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Time and India


Time which is without beginning and without end, and which ordains this variety in the universe. It is that Time which creates and swallows up all creatures. All the innumerable creatures that exist subject to duality and according to their respective natures, have Time for their refuge. It is Time that assumes those shapes and it is Time that upholds them Mahabharata Santiparvam. kalah aham I am time Sri Krishna in Bhagavad Gita

Caution : Living Document : Linking is safer than Quoting. Reproduction without permission, and deleting data links, are likely to lead to misinformation and confusion for which the karma rests with the reproducer, and not with me. There are no authorized copies of this document on the web anywhere. You may also need to refer : http://www.scribd.com/doc/32356316/Ancient-Indian-Geo-CentricAstronomy-%E2%80%93-Connections-to-Scriptures-Astrology-and-History This document Is being upated daily with information which I have previously published on http://ancientindians.net as well as http://oldthoughts.wordpress.com, please keep checking back Or visit the web-sites. Satya Sarada Kandula

Table of Contents
Time and India.....................................................................................................................1 Table of Contents.................................................................................................................1 Time.....................................................................................................................................3 Time Line or Time Circle?..................................................................................................3 Two kinds of time................................................................................................................3 Astronomical Time Scales...................................................................................................6 Why should I care about kalpas, manvantaras, yugas etc?..................................................6 What is a Kalpa?..................................................................................................................6 How many Manvantaras are there in a Kalpa?....................................................................7 Yugas...................................................................................................................................8 How many solar years are there to a Caturyuga or a Mahayuga? How many kinds of Yugas are there?..................................................................................................................8 Kaliyuga Beginning...........................................................................................................21 Revati - Yugas...................................................................................................................22 Krutha (Krita, Krta) Yuga Definition in Vishnu Puranam (12 years)...............................24 1200 year Kaliyugam started in Parikshits time : Vishnu Puranam.................................25 Kaliyuga duration 360000 years, 1200 divine years, Vishnu Puranam. Tracking the growth of the Kaliyugam from 12 to 432000 years...........................................................26 Kaliyuga started, with Sri Krishnas Ascent : Vishnu Puranam........................................28 Saptarishi Calendar............................................................................................................30 Why do we need to study the saptarishi calendar?............................................................30 Parikshit to Nanda 1050 years Vishnu Puranam.........................................................30 Saptarishis in Maghaa Nakhstaram at Parikshits time : Vishnu Puranam.......................32 Saptarishi Calendar............................................................................................................33 What is the Saptarishi Mandala?................................................................................33 What is the Saptarishi Calendar?...............................................................................33 All Rights For Sourced Material Vest With the Source Page 1 of 81

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What happened when the Saptarishis pointed to Makha (Magha) Nakshatram ?.....33 Which Nakshatram is presently indicated by the Sapta Rishis?................................34 Which Nakshatram Pair did the Vishnu Puranam and Brihat Samhita refer to?.......34 Date of Parikshits Birth, Yudhithiras Coronation, Start of Kaliyuga :..................36 Nanda came to power when the Saptarishis indicated Purvashaada : Vishnu Puranam. . .38 Definition : Saptarishis in or indicating a nakshatram as per Vishnu Puranam................39 Saptarishi (Great Bear) Positions according to Varahamihira and Vateswara..................40 Which Nanda was indicated by the Saptarishis in Purvashaada Nakshatram : Vishnu Puranam.................................................................................................................41 Vatesvara, an ancient Kashmiri Astronomer, his Karanasara and Siddhanta : R.N. Rai, INSA..........................................................................................................................43 Calendars based on kings. sakas or eras...........................................................................45 How many kinds of Sakas (Eras) are there?......................................................................45 What is a karanagrantha?...................................................................................................47 Date of the Mahabharata War............................................................................................48 Kalahanas Rajatarangini : Date of Mahabharata War......................................................51 Varahamihira Really 427 of Saka Era? : Pancha Siddhantika........................................53 Date of Sri Rama................................................................................................................55 Agastya Canopus............................................................................................................55 Date of Sri Ramas birth as per Balakanda........................................................................57 Generations between Rama and Krishna...........................................................................61 Generations previous to Sri Rama.....................................................................................65 Other Important Dates and Discussions.............................................................................68 Caksusha Manvantaram ends with the Matysa Avataram Flood, Vaivaswata Manvantaram Begins : Srimad Bhagavatam.....................................................................68 Vaivaswatha Manu to Revati Devi, wife of Balarama Deva : Srimad Bhagavatham.......70 Date of Veda Mantras........................................................................................................72 Age of the Earth.................................................................................................................73 Measurements....................................................................................................................74 Measurements Bhagavatham..........................................................................................74 Measurements Mahabharatam........................................................................................75 Measurements Narada Purana........................................................................................76 Measurements Kautilya................................................................................................77 1 Brahma second = 1 Human Year!!!................................................................................80

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Time
Time Line or Time Circle?
Posted by satyask on March 14, 2009 Indian scriptures (puranas) talk of cyclic time. That means that the 4 yugas cycle, the manvantaras cycle, the kalpas cycle and so on. And while the major events repeat, the minor events can vary from cycle to cycle. 20th century physics view time as a dimension closely connected to space and thinks of loops and wrinkles and worm holes and the like. Einstein once asked someone does station X stop at this train? Godel said that the present could influence the past. Its time to think about time!!!! The concept of time as a straight line from -infininty to + infinity is passe.

Two kinds of time


Posted by satyask on June 20, 2009 What is time?

Our own internal understanding of time is really a never ending present. Now! That is the time of the Self. (Jiva= Atma = Brahma) Our own understanding of ourselves is the unchanging Self. I dont feel that I have changed at all. Yes, my hair is grey and my skin is wrinkling, yes, sometimes my mind is tired and sometimes it forgets things. But the changeless eternal I lives in a never ending Now. But then what is time?

The tasty food cooked yesterday is a little insipid today. The hot water of an our ago has become cooler now and in an another hour it will be cooler still. My senses detect a change of state of my environment. My environment is Ever Changing. I am never changing! My mind can remember a state when things were

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different. It can anticpate a state when things will be different from what my senses detect Now. Using my mind I can remember the past and anticipate the future. My mind can only detect time based on environmental state changes detected by my senses. When my environment is as static as can be, or when my mind is engaged in an activity that is unmindful of environmental state changes, I dont know how much time has passed. What is a clock?

A clock is a device that changes its state at a uniform rate, independent of my mental activity, whether I am looking at it or not. A clock can tell me the time. What is the most ancient of clocks?

The rising and setting of the sun, moon and stars. The waxing and waning of the moon. The tides. The seasons. The relative motion of the luminaries (nakshatrams and grahas) with respect to each other and with respect to my place of observation. All these things happen with a regularity and repeatability. The sun will rise again tomorrow, it will rain again next year, the moon shall yet again become full (purnima). The grahas and nakshatras shall once again attain, their present relative positions. If I define their exact alignment at this split second as the zero point of a Satya Sarada Yuga, and if I specify which grahas and which nakshatrams I am taking into account.. Then they will be back to exactly this arrangement in 1 Satya Sarada Yuga!! If I am a mathematician astronomer of the level of Aryabhatta or Markandeya, then I will tell you how many solar years and how many lunar months go into 1 Satya Sarada Yuga. What are the two kinds of time?

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The two kinds of time are the time line and the time cirle. The time circle is the time of clocks, whether modern or ancient.

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Their end is their beginning. In a simple wall clock with a short and a long arm, the time cycle lasts for 12 hours. After which it is the same time again. If the moon is your clock every 27+ days, the moon is full again and you are back to the beginning (or middle of the month based on what you call the beginning). If the Sun is your clock, every 24 hours, the sun rises again and every 366 days it rises in the same spot in the sky with respect to the nakshatrams. Some Vedic sages used Revati Nakshatram as their clock. The time line is the time of my mind. In this time, the end is not the beginning. I know that people enter and leave my environment. Babies and Plants come into the world. Buildings are built. Art, Literature and Knowledge grow. Animals and people die. Buildings fall down. Knowledge is forgotten, literature misunderstood and works of art are destroyed. Species come and go out of the existence that my senses detect and that my mind interprets. My mind learns from other minds how it may interpret things that it cannot interpret on its own. My mind discovers that other minds too have a sense and experience of the time line similar to mine. Other than the clock itself nothing in the environment repeats, on the scale of my perception. Yesterdays butterfly is dead, though the sun has risen again. Last months new dress, is now old and is no longer so bright. This years summer was much warmer than last years. Our Sun himself is a second generation star, and our solar system was once but plasma. Time itself means something else near a black hole.

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Astronomical Time Scales


Why should I care about kalpas, manvantaras, yugas etc?
One important reason is that Ancient Indian History gave us dates of events using astronomical calendars. The second is that though the names are the same for eg take kaliyuga, the duration of these yugas increased over time. A caturyga that was 4 or 5 years old initially grew as long as 4,320,000 years as our knowledge of astronomy increased. Therefore, though Sri Rama is of the Tretha Yuga and Sri Krishna is of the Dwapara Yuga, the number of solar years between them is in hundreds of years and not millions of years. Our ancient historians were not wrong.. the calendar intervals grew over time.

What is a Kalpa?
A Kalpa is 12 hours of Brahma. 2 kalpas make a day and a night of Brahma. He lives for 100 years on this time scale. What are the names of the kalpas? from: http://www.krishnamedia.org/e-books/LaghuBhagOne.pdf The cycle of kalpas, beginning with Brhma-kalpa and ending with Pdma-kalpa, is repeated a thousand times. The present kalpa is called Sveta-varha-kalpa.

from : http://www.webcom.com/ara/col/books/CLAS/bhag/2_10.html :
The Bhagavatam speaks of 30 kalpa names, one for each day of his month. This list does not match the list in the Vayu Purana. The thirty kalpas of Brahma are:

(1) Sveta-kalpa, (2) Nilalohita, (3) Vamadeva, (4) Gathantara, (5) Raurava, (6) Prana, (7) Brhat-kalpa, (8) Kandarpa, (9) Sadyotha, (10) Isana, (11) Dhyana, (12) Sarasvata, (13) Udana, (14) Garuda, (15) Kaurma, (16) Narasimha, (17) Samadhi, (18) Agneya, (19) Visnuja, (20) Saura, (21) Soma-kalpa,

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(22) Bhavana, (23) Supuma, (24) Vaikuntha, (25) Arcisa, (26) Vali-kalpa, (27) Vairaja, (28) Gauri-kalpa, (29) Mahesvara, (30) Paitr-kalpa.

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Kalpa names per vayu purana


List from the Vayu Purana (Source) (1) Bhava. (2) Bhuva. (3) Tapah. (4) Bhava. (5) Rambha. (6) Ritu. (7) Kratu. (8) Vahni. (9) Havyavahana. (10) Savitra. (11) Bhuvah. (12) Oushika. (13) Kushika. (14) Gandharva. (15) Rishabha. (16) Shadaja. (17) Marjaliya. (18) Madhyama. (19) Vairaja. The great Vairaja Manu was born in this kalpa and his son was the great sage Dadhichi. (20) Nishada. The race of nishadas (hunters) were created during this period. (21) Panchama. (22) Meghavahana. The word megha means cloud and vahana means to bear. In this kalpa, Vishnu adopted the form of a cloud and bore Shiva on his back. It is thus that the kalpa received its name. (23) Chintaka. (24) Akuti. (25) Vijnati. (26) Mana. (27) Bhava. (28) Vrihat. (29) Shvetalohita. (30) Rakta. (31) Pitavasa. (32) Sita. (33) Krishna (34) Vishvarupa. (What about the rest?) Note: There are 864,00 seconds in our day. Thus Kalpa is a simple multiple of this figure.

How many Manvantaras are there in a Kalpa?


There are 14 Manvantaras in a Kalpa. A manu or an Indra lives for 1 manvantara. 1 manvantara is a 100 years of Indra. What are the names of the Manvantaras? (Source) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Swayambhuva (H.V. 7.8) son of the self born Swarochishta (Mark P.67.4) son of the self shining Uthama ( Mark.P 73.13) son of the highest Taamasa (Mark.P 73.13) son of Darkness Raivatha (Mark.P 75,73,74) son of wealth Chaikshusa( Mark.P 76.54) son of vision VAIVASWATHA( (MARK.P 79.9&10) SON OF BRIGHTNESS Arka Savarnika ( Mark.P 80.4) related to Sungod Daksha Savarnika ( Mark.P 94.8) son of rituals Brahma Savarnika (Mark.P 94.10 to 14 ) son of Brahma Dharma Savarnia( Mark.P 94.19 & 20) relative of eternal law Rudra Savrnika( Mark.P 94.25 )son of the destroyer Deva Savarnika (Mark. P 94.30)son of the shining one and Indra Savarnika (Mark.P 100.31) son of the mighty Indra

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(The big bang is about 4 kalpas ago). Each Kalpa (4 320 000 000 earth years) has 14 Manvantaras. Ours is the 7th Vaivaswatha Manvanthara. This means about half of our Kalpa (Sveta Varaha Kalpa) is over. Another 2 160 000 000 earth years to the end of this kalpa or to dissolution. This is the Dwitiya Parardha or second half of Brahmas life, which means 50 x 360 kalpas are over. And we are midway of one of the next kalpas. At pooja time we say Sveta varaha kalpe, dwitiya parardhe, vaivaswatha manvantare, kaliyuge, prathama pade. We never mention the name or number of a Chaturyuga or a Mahayuga.

Yugas
How many Mahayugas or Caturyugas are there in a Kalpa?

There are 1000 or 1008, Mahayugas in a Kalpa Mahayugas in a Kalpa. Taking 1008, gives 84 Caturyugas in an hour of Brahma.

How many Mahayugas are there to a Manvantara?

There are 72 Caturyugas to a Manvantara

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How many solar years are there to a Caturyuga or a Mahayuga? How many kinds of Yugas are there?
Abstract: In this article I explain the definition of Yuga as an alignment of celestial bodies and show how the Yuga Durations differed in Various Astronomical Siddhantas of India, depending on the number of luminary bodies that were taken into consideration and their orbital periods. I show that the oldest siddhantas like the Pitamaha Siddhanta had the shortest yuga durations, because they considered the fewest luminary bodies. The latest ones siddhantas have the longest durations because of the number of the larger number of luminary bodies (plus shadowy bodies the nodes), that have been taken into consideration. I try to find the yuga durations that must have been referred to byVeda Vyasa in his compilations of the Puranas and his authoring of the Mahabharata and the Srimad Bhagavatam. (See :Kaliyuga duration 360000 years, 1200 divine years, Vishnu Puranam. Tracking the growth of the Kaliyugam from 12 to 432000 years)

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Background : The traditional view is incidentally the most modern one! As per this, a mahayuga is a period of 4320000 years duration.

