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Desalination 152 (2002) 83-92

Energy consumption in equivalent work by different desalting methods: case study for Kuwait
M.A. Danish*, F. Al Asfour, N. Al-Najem

Mechanical Engineering Department, Kuwait University, Kuwait Tel. +965 (48) 11188;Fax +965 (48) 47131; email: Received 28 March 2002; accepted 13 April 2002

Abstract Kuwait needs to add more desalting units to its present installed capacity to satisfy the growing need of potable water. The energy consumed by different desalting system is one of the main parameters affecting the choice of new desalting system. Every desalting system consumed either thermal, or mechanical energy or both. This paper presents a method to compare these energies on one scale that the equivalent work consumed. Based on this analysis, the energy consumed by the multi stage flash MSF system, the only system presently used in Kuwait to desalt seawater, was calculated and found equal to 25 kWh/m’. This is much higher than the energy consumed by the other two reliable systems, namely reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-effect boiling (MEB) extensively used now in many of the Arabian Gulf Countries, AGC. The average energy consumed by the RO system is 5 kWh/m’, and by the MEB is in the range of 12 kWh/m3 when steam is extracted from steam turbines at low availability. Keywords: Multi-stage flash distillation system; Reverse osmosis; Energy consumed per m3of desalted water; Multieffect boiling

1. Introduction Kuwait data on desalted water in the year 2000 [ 1J show an annual production of 82,454.3 million

maximum and average daily consumption of 278.5 and 225.0 MIG per day (MIGD) respectively. The

imperial gallons (MIG), or 375.17x106m3, and *Corresponding author.

average annual consumption increase in the last 5 years is 7.6%. The present installed capacity of desalting units is 286.8 MIGD. This means that the capacity needs to be doubled in 9 years, or at

Presented at the EuroMed 2002 conference on Desalination Strategies in South Mediterranean Countries: Cooperation between Mediterranean Countries of Europe and the Southern Rim of the Mediterranean. Sponsored by the European Desalination Society and Alexandria University Desalination Studies and Technology Center, Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, May 4-6, 2002. 00 1I-91 64/02/!$- See front matter 0 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

(except 3 units in Shuwaikh plant) are combined with steam turbines to get extracted steam. W. All Kuwaiti MSF units. These methods are used here to compare the consumed energy by different desalting systems and to help decision makers in the choice of systems to be added. Power plants producing both electric power and desalted water are called cogeneration power desalting plants (CPDP).e. /Desalination 152 (2002) 83-92 least 250 MIGD capacity units are to be added before 2 100 [2]. or mechanical energy. 1 as an example. Steam (at different temperatures and pressures) is used to supply most thermally operated desalting systems. i. bar . The steam generator consumes 696. The flow sheet of steam turbine connected to 2 MSF desalting units is shown in Fig. “C p= pressure.and 196 MW thermal. The nominal capacity of the turbine is 300 MW electric power. or both. Danvish et al. &= 196 MW. The consumed energy can be thermal. Cogeneration power desalting plant used in Kuwait. kg/s Fig. The real value of steam supplied to the MSF units lies in its ability to produce work. One of the main parameters affecting the choice of any desalting system is its consumed energy. Besides MSF.A. when the m= mass flow rate.23 5 MW fuel energy.84 M. However. specialists in the field prefer to express the applied energy in terms of the specific fuel energy consumed kJ/kg desalted water or equivalent mechanical work in kWh/m3. other systems can be added to satisfy future needs. 2. A method to evaluate the applied energy on a single base is to express it in terms of available energy. The energy consumed by a desalting system used in Kuwait is presented first. The only method used to desalt seawater in Kuwait is multi stage flash (MSF) system. W. supplied to 2 MSF units. Q. maximum theoretical work that can be obtained from that energy. A rational basis is needed to compare the value of energy used by each system. Q. 225 MW. 1. = t = temperature. The supplied steam is either extracted from steam turbines or directly from a boiler after throttling to the required pressure. Equivalent work or fuel energy consumed by a desalting system in Kuwait Steam of moderately low pressure (2-3 bar) provides thermal energy to MSF desalting units. or the energy itself if it is mechanical work.

