I 5 • I 6 X • I 7 X 1 8 X 1 9 X • I I0 • I II X • I ::ti? 24h 4 h o I I t :5 4 I ! 1 I 1 12 13 14 15 16 Vehicle number Fig.and-aft and lateral direction the seat transmissibility was generally near unity over most of the frequency range. should be regarded as very tentative in the case of vibrations having high crest factors (that is. . evaluation of rotational motions must be recognised as an essential part of assessing vehicle ride (see Parsons and Griffin. determined by weighting the acceleration time history by filters of the shape given in the ISO Standard and averaging the weighted values over the entire analysis period.a x i s ) seat vibration Levels measured on Road I • o4 ~ o:5 E 0Z ® x • Levels measured on Road 2 Levels measured on Road 3 Levels measured on Road 4 • x -!4h Imin 1 8h m . y. • • = .) The weighted values determined by this procedure for each vehicle and road have been plotted in Figs. In the present study the crest factor is considered to be the ratio of the peak to the rms value of the acceleration time history determined over the analysis period. Although the straight road conditions of the present test minimised this type of movement. 3 Values of the h u m a n response to vibration frequency weightings defined in ISO 2631 for x-. On road 4 the vertical vibration generally exceeds the reduced comfort boundary in less than 10 min.Hz Fig. The seat motions in these two axes were therefore very similar to the motions in the same axes on Fore and oft ( x . 1977). . 24 o. \ \ \ \ \ s.(.2 I • • • . 5 provides one interpretation of the ISO rating of ride severity. 1976)has shown that with some synthesised motions somewhat similar to those recorded in this trial the vibration weighting technique may be appropriate with crest factors appreciably greater than the value of 3. Levels in the buses and trucks were appreciably higher and correspond to lower acceptable exposure times. considering only the most dominant one-third octave).I0 I m ~_~. the fatigue decreased proficiency limit in less than 2 h and the exposure limit in less than 6 h. 4 ISO weighted vibration levels measured on the seats of 16 vehicles in the horizontal directions 18 A p p l i e d Ergonomics March 1978 .k o6 <. The ISO Standard states that the limits " . 4 and 5 if the data had been analysed by the currently recommended ISO procedure for assessing complex single-axis motions (ie. 4 and 5. vertical seat vibration in the majority of cars will exceed the reduced comfort boundary after about 8 h and the exposure limit after about 24 h. While other methods of determining the crest factors are possible many would tend to increase the peak value and depress the rms value so raising the crest factor still further. . . recent research shows that the relative discomfort of complex motions is better predicted by the spectrum weighting procedure used here.iI iI | x m q x St x I 6 i ~ _ • ) o Lateral ( y. In the fore.~ J S x ( f ) a n d S y ( f ) =I.~\ t-. exceeded 6"0.~ ol e .: acceleration might be a more significant cause ol discomfor! than the vertical motion. In the fore-and-aft and lateral axes the weighted vibration levels in these vehicles are lower than in the vertical axis and so the allowable exposure times for these axes are longer. ". The left hand ordinate gives the ISO weighted values while the right hand ordinate gives the three limiting exposure times corresponding to the reduced comfort. The rms value was determined over the analysis bandwidth: DC to 125 Hz. • ~.) Effect of vehicle seating \ \ \ \ 002 -0011 I I 2 I I I I 1 II I 1 I _L_J__l I I I I _ :5 4 5 678910 20 50 4050 70 I00 Frequency.0:5 ~8 I h 0. In practice some persons might feel that the appreciable roll which was very evident in some of the vehicles with low levels of vertical The combined data on the structure of the vehicle and the seat were used to determine the seat transfer functions." For the vehicles in the present study the weighted ISO vertical (z-axis) values are greatest and so Fig. The peak value has been defined here as half the peak to peak acceleration value as determined by a 250 sample/s digital sampling process. as mentioned earlier.axis ) seat vibration ~ 04 o~° . The ISO Standard states that "If vibrations occur in more than one direction simultaneously the corresponding limits apply separately to each vectoral component in the three axes.