Also called a chaturyuga, it has four subdivisions, krutha, thretha, dwapara and kali. Dwapara is 2 times as long as Kali, Thretha is 3 times as long as Kali and Krutha is 4 times as long as Kali Yuga. Krutha Yuga is a pure period and Kali Yuga is a bad time. (Some texts explain that Dharma walks on four feet in Krutha/Satya Yuga, on 3 feet in Tretha Yuga, on two feet in Dwapara Yuga and one foot in Kaliyuga.) At the end of this Kali Yuga, an avatar of Vishnu called Kalki will destroy all the evil doers. It is also believed that there is one main avatar in each Yuga and several minor avatars. The main avatar of Tretha Tyuga is Rama, the main avatar of Dwapara yuga is Krishna. As per the Nannaya Bharatam, Vyasa started writing the Mahabharata in Year 1 of kaliyuga and completed it in year 4 of kaliyuga. We are now in the first of 4 quarters (padas) of KaliYuga. When we pray, we say, Jambudvipe, bharatha varshe, bharatha khande, Meroyah dakshina digbhage. We also give some geographical info giving our relation to rivers and holy places. Then we give the calendar information like our kalpa, praharardha, manvanatara and yuga pada. Svetta Varaha Kalpe, Dwitiya Praharardhe, Vaiswata Manvantare, Kaliyuge prathama pade. After this we give the name of the year in the 60 year cycle Prabhava, Vibhava etc (2009-2010 is Virodhi Nama Samvatsara) and further go on with the the tithi vara and nakshatra information, knowledgeable people may give even more details of karana etc.

Definition of a Yuga : A Yuga means a joining or an alignment of planets and/or stars and/or their apogees and perigees. Yugas have to do with alignment and the more celestial bodies that have to line up, the more time it is going to take and the more corrections it is going to take. For a further simpler explanation of the basics : See : Two Kinds of Time and What is the difference between a graha yoga (conjunction) and a yuga? Whenever any Siddhanta defines a Yuga, it refers to the Mahayuga or the Chaturyuga. While some of the Different siddhantas divide up the Mahayuga into fractions in the ratio 4:3:2:1 or 1:1:1:1, all of them do not. List of the Yugas described in this article :

1. 2. 3. 4.

Chandramana and Souramana Yugas: Lunar and Solar Years : Approximately 1 year duration. In use. Vedic Yugas: Vedanga Jyothisham: Pitamaha (Brahma) Siddhantam: 5 years: (Dhanishta Nakshatram, Surya (Sun), Chandra (Moon) are aligned: The Pitamaha Yuga starts when Dhanishta is in Amavasya.) No longer in use. Gavam Ayanam: (Chaturyuga has 4 years, each of exactly 365 1/4 solar days, or 365 days + 1 pada) : (At the end of Kali, one pada gets added, at the end of Krutha 4 padas get added and the leap day is completed). No longer in use. Barhaspatyamana or Brhaspati Yugas: 12 years : (Surya, Chandra, Tishya (Pushya), Brhaspati or are aligned The 12 year Kumbha Mela is based on this.) Barhaspatyamana or Brhaspati Yugas: 60 year variant : (Surya, Chandra, Pushya, Brihaspati plus Sani) 1000 year Chaturyugas : (The time taken for the starting point of the moveable (tropical) zodiac, to pass one 1 complete nakshatram. Derived from precession of equinoxes)

5.

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SaptaRishi Yuga : 2700 years. (A pointer through the bowl of the Saptarishi Mandala moves to a different nakshatra, by the end of a century).

7. Romaka Siddhantam : 2850 years 8. Poorva Surya Siddhantham : 180,000 years or 1,800,000 years. 9. Surya Siddhantam : 4,320,000 years 10. Markandeya Yugas, as per the Mahabharata. 11. Naveena Siddhanthams : 4,320,000 years: (4:3:2:1 Ratio for Kruta, Treta, Dwapara and
Kali). In Use.

12. Aryabhatiyam: 4,320,000 years (Alignments of grahas as well as their nodes etc, 1:1:1:1
Ratio for Yugapadas: Kruta, Treta, Dwapara, Kali are not mentioned by name)

1. Chandramana and Souramana Yugas : 1 year duration. : This section will also help you with the basics needed understand the other sections too. First concept :The moon is concerned only with months and the it is the only the sun that is concerned with years. So the month is concerned with the moons orbit and the year is concerned with earths orbit. There is very little influence of the one on the other. The concept of a lunar year creeps in, when you try to find out how many lunar months can be acomodated in 1 year. What is a Lunar Month? A lunar month has to do with the moon going around the earth once. Then you say Define Once.

A sidereal month, is the time it takes, for the moon to line up with the same star. This takes 27.321661 solar days (27 d 7 h 43 min 11.5 s). A synodic month is the time it takes for the moon to line up with the sun. This takes 29.53 solar days (29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, 2.8 seconds) and is measured from New Moon to New Moon. There are many other kinds of lunar month.

What is a solar day? A solar day is the time duration of the earths orbit. In the most ancient of times, it was the time between two sun rises. What is a year ? A year is the duration of the earths orbit.

A solar year is the time it takes for the earth to come back to the same point in its orbit with respect to the sun. (365.25 days) A sidereal year is the time it takes for the earth to come back to the same point in its orbit with respect to the same star (nakshatras). These two differ by a few minutes. In other words, it is the time the sun takes to finish one Uttarayanam and one Dakshinayanamand to come back to the same place. But what means the same place? It is the same place with respect to the earths orbit around the sun. It is slightly off from the same place with respect to the stars. Why is this? Not only are we spinning around the sun, the sun is dragging us around the galactic center. It takes one sidereal year for the sun to align with the same stars.

12 lunar synodic months fit into 1 solar year with 5.25 days to spare.

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Ugadi means Yugadi: Kannadigas and Telugu people celebrate a Chandramana (Lunar) Yugadi, and Tamils celebrate a Souramana (Solar)Yugadi, once a year, in spring. Yugadi means, the beginning of a Yuga. In Telugu, it is frequently called Ugadi, with y dropped by scholars and laymen alike. What is a Lunar Year? The time duration between two lunar yugadis is 12 synodic months. This is a chandramana year. The time duration between two souramana yugadis is 365 days. Are all lunar (chadramana) years of the same duration? No! 12 lunar months are 354.36 days if you are using synodic months or 327.8599 days if you are thinking sidereal months. Some lunar years are 13 months long! Every 3 years an Adhika Masam is added, to make up for the difference in the lengths of the solar and lunar years. (It is like adding a leap day into the solar calendar once in 4 years). But now you have added 4.5 days too many. So the Sun, Moon and Stars are not perfectly aligned, as before, yet. There is a lot of complex arithmetic, which tells you when to add months (adhikamasas) and when to delete dates (tithikshayas). Some lunar days are a little shorter than others and many other corrections are to be made. This is what the Jyotisha Sastra Vedanga is all about. 2. Vedic Yugas: Vedanga Jyothisham: Pitamaha Siddhantam: 5 years: (Dhanishta Nakshatram, Surya (Sun), Chandra (Moon) are aligned: The Pitamaha Yuga starts when Dhanishta is in Amavasya.) (See Brahmas Yuga Paitamaha Siddhantha from PancaSiddhantika)

In the Uttarakanda of the Valmiki Ramayana, the word Pitamaha is used to indicate Brahma, when used without qualification. 1830 solar days, 1860 lunar tithis, 62 lunar months, and 60 solar months. There are 2 adhikamasas (extra lunar months), 30 tithikshayas (deletions of tithis), 67 traverses of the moon among the stars. ie , each star occurs 67 times. The Pitamaha Yuga starts when Dhanishta is in Amavasya. This will require a correction of 4.685 days in 5 years, which is done using a complex method. The explaination given as per Kautilya Artha Sastra is given below below. The names of the years are: Samvatsaramu, Parivatsaramu, Idaavatsaramu, Anuvatsaramu, Idvatsaramu. (Where is the reference to Krutha, Tretha, Dwapara, and Kaliyugas? In modern days it is common to label every year as samvatsaramu and take the names of each of the years from the Brihaspati 60 year yugas) Place: As per this Sastra, on the day of Katakayanam (arrival of cancer), the night was 2/3rds of the day. This happens in Gandhar and Kashmir. Time: Prapadyate Sravishthadou, Suryachandramasavudak, sarparthe, dakshinarkasthou, magha sravanayo sada. When Dhanistha Amavasya occurs, Surya is in the North, and when Asleshartha amavasya occurs Ravi (Surya) is in the South. This lead to a date of 3500 years ago. (Source : Translated and explained from Vijnana Sarasvamu, 9th Samputamu Page 548-551). What does a Star Occurence mean? o There are 27 Nakshatrams that cover 360 degrees of the zodiac, so each nakshatram covers or owns 13.33 degrees. The moon (Chandra) moves past

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o

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each of these nakshatrams, once every month. The Yuga or Union of Chandra and any Nakshtra roughly lasts for approximately a solar day. (Some scholars debate on whether it is midpoint to midpoint between nakshatras that have to be considered or beginning to beginning. Think about the idea that the stars are not geometrically exactly 13.33 degrees apart, but only approximately so. If you were an astronomer-mathematician of the ancient times, what would you have decided? How would you have marked the mid-points between the nakshatras?) The Chandra Nakshatra Yuga at SunRise determines the Nakshatra of the day, as a general rule. So at the time the sun is rising, the moon is within the 13 degrees of the Nakshatra of the Day! Hindu Astrologers use two kinds of ChandraNakshatra Yugas in horoscopes. The JanmaNakshatra, refers to the ChandraNakshatra Yuga at birth. The JanmaLagna refers to the ascendant nakshatra or the nakshatra on the horizon at the incident of birth.

The Kautilya Arthasastra explains the details of the corrections to be applied and gives how the yuga duration is 5 years. See Also : Measurements : Kautilya.

It is in the month of Ashdha that no shadow is cast in midday. Ashdha, during the six months from Srvana upwards, the length of shadow successively increases by two angulas and during the next six months from Mgha upwards, it successively decreases by two angulas. Fifteen days and nights together make up one paksha. That paksha during which the moon waxes is white (sukla) and thatpakshaduring which the moon wanes is bahula. Two pakshas make one month (msa). Thirty days and nights together make one month (prakarmamsah). The same (30 days and nights) with an additional half a day makes one solar month (saura). The same (30) less by half a day makes one lunar month (chandramsa). Twenty-seven (days and nights) make a sidereal month (nakshatramsa). Once in thirty-two months there comes one malamsa defiled month, i.e., an extra month added to lunar year to harmonise it with the solar. Once in thirty-five months there comes a malamsa for Asvavhas. Once in forty months there comes a malamsa for hastivhas. Two months make one ritu (season). Srvana and proshthapada make the rainy season (varsh). Asvayuja and Krthka make the autumn (sarad). Mrgasrsha and Phausha make the winter (hemanta). Mgha and Phalguna make the dewy season (sisira). Chaitraand Vaiskha make the spring (vasanta). Jyeshthmlya and Ashdha make the summer (grishma). Seasons from sisira and upwards are uttaryana, and (those) from varsh and upwards are the winter solstice dakshinyana. Two ayanas make one year (samvatsara). Five years make one yuga. The sun carries off (harati) 1/60th of a whole day every day and thus makes one complete day in every two months (ritau). Likewise the moon (falls behind by 1/60th of a whole day every day and falls behind one day in every two months). Thus in the middle of every third year, they (the sun and the moon) make one adhimsa, additional month, first in the summer season and second at the end of five years.

3. Gavam Ayanam: (Chaturyuga has 4 years, each of exactly 365 1/4 solar days, or 365 days + 1 pada) : (At the end of Kali, one pada gets added, at the end of Krutha 4 padas get added and the leap day is completed).

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As per an article by ShamaSastry the Gavam Ayanam was in use from 3101 BC to 1260 BC. The word Go refers to an intercalary day. (like the extra day in a leap year). One solar orbit takes 365 and 1/4 days. A quarter is called a pada. The modern way consists of taking 365 days in an ordinary year and 366 days in a leap year. One Vedic method was to take exactly 365 and a pada days. The first year was called Kali or Ekata and it started in the evening and ended at midnight after 365 days and a pada. The second year was called Dwapara, or Dwita and started at midnight and ended in the morning after 365 days and a pada. The third Yuga was thretha or tritha, started in the morning and ended in the afternoon after 365 days and a pada. These 3 are called the Visnu padas. The fourth Yuga was called Krta or complete Yuga because it started in the afternoon but ended in the evening after 365 days and a pada. Since it ended properly in the evening, it was also called Satya or Rta Yuga.

4. Barhaspatyamana or Brhaspati Yugas: 12 years : (Surya, Chandra, Tishya (Pushya), Brhaspati or are aligned. The 12 year Kumbha Mela is based on this.) Barhaspatyamana or Brhaspati Yugas: 60 year variant : (Surya, Chandra, Pushya, Brihaspati plus Sani) See Also : Krutha (Krita, Krta) Yuga Definition in Vishnu Puranam

Even in modern times, we use a 60 year cycle. The names of the years are the same as the names of the years used in the Barhaspatyamana Yuga System. BUT, there is an offset. o The Barhaspatyamana cycle starts with the year called Vijaya. The modern cycle starts with the year named Prabhava. o But that is not all. The modern year name Vikrama nama samvatsaram corresponds to Vijaya nama Samvatsaram in the Barhaspatyamana system. o Also the Guru transit occurs around May and does not coincide at all with the March/April beginnings of the years of the modern cycle. Guru graha (Jupiter, Brhaspati), Sun, Saturn and Moon come back to the original aligment every 60 years. (12 years is the mean planetary orbit time of Guru, and 30 years is the mean orbital duration for Saturn. The L.C.M. (Least Common Multiple) is 60 years. The Sun and Moon rise together (Amavasya) in each rasi on an average of once a year. (There are intercalary days, months and years, to account for alignment differences, that accrue over time.) So a Surya, Chandra, Pushya, Brhaspati, Sani Yuga is 60 years. The 12 year Kumbha Mela Variant : You have Dhanishta, Guru, Chandra and Surya, which align once in the 12 years. 2 Dhanishta Nakshatra padas in the end of Makara Rasi and 2 Dhanishta Nakshatra padas are in the beginning of Kumbha Rasi. o Dhanishta (3rd and 4th Padas (quarters)) begin Kumbha Rasi (Aquarius). It takes Jupiter (Guru), 12 years on an average to return to the same rasi. Jupiter takes, on an average, 1 year to pass by each rasi or zodiac sign and the sun takes on an average a month. o Every 12th year Kumbha Mela is performed on a grand scale. The religious believe that the Kumbha (meaning pot) refers to a Pitcher of Amrta (nectar of immortality). There is a story of Amrtam being spilled at the 4 Kumbha Mela Places. (Prayag (Allahabad), Hardwar, Nasik and Ujjain). On a map they look like places of equidistant longitude. The Kumbh Mela is generally held every three years in rotation, from east to west at Prayag, Hardwar, Ujjain and Nasik. The names of the years are : Serial Number as per modern counting.