‘V. (compared to 22.9.. This rating method for the CPDP is better than the utilization factor term defined by UF = (W.2 kJ/kg in extracted steam case).8 kJ/kg fuel energy based on 0. The table shows that out of 375.5 kWh/m3).. Fuel charged to produce 14. direct supply of steam from boiler should always be avoided.3 kg/s) is 112.85 x 1000/758.295 MW).45 MW for extracted steam case..85 x 0.=(225 + 43.23 kg/s steam (Msd) supplied to the MSF units would produce 43.6 The UF overestimates the performance of the CPDP by adding the low availability heat Q.= (225 + 196) 1696. to the work W.2 kJ/kg Mechanical work charged to desalting = 157. Tin m3 and million imperial gallons.85 MW.235 = 0. The 77. So.~ defined by turbine work output W. and it is used only when no operating turbine is available for steam extraction. is called equivalent work to thermal energy Qd (=196 MW). Danvish et al.2 kJ/kg desalted water or 4.3 = 208.5 kJikg of desalted water when the MSF units operate at 110°C top brine temperature.295 IO. This gives: Specific fuel consumption = 157. T.7 MJ/m3 fuel energy or 25.9 boiler efficiency.295 MW work if it is expanded in the LP cylinder to the condenser instead of being fed to the MSF units.5 kWhlm3 consumed by reverse osmosis seawater desalting system.45 MW (due to extracted steam) + 13. more fuel energy (or equivalent work) is consumed. = 225 MW electric power and Q.3 kg/s) of desalted water.385 = 112.167~ 1O6m3 total produced desalted water.+ Q41 Qe(. and the balance (301. plus We divided by Q: “. So.26 kWh/m3 for extracted steam). or boiler driven BD.4 MGD (758.45 MW. This gives he CPDP efficiency. /Desalination 152 (2002) 83-92 85 turbine produces W.77 MW. Table 1 gives year 2000 desalted water output by all MSF units operating in 4 CPDP plants (Azzour South.M. and Shuwaiba).= 196 MW th ermal energy to the 2 MSF units by steam extracted from a cross pipe between the low and intermediate pressure turbine cylinders. called boiler driven case (BD). Doha West. 73. The table gives the hours and desalted water production when the MSF units were supplied with steam directly from the boiler.. if (the boiler efficiency) = 0.A.3 = 80.5 MW (due to steam ejectors) + 3 1. or the equivalent work loss due to steam extraction.385 = 60.) heat produces 14. This gives: Specific fuel consumption = 374 kJ/kg (compared to 208. Doha East. and Specific equivalent mechanical work = 144 kJ/kg or 40 kWh/m3.4 MIGD for BD case is: Fuel energy to produce 196 MW heat to the MSF units =196 / qb = 2 17.77 x 10001758.. We (= 43. fuel energy charged to produce 14.367~ 1O6m3 or 19. Fuel charged to desalting process should be 43. This work. + We)l?. n.74 kWh/m3 equivalent work. MIG.8x 1O6m3 or 80. The total fuel energy would be 263.28 MW pumping work) = 157.and by pumping energy (about 16.78 MW.235 Specific mechanical work = 60.14 kJikg = 22. and Shuwaikh plant (a plant producing desalted water only) in Kuwait. Then. the main competitor to the MSF system.26 kWh/m3 When the MSF units are driven by steam throttled directly from boiler. beside total production. as compared to the extracted steam case. This is certainly high figure when compared with 5-7.295) 1696. This is almost twice the 112. or .4 MIGD (758.. The 196 MW (Q.>. the average consumed energy is 240. or 258.9 MW (due to 12. More energy is supplied by high-pressure steam to operate the steam ejectors of the MSF units used to reject noncondensable gases from the units (about 16 kJ/kg of desalted water or 17.4%) by extracted steam.6% were produced by using throttled steam directly from boiler.18 MW when fuel energy for pumping and steam ejector is added.