second. However it should be recognised that there is some doubt as to whether the frequency weighting provided in the ISO Standard is the best weighting for predicting ride comfort.T. and. was still as high as about 70%.A. will vary somewhat as the vehicle is driven on different road surfaces.5 x x 6 X • ql !4h A8h 24h I 424 3O rain lh 2h 4h 8h Gs(f)'S2 (f) dfl i~ O. 6. is 100% the motions of the floor and seat produce equivalent effects (eg.A. In the vertical axis all seats possessed a low frequency resonance which amplified the vibration at some frequencies below 10 Hz.E. Several of the transmissibilities (eg. However some workers Applied Ergonomics March 1978 19 . 7 are dependent on the form of the frequency function of human response to vibration as defined in the ISO Standard (ie.E.T.A. when the value of S. The values of seat efficiency shown in Fig. 6 is not sufficient.E. where: Vehicle number Fig. (This is a mathematical expression of the frequency weighting method used to compare the vibration spectra with the ISO Standard.although the frequency content of the two motions may be very different. It was assumed above that the effect on man of vibration at the seat having a power spectrum. Lower values of S.T. for example.E. These curves were obtained with a frequency resolution of 0. Similarly.A. 7 therefore provide only an approximate indication of seat isolation efficiency and more research is required to determine an improved indicator. The transfer functions shown in Fig. were generally obtained on good roads and at higher speeds where the proportion of high frequency vibration in vehicles is The International Standard ISO-2631-1974(E) was prepared to "facilitate the evaluation and comparison of data obtained from continuing research in this field.3 to 3-0. 2 h-150 min qh 4h Imih = ~15 _= g 1.T.A.T. Some such function is an essential part of any design criteria for the vibration characteristics of seats and suspension systems. To be able to design a seat with good vibration characteristics the designer must therefore know the nature of the vibration that will be present in the vehicle in which the seat is to be used and be provided with information on the effect of different vibration frequencies and axes on man.L~. thighs or hands. Although very large variations are possible the evidence from the present experiment suggests that this variation is generally of the order of only 10 or 20%.80f= / 0. I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 1 6 I 7 I 8 I 9 I . Values of the seat isolation efficiency parameter S. 9 and 11) appear to reflect two resonances and suggest that the man-seat system is behaving like a two-degree of freedom system with one mass spring system acting as a vibration absorber.o ~ 0 0.E.A. The values of S. Fig. 2).T.75 "ai~ h iO rnin an = ~'=1 If\. the seat analysis method does not consider the effect of vibration which enters the body via the seat back.E. to give provisional guidance as to acceptable human exposure to whole-body vibration.T. Discussion Assuming the weighted vibration levels give a good indication of the effects of the motion.J I IO II 12 13 14 15 16 where S([) is the frequency function of human response to vibration given in ISO 2631. If S..E. The degree to which S. 6 are not sufficient to determine whether the vibration characteristics of a seat are good or bad.4 Hz and suggest that amplification at resonance for the 16 seats varies from 1.E." There can be little doubt that the International Standard has provided a focal point for many working in this field. The resonant frequency is usually close to 4 Hz. was given by the expression 225 Vertical (z-axis) seat vibration 2.Z5ql I x ° •o. The value ofa n is the weighted vibration level. Gs (f).T. those in vehicles 1.. Additionally. discomfort) . A knowledge of seat transmissibility data such as is shown in Fig. the useful attenuation provided by the seat may be given by the Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility.A. the function S(f) in the above equations). shown in Fig.T.) If Gf(f) is the vibration power spectrum in the same axis on ttie floor beneath the seat. value of a seat will change when the seat is placed in another vehicle. is less than 100% indicates the amount of useful isolation provided by the seat. determined for the seats of the 16 vehicles on road 4 are given in Fig.A.25 E U ~l. It can be seen that in five of the vehicles the seat vibration is worse than that on the floor beneath the seat! Even in the best case (a bus containing large amounts of high frequency vibration easily attenuated by a soft seat) the value of S. the S. is greater than 100% the motion of the seat is worse than that on the floor.0 o~ E 175 ea • • x • Levels measured on Road I Levels measured on Road 2 Levels measured on Road 3 Levels measured on Rood4 lil.A. 7.E. The isolation efficiency of a seat is determined not by the amplification at resonance but by the extent to which it amplifies or attenuates the motions producing discomfort over the complete spectrum of frequencies present in the vehicle. Typical seat transfer functions obtained for the vehicles are shown in Fig. feet. S.E. 5 ISO weighted vibration levels measured on the seats of 16 vehicles in the vertical direction - x 100 often greater.A.the floor (see.T. The value of S.