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Time And India Authorship and Copyright Notice : All Rights Reserved 27. Vijaya 28. Jaya 29. Manmatha 30. Durmukha 31. Hemalambin 32. Vilambin 33. Vikrin 34. Shrvari 35. Plava 36. Shubhakrit 37. Shobhana 38. Krodhin 39. Vishvvasu 40. Parbhava 41. Plavanga 42. Klaka 43. Saumya 44. Sdhrana 45. Virodhikrit 46. Paritpin 47. Pramdin 48. nanda 49. Rkshasa 50. Anala 51. Pingala 52. Klayukti 53. Siddhrthin 54. Raudra 55. Durmati 56. Dundubhi 57. Rudhirodgrin 58. Raktksha 59. Krodhana 60. Akshaya 1. Prabhava 2. Vibhava 3. Shukla 4. Pramoda 5. Prajpati

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14. Vikrama 15. Vrisha 16. Chitrabhnu 17. Svabhnu 18. Trana 19. Prthiva 20. Vyaya (2006-2007 AD/CE) 21. Sarvajit (2007-2008 AD/CE) 22. Sarvadhrin 23. Virodhin 24. Vikrita 25. Khara 26. Nandana 27. Vijaya 28. Jaya 29. Manmatha 30. Durmukha 31. Hemalambin 32. Vilambin 33. Vikrin 34. Shrvari 35. Plava 36. Shubhakrit 37. Shobhana 38. Krodhin 39. Vishvvasu 40. Parbhava 41. Plavanga 42. Klaka 43. Saumya 44. Sdhrana 45. Virodhikrit 46. Paritpin 47. Pramdin 48. nanda 49. Rkshasa 50. Anala 51. Pingala 52. Klayukti

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Time And India Authorship and Copyright Notice : All Rights Reserved 6. ngirasa 7. Shrmukha 8. Bhva 9. Yuvan 10. Dhtri 11. shvara 12. Bahudhnya 13. Pramthin 14. Vikrama 15. Vrisha 16. Chitrabhnu 17. Svabhnu 18. Trana 19. Prthiva 20. Vyaya (2006-2007 AD/CE) 21. Sarvajit (2007-2008 AD/CE) 22. Sarvadhrin 23. Virodhin 24. Vikrita 25. Khara 26. Nandana

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53. Siddhrthin 54. Raudra 55. Durmati 56. Dundubhi 57. Rudhirodgrin 58. Raktksha 59. Krodhana 60. Akshaya 1. Prabhava 2. Vibhava 3. Shukla 4. Pramoda 5. Prajpati 6. ngirasa 7. Shrmukha 8. Bhva 9. Yuvan 10. Dhtri 11. shvara 12. Bahudhnya 13. Pramthin

5. 1000 year Chaturyugas : (The time taken for the starting point of the moveable (tropical) zodiac, to pass one 1 complete nakshatram. Derived from precession of equinoxes)

Derived based on these 2 quotations, which refer the time elapsed, since Revati and her father Revata, go to Brahma loka and return to Dwaraka. In thic context, Revati is the name of the star 99h Psc, which is the brightest star of Meena Raashi. Bhagavatam : abhiyta have passed; tri three; nava nine; catur-yuga four yugas; vikalpita thus measured. for many successions of ages have passed away whilst you were listening to our songsters: now upon earth the twenty-eighth great age of the present Manu is nearly finished, and the Kali period is at hand. Vishnu Puranam : for many successions of ages have passed away whilst you were listening to our songsters: now upon earth the twenty-eighth great age of the present Manu is nearly finished, and the Kali period is at hand.

Explanation :
The fixed or the sidereal zodiac considers the nakshatras as its basis. Its first degree begins as the first degree of Mesha (Aries) from a particular point in the Revati Nakshatram. There is another zodiac, however, which is reckoned from the Vernal equinox point; here the first point of Aries begins from the Vernal equinox. This is called the movable or the tropical zodiac. The movable zodiac continues to recede westward along the stars, which characterise the fixed zodiac.

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This point, the first point of Aries or the vernal equinox, goes on receding westward at a rate of approximately 50.26 seconds of arc each year. This is called the precession of the equinoxes. See Also: http://www.aryabhatt.com/vediclessons/vediclesson5.htm 360 degrees = 360*60 minutes = 360*60*60 seconds of arc = 1296000 seconds of arc 1296000 seconds of arc/50.26 seconds of arc/year = 25785.91 years So it takes 25785.91 years for 1 full circle for Revati to return., (or for the original alignments to be viewed.) If the technology of measurement at that time gave a figure of 48 seconds of arc per year for the westward recession of Aries, then it would take 1296000/48 = 27000 years for Revati to return. 27000 years is the figure you normally find in many articles. (This would mean a 4.5% relative error in measurement in seconds of arc. Which is very small). If 27000 years give us 27 caturyugas, and if the ratio of the individual Yuga lengths in each caturyuga is 4:3:2:1 with the Kaliyuga being a 100 years long, then Each caturyuga is 1000 years long.

That gives 400 years of Krutha Yuga, 300 years of Thretha Yuga, 200 years of Dwapara Yuga and 100 years of Kali Yuga. 6. SaptaRishi Yuga : 2700 years. (A pointer through the bowl of the Saptarishi Mandala moves to a different nakshatra, by the end of a century). Saptarsis motion is central to many Indian calendars and was used extensively in many parts of Indian subcontinents including Kashmir and Nepal.

Vishnu Purana IV, 24.105-106, Matsya Purana, 273, 42-44, Vayu Purana 99,421-423, Bhagvada Pura, XII, 2.27-32. For example, Bhgvad Purana, XII, 2.32, Vishnu Purana, IV, 24.112, where it is a question of movement from the Magha to Purvasha dha (d and e stars in Sagittarius), which represents 10 centuries between Parikshit and King Nanda of the Magadha dynasty. Incidentally, this estimate agrees with Vi nu Purna, IV, 23.42, which places the period more precisely between the birth of Pariksit and the royal consecration of Nanda at 1,015 years).

Varahamihira quoted the views of Vrddha (Senior) Garga, in the 13th chapter of his Brhat Samhita: Where he explained the movements of the Saptarishi Mandala.

The periodic movement of the Saptarishis : The Sages traverse through each lunar mansion for a period of 100 years (satam, satam varsah). Whichever constellation makes them conspicuous when they rise to the east of it, in that they are said to be situated (4) Therefore the Saptarishis have a period (Yuga) of 2700 years. (This is caused by the wobble of the earths axis).

The oldest reference to the Saptarsh i cycle is in Vi shnu Purana. The relevent Shloka from is reproduced here:

Take those two stars of Saptar shi (seven sages) which are seen first after the rise. The naksh atra which is seen in the middle of it at equal distance at the night, is said to be residence of Saptarsh i for 100 years of mans life. Oh great brahmin they were in Magha (Regulus, Leo) at the time of Pariksh it. (Vishnu Purana, IV 4.105-106) One interpretation that the pointer is passing through centre of the bowl would mean that the observation was done around 3200 3100 BC. At that time, the four stars (of the bowl)

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had declinations of 67 deg, 65 deg, 70 deg and 74 deg respectivly, which means the observer should be certainly below 25 deg N and most probably below 16 deg N which passes through Goa and lower Andhra Pradesh.

7. Romaka Siddhantam : 2850 years 8. Poorva Surya Siddhantham : 180,000 years or 1,800,000 years. 9. Surya Siddhantam : 12000 years of the Devas make a Caturyuga (set of 4 yugas). These 4 Yugas including their Sandhyasand Sandhyamsas (sixth part) (eves, seams, period where one yuga ends and another begins) consist of 4,320,000 solar years. (12 Solar Months = 1 solar year and this makes 1 day of the Devas. 360 Ahoratras of the Devas make a year(vatsara) of the Devas.) 10. Markandeya Yugas, as per the Mahabharata. Markandeya replied, ..O best of kings and pre-eminent of men, after the dissolution of the universe, all this wonderful creation again comes into life. Four thousand years have been said to constitute the Krita Yuga. Its dawn also, as well as its eve, hath been said to comprise four hundred years. The Treta-Yuga is said to comprise three thousand years, and its dawn, as well as its eve, is said to comprise three hundred years. The Yuga that comes next is called Dwapara, and it hath been computed to consist of two thousand years. Its dawn, as well as its eve, is said to comprise two hundred years. The next Yuga, called Kali, is said to comprise one thousand years and its dawn, as well as eve, is said to comprise one hundred years. Know, O king, that the duration of the dawn is the same as that of the eve of a Yuga. And after the Kali Yuga is over, the Krita Yuga comes again. A cycle of the Yugas thus comprised a period of twelve thousand years. A full thousand of such cycles would constitute a day of Brahma. O tiger among men, when all this universe is withdrawn and ensconced within its homethe Creator himselfthat disappearance of all things is called by the learned to be Universal Destruction. See : 1200 year Kali yugam started in Parikshits time : Vishnu Puranam 1 kalpa (Brahmas day or 12 hours of Brahma) constitutes 1000 Caturyugas or Mahayugas. 4.b. Maitreya Yugas as per Srimad Bhagavatam : (Details) Rishi Maitreya learnt Time Measurements from Parasara (Vyasas father and Vasishthas grandson) and taught them to Vidura. 11. Naveena Siddhanthams : 4,320,000 years: All the planets started their journeys at one common point in the sky. That is, in the beginning, all the planets were lined up along a ray drawn from the Sun. Then they began circling (the Sun) at different speeds; different speeds because they

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are located at different distances. Then the Indian astronomers suggested that the common point in the sky be identified as the location where we find the star Aswini, the first of the twenty seven stars (really, constellations) of the Hindu calendar. Stated differently, they imagined a time when all the nine planets (mercury, venus, earth, mars, jupiter, saturn, and the two shadow planets Rahu and Ketu), the apogees of their orbits, and their nodes (i.e., the points where their orbits intersect the path of the Sun are all near the star Aswini (or the modern Beta of Aries). They suggested that we use that instance as the beginning of time for calendar purposes. Now suppose we count the periods of orbital revolutions of the planets, roundoff the periods to the nearest integers, and find their least common multiple (LCM). That number turns out to be approximately 4.320 billion years, a number not too far from the length of a Kalpa, defined earlier. One thousandth of this is 4.32 million years or a Maha Yuga. A tenth of this Maha Yuga is the duration of Kali Yuga. Let us begin at the present time and work backwards. The current era is called Kali Yuga. According to tradition, this era began with the death of Krishna, about 5,000 years ago. According to the ancient sages of India, Kali Yuga will last for 4,32,000 years. Immediately prior to Kali Yuga was a stretch of time called Dwapar Yuga; it was twice as long as Kali Yuga, or 2 x 4,32,000 years. Prior to that was Treta Yuga of 3 x 4,32,000 years. Before that, it was Krita Yuga with a duration of 4 x 4,32,000 years. All these four yugas together is a Maha Yuga, the Great Era. So a Maha Yuga is 4.32 million years, ten times as long as Kali Yuga. Incidentally, the beginning of the latest Maha Yuga coincides roughly with, what modern science calls, the emergence of humanoids. 12. Aryabhatta was a genius. He worked out the time it would take for 5 planets, the Revati Nakshatram, the sun, the moon and Rahu, Ketu to align. That is why the Yuga and Kalpa lengths that he calculated are of the same order of magnitude as the big bang. He was able to do this because, he was a brilliant astronomer and mathematician and he had also figured out that it is the earth that goes around the sun and not vice versa. Aryabhatta did this a VERY long time before Copernicus. (This is well established.) Aryabhattas Yuga corresponds to the Mahayuga of the Naveena Siddhanthams. However, he did not go with the 4:3:2:1 rule for the Krutha, Tretha, Dvapara and Kali. He divided his Yuga into 4 parts called Yugapadas. In the Aryabhattiyam, he said that 6 Manvantaras, 28 Yugas and 3 yugapadas had elapsed since the beginning of this kalpa to the Bharata war. In the Naveena Siddhantams the last yuga Kali yuga is only one tenth the duration of the Mahayuga. So the Naveena siddhantams believe that 9 tenths of the 28th Mahayuga were over by the time of the Bharata war. Aryabhatta says that only 3 fourths of the 28th Yuga (of 4,320,000 years) was over by the time of the Bharata war and that he was 23 yrs old 360 (or3600) years after the Bharata War.

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Aryabhatta Yugas from Aryabhattiyam Just as Markandeya had worked out the precession of equinoxes a VERY long time before Hipparchus and Ptolemy. (Proof of this statement is pending,)

1.

Which Yuga System was Vyasa was using? We know that Aryabhatta lived after Vyasa and could not have influenced him. We know this because of a statement that Aryabhatta made. He said that he lived 660 years after Kali Yuga started. (Some people say that he said 6060 years after Kali started.. is the word shahtyabdanam shadbhih or is it shastyabdanam shahstih..? : Page 70; 9th samputamu, Vijnana Sarvasvamu, Telugu Encyclopedia) We believe that he lived 360 years into kaliyuga and not 3600 years after. Either way, he lived after Vyasa, who wrote the Mahabharatam from 1 year Kali to 4 year Kali. When did Vyasa live? We know that Markandeya and Vyasa were contemporaries. In the Mahabharata, Vyasa gives Markandeyas explanation of the Yugas and Markandeya talks to the Pandavas etc. Maya Danavas Surya Siddhantam was a Kruta Yuga composition available to Vyasa. In addition his great grand father Vasishta, his father Parasara and Vyasa himself composed 3 of the 18 Astronomical Siddhanthams.

2.

Some data points:

Ravanas grandfather, Pulastya was of Krutha Yuga (Uttarakanda, Ramayanam) Ravana annoyed Vedavathi in the Krutha Yuga and was killed by Sri Rama in the Tretha Yuga. It is also said that Krutha Yuga ended at the time of Vedavathis death. (Uttarakanda Ramaynana) Sri Rama who killed Ravana and was younger to him, was of Threta Yuga. (Source : general deduction). Sri Krishna was of Dwapara Yuga. His death marked the beginning of KaliYuga (Mahabharatam and Bhagavatham) Veda Vyasa was born in the Tretha Yuga as the Dwapara Yuga was approaching. Maya Danava composed the Surya Siddhantam towards the end of Krta Yuga. He gave his daughter Mandodari in marriage to Ravana. He built the Maya Sabha for the Pandavas in IndraPrastha in the Dwapara Yuga. So he lived for a part of Kruta Yuga, the entire Tretha Yuga and a part of Dwapara Yuga. (If we assume that he lived for 120 years, and that Tretha Yuga lasted for 60 years, then we can imagine that he lived for the last 30 years of Krta, the 60 years of Tretha and the first 30 years of Dwapara.. do we have any basis to assume that the Brhaspati (Guru) Yugas were meant?