1 1265.5 242.4 3481.6 7192.4 737.7 18415.1 9200.2 1111.8 3978.9 13034.2 479.6 5430.1 1893.0 23519.1 8894.3 574.0 15245.7 503.0 6810.0 303.7 2842.6 3356. and 16 MSF x 7.3 377.6 5169.1 19455.1 2036.7 3946.2 7344.8 5137.2 3605.2 6341.3 1580.9 779.7 3 1349.9 4570.2 14714.8 4314.7 1818.3 5794.6 2784. Danvish et al.2 1393.0 0.1 171.5 1614.8 126. 1000 m3 BD.3 57945.3 21794.0 18691.3 147.0 4108.2 8615.3 4276. 8 ST x 300 MW.0 1954.0 1273.9 561.1 1193.4 1166.5 2290.7 792.0 5552.5 920.0 4363.5 123.1 3233.0 4047.8 27048.5 704.4 1496.MTG BD.9 2179.3 1256.2 2348.8 7680.8 17954.7 1273.8 2779.4 Doha East Plant.2 2487.9 142.7 19454.0 0.7 7615.8 1799.9 781.1 18667.3 142639.5 3238.3 711.0 765.4 1384.0 3763.8 10398.5 53.0 1983.86 MA.3 Shuaiba Plant.0 5306.8 2285.0 587.5 1758. and 6 MSF x 5 MGD Dl D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 1345.4 1960.6 610. hours Azzour South plant.1 430.7 2550.0 66.4 21229.8 4088.6 1889.2 1913.7 932.2 21762.0 692.7 6122. no.0 4665.3 8274.1 574.2 395.8 12735.4 1129.4 123072.2 MGD DID2 D3LD4 D5/D6 D7/D8 D9110 DllD12 4783.6 193.3 .0 222.2 129.4 4275.0 4720.4 8002.4 34944. and 7 MSF x 6 MGD Dl D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 1673.7 467.5 2612.7 1004.2 MGD Dl/D2 D3lD4 D5fD6 D7iD8 D9/10 Dl l/D12 D13/D14 D15/D16 2864.3 279. 8 ST x 300 MW and 12 MSF x 7.7 2022.7 3045.2 674.9 202.5 21480.9 4102.2 1318. 6 ST x 134 MW.0 4790. 7 ST x 150 MW.2 42.2 244.2 1074.8 19854.3 3350.0 2305.9 415.9 19629.5 Doha West Plant.8 1220.6 1715.4 0.4 3205. 1000 m3 BD. /Desalination 152 (2002) 83-92 Table 1 Kuwait MSF units desalted water production in the year 2000 Unit number T. MIG T.

1 7524.6 200.9 3640.2 19.8 T. it reaches 86% in the year 2000 for Doha West MSF units. r. BD production in IO3m3 when units are supplied directly from boiler. 4. production of potable water from high salinity water in the Gulf area in single stage.0 4968. 4x 10 in Jebel Ali K2.8 16564. Reverse osmosis desalting system and its energy consumption RO seawater desalting system is the main competitor of the MSF system.3 3526. more MSF units are still ordered and contracted for in the Middle East especially for large capacity units. The product pressure of the first stage can be raised to 9 to 15 bar to go through a second product stage without pumping. creates serious problems due to the limited storage capacity of desalted water.6 4968. even for short periods. The main advantages of .9 1653. Examples of some MSF units ordered or under construction in the UAE within the last 3 years are (given in numbers x capacity in MIGD each): 4 x (10-12.lOOO m3: total production in thousands of cubic meters. 1000 m3 BD.7 375167. Although the MSF system is known for its high energy consumption compared to other systems. MIG: total production in million imperial gallons.5 6509. such as multi effect boiling (MEB) of conventional and thermal vapor compression (TVC) types.MIG BD. Forced outage of large plants.6 4317. MIG T. continued Unit number Shuweaikh Plant.0 1091. The availability of the MSF plants worldwide is quite high. the first one is of high permeate flow with less salt rejection to produce permeate of 700-l 100 ppm. raising of both feed pressure and temperature limits [4]. it is vital to the chosen desalting system to be designed for long life with high degree of reliability. For example. It is a mature system with proven material selection and no moving parts except pumps of known reliability. although the units were built more than 18 years ago.5 in Desalted water Umm Al Nar B.9 1653. which is entirely used as feed to low energy brackish water membranes.5 in Mirfa B.9 100. hours r. /Desalination 152 (2002) 83-92 87 Table 1. Danvish et al. 3. The brackish water membrane can produce salinity of 50 ppm [6].5) in Taweela A2.7 73346.8 16564. The availability here is defined by the annual service hours (hours of unit production) plus reserve shutdown hours (hours of unit shutdown due to no production needs) divided by the number of hours per year. The RO system became more attractive by continuous improvements in membrane materials.9 100. Possible addition of other desalting systems to Kuwait is the main source of potable water in Kuwait.1 1027.9 19. and using two stage brine to raise conversion ratio [5].3 225. 3 MSF x 6 MGD Dl D2 D3 1091.1 44.6 Overall total Total/d Ratio % 82454. Another concept applied recently is to use two RO passes. So. BD. MIG: production in MIG when units are supplied directly from boiler. The MSF system is preferred because of its high availability.8 894.MA. 8760.1 7524. 1000 m3 BD. and reverse osmosis desalting systems. and 2x 10 in Jebel Ali Kl [3]. 5x12.6 16120.8 894.8 4071. Recently other systems of proven reliability have been used in Gulf countries.8 4071.9 3640. no. 3 x7.