A. and they may not possess the necessary detailed knowledge of human response to vibration. Hz Fig.~ 8 ~o tl ~ 12 0 2 i • 14 I 15 I 16 Several areas of improvement can be proposed lot a new basic Guide fi)r the Evaluation o f Human Response to Vibration. reductions in comfort depending on context. after suitable research.indeed. etc. need to enable them to measure and compare vibration levels and to determine the appropriate limits for their system. the alternative means of assessing complex motions). indicate the importance of the size of the visual material or the nature of the control dynamics. for example. It might appear possible for all future standards to be extensions of the existing Standard. -= 0 o I 6 i 7 . 6 Vertical (z-axis) seat transmissibility in 16 vehicles black bands indicate the 10th to 90th percent confidence intervals.. For some environments it will be appropriate to specify levels which will produce no effect while in others large reductions in comfort or performance may be acceptable. additional limits for buildings. 7 Seat effective transmissibility (S. the frequency weighting) but omit other parts that seem less applicable (eg. performance decrements depending on the task and safety depending on subject type). Such 'dose-effect' relationships may then be used to determine different acceptable vibration levels for different situations. The separate consideration of the three principal groups of criteria (comfort.1 m F.E. Such documents make use of those parts of the original Standard that may seem appropriate to the situation (eg. There are doubts about the shape of the frequency weightings. First. What form of succession is desirable? It has been previously mentioned that there were several doubts surrounding the interpretation of the Standard as a guide to suitable data analysis (eg. draft specifications. the effects that particular levels of vibration may produce.T. Perhaps the most desired change of emphasis concerns the use of vibration limits. in general terms. . Different frequency weightings may therefore be expected for. For purposes of design and specification there is a need to know. many of the new Standards will need to be the work of experts in buildings. etc. Ioo X X X X X X X 8o *~ ~ 6o < 40 zo o X 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I0 II 12 13 14 15 16 Vehicle number Fig. 12o X X X X X X. As a first step towards improving the Standard it is obviously desirable that. The basic guide would thus provide a foundation upon which many other groups can formulate limits. (Transmissibility = (cross spectrum of floor and seat vibration)/(power spectrum of floor vibration)) would probably suggest that the most important part of the above extract is that the guidance offered in the Standard is provisional. performance and health) is probably necessary for the resolution of arguments over the effects of vibration duration and the shape of the frequency weightings. the effect of exposure duration and the meaning of the criteria that define the three sets of limits. While there are strong arguments for retaining a safety limit there are a few situations in which exceeding even this limit could be justified. . the principal question concerns the scope of the document is it possible to provide guidance for all whole-body vibration environments with the same procedure and the same limits? Clearly the answer is no! . The clear definition of the various criteria is essential and it nmst be recognised that the effects of vibration can depend on factors other than the physical nature of the motion (eg. transport systems.) for 16 vehicles .values greater than 100% suggest that vertical vibration on the seat is worse than vertical floor vibration. and negotiate contracts. (Based on frequency weightings given in ISO 2631 ) 20 Applied Ergonomics March 1978 . . the method of assessing complex motions. these ambiguities should be eliminated. ships and aircraft have already been drafted along similar lines to the 'present' Standard. . The guide would provide only the basic information and methods which the designers. timedependency). Some of the evidence that casts doubt on the Standard is a direct product of the existence of the document at the focal position in this field of research. the method of measuring and analysing vibration requires more detailed explanation. However. Although the present Standard has served a purpose it probably does not provide the most complete foundation upon which others can build guidelines for particular situations. Ironically this successful stimulation of activity has made it even more likely that it will be superseded. A guide formulated along the above lines wilt not indicate the levels to which any particular system must be designed. visual tasks and manual control tasks while additional general guidance may. However. i O 2 >. write system and equipment Standards. say.2. 4 8 12 0 4 8 12 0 4 8 12 0 4 8 12 Frequency.
107-116.J.C. Griff'm.00 net Applied Ergonomics March 1978 21 . E. International Organisation for Standardisation 1974 ISO 2631-1974(E). 60. 1976 Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.M.263-276." British Standards Institution 1974 BSI DD32 Draft for development: "Guide to the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration". and Witham.J.1. M.M.3. M. The evaluation of discomfort produced by multiple frequency wholebody vibration. 1977 Society of Automotive Engineers Paper 770253. and Griff'm. References British Standards Institution 1972 BSI Document 72/34562 (MEE 158/3/I) "General terrain dynamic inputs to vehicles. on other road surfaces and with many off-road vehicles. A method of summarising the vibration attenuation of vehicle seats is defined and it is shown that the isolation provided by the seats in most of the vehicles is poor. M. 1977 Awaiting publication. Griff'm. 20. 1140-1145. Shackel The fifteen chapters of this Handbook. Considerably greater levels than those reported in this paper are known to occur in some road vehicles. M. Subjective equivalence of sinusoidal and random whole-body vibration. Witham.J. 1977 Ergonomics. The paper has indicated some of the problems inherent in comparing the measured vibration environments with the current Standard and the need for a revised format for the Standard is discussed.Conclusions Vibration levels measured in a variety of road vehicles in common use have been compared with the guidance provided in ISO 2631-1974 (Guidefor the evaluation of human exposure to vibration).C." AppliedErgonomics Handbook Edited by B. Fothergill. Assessing the discomfort of dual-axis whole-body vibration. The subjects covered are: The industrial use of ergonomics General framework and workstation analysis Displays Controls Layout of panels and machines Seating in industry Thermal comfort in industry Noise in industry Lighting of work places Inspection and human efficiency Ergonomics versus accidents Design of work for the disabled Work organisation Systems design 165 x 240 mm / 122 pages / illustrations Paper / 0 902852 38 8 / £7. "Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration. The effect of vibration in roll and pitch axes on the discomfort of seated subjects. 1977 Journal of Sound and Vibration.J.J. 54." Parsons. K. are now available in one separate publication. M. L. and Griffin. previously published in successive issues of Applied Ergonomics. E. "Measuring vibration on soft seats. and Griff'm.
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