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Markandeya was present at Sri Ramas wedding and till the end of the Bharata war. (If we take a 60 year long duration for Kaliyuga 120 for Dwapara, 240 for Tretha and 480 for Satya Yugas., then Mayasura and Markandeya would have to live for more than 300 years.) (Krishnas Descent and Ascent: It has been calculated by others that Sri Krishna was born on Wednesday, the eighth day of second fortnight in Sravana month in the year of Visvavasu (on July 19th 3228 BC (BCE)). He lived for 125 years and discarded his mortal coils on February 18th 3102 BC on the new moon night of Phalguna. His death was the onset of the current age known as Kaliyuga.The year of his death must have been the Saumya Nama Vatasara. In the 89th year of of Jayabhyudaya Yudhisthira Saka, in the Plavanga Akhya (Samvatsara ), Janamejaya, a great-grandson of Arjuna (Krishnas cousin) gave a gift of land to some munis.) SB 9.14.49: O Maharaja Pariksit, at the beginning of Treta-yuga, King Pururava inaugurated a karma-kanda sacrifice. In the Treta age a violent war broke out between the Devas and the Asuras, in which the former were vanquished. They consequently had recourse to Vishu for assistance, and propitiated him by their adorations. The eternal ruler of the universe, Nryaa, had compassion upon them, and said, What you desire is known unto me. Hear how your wishes shall be fulfilled. There is an illustrious prince named Puranjaya, the son of a royal sage; into his person I will infuse a portion of myself, and having descended upon earth I will in his person subdue all your enemies. (Vishnu Purana) Caksusha Manvantaram ends with the Matysa Avataram Flood, Vaivaswata Manvantaram Begins : Srimad Bhagavatam. Vaivaswatha Manu to Revati Devi, wife of Balarama Deva : Srimad Bhagavatham

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Kaliyuga Beginning.
The Mahapralaya (Universal Dissolution) that Markandeya told the Pandavas about was 1200 short of 12000 years before their time, it was 10,800 years ago as per Markandeya. If Kaliyuga did start in 3102 BC as indicated above then The Mahapralaya was 15,910 years ago. See:http://nature.ca/notebooks/english/iceage.htm Aryabhata never mentioned either kaliyuga, or saka era by name in the Aryabhatiyam. He spoke of The Date of the Bharata War with respect to the fourth Yuga Pada and his own age with respect to that event. There is an incorrect or false attribution correlation floating around the internet.

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Revati - Yugas
Revatis father and Revati lost 27 chaturyugas (108 yugas), during a visit to Brahma: .abhiyta have passed; tri three; nava nine; catur-yuga four yugas; vikalpita thus measured.http://bhagavata.org/canto9/chapter3.html for many successions of ages have passed away whilst you were listening to our songsters: now upon earth the twenty-eighth great age of the present Manu is nearly finished, and the Kali period is at hand. http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/vp/vp093.htm How traditionalists explain this:

1.
2.

To explain this, we can go into the Time-Dilation story told in the Bhagavatam. About how Revatis father and Revati lost 27 chaturyugas (108 yugas), during a visit to Brahma, because Brahma is on a different time-scale. Or we can go into another puranic theory which says that each of these stories took place in different kalpas, or different manvantaras. According to this the main events of the stories take place in every kalpa and there are finite variations in any specific kalpa. That way everyone gets to be right in some parallel universe or some time cycle.

I propose that an astronomical story has been overlaid with a legend. It is my thinking that Revati, here refers to the star and not to the woman. Revati is the name of the star 99h Psc, which is the brightest star of Meena Raashi. There are

27 stars, in the Hindu zodiac. The story is one of Revati returning to a place after 27 units of time, 27 Mahayugas or Chaturyugas. It demonstrates a knowledge of the precession of equinoxes. Some background and calculations:
1. 2. 3. 4. The fixed or the sidereal zodiac considers the nakshatras as its basis. Its first degree begins as the first degree of Mesha (Aries) from a particular point in the Revati group of stars. There is another zodiac, however, which is reckoned from the Vernal equinox point; here the first point of Aries begins from the Vernal equinox. This is called the movable or the tropical zodiac. The movable zodiac continues to recede westward along the stars, which characterise the fixed zodiac. This point, the first point of Aries or the vernal equinox, goes on receding westward at a rate of approximately 50.26 seconds of arc each year. This is called the precession of the equinoxes.

5.
6. 7.

360 degrees = 360*60 minutes = 360*60*60 seconds of arc = 1296000 seconds of arc

1296000 seconds of arc/50.26 seconds of arc/year = 25785.91 years So it takes 25785.91 years for 1 full circle for Revati to return., (or for the original alignments to be viewed.)

8.

If the technology of measurement at that time gave a figure of 48 seconds of arc per year for the westward recession of Aries, then it would take 1296000/48 = 27000 years for Revati to return. 27000 years is the figure you normally find in many articles. (This would mean a 4.5% relative error in measurement in seconds of arc. Which is very small).

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9.

Satya Sarada Kandula

If 27000 years give us 27 caturyugas, and if the ratio of the individual Yuga lengths in each caturyuga is 4:3:2:1 with the Kaliyuga being a 100 years long, then Each caturyuga is 1000 years long.

For Details See Also: http://www.aryabhatt.com/vediclessons/vediclesson5.htm

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Krutha (Krita, Krta) Yuga Definition in Vishnu Puranam (12 years)


Reference : Vishnu Puranam Page : 334; 4th Amsa - 24th Adhyaya.

Kruta Yuga Definition in Vishnu Puranam When the sun, moon, and jupiter come together with Tishya (Pushya) Nakshatram in one rasi, then you have a kruta yugam. (This occurs once in every 12 years approx. Jupiter spends an average of a year per rasi, during which time the sun spends one month in that rasi and the moon spends approx. 2 days in that rasi. Tishya Nakshatram is in Karkataka Rasi, which approximately overlaps Cancer in English, but it may not be an exact match). So as per this definition, this kind of Kruta Yuga Occurs every 12 years. Notes : 1. Of the 4th Amsa, the 21st Adhyaya to the first hundred and one shlokas of the 24th Adhyaya, the description is about the kings of the Kaliyuga who controlled Magadha, Kasi etc. 2. The tense used is future, the narration is in the voice of Parasara 3. The style is prosaic and not poetic. 4. It is my view that these adhyayas were updated from time to time as time went on, to keep the text updated as well as to preserve the time stamp of the original puranam. 5. From the 102nd verse quoted above, we are back to the poetic form of the original Parasara. 6. However since the next verses demonstrate a knowledge of Mahapadma Nandas coronation, I think that some of them must be of that period or later.

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1200 year Kaliyugam started in Parikshits time : Vishnu Puranam


Reference :

1. 2.

Vishnu Puranam Page : 334; 4th Amsa - 24th Adhyaya. In the Mahabharata, Markandeya gives KaliYuga length as 1200 years

1200 year Kaliyuga duration : Vishnu Puranam And Then, oh brahman, began Kali (Yuga) of twelve hundred year duration, ( next when the Amsa of Vishnu, (Sri Krishna) went to heaven.) When I compare this with Krutha (Krita, Krta) Yuga Definition in Vishnu Puranam which we can calculate to 12 years approximately, it strikes me that this update was made after Parikshits time and the rishi of this shloka accepted a kaliyuga length of 1200 years.

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Kaliyuga duration 360000 years, 1200 divine years, Vishnu Puranam. Tracking the growth of the Kaliyugam from 12 to 432000 years
Reference :

1.

Vishnu Puranam Page : 334; 4th Amsa - 24th Adhyaya.

These are the shlokas that tell us the duration of the Kaliyuga. It is Important to note : 1. The 12 year length of Krutha Yuga in Shloka 102 : Krutha (Krita, Krta) Yuga Definition in Vishnu Puranam 2. The 1200 year duration of the Kaliyuga in single line Shloka 107 : 1200 year Kaliyugam started in Parikshits time : Vishnu Puranam 3. The 360,000 year length of the Kaliyuga in Shloka 114

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4. And the 1200 divine year (year of the Devas) length of the KaliYuga =
432000 human years in shloka 115. This is the value accepted and used today. I have previously written in How many kinds of Yugas are there?, that the yuga durations grew as the calculations became more precise and accounted for more celestial luminaries. The Aryabhatiyam and theSurya Siddhantham of Maya use this final number. Also Interesting to Note : 1. Lokamanya Sri Balagangadhar Tilak, said that the original home of the Devas (and Aryans) was near the north pole, where one day and night of the inhabitants would equal one year of the people in the temperate zones. 2. He therefore said that 1 arctic day and night = 1 arctic year = 1 divine year = 1 temperate year = 1 human year.

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Kaliyuga started, with Sri Krishnas Ascent : Vishnu Puranam

Reference :

1.

Vishnu Puranam Page : 334; 4th Amsa - 24th Adhyaya.

From these shlokas, we learn that Kaliyuga began at the instant of Sri Krishnas ascent and in the previous shloka we learned that, this happened duting the time of Parikshita, when the Saptarishis indicated Maagha. We speculate that these shlokas were composed at the time of King Nanda or later and further that this Nanda WAS NOT Mahpadma Nanda, but Nandivardhana of the Pradyotanas.

See Also :

1.

Parikshit to Nanda 1050 years Vishnu Puranam

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Saptarishis in Maghaa Nakhstaram at Parikshits time : Vishnu Puranam Definition : Saptarishis in or indicating a nakshatram as per Vishnu Puranam 4. Saptarishi (Great Bear) Positions according to Varahamihira and Vateswara 5. 1200 year Kali yugam started in Parikshits time : Vishnu Puranam 6. Kaliyuga started, with Sri Krishnas Ascent : Vishnu Puranam 7. Nanda came to power when the Saptarishis indicated Purvashaada : Vishnu Puranam

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Saptarishi Calendar
Why do we need to study the saptarishi calendar?
The saptarishi calendar helps us to connect the time of Raja Parikshit the grandson of the Panadavas and King Nanda (probably of the Pradyotana dynasty).

Parikshit to Nanda 1050 years Vishnu Puranam


leave a comment Reference : Vishnu Puranam Page : 334; 4th Amsa - 24th Adhyaya.

This shloka tells us that 1050 years was the gap between Pariskshits birth, the end of the Mahabharata War and the coronation of Nanda. Who was Parikshit? Parikshit was the son of Abhimanyu and Uttara. Abhimanyu was the son of Arjuna and Uttara was the daughter of Virata Raja, where the Pandavas spent their year of exile in disguise. (See : Brihannala!) See Also : Janamejayas Dana Sasana Patram : Janamejaya was the son of Parikshit who performed the Sarpa Yaga. When was Pariskhit born ? Parikshit was born at the end of the Mahabharata War, Sri Krishna saved his life while he was yet in his mothers womb. Based on other data we believe that this was 3138 BCE.

Who was Nanda ? Let us look for a Nanda who lived 1050 years after Parikshit. There is a Nandivardhana among the Pradyotanas who comes close to this date. He had a son called Nandi. See Jarasandha to Asokavardhana Maurya to Andhra Kings: Vishnu Puranam o It is one possibility that the Nanda in the verse above could refer to the Pradyotana Nandivardhana and not at all to Mahapadmananda as has been suggested.

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o

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This is because both references come from the same amsa and adhyaya of the Vishnu Puranam. years per king). The other possibility will become clear after studying the rest of the shlokams which refer to the Saptarishi positions.

o This gives a period of 1050 years for 23 kings approx (or about 45
o

You can also see : Magadha kings as per Bhavishyat Purana Magadha after Jarasandha : Srimad Bhagavatham Jarasandha to Asokavardhana Maurya to Andhra Kings: Vishnu Puranam Andhra historical evidence before the Satavahanas Kalahanas Rajatarangini : Kings from Sri Krishnas time to Gonanda 3 the founder of Gonanda dynasty : The Date of Mahabharata War Tiruvalangadu Copper-Plates of Rajendra-Chola I: Ikshvakus to Karikala (Kalikala) Chola: India after Sri Krishna

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Saptarishis in Maghaa Nakhstaram at Parikshits time : Vishnu Puranam

Saptarishi Magha Parikshit Vishnu Puranam Reference :

1.

Vishnu Puranam Page : 334; 4th Amsa - 24th Adhyaya.

This sloka tells us that the Saptarishis indicate each nakshatram for a century and that in Parikshits time they pointed to Maghaa Nakshatram. See Also :

1.

Definition : Saptarishis in or indicating a nakshatram as per Vishnu Puranam 2. Saptarishi (Great Bear) Positions according to Varahamihira and Vateswara

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Saptarishi Calendar
What is the Saptarishi Mandala?

Mandala means Circle, Saptarishi means 7 sages. The 7 stars of what we call the Great Bear (Ursa Major) or Big Dipper in English, have been called or named after The Seven Sages or the Sapta Rishis in Indian Astronomy. (Interestingly Sapta Rsha (Seven Sages), can have been distorted to Sapta Rksha (Seven Bears) which could have led to the name Great Bear. Ursa, Arsa, Arsha, Rsha are different ways of writing words with english spellings that actually have very close pronounciation.) The seven sages are Marici to the east (alpha), Vasishta (beta) to his west, then Angiras (gamma), then Atri (delta), then Pulastya (epsilon), then Pulaha (zeta), and Kratu (eta) (5 and 6) : Brihat Samhita of Varahamihira. Astrophotograph : Big Dipper, Alcor and Mizar. Saptarishi (Big Dipper) Clock. Where are the Saptarishis today? Vedic Meaning of Saptarishis.

What is the Saptarishi Calendar? The Saptarishi Calendar is a convenient way of naming centuries. Each century is named after one of the 27 nakshatras, to which the Saptarishis point in that century.

The Sages traverse through each lunar mansion (nakshatram) for a period of 100 years (satam, satam varsah). Whichever constellation makes them conspicuous when they rise to the east of it, in that they are said to be situated (4) Varahamihira quoted the views of Vrddha (Senior) Garga in the 13th chapter of Brihat Samhita. Definition : Saptarishis in or indicating a nakshatram as per Vishnu Puranam Therefore the Saptarishis have a period (Yuga) of 2700 years. (This is caused by the wobble of the earths axis).

What happened when the Saptarishis pointed to Makha (Magha) Nakshatram ?