5 kWh/m3.13 kW Specific workdone = 1205.65..83 kg/s. then the feed flow rate is 65. and chemical dosing pumps). E.44 .574. 2. It has a conversion ratio CR (product/feed) = 0.300 mg/l.The plant consists of 10 trains to produce 12.pressure loss in the feed-brine side = 56 bar Recovered energy = brine flow rate (in m3/s) x P (in kPa) x E I where E.09 kg/s. the measured power consumption is 6. and 0.35 with feed salinity of 43. but the guaranteed power consumption is 7.44 kW To calculate the energy that can be recovered from the brine by a turbine. it can be operated only during non-peak power demand period.35 with 43. feed pressure is around 60 bar. CR. = E.76) = 1482.35 = 187. Et is assumed equal to 0.83 / 1000) x (6000) / (0. No need to combine to power plant or to interfere with its operation. This point is illustrated by the next example. and reversed centrifugal pump as aturbine. / Desalination 152 (2002) 83-92 the RO system. [mechanical energy delivered by motor(s)].87 kW By considering 20% more energy is consumed by other pumps (e. Brine pressure = feed pressure . x Em where Ep and Emare the pump and the motor efficiency respectively.88 when it is an impulse (Pelton) wheel turbine.09 kWh/m3 It may be noticed here that in Al Fujaira plant. (product/feed) = 0.A.83 kg/s.33 kJ/kg = 5. The recovered energy = (122. In fact.13/65.74 kg/s and the energy pumping power consumption of 1779.44 kW including parasitic power consumption. It is delivered in modules. Major advances of spiral wound membranes by raising the feed pressure to 80-100 bar.5 MIGD.3 = 1779. conversion ratio.88 M. Then.76.83 .3 1 = 1205. over the MSF system are: 1. the brine flow rate = 187. seawater supply. Two brine stage RO system. The plant actual feed pressure is close to 60 bar (maximum allowable pressure is 70 bar). 2.67 when the turbine is reversed centrifugal pump.2 x 1633. is the turbine efficiency. . The energy consumed by the RO system and its comparison with that of the MSF system are presented here through an example of Jeddah-1 RO plant phase II [7]. product of 5680 m3/d (65. and the concentration of the rejected brine to 87 mg/l. then the consumed power = 1.74 kg/s). Feed pump power consumption = @(in m3/s) x P (in kPa) / En= (187. The flow Fig.74 = 18. This plant is in operation since 199 1.3 I kW Net energy consumption = 1779.. Dam&h et al.74/0.. open the door for two stage brine RO with high recovery ratio [4]. The power consumption is calculated here for one train of the plant. It consumes less energy.09/1000) x 5600 x 0. It has simple start/stop operation.84-0. 4.74 = 122.300 mg/l feed salinity.g. Consider again one train of Jeddah 11plant as a first brine stage with feed of 187. Assuming the net efficiency of the feed pump including its driving motor E. 3. seawater boost.84 = 574. no need to shut off the whole plant for emergency or routine maintenance.54 kWh/m3 [8]. This decreases the energy consumption (operating cost) and capital investment. is 0. Since CR is 0.35. using higher feed salinity than Jeddah plant. Each train gives a product rate of 5680 m3/d (65.

and conversion rate of 15%.78 kg/s with salinity of 8. Examples of some MEB units ordered or under construction in the UAE within the last 3 years are (given in numbers x capacity in MIGD each): 14x3. The energy consumed by the booster pump that raises the feed to this stage from 59 bar to 73 bar (i.84 618.7 in Taweela Al. The specific fuel consumed is 4. the MEB system became dominant with unit capacity up to 5 MIGD.054 = 16.054 kg/s Specific power consumption = 1369. and regenerative feed heaters to raise the first effect feed temperature close to boiling point. The above calculation is conservative and optimization of the system can lead to higher conversion ratio and lower energy consumption. The reported energy consumption for 5700 m3/d SWRO in the Caribbean (Curacao) came down to 3.43/(1 -0. 1300 kPa pressure difference) can be calculated as before: Booster pump power consumption = (122. submerged tubes evaporators were used with no feed preheaters.3 14 kg/s. and the rejection flow rate is 103.09 / 1000) x 1300) / 0. These problems were solved in recent years by using falling film evaporators. These calculations indicate clearly that the RO is much more efficient energy wise than the MSF system where its least equivalent energy consumption in Kuwait is 22.09 kg/s with salinityof4. which was previously the domain of MSF technology in the last 4 decades [9].84 = 618. say at 7 1 bar.A. /Desalination 152 (2002) 83-92 89 rate of rejection from this stage is 122.94 kW The net energy consumption = 1779.610.44 + 208.5 in Umm AI Nar 9 and 10. This gives low performance ratio since good fraction of supplied steam is used to raise the temperature of the first effect feed to its boiling point.5 kWh/m3.75%. Conventional and thermal vapor compression multi effect boiling desalting system Conventional multi effect boiling (MEB) system was the predominantly used method to desalt seawater before 1960 when the MSF system emerged and practically terminated its use for units of high capacity.815g/l.87 kJ/kg. Pump efficiency reported by Martinho [9] is in the range of 80-86 %. 2x3.34 kW The total product of the 2 stages = 65.02 g/l.52 x 3. and 2x5 in Layyah. usually Pelton wheel turbines. and turbine is in the range 84-88%.94 = 1369. It is noticed here the efficiencies used for pumps and turbine are conservative values. When this brine is introduced to brine second stage by using a booster pump that raises its pressure to 72 bar.3 14 = 84.M. Forward feed system was used where feed water and heating vapor to the effects flow in the same direction to insure low salt concentration at high temperature effects. in the range of 60°C.52 kWh/m3 This is 10% less than the case when a single stage was used. can be recovered by turbine as mentioned early to give: Turbine energy recovered = (103.e. These units can work either as conventional or thermal vapor compression (TVC) mode. The conversion rate is 84. Darwish et al.35)=6.83 = 44. The striking feature of these MEB is its low top brine temperature. This causes low heat transfer coefficient and high scaling rate.76 = 208.34 / 84. 5.84 kW The energy of the second stage brine.054 / 187.38 = 42.15 kWh/m3 (when energy for pretreatment was not taken into account [5]. These evaporators have limited movement of boiling water covering the heating tubes. the product of this stage is 18.78/l 000) x (7100) x 0. When the extracted steam is available at a 3-bar . In that period. When combined with turbines to extract steam of low pressure at saturation temperature close to 70°C the units operate as conventional MEB.andpressure of 59 bar. Recently.74 + 18.29 kJ/kg = 4.