The Saptarishis were stationed in Magha Nakshatram, when Yudhisthira was king. The Saka year commenced 2526 years after that king. (3) Brihat Samhita Oh great brahmin they were in Magha (Regulus, Leo) at the time of Pariksh it. (Vishnu Purana, IV 4.105-106) The Bhagvad Purana, XII, 2.32, Vishnu Purana, IV, 24.112, refers to a movement from the Magha to Purvasha dha (d and e stars in Sagittarius). Parikshit to Nanda 1050 years Vishnu Puranam Saptarishis in Maghaa Nakhstaram at Parikshits time : Vishnu Puranam Saptarishi (Great Bear) Positions according to Varahamihira and Vateswara Nanda came to power when the Saptarishis indicated Purvashaada : Vishnu Puranam Which Nanda was indicated by the Saptarishis in Purvashaada Nakshatram : Vishnu Puranam

Note : Yudhisthira was crowned king after the end of the Bharata War. He gave up his kingdom and went on his walk to heaven Mahaprasthanam, at the beginning if Kaliyuga after Sri Krishna abandoned that particular body of his. He was also a king of Indraprastha (location : New Delhi) 13

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years before the Bharata War (from the time of Draupadis wedding till the gambling after the Rajasuya Yajna), but ususally everyone refers to the 36 year rule after the Bharata War. Which Nakshatram is presently indicated by the Sapta Rishis? As you can see in the image below, different nakshatra-pairs of the Saptarishis indicate different nakshatras. In the picture below, you can see that, today, it is not alpha and beta, but gamma and delta that point to Regulus or Makha Nakshatram, today. Eta indicates Arcturus (Swati) (yellow line). The pink line from Swati takes you to Spica (Chitra). The green line from epsilon takes you to Denebola (Uttara/Uttara Phalguni). Of course the line joining the alpha and beta line always points to polaris (Dhruva), north pole star. (See :Saptarishi (Great Bear) Positions according to Varahamihira and Vateswara ).

http://souledout.org/nightsky/bigdippernavigation/bigdippernavigation.html Which Nakshatram Pair did the Vishnu Puranam and Brihat Samhita refer to?

Alpha and Beta are the stars seen first after sunrise. The mid point of this, perpendicular to the line joining them points (approx) to Al Hena as per the Northern Hemisphere Sky Charts. Al Hena is or is close to Arudra.

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http://www.nightskyinfo.com/maps_images/html/sky_map_north.htm

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The saptarishis revolve in the same direction as the 27 nakshatrams but much more slowly because they are closer to the axis through the pole star (Dhruva). Some Scholars Opine that this is the basis of the auspicious swastika symbol used in Hindu prayers. Date of Parikshits Birth, Yudhithiras Coronation, Start of Kaliyuga :

Making Some Simple Calculations: Using this list of stars, we have approx : 2700 + 2700 300 = 5100 years between Makha (Magha) and Arudra. This approximately confirms the of 3102 BC/BCE for Kaliyuga 27 years after Parikshits birth. Therefore the Saka Era referred to by Varahamihira is 612 BC. Kaliyuga zero Year 3102 BC. Saka Year Referred to by Varahamihira : 612 or 576 BC (BCE) Nandas Ascension : 3102 + 27 1015 = 2114 BC/BCE

Saptarshis Movement through Nakashatras: A subtle effect of the earths Precession:

http://www.tifr.res.in/~vahia/saptarshi.pdf :
(Two of the authors are from TIFR and Astrophysics Institute, Germany respectively). (I also found that many 19th century colonial historians thought that Saptarishi movement was false because these stars dont move. They were ignorant of the research done above, and ignorant of the correct way to interpret the statements.) Notes based on the Article Above:

http://www.tifr.res.in/~vahia/saptarshi.pdf

The belief in India in a revolution of the Great Bear is mentioned not in

treaties on astronomy or even of astrology but in texts giving chronology. It is used to mark the different centuries. Vishnu Purana IV, 24.105-106, Matsya Purana, 273, 42-44, Vayu Purana 99,421-423, Bhagvada Purana, XII, 2.27-32. For example, Bhagvad Purana, XII, 2.32, Vishnu Purana, IV, 24.112, where it is a question of movement from the Magha to Purvasha dha (d and e stars in Sagittarius), which represents 10 centuries between Parikshit and King Nanda of the Magadha dynasty. Incidentally, this estimate agrees with Vi nu Purna, IV, 23.42, which places the period more precisely between the birth of Pariksit and the royal consecration of Nanda at 1,015 years. Saptarshis motion is central to many Indian calendars and was used extensively in many parts of Indian subcontinents including Kashmir and Nepal. More recently, there have been attempts to explain this concept of Saptar si era employing modern star chart software. These calculations have not been checked for error margins and give false sense of accuracy. Apparently, most commercial software use simplified algorithms and give accurate results only for a period of about 250 years on either side of year 2000 A.D.

At this point, we must note that the mention of the rise of Saptarsh i is a critical detail. At 2200 2100 BC era, the declinations of a and b of Ursa Major were both 72 deg and

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68 deg respectivly. This means that their rise could only be observed from the latitudes less than 18 deg. To this we can add some grace zone of 2o 3o to take into account imperfect conditions at horizon or other small errors. This would mean that observer was located in peninsular India below tropic of cancer which passes through Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and West Bengal. For all the places north of 24 deg N the first two stars of the Saptarshi would be circumpolar and the question of rising wont arise. Alternate interpretation that the pointer is passing through centre of the bowl would mean that the observation was done around 3200 3100 BC. At that time, the four stars had declinations of 67 deg, 65 deg, 70 deg and 74 deg respectivly, which means the observer should be certainly below 25 deg N and most probably below 16 deg N which passes through Goa and lower Andhra Pradesh. **After doing the calculations above, the authors use a false basis to reject it. They assume without proof that no civilization could have existed prior to Sindhu Civilization and no civilization existed to the South of the Vindhyas. This is in direct opposition to the fact that Agastya had already interacted with the Southern Civilizations in the Kruta and TretaYugas, Mayasura (Maya Danava) had already composed theSurya Siddhanta at the end of the Kruta Yuga, and the Canopus star had been named after Agastya! Even the best astronomers of thekaliyuga like Aryabhatta were from the south (Kerala). Also Janamejaya was enthroned in Kishkinda in kaliyuga year 90 as per Janamejayas dana sasana patram **

So instead of correctly concluding that the observations were made from the south, they reject the date of 3200-3100 BC.

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Nanda came to power when the Saptarishis indicated Purvashaada : Vishnu Puranam

Nanda came to power when the Saptarishis indicated Purvashaada Reference :

1.

Vishnu Puranam Page : 334; 4th Amsa - 24th Adhyaya.

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Definition : Saptarishis in or indicating a nakshatram as per Vishnu Puranam


Posted by satyask on January 17, 2010

Reference : Vishnu Puranam Page : 334; 4th Amsa - 24th Adhyaya. Time of this shlokam : Based on the shlokas that this verse is with, we can assume that it was written after the coronation of Nanda. See :Parikshit to Nanda 1050 years Vishnu Puranam. It is relatively easy to understand the terms, when the sun or moon are in this nakshatram or the other. See : Nakshatras It is much harder to understand how a set of 7 stars outside the zodiac belt can be in or can point to one of the fixed stars. Look at the diagrams in the section on saptarishi calendar.

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Saptarishi (Great Bear) Positions according to Varahamihira and Vateswara


Posted by satyask on January 17, 2010 Note : I am in the process of finding and verifying some original sources (Vishnu Puranam etc).. in order to clear up some matters. For eg : from the data below it appears that Kaliyuga Raja Vrttantam is counting backwards from Makha to Aslesha and that Vishnu Puranam is counting forwards from Makha to Poorvashada.

Saptarishi Position at the Time of Parikshits Birth and Yudhisthiras Coronation : 74/75 years after Makha beginning : 3138 BCE o Varahamihiras Brihat Samhita, and Vishnu Purana, IV 4.105-106 : ok Saptarishi Position at 0 Kaliyuga : 3102 BCE o Aslesha (given : computed by author ): direction counting backwards by 25 years o Kaliyuga Raja Vruttantam Saptarishi Position at MahaPadma Nanda (Chanakya): Poorvashada middle (observed): o This is calculated as 10.5 centuries.. direction of counting forwards.. o Taking the direction of counting backwards, and using 100 year per Nakshatra Rule, I get 1650 years after Kaliyuga to the middle of Purvashada (1552 BCE); Vishnu Purana, IV, 24.112) o For resolution see : Which Nanda was indicated by the Saptarishis in Purvashaada Nakshatram : Vishnu Puranam Saptarishi Position at the beginning of the Saka Era referred by Varahamihira : (beginning 2526 years after Yudhisthira.. as calculated by Varahamihira, using the 100 year per nakshatra rule given by Vrddha Garga and quoted by Varahamihira). o We calculate Aslesha counting forwards. o We calculate Poorvaphalguni counting backwards.

Brihat Samhita Saptarishi Position at the beginning of Saka Era referred by Vateswara : o Vateswara Siddhanta o 4000-3102 = 898 BCE o 4000 years corresponds to a movement of 42.3 nakshatras as per Vateswara; 42.3-27=15.3 o This brings us to the beginning of Uttarashada (counting backwards). o This brings us the to the beginning of Uttarabhadra (counting forwards).

Saptarishi Position presently : Poorva Phalguni as per Vateswara, Hasta as per Varahamihira, counting backwards.

Arudra according to me.. just looking at the sky map,, I may be wrong If Arudra is right then Bharata War is 58 centuries ago, not 51 centuries ago

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Which Nanda was indicated by the Saptarishis in Purvashaada Nakshatram : Vishnu Puranam
leave a comment References : 1. Definition : Saptarishis in or indicating a nakshatram as per Vishnu Puranam 2. Saptarishi (Great Bear) Positions according to Varahamihira and Vateswara 3. Saptarishi Calendar 4. Parikshit to Nanda 1050 years Vishnu Puranam : (Nandivardhana Pradyotana) 5. Saptarishis in Maghaa Nakhstaram at Parikshits time : Vishnu Puranam 6. Nanda came to power when the Saptarishis indicated Purvashaada : Vishnu Puranam : (Which Nanda?) Apparent Conflict : Wilson assumed that both shlokas 104 and 112 of the 4th Amsa, 24th Adhyaya of Vishnu Puranam refered to the same Nanda. (Maha Padma Nanda) This conflicted with totals from the 23rd Adhyaya. While Shloka 104 (Parikshit to Nanda 1050 years Vishnu Puranam ) mentions 1050 years the totals in 23rd Adhyaya give (See : Magadha from Jarasandha to Satavahanas as per Vishnu Puranam) :

Magadh kings 1000 yrs. Pradyota, &c. 138 iunga, &c. 362 1500
Others have assumed that Saptarishis in Purvashaada Nakshatram refers to the same Nanda. This creates even a bigger problem, because the only way to get 1050 years from Maghaa to Purvashaada is to count forwards, whereas Kaliyuga Raja Vrttantam tells clearly that we should count backwards. Counting back wards give us 1650 years. For Details See : Saptarishi (Great Bear) Positions according to Varahamihira and Vateswara Resolution : The shorter duration of 1050 years refers to the Nanda of the Pradyotana dynasty The longer duration of 1500 or 1650 years refers to MahaPadma Nanda (whose children were replaced by Chanakya). That is why the phrase Nandat Prabhrutyah in sholka 112. Discrepancy between 1500 and 1650 years : The period of Sahadeva, the son of Jarasandha was at least partly in Dwapara Yuga Vatesvara also gave a correction for the duration of Saptarishis indicating each Nakshatram from 100, as given by Varahamihira and Vrddha Garga to 94 years 6 months and 20 days. (See : Vatesvara, an ancient Kashmiri

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Astronomer, his Karanasara and Siddhanta : R.N. Rai, INSA ) This explains a difference of 90 years (approx) in the total. Assuming that there must be some more small correction figures, arrived at by later astronomers, we can take the figure of 1500 years between Parikshit and Mahapadma Nanda as quite accurate.

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Vatesvara, an ancient Kashmiri Astronomer, his Karanasara and Siddhanta : R.N. Rai, INSA
Reference : karaNasAra of vaTesvara, by R.N. Rai, INSA. Work and References : 1. Al Biruni wrote a book on India, in which he referred to the works of many ancient Indian mathematicians and astronomers. 2. karaNasAra of vaTesvara is one of those books, which was not available in India to the knowledge of this author in 1970. 3. A book by Vatesvara called Vatesvara Siddhanta has been partially recovered and published in India.

4.

He was a follower of Aryabhata. His astronomical constants mostly agree with Aryabhata and he refutes Brahmagupta the way Brahmagupta criticised Aryabhata. Time and Place : 1. He says that he was born in Saka Era 802 and that he was 24 years old (Saka Era 826) when he wrote the Vatesvara Siddhanta. (See : How many kinds of Sakas (Eras) are there?) 2. He belonged to a city called Anandapura. (Wrongly identified as mAkhOvAl, in Punjab, which got the name Anandapura only in 1664 AD). Based on the 34 deg 9 min latitude he gives, which is close to latitude of Srinagar and based on the fact that nAgarapathari (lat 33 deg 55 min), might be nAgarapura, the place of Vatesvaras birth, Rai concludes that Vatesvara must be a Kashmiri, named after Vatesvara (Siva), worshipped by Kashmirs Ravana. (I agree) 3. Year of the Karanagrantha referred to by Vatesvara is 821 Saka Era. (See : Varahamihira Really 427 of Saka Era? : Pancha Siddhantika Varahamihira referred to a Karana Grantha Year of 427 Saka Era). In this case also, Al Biruni Assumed that the year of the Karanagrantha referred to was the year of composition of the Karanasara and this was incorrect as per Sri Rai. (I agree.) Vatesvara and the SaptaRishis : See Saptarishi Calendar and See Nakshatras Early translators did not understand the significance of any references to the Saptarishi Calendar and were very dismissive of it. This reflects their ignorance of a valid calendar of those times, and we cant waste much time here about it.

Just as the sun, moon and other grahas point or indicate different Nakshatras with some periodicity, so do the munis or saptarishis. (Sapta Rshi Sapta Rsha Ursa Major- Great Bear). A revolution of the sun means the time it takes for the sun to point to each of the fixed stars and come back and point to the first one again, say Revathi

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Nakshatram. The sun takes 1 sidereal year and the moon takes 1 sidereal month to do this. A revolution of the Saptarishis means the time it takes for the Saptarshis to indicate each of the fixed stars in turn and come back to the first one. Varahamihira tells us that the Saptarishis indicate one nakshatram every one hundred years. Vatesvara gives us a corrected figure for this read on

Here Brahma refers to The Brahma. (See Brahma Siddhanta.) Al Biruni, who had the help of the Karanasara which we do not have, explained this in his book and Rai explains this to us.