This plant is taken here as a reference to be considered for combination with Azzour West plant with layout shown in Fig. the work loss due to the extraction of 1 kg of steam extracted to the conventional MEB is 233. There are two cases here.3”C This is a really low value. Energy consumed system by conventional MEB 2580 kJ/kg enthalpy).5 bar motive steam. 3. In the early 1990. shown in Fig. showing that large and costly heat transfer area is used.5”Q and the steam ejector delivery pressure is P. Since the gain ratio is 10.5 (= 2580 . of vapor generated in the first effect and last effects are 62. /Desalination 152 (2002) 83-92 pressure.= 24.6. and at the condenser inlet (2346.8. and is equal to 7.6. The company claims that the unit can operate as conventional multi effect boiling MEB desalting unit with steam supplied at 0.1 kg/s.03 kJ/kg.4 kJ/kg gives a gain ratio of 10.5”C). it receives a motive steam at P.3.1667 kg/s) steam of 2498 kJikg enthalpy and 0. and extracted steam flow rate of 13. The equivalent mechanical energy is calculated by the enthalpy difference of steam extracted to the unit (at the condition to the lowest pressure feed heater of .2 and 36. then the heat transfer temperature difference in each effect is AT= DT-E = 1.5 kWh/m3 (23.5)kJ/kg steam. 1. and not combined to turbine.89 kg/s).5 kJikg).5 kPa (ST = 64. and the second is the condition applied when combined with AzzourSouth plant.8. The specific thermal energy of 2 17. 6. So the compression ratio is PJPr = 3. The equivalent work consumed by this system can be calculated as before. Another plant of 12000 m3/d was reported by Temstet and Laborie in 1995 [lo] with a gain ratio of 13.5 bar (higher than Ps used by manufacturer). and are reported here.3-2. and the expansion ratio P/P. 2850 kJ/kg enthalpy and the enthalpy of the leaving condensate is 270 kJ/kg. The distillate output is 500 t/h (138.32 bar.90 MA. So. The calculations with the later case were done before [2]. = 3.= 54.5”C respectively. then the specific equivalent mechanical work is 22. This gives ST difference between heating and generated vapor DT equal to 2. 3a. When combined to Azzour-South plant. When operated directly by a boiler. The reference plant (see Figs. 7. This gives y/Dr (motive steam to compressed vapor The conventional multi effect system is very well known.4”C in each effect. Sidem Company. The plant has 12 effects with maximum and minimum brine temperatures of 63 and 37. the specific total equivalent work is 29. France built 4 TVC units of one MIGD each in United Arab Emirates with gain ratio of 8 [7]. they can operate as a TVC system. The thermal energy con-sumed by the system according to the design is 5 1 t/h (14. The last effect pressure is Pe= 6. Saturation temperatures.416 bar. and has a gain ratio equal to 9. the steam can be extracted at the same condition of the lowest feed heater. The pumping energy is almost the same as a TVC system.2346.4 kJ/kg product). Energy consumed by a TVC desalting plant The flow sheet of the plant when operated in a TVC mode is given in Fig.64 MIGD.4 when operated as a TVC plant with 2. ST.8 kJ/kg enthalpy.45 kPa (ST = 37. 1.2 kJ/kg. and when combined with Azzour-South plant.b) is used here to show how the energy consumed is calculated by the same method used for the MSF system.5”C respectively. By adding 7. By taking an average boiling point elevation E equal to l”C.2 kJ/kg pumping energy.3 bar and leaving condensate of 366.4 kJ/kg distillate. they wok as a TVC system with steam pressure of 20-30 bar.14 kWh/m3). The plant capacity is 2. Danvish et al. When the unit is combined with Azzour plant. This is comparable the very efficient reverse osmosis system that consumes on the average 6. the extracted steam is at 0. This gives specific thermal energy of 2 17.23 kJ/kg distillate (8. The first is the conditions of steam supply given by the manufacturer.

6 T/H (if hiah ~uritv 0 T/H) ic=36.6 OC- Fig.0 T/H T=29.0 T/H T=36.5 BAR G T=155.5 “C S=36.0 OC F=2.73 G/KG OUTPUT F=500. STEAM P=l.5 “C HIGH PUIRTY F=O. 3a.0 “C F =2.0 T/H T=56.5 “C REJECT SEA WATER F=4100. 3b.0 G/KG F=l37.A.0 BAR G T=230.M.0 T/H ‘C REJECT F=3106.0 ‘C HEATING STEAM P=O.O T/H H=2496.0 T/H T=29. / Desalination lS2 (2002) 83-92 91 P=6.0 T/H SEA WATER F=4750.0 T/H T=35.5”C F=37.5 “C S=51.0 G/KG HIGA PUIRTY F=O.0 T/H (if high purity 0 T/H) Tc=36. .0 OC S=36.5 “C S=51.5 OC S=36.2 “C F=l37.0 G/KG RETURN F=46.31 BAR F=51 .0 T/H OC F=l37.3 T/H STEAM P=6.0 OC Fig.5 ‘C S=36.5 T/H MAKE UP F=l644. Multi effect boiling MEB operating with conventional mode.0T/H T=37. Danvish et al.0 T/-l T= 34.0 BAR G T=230.O TM TO 20 T/H BRAIN BLOW F=1144.5 =C F=137.O T/H TO 20 T/H BRAIN BLOWDOWN F=1144. Multi effect boiling MEB operating with thermal vapor compression mode.0 T=35.0 T/H T=62.0 G/KG F= 137.0 KJlKG CONDENSATE RETURN F=51 T/H T=64”C F=137.0 T=35.0 T/H T=34.7 GIKG DOWN OUTPUT F=490.5 T/H MAKE UP F=1644.5 TM T=64.0 T/H _ T=34.