See How many kinds of Yugas are there? 1692 revolutions of the Saptarishis take place in 4320000 years. (A MahaYuga.) as per Vatesvara. Varahamihira gave the number 1600 and Aryabhata (2?) gave the number 1599.998. Therefore, for one rasi, the time period is 212 years, 9 months and 6 days. For one degree, the period is 7 years, 1 month and 3days. And through one Nakshatram it is 94 years, 6 months and 20 days.

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Calendars based on kings. sakas or eras.


How many kinds of Sakas (Eras) are there?
Sakam means Era in Sanskrit. To say Saka Era is to repeat yourself in 2 languages. The word Saka or Sakam must NOT be confused with the Saka people (Scythians Sakai..) though in english their spelling is the same.

All of us know about Christu (Craistava) Sakam, that means era of Christ. Its zero point is 0 AD. Time before that is measured as BC before Christ. This has been renamed as common era CE and before common era BCE, and uses the same zero point as the Christu Sakam. Yugas have to do with graha alignments astronomical events. Sakas have to do with human events.

The Bharata War (Mahabharata Yuddham) occured 36 years before the start of the Kaliyuga. We know this from the Mahabharata. The Bharata war was such a significant year in Indian history that it is used as a reference point for all Sakams.

Varahamihira speaks of a Saka or Era that commenced 2526 years after the period of the King Yudhisthira, during whose time the munis (saptarishis) were in Magha Nakshatram. These munis traverse each lunar mansion for a peiod of 100 years. (That is how the Saptarishi Yuga = 2700 years. Whichever constellation (nakshatram) makes them conspicuous when they rise to the eat of it, in that they are said to be situated. The Vishnu Puranam also tells us that the dvijottamah ( best of brahmins the saptarshis) were in Magha, in the time of Parikshit. Parikshit was born soon after the Bharata war, in the same year that Yudhisthira became the king. As per thissource, the Saptarishis are in Visakha Nakshatram now. This gives 2 possible dates of the Bharata war 300 BC and 3000 BC.). Pulakesin speaks of a different Saka or Era when he says V. 33.) (Now) when thirty (and) three thousand and five years besides, joined with seven hundred years, have passed since the Bharata war; (V. 34.) And when fifty (and) six and five hundred years of the Saka kings also have gone by in the Kali age in the Aihole Inscription.

So Pulakesin equates 3735 years after the Bharata War with 556 years of the Sakam that he was living in. Therefore the zero point of that Sakam was 3179 years after the Bharata war, while Varahamihira is speaking of a Sakam which is 2526 years after Yudhisthira was made king. (Bharata War).

Vyasa said that Kaliyuga began 36 years after the Bharata war. Therefore 3143 Kaliyuga is the zero point of the Aihole inscription Sakam and 2490 Kaliyuga was the zero point of Varahamihira referenced Sakam.

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Reference 1: The Vijnana Sarvaswamu 9th Samputamu gives an explanation of Sakams on pages 559 onwards. There are 6 Saka Karthas in the Kaliyuga 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Yudhisthira Vikramaditya and Salivahana are 3 that have gone by. Vijayanda Nagarjuna and Bali are yet to come.

The verb root of the word Saka is from Sak which means competence (Sakyati can do, Sakra Indra the powerful one.) The Saka Jathi were a people outside the Vedic System. Any Rajaputra (son of a king) who killed or defeated the Saka Jathi would become a Saka-kartha (the maker of an Era). Else he had to kill a Saka-kartha to get a Saka started from his time. Jaya-abhyudaya Yudhisthira Sakam started in year 1 of Kaliyuga, defined by the year in which Vyasa started writing the Mahabharatam, with the name Jaya. Yudhisthira Sakam or Loukikabdam

The kaliyuga raja vrttantam says In year 25 of Kaliyuga, after staying for 100 years in Magha Nakshatram, the Saptarishis will attain Aslesha Nakshatram. In memory of Yudhisthira who attained Svargam in his mahaprasthana yatra, after his bhu pradakhsina yatra, a period of 2700 years called Laukikabdam. The Rajatarangini uses this sakam.

See : Kalahanas Rajatarangini : Date of Mahabharata War Buddha Sakam, Koujada Sakam, Ektajana Sakam, Malavagana Sakam, Kanishka Sakam, Sri Harsha Sakam etc are some more Sakas mentioned in the reference 1. Using various puranas and itivrttis, the article arrives at the Satavahana king Mekha Swati or the King Mahasatakarni as the Sakakarta of the Saka referred to by Varahamihira, Brahmagupta, and Bhattotpala. Al Biruni : Kaliyuga , Saka Kala conversion : (based on Vateswara Karanasara) As per Al Biruni, 4000 Kaliyuga = 821 Saka Kala : Reference That give us 3179 Kaliyuga = 0 Saka kala.

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Kaliyuga 0 is 3102 BCE. (As accepted by many millenia of Indian Astronomers.) Therefore 77 CE (AD), is Saka Era as per Al Biruni His basis is Vatesvaras Karanasara : Vatesvara, an ancient Kashmiri Astronomer, his Karanasara and Siddhanta : R.N. Rai, INSA

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

4000 Kaliyuga is the basis of the karanagrantha used by Vateswara. (See : Al Biruni : Kaliyuga , Saka Kala conversion) 3000 Kaliyuga must be the basis of the Karanagrantha used by Varahamihira. In terms of Vatesvaras Saka Era, 3000 Kaliyuga is minus 179 Saka Era. This means 179 year before the Sakakarta considered by Vatesvara. 3000 Kaliyuga was 427 in Varahamihiras Saka Era. Therefore Varahamihiras Saka Era started 606 years before Vateswaras Saka Era. 1000 = 821-427 + x; x = 606;

What is a karanagrantha?
Posted by satyask on January 10, 2010 What is a karanagrantha? In a karanagrantha, a certain year is taken as the starting year. The positions for the celestial bodies etc are given for that year. And then methods are given for calculating these in the succeeding years. Reference

The base year taken by Varahamihira was 427 Saka Era. That taken by Vatesvara was 821 Saka Era. Both of them possibly referred to different Saka Eras.: See How many kinds of Sakas (Eras) are there? 4000 Kaliyuga is the basis of the karanagrantha used by Vateswara. (See : Al Biruni : Kaliyuga , Saka Kala conversion) 3000 Kaliyuga must be the basis of the Karanagrantha used by Varahamihira. In terms of Vatesvaras Saka Era, 3000 Kaliyuga is minus 179 Saka Era. This means 179 year before the Sakakarta considered by Vatesvara. 3000 Kaliyuga was 427 in Varahamihiras Saka Era. Therefore Varahamihiras Saka Era started 606 years before Vateswaras Saka Era. 1000 = 821-427 + x; x = 606;

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

The dates for the Karanagranthas must have been,

0 kaliyuga : 3102 BCE 1000 Kaliyuga : 2102 BCE 2000 Kaliyuga : 1102 BCE

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3000 4000 5000 6000 Kaliyuga Kaliyuga Kaliyuga Kaliyuga : : : :

Satya Sarada Kandula

102 BCE (427 (different) Saka Era referred by Varahamihira) 898 CE (821 Saka Era referred by Vatesvara) 1898 CE due 2898 CE

Date of the Mahabharata War


Authorship and Copyright Notice: All Rights Reserved : Satya Sarada Kandula Veda Vyasa wrote the Mahabharata,

while The Saraswathi River was still flowing but not as forcefully as before, after the Bharata war was over, and after Dwaraka was submerged in the ocean, after Sri Krishna died and after the Pandava Mahaprasthanam walk to Swarga (Indra) Loka. He took 3 years to write it.

Traditional Date : Vedic Cosmography and Astronomy By Richard L. Thompson

On Feb 18th, 3102 BC, at midnight on the meridian of Ujjain, the seven grahas (gravitational bodies surya, chandra, kuja, guru, sani, budha and sukra) lined up, on the other side of the earth in such a way that they could not be seen. The chaya (shadow) graha Rahu was directly overhead. All the 7 grahas were lined up with Revati Nakshatram at this time. This is the start point of the Kaliyuga. Acc. to Aryabhatta, Kaliyuga started at sun-rise (not mid-night). Using Computer programs, it has been determined that, at that time, 5 grahas were within 10 degrees of the Vedic reference star (Revati) , with Mercury (Budha) at 19 deg, Sani (Saturn at -27 degrees) and Rahu being within 18 deg of the position opposite to Revathi. Such alignments or even near alignments are rare. Only 3 ten year alignments have been found from then to now.

Saraswathi River Drying Up Date : An important factor to consider in dating the Vedas is Geography. See: http://ancientindians.wordpress.com/saraswathi-river/

What emerges from a geological analysis is that the Sarswathi which flowed in full form around 9000 BC started drying up from around 5000 BC to 3000 BC. The geological events that contributed to the rise of the Himalayas, also cut off the the tributaries, major and minor, to Saraswati and the march to oblivion commenced around 3000 BC.

Unique Eclipse Pair Combination just before the Bharata War and other events. See: Unique eclipse pair combination just before the Bharata War! : based on http://www.boloji.com/astro/00325a.htm : DrS.Balakrishna February 23, 2002

The

first and oldest eclipse pair from 3129 BC is unique. These fit the Puranic description that Sri Krishna passed away in 3102 BCJ, which is 27

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years after the war. The study confirms that Kaliyuga could have started in 3102 BCJ. There are 5 other pairs that may fit the bill, though not as well as this one.
Saptarishi Calendar. See :

Where are the Saptarishis (Big Dipper) today? Parikshit to Nanda 1050 years Vishnu Puranam Saptarishis in Maghaa Nakhstaram at Parikshits time : Vishnu Puranam Saptarishi (Great Bear) Positions according to Varahamihira and Vateswara Nanda came to power when the Saptarishis indicated Purvashaada : Vishnu Puranam Which Nanda was indicated by the Saptarishis in Purvashaada Nakshatram : Vishnu Puranam The Saptarishi Calendar is a way of naming the centuries after the Nakshatras. Yudhisthiras period was Saptarishis in the Magha, Nanda was Saptarishis in Purvashada and this century is Saptarishis in Makha. Based on this calendar, the Bharata war took place about 3100 BC.

Date of the Mahabharata War as per Aryabhatta It is very important to note that no reference is made either to Saka Era as some claim or to Kaliyuga as others claim. It is also important to note that as per traditional estimates 1/10th of a Mahayuga (Kaliyuga duration) was remaining at the end of the Bharata war and as per Aryabhatta 1/4th of the Mahayuga (Yuga Pada) was remaining at the end of the Bharata War. Brahmagupta did not agree with Aryabhatta on this point. It is certain that Aryabhatta had access to the Bhagavatham and the Bharatam, since he lived after the Bharata war. It is important again to note that the phrase translated as 60 times 60 in the image below is debated and translated as 6 times 60 by one school of thought.

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Date of Mahabharata War as per Aryabhatta Winter solstice at Dhanishtha. -1424 BC.

I need to verify this.

Mahabharata War occurs (dated from reference in the Mahabharata citing winter solstice at Dhanishtha, which occurs around this time). (conflicts with the 3139 BC) I need to verify this.

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Kalahanas Rajatarangini : Date of Mahabharata War


Reference : Kalahanas Rajatarangini. Translation by Ranjit Sitaram Pandit, Foreword by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Publishers : Sahitya Akademi. ISBN : 81-2601236-6, Rs 200, first published in 1935, latest reprint 2006. The expert Scholar Sri R.S. Pandit is incidentally and interestingly the husband of Smt. Vijayalakshmi Pandit, the first woman President of the United Nations General Assembly (My mother was named after her ). Who was Kalahana? Kalahana was a Kashmiri Historian, who composed the history of Kashmiri Kings (Rajatarangini) in Sanskrit. Why is it important to us? He has provided a links between the Kashmiri Kings, and the Yadava kings as well as his estimate of the date of the Bharata war. What does he tell us? King Gonanda 1 was a great Kashmiri king. He was invited by Jarasandha to attack Mathura after the death of Kamsa. In the battle between Balarama (Sri Krishnas brother) and Gonanda, Balarama won (embraced the goddess of victory) and Gonanda I died (embraced the earth). King Damodara 1 inherited the kingdom of Kashmir from his father Gonanda I and was waiting for an opportunity to hit back at the Yadavas. At this time the Yadavas were invited to Gandhar, on the banks of the Sindhu, for a swayamvar of a princess. He attacked the Yadavas with a huge army before the Swayamvar. In the battle, Sri Krishna killed him with his chakram (battle - disc). Yasovati was the widowed and pregnant wife of Damodara I. Sri Krishna had her crowned the queen of Kashmir, by brahmans. The yadavas did not like this. They wanted to press their advantage and take over the kingdom. But Sri Krishna explained to them that the land of Kashmir is Parvati Deviand that the ruler is an Amsa of Siva and he should not be disregarded even if he is a bad man. Gonanda 2, the son of mother Yasovati was crowned king while yet a boy whose dangling legs could not reach the foot stool from the throne. He was not invited either by the Kauravas or the Pandavas to fight in the war, because he was a kid. Thus Kashmir did not participate in the Mahabharata War. 35 were the kings after Gonanda 2 whose names and deeds disappeared without a trace. Lava, the next king constructed 84 lakhs of stone houses and founded the city of Lolor. Kusa, Khagendra, Surendra, Godhara, Suvarna, Janaka, Sacinara were the kings who followed Lava. Both Lava and Kusa gifted Agraharas to brahmanas. Khagendra waged wars against the Nagas. The others expanded in kashmir founding viharas and gifting agraharas. Suvarna constructed the canal Suvarnamani in Kerala. Sacinara died without a son. Asoka was the great grandson of Sakuni and the son of Sacinaras great-uncle. He was the next king. He accepted Buddhism, and covered suSkaletra and vitastAtra with stupas. He built a very large Caitya in Dharmaranya Vihara. he founded the magnificent city of Srinagari with 96 lakh houses. He rebuilt the prakaras of Vijayesa with stone and built 2 temples to Asokeswara within the stone rampart.

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Jalauka was born to Asoka with the blessings of Siva. When the mlecchas (foreigners people of indistinct speech ) overran his country, Asoka performed a penance to please Bhutesa and was blessed with Jaluaka. Jalauka could transform materials and had plenty of gold to gift. He froze the waters, entered the Naga kingdoms and delighted many Naga girls. In his court, was an erudite philosophers who defeated many puffed up, powerful, buddhist debators. Jalauka was devoted to Vijayeswara and Jyestesa in Nandisa kshetra. He had a naga friend. He drove out the mlecchas. The place where the invasion was repelled is called Ujjhatadimba. He instituted theconstitutional system of Yudhisthira. and so on.. this brings us to Gonanda 3; who became the first of the Gonanda dynasty. Kalahana tells us that 52 kings passed into oblivion from the time of the Kauravas and The Pandavas to this Gonanda 3.