State of Kuwait.T. 200 1. The energy consumed by the MSF system in Kuwait. Proc. H. Yamamura.A. The motive steam is extracted between the IP and LP cylinders. Seawater plant in Al Fujirah. A new concept for two pass SWRO at low O&M cost using the new FILMTEC SW30-380. Sommariva and V. Optimizing energy consumption in SWRO systems with brine concentrators. Proc.117 (2944.6% of desalted water was produced by steam supplied directly from boilers with consumed equivalent work of 40 kWh/m3.38 1 kW. and the gain ratio would be 14. Syambabu. Lanzarote. 19.4% production. and its pumping work is half that consumed by the MSF system.2 . 138 (2001) 223-229. 8. Increase in water production in UAE. be crucial to Kuwait where the present installed desalting capacity is almost equal the consumption and the demand continues to increase. By adding 7.S. PI A. Proc. The steam supplied to the MEB has lower availability. Abu Dhabi.117 kg/s).5 kJ/kg work if it was expanded in the LP turbine to the condenser. the capital cost and delivery time of both RO and MEB are less than those of the MSF system. Then the thermal energy consumption is Q. It was noticed that in the year 2000. Desalination.9. Danvish et al. Then the specific mechanical equivalent work (for thermal energy) is 560.92 M.A. PI M. while for the balance 83. The RO and MEB systems should be considered seriously by the Ministry of Electricity and Water in their decision to install new units. Experience and current trends. PI J. The high pressure pump train on reverse [91 osmosis plants. 138 (2001) 173-179. Desalination.270) = 24.89 kg/s distillate) is 32. based on operation records. References 111 Statistical Year Book on electric energy.5/14. Operation ad reliability of high recovery seawater desalination technologies by brine conversion two stages RO desalination system. PI M. the specific total equivalent work is 44.26 kWh/m3. phase II plant. Redondo and IV.= 9. 3 (1995) 99-107. Desalination. IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Science. Al-Badawi. [71 A. 138 (2001) 191-199.82 t/h (9. Laborie.A. Desalination.8 kJ/kg. /Desalination 152 (2002) 83-92 ratio) equal to 2. Desalination. PO1 C. On electric power and desalted water production in Kuwait. Operation and analysis of Jeddah I.high efficiency multi effect evaporator operating with turbine for power production. IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Science. [31 C. Jinno.6 kJ/kg. Abu Dhabi. [41 M. 138 (2001) 23 l236. Kurihara. UAE.P. Shierach. This motive steam would give 560. energy-wise than the presently used MSF system. 138 (200 1) 183190. 138 (2001) 219-222.N. Darwish. The only used system to desalt seawater is MSF desalting system. 3 (1995) 297-308.4.2 kJ/kg pumping energy. 3 (1995) 4153. Abu Dhabi. the steam was extracted from turbines with consumed work equivalent of 22. Ministry of Electricity and Water. Conclusions More desalting units are urgently needed for Kuwait to satisfy the growing consumption of potable water. Desalination. A. and specific thermal energy is 178. The supplied steam MS required to produce the same capacity (138.9 = 37.8 kJ/kg (or 12. Dual purpose desalination plant . IDA World Congress on Desalination and Water Science. Martinho. Schneider.44 kWh/m3). The delivery time may . The new developments in RO membranes and brine staging can bring the consumed work to 5 kWh/m3. Moreover. The RO and MEB with conventional or TVC operations are much more efficient. reached more than 25 kWh/m3. Nakanishi and S. Temstet and J. Grundisch and B.