He tells us that, some people have calculated 2268 years from the Mahabharata War to the time of this Gonanda 3. (Giving on an average of 43-44 years per king) This he says is based on the wrong assumption that Mahabharata War took place at the end of the Dwapara Yuga. He says that the Bharata war took place in year 653 of Kaliyuga (not 36 years before Kaliyuga, which is the assumption made by others. See Date of the Mahabharata War) He says Of the laukika era, in the 24th year at present, 1070 years of the Saka Era have gone by. (See : How many kinds of Sakas (Eras) are there?) Roughly commencing from Gonanda 3, 2330 autumns have now elapsed. 1266 years is the duration of time which, it is believed is the duration of 52 kings Then he refers to Varahamihiras Brhat Samhita and says that since the Saptarishi Mandala moves from one nakshatra to the other in 100 years, and the Saptarishis stood in (indicated) Magha (Regulus) during the time of Yudhisthira, 2526 years prior to the Saka Era was the epoch of his reign. See Saptarishi Calendar. Varahamihiras Pancasiddhantika refers to 427 Saka Era (1.8.10 of pancasiddhantika), in a calculation to arrive at the Ahargana. : Varahamihira Really 427 of Saka Era? : Pancha Siddhantika

Notes: 1. In giving 1226 years for 52 kings, Kalahana is assuming an average of 23-24 years per king, which is close to the assumption that many historians make.

2.

1226+2330 = 3556 years is Kalahanas estimate for the time between The Bharata War and himself.Pulakesin equates 3735 years after the Bharata War with 556 years of the Sakam that he was living in The Aihole Inscription. 3. Kalahana says that he is in 1070 Saka Era., which gives 3556-1070 = 2486 years between the Bharata war and the start of Kalahanas Saka Era. Pulakesin says that 556 years of the Saka era have passed, this gives us 3179 years between the Bharata war and the start of the saka Era referred by Pulakesin.

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o If Pulakesis Saka Reference = Kalahanas Saka Reference, then date of Bharata War as per Pulakesin is 3179 years before the start of the Sakam, and 2486 years as per Kalahana. Pulakesin who lived before Kalahana, clearly used Vyasas date for the Bharata War. 4. In the Brihat Samhita Varahamihira is speaking of a Sakam whose zero point is 2526 years afterYudhisthira was made king. (Bharata War). 5. Vyasa said that Sri Krishnas ascent and Kaliyuga beginning was 36 years after the Bharata war. Kalahana says that the Bharata war took place in year 653 of Kaliyuga. This implies that his date for Sri Krishnas ascent is 689 kaliyuga. 6. Traditional Indian calendars give the start of Kaliyuga as 3102 BCE. (BC) o Vyasas date for Bharata War : 3138 BCE. (2102+36) o Kalahanas Date for Bharata War : 2449 BCE (3102-653) o Start of Saka Era referred to by Varahamihira : 612 BCE (3128-2526) (Assuming Vyasas date for the war) o Start of Saka Era referred to by Varahamihira : 77 CE (AD) (2449-2526) (Assuming Kalahanas date for the war. Kalahana took it that Varahamiharas Saka was the same as his own Saka and post dated the Bharata War. So this is a circular reference.) o Start of Saka Era referred to by Pulakesin : 41 CE (AD) (3735-3138556) (Assuming Vyasas date for the war) o Start of Saka Era Referred to by Kalahana : 73 CE (AD) o o Arybhattas date for himself (3600 or 360 years after Bharata War) : 2778 BCE or 462 AD (CE): (using Vyasas date for the war) Varahamihira referred to 427 Saka Era in Panca Siddhantika. (Kalahana took it that Varahamiharas Saka was the same as his own Saka and post dated the Bharata War.) Using Vyasas date for the war, Varahamihiras date is later than 185 BCE (612-427). Using Kalahanas assumption of the Saka equivalence, Varahamihiras date is later than 500 CE (AD). This is the calculation that Al-Biruni used. This equivalence is not accepted by many scholars., but appears to have been accepted by mainstream historians. Pulakesins date for himself : 597 AD (CE) (using Vyasas date for the war) Kalahanas Date for himself : 1143 AD (CE)

o o

7.

Modern Indian calendars give 78 CE (AD) as the start of the Saka Era.

Varahamihira Really 427 of Saka Era? : Pancha Siddhantika


Varahamihira was one of the 9 gems of Vikramadityas court. There is a famous shlokam which says this. Kalidasa was one of the other nine. Kalidasas Megha Sandesam demonstrates a clear knowledge of Varahamihiras observations on

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meteorology. So to get Varahamihiras date is also to fix the date of Kalidasa and Vikramaditya. The date assigned to Varahamihira is based on these verses of the PanchaSiddhanthika. Chapter 1, Verse 8 to 10. (Page 288 in the Reference : The Text and Translation of The PanchaSiddhantha by Mahamohopadhyaya Sudhakara Dwivedi and G. Thibaut, 1889. available at the Digital Library of India). Varahamihira gives a way to calculate the ahargana, or the count of days from the beginning of the relevant epoch to the present day. For that he says that 427 must be subtracted from the present Saka Era. This merely implies that 427 Saka Era was the start of the Karanagrantha in use at the time. It does not specify Varahamihiras birth, death or the date of the pancha siddhanthika. Alberuni made two Assumptions both are possibly wrong: 1. 427 Saka Era is the date of the Panchasiddhanthika 2. The saka era of kalahana is the same as the saka era of Varahamihira. o See : Kalahanas Rajatarangini : Date of Mahabharata War, Date of the Mahabharata War and How many kinds of Sakas (Eras) are there? Based on those 2 assumptions, he computed that the date for Varahamihiras Panchasiddhantika was 526 years before his time. And based on this statement, Varahamihira is assigned a date in the 6th century CE (AD). Conclusion :

1.

Year 427 of the Saka Era referred to by Varahamihira in the Panchasiddhanthika is the year of the Karanagrantha. 2. 2526 years separate the Bharata War and the start point of this Saka Era (Brhat Samhita) 3. Kalahana and AlBeruni assumed that Varahamihiras Sakam was the same as Kalahanas sakam. 4. Thus, AlBeruni calculated that 526 years separated him from Varahamihira and Kalahana calculated that Bharata War was in 653 Kaliyugam.. both were possibly wrong. 5. Taking 3168 BCE (36 kaliyuga) as the Date of the Bharata war, we conclude that the Saka referred to by Varahamihira started in 612 BCE. 6. Karana Granthas have astronomical significance and Sakas have historical significance. 7. So we must look for an important astronomical event in 612427=185 BCE and an important kingly victory in 612 BCE. 8. We know that Varahamihira could not have lived prior to 185 BCE. This gives us an upper bound.

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Date of Sri Rama


Sri Rama was born in the Tretha Yuga. Please see the articles below for the data I have gathered so far and the analysis done so far.

Agastya Canopus
All Rights Reserved: Satya Sarada Kandula The article in the link quoted below makes a connection between canopus and Agastya. It makes 2 sets of assumptions and calculations arrives at a date for Agastya around 4000 BC. Assumption set A:

The nakshatram Canopus was named Agastya after the Rishi Agastya. This was so because he was the first sanskrit northerner to sight it. He sighted it as soon as he crossed the Vindhyas.

Calculations:

Agastya (Canopus) was visible in the north of the Vindhyas only after 5200 BC and in Kurukshetra (Delhi) only from 3100 BC assuming that for a star to be visible its meridian altitude has to be at least 5. Agastya (Canopus) was visible in the north of the Vindhyas only after 4000 BC assuming that for a star to be visible its meridian altitude has to be at least 4.

Conclusion A:

Agastya Rishis Vindhya Crossing was between 4000 BC and 5000 BC.

Assumptions B:

Agastya started the first Sangam. The last Sangam ended around 0 BC. Each Pandyan king ruled for 20 years.

Calculations B:

There were 89, 59 and 49 Pandyan kings in each of the Sangams. (89+59 + 49) * 20 = 3940 years

Conclusion B: Agastyas time was 4000 BC Notes :

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from: http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/dec252005/2174.pdf by K.D. Abhyankar. 1. 2. 3. 4. Agastya, is the author of 25 hymns (nos 166 to 190) of the first mandala of the Rigveda. Canopus, the second brightest star in the night sky, is called Agastya in India. This star is close to the ecliptic south pole, having an ecliptic latitude of 76. As the celestial poles go round the ecliptic poles due to the phenomenon of precession of the earths axis of rotation, this star becomes visible from different latitudes on the globe at different times. If we assume that for a star to be visible at a place its altitude at the meridian passage should be at least 5, then calculations give the visibility curve for Agastya (Canopus). Agastya was not visible from any part of India before 10,000 BC. First it became visible at Kanyakumari around that epoch. Thereafter, as it was brought more and more northwards by precession, it became visible at various places in India.

5. 6.

7.

It became visible in the east coast (in the present Chennai region) in 8500 BC, and in the present day Hyderabad in 7200 BC, in the Vindhya region in 5200 BC, at Delhi in 3100 BC. 8. At present it is visible from most parts of India for longer or shorter durations. This cycle will repeat after every 25,725 years. It is thus clear that around 5000 BC, the star Agastya was visible from the south of the Vindhyas, but not from the north of it. 9. If sage Agastya was the first to cross the Vindhyas from the north, he would have been the first northerner to see the star. Hence the star has been named after him, just as the Magellanic clouds in the southern sky are named after the navigator Magellan, who first saw them as he sailed southwards. 10. This fixes an epoch of 5000 BC for sage Agastya. This date is based on the assumption that for a star to be visible its meridian altitude has to be at least 5. 11. If we make 8 meridian altitude as the criterion for visibility, the date of Agastya would be shifted to about 4000 BC. The dates 5000 and 4000 BC should therefore bracket the probable epoch of Agastya crossing the Vindhyan mountains.

Tamil literature tells us about the three Sangams which were patronized by 89, 59 and 49 Pandyan kings respectively. The first Sangam was supposed to have been started by Agastya and the last Sangam ended sometime at the beginning of the Christian era. we have 197 kings between these two dates. If we assume a span of 20 years for each king on an average, we get a total period of about 4000 years, which would place Agastyas epoch around 4000 BC, in agreement with the astronomical dating.

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Date of Sri Ramas birth as per Balakanda


Posted by satyask on March 16, 2009 These are the slokas in the balakanda which refer to the positions of the grahas at the time of Sri Ramas Birth : (Source) : 1.18.8 1.18.9 1.18.10 : then, when sacrifice, was completed, of seasons, six, : were spent, : then, in twelfth month, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. in Chaitra month, on the nineth day of the rising Moon, presided by Aditi as devata, when the star was , and the five grahas in their own OR exalted places, in Karkata Lagna, when the 2 lords of speech, long with Moon, was rising, a

Kausalya, lord of the entire universe, bowed to by all the worlds, adorned with all the characteristics, : Vishnus, facet, half, highly fortunate, birth . perpetuating the Ikshvaku race, Rama, as his son, gave

The Moons (Chandras) Location : The nakshatra presided by Aditi is Punarvasu and only Punarvasu : Refer: http://oldthoughts.wordpress.com/nakshatras-masasspecialities/ o The first 3 padas of Punaravsu form the last part of Mithuna and the last Pada of Punarvasu forms the first one-ninth of Karkata Rasi. Since the moon was in Karkata (Cancer), we know that Chandra was in the last pada (quarter) of Punarvasu. (Pollux) . Location of Lagna, Guru and Budha (Ascendant, Jupiter and Mercury) : when the 2 lords of speech This must be Guru and Budha , along with Moon, in the rising ascendant Karkata Lagna. Location of other grahas : and the five grahas in their own OR exalted places/houses. : So we have : Lagna (The Ascendant Point), Guru, Chandra, and Budha were in Karkata Rasi., of which Guru is exalted in Karkata. Location of Kuja, Sukra, Sani? Kuja was in Makara, Sukra was in Meena, Sani was in Thula.

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The debate is about Surya. (Source) : Could Surya have been in Exaltation?

The Tithi (or lunar day) is Navami. Fact: For Moon to be in Punarvasu Nakshatra and in the Zodiacal sign Cancer, the degree of Moon must be between 0.0 to 3.20 of Cancer. Assertion: o Navami means the distance between Sun and Moon is between 96 to 108 degrees. o Subtracting this from the degree of Moon, the possible degree of Sun falls between 12 degrees Pisces to 27.20 Pisces. Conclusion : Sun can not be in Aries and hence can not be in exaltation. o Re-Interpretation of the shlokam : o sva ucCha samsthEShu panchasu grahEShu this only means that there are 5 planets either in exaltation or in own signs. But this was interpreted as 5 exaltations by Astrologers and that was the mistake. It turns out to be only 4 exaltations ( Jup, Ven, Mars, Saturn) and one (Moon) own house. Action Needed : The date must be recalculated with the Sun in Meena.

Other Observations :

Rasis were in usage before the MahaBharata War Itself right in the time of Veda Vyasas father, Parasara. o Brihat Parasara Hora Sastra, explained Rasis. It was told by Parasara to Maitreya, . o Parasara himself quotes Garga on Bhavas. (Houses.) So this knowedge was prior to Parasara himself. Gargas son played a part in Bharatas conquest of Gandhara, Garga named Sr Krishna. o The Baalakanda sloka refers to in Karkata Rasi: Karkataka is not only the Sanskrit name for Cancer, it MEANS Cancer. (This is one more factor that supports that the hypothesis that Ancient Greeks Learned about rasis (zodiac signs) from Indians.) Sri Ramas date was only 3-4 generations away from Krishnas date, Please See: Generations between Rama and Krishna. Nakshatradhipatis shifted from Vedic deities to Grahas, after Valmikis Ramayana: So Parasaras Hora Sastra had not yet attained total acceptance. (See Details Below), Gargas ideas must have been well-known though.

Why 5114 BCE Date for Sri Rama must be rejected :

Because it is calculated using erroneous data and limited accuracy software. This date: Sri Rama Navami 10th January 5114 BCE Birth Day of Rama Observation at 12.30 p.m. was computed using planetarium software based on the verses above, using the Sun in Aries and completely ignoring Mercury, though it is mentioned that Mercury was in Cancer. Apparently, most commercial software use simplified algorithms and give accurate results only for a period of about 250 years on either side of year 2000 A.D. There were not more than 3 or 4 Generations between Sri Rama and Sri Krishna. Mercury & Sun cannot be separated by more than one sign/house. Therefore, if Mercury was in Cancer then, the Sun could not have been in Aries.

Verification Calculations Related to the Debate :

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Navami Tithi is the 9th sunrise of the moon. The sun and moon are in line every amavasya. The duration between two new moons is 29.53059 solar days. The moon must complete 390 degrees in this time, between 2 amavasyas. This is because, the moon only needs 27.3 days to cover the 360 degrees of the zodiac. In the extra 2.2 days, it must cover approximately an additional rasi or 30 degrees more. The sun itself moves through approx 30 degrees during this time. On Chaitra Amavasya, the Sun and Moon were on the same longitude. We assume Chaitra Sukla Paksha Navami and a masa start date of Amavasya. On each day from there for 9 days, the moon moved ahead by 13 deg and the sun by one deg. The difference between them increased approx 12 deg per day, till they reached the morning of Navami. ~12 degrees between each sunrise. 9 *12 = 108 degrees of separation between the sun and the moon. Navami lasts from 108 to 120 degrees of separation. Since the moon was between 0 to 3.33 deg (1st pada) of Cancer, ie 90 and 93.3 deg of the zodiac, the sun must definitely be in Meena (Piesces).Or must it? Mercury & Sun cannot be separated by more than one sign/house. Therefore, if Mercury was in Cancer then, the Sun could only be in Leo or Taurus? o The question also to be resolved is the shift between the tropical and the sidereal zodiac. If the debate is in reality caused by an equinox-precession effect or an exaltation precession effect, then we are close to an accurate date for Sri Rama. o The latitude dependence on exaltation must also be taken into account. It is also possible that at least 3 of the other 4 planets were in Sva Samstha and not Uccha Samstha. If this is the case, then this sloka can only be used to generate alternate dates for Ramas birth and not The One Exact Date. The one that matches my analysis based on brahmin lineages : Generations between Rama and Krishna, will be the right one.

Nakshatradhipatis shifted from Vedic deities to Grahas, after Valmikis Ramayana : Contemporary Hindu Astrology ascribes the adhipatyam (lordship) of the Nakshatras to Grahas. The vimsottari dasa calculations are based on this. This probably happened when thebrihat parasara hora sastra became popular. In the Valmiki Ramayanam, we find many references to Nakshatras. The adhipatyam of the nakshatras is ascribed to Vedic deities.

Raja Janaka said that the second of the two days of PoorvaPhalguni and Uttara Phalguni where the Bhaga (deity) was Prajapathi, was recommended by the wise for marriage. (See : Sita Devi ) O brahmin! on the latter day of the two Phalgunis, in which day, : Prajapati, : Bhaga, to perform marriage, : wise people, are praising. Similarly Raja Dasaratha selected the Pushya Nakshatram of Chaitra Masam for Ramas coronation. (See : Arrangements were made for Sri Ramas coronation as a crown prince and Dasaratha sent for Rama to tell him about his coronation.) There are references to rasis in the balakanda : : then, when sacrifice, was completed, of seasons, six, : were spent, : then, in twelfth month, in Chaitra month, on the nineth day of the rising Moon, presided by Aditi as devata, when the star (Punarvasu) , and the five grahas, in their own exalted places (houses), in Karkata Lagna, when Brihaspati, along with Moon, was rising, Kausalya, lord of the entire universe, bowed to by all the worlds, adorned with all the characteristics, : Vishnus, facet,

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highly fortunate, perpetuating the Ikshvaku race, Rama, as his son, gave birth . Source Note that there is a mention of grahas ( ) and of rasis ( ) but the naksharadhipati was Aditi : when the nakshatra presided by Aditi as devata Dasaratha, Kausalya and their sons were always compared to Vedic Deities such as Indra, Aditi, Yama, Varuna etc.

Another Note: The muhurta selection, in the Ramayana was done by the kings themselves and not their priests and the muhurtam was sun-rise in both cases. Nowadays, the muhurta is selected any time of the day or night. It may also be noted that then a muhurta was a time unit of 48 min duration, but many modern Hindu weddings have to be performed at an exact instant, which is labelled the muhurtam.

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Generations between Rama and Krishna.

Sri Rama : Photograph by Satya Sarada Kandula : All Rights Reserved

1. Brahmarshi Vasishtha lived from the time of Satyavrata Manu, to the time
of Sri Rama. In How long did Ancient Indians live? we worked out that it was reasonable to suppose that the long lived people of ancient India lived for about 120 years. It is possible, that they lived longer, but it is not necessary to assume it, if you look at the brahman lineages instead of the kingly lineages. 2. We know that Vasishthas son Sakthi, had a son called Parasara and that Parasara had a son called Veda Vyasa. So we know that Vasishtha was the great grandfather of Vyasa. 3. Veda Vyasa was the great grandson of Vasishtha and Sri Rama was Vasisthas very young student.

4. Sri Krishna was the cousin of the Pandavas, younger than Yudhisthira and 5.
Bhima, but older than the Arjuna. So Sri Krishna was of the age of Vyasas grandsons. Sri Krishna was named by Garga, the son of Bharadwaja, who was quoted by Parasara in the 21st chapter of the Brihat Parasara Hora Sastra. So Garga was at least of Sri Krishnas great grandfathers generation if not older. Viswamitra was Sri Ramas teacher and taught him all about the weapons of the Devas. Viswamitras sister, Satyavati, was the grandmother of Parasurama. So Viswamitra was the grand-uncle of Parasurama. Viswamitra and Vasishtha were contemporaries, they lived at the same time and fought each other and became friends. Of the two, Viswamitra is younger. When Parasurama fought a lot of kings, he spared Dasaratha, the

6. 7.

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father of Sri Rama. So Parasurama was one generation earlier to Sri Rama. At Sri Ramas wedding, Parasurama challenged him to hold the Vishnu Chapam the bow of Sri Vishnu. Parasurama killed Karthavirya Arjuna, who had previously defeated the mighty Ravana. 8. Parasuramas student was Agnivesha and Agniveshas student was Drona. Parasurama gave his axe to Drona. Drona was the teacher of Vyasas grandchildren, the Kauravas and the Pandavas. Dronas father was the sage Bharadwaja, and Bharadawaja was the student of Valmiki. Dronas son Ashwathhama was a friend of the Kauravas. Drona was like an uncles age to the Pandavas, Kauravas and Sri Krishna andBharadwaja was of a grandfathers age to them, like Vyasa. Though Bharadwaja was Valmikis disciple, he may have been older than Valmiki. Bharadwajas daughter was Visravass wife, the mother of Kubera, the elder half-brother of Ravana, so she must have been much older to Dronacharya. Drona was born late to Bharadwaja. 9. Valmiki was a friend of Sri Rama. He not only wrote the Ramayanam, but he also looked after Ramas wife Sita and raised Ramas children. The Uttarakanda of the Valmiki ramayana also tells us that Valmiki was a friend of Dasaratha. 10. So far, we have worked out that Vyasa, Sri Rama and Valmiki were of the same generation, which makes Sri Rama of the grandfather generation of Sri Krishna. We also know that Vyasa was senior to Sri Rama. 11. Bhishmas father Santanu, married Vyasas mother Satyavati after both of them were born. Vyasas parents were Parasara and Satyavati., and Bhishmas parents were Santanu and Ganga Devi. So Bhishma was a brother to Vyasa and of the same generation as Sri Rama.

12. Ravanas grandfather Pulastya, explained the story of creation


to Bhishma at Gangadwar. (Padma Puranam). Since Sri Rama and Ravana were of the same generation, and as Bhishma was of the same generation as Sri Rama, Pulastya was of a grandfathers generation to Bhishma! 13. Bhishma fought the older Parasurama, over Ambas marriage issue. 14. Sahadeva, the youngest Pandava, went on a victorious campaign of the South after Yudhisthiras campaign. When he came up to Rameswaram, he sent a respectful message to Vibhishana of Sri Lanka, asking about his welfare and paying his respects. Vibhishana, Ravanas brother was Sri Ramas generation and of a grandfather generation to Sahadeva and the Pandavas. 15. Dhaumya who was the priest of the Pandavas, visited Sri Rama at the time of his coronation. (Uttarakanda, Valmiki Ramayana)

16. Many Rig Vedic Rishis, the authors of the Rig Veda, were Sri
Ramas elders. They were Vasishtha, Viswamitra, Kanva (who raised Viswamitras daughter), Agastya (who gave Sri Rama, weapons from Indraand directed him southward), Atri (whose wife Anasuya, gave Sita ornaments and advice), Bhardwaja (grandfather of Ravanas half brother and Valmikis disciple), Kasyapa, (Indras father), Bhrigu (Parasuramas

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great grandfather (Parasurama-Jamadagni-Richika-Bhrgu)), and Gauthama (Sri Rama redeemed his wife Ahalya). 17. Durvasa was the son of Atri and Anasuya. He predicted Sri Ramas separation from Sita. (Uttarakanda). He gave Kunthi the mantra for invoking the Devas to beget sons. He visited the Pandavas when they were in exile. (Mahabharata). He pronounced a curse on Sakuntala, the daughter of Viswamitra. (Abhignyana Sakuntalam). 18. Vaivaswatha Manu (Satyavrata Manu) was a contemporary of Vasishtha (Matsya Avatara). His son Saryati was of Sakthis generation, grandson, Anarta was of Parasaras generation, great-grandson Revata was of Vyasas generation. Revatas son, Raivata Kakudmin was of Pandus generation. Raivatas son-in-law Balarama and Pandus sons, the Pandavas were of the same generation and very close together in age as well. 19. Jambavantha fought alongside Indra, when young, fought in Sri Ramas army when he was old enough to feel his age, and had a wrestling match with Sri Krishna and gave his daugther, Jambavathi, in marriage to Sri Krishna. He was of a grandfathers generation to Sri Krishna. 20. Janamejaya, the greatgrandson of Yudhisthira, and great grand nephew of Sri Krishna was enthroned in Kishkinda. Mainda and Dwivida, Vanara heroes who fought alongside, Sri Rama, were killed by Balarama when they attacked Dwaraka. (Sri Rama had left Kishkinda with the Vanaras, Sugriva and Angada, but the Yadus/Purus took control of it). 21. The Upanishadic period overlapped with the Vedic period and extended slightly beyond it. Sri Krishna gave us the Bhagavad Gita which is said to be the essence of all the Upanishads. The Katha Upanishad itself is a conversation between Gauthamas great grand son Nachiketas and Mrtyu (the god of death). Naachiketas was of Dronas generation, one generation before Sri Krishna. 22. Maya Danava composed the Surya Siddhantam towards the end of Krta Yuga. He gave his adopted daughter Mandodari in marriage to Ravana. He built the Maya Sabha for the pandavas in IndraPrastha in the Dwapara Yuga. 23. Balarama, the brother of Sri Krishna, visited Raja Janaka, Sita Devis father, at Mithila. It was there that he trained Duryodhana in Gada Yuddha (battle with the maces). Brahmanas, very accurately preserved their own lineages without distortion. The father-son and the teacher-disciple relationships are consistent across the puranas. The possible causes of errors made by other historians are given below. First cause of commonly made errors: The defenceless brahmins of the later periods may have been under a lot of pressure from the armed rulers, trying to claim kshatriya lineage, to include the names of their ancestors into important lineages. So, the Puranas put so many kings into this duration, and each purana put in a different number of kings. This is because, all kings wanted to derive their descent from Surya, the sun, and Chandra, the moon. And Everyone wanted to belong to the Ikshwaku Dynasty and everyone wanted to be the directly related to either Sri Rama or Sri Krishna. Some historians, looked at the lineage of the kings, got confused and said

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that Indians did not respect history. Adding lots of kings into the direct ancestry of Sri Rama and Sri Krishna, made it necessary to meaninglessly prolong the lifespan of the brahman rishis, to thousands of years. Second Cause of Commonly Made Errors: In addition, Sri Rama was said to be of the Tretha Yuga, which can also be translated as the Third Yuga, though it generally refers to the second yuga. Sri Krishna is said to be of the Dwapara Yuga, or the yuga after the second. Actually both of them could have been of the third yuga. (Interestingly in another manner of counting, Kali is ekatha, the first, Dwapara is the second, Thretha is the third, and Krutha is the 4th, the complete or Satya yuga: please see the link below on how many kinds of Yugas are there.) Third Cause of Commonly Made Errors: Today we use Aryabhattas durations for Yuga lengths. Aryabhatta lived either 360 or 3600 years after Vyasa. So the yuga durations referred to in the Uttarakanda and theMahabharata, are likely to be different from the yuga durations we use today. In this article on how many kinds of yugas are there we see that there are many different kinds of yugas and durations. Vyasa Siddhantam his astronomical treatise is not available to us, to my knowledge.

1.

In Yoga Vasishtam, Valmiki reports a conversation between Viswamitra and Sri Rama, where Viswamitra narrates an incident where Suka, the son of Vyasa approaches Raja Janaka, the father of Sita Devi for a philosophical discussion. At this time Dasaratha is alive and Vyasa is sitting next to him. I am currently rejecting this incident because Sakthi, the father of Parasara was present at Sitas oath taking ceremony, as per Uttarakanda of the Valmiki Ramayanam. Vyasas father, Parasara was born shortly after the death of his father Sakthi, the son of Vasishtha.)

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Generations previous to Sri Rama.


Brahma: 1. Brahmas son was Pulastya, Pulastyas son was Visravas, Visravass son was Ravana, who Sri Rama killed. Brahma gave Varams (boons) to Ravana and his brothers. 2. Brahmas son was Vasishtha, his son was Sakthi, his son was Parasara and his son was Vyasa who was older than Sri Rama. 3. Brahma gave varams (boons) to Hiranyakasipu, Prahladas father. 4. Brahma was the grandfather of Kasyapa who was the father of the Devas. 5. The Devas were his great grandchildren as were the Daityas, Danavas, as also Ravana and his siblings and Vyasa. 6. Brahmas children, the sanatkumaras and Narada are known as brahmacharis. Bhrgu: (Bhrigu also called Kavi) 1. Bhrgu was the son of Brahma. (Mahabharata, Pauloma Parva) 2. Bhrgu was the father of Sukracharya, the grandfather of Devayani and the great-grandfather of Yayati and the great-great-grandfather of Yadu. Indras daughter Jayanti was married to Bhrgus son Sukracharya (also called Kavya). (Devi Bhagavatham) 3. Bhrgu was the grandfather Rchka (Richika), great-grandfather of Jamadagni, great-great-grandfather of Parasurama. Rchka was the son of Cyavana. (Mahabharata). This makes Parasurama and Yadu cousins.

4. *Parasurama killed Kartavirya Arjuna in revenge for his murder of


Jamadagni. Kartavirya Arjuna is said to be a Haihaya and Haihayas are said to be a branch of Yadavas. I think that maybe Haihayas claimed to be Yadavas but were not Yadus descendants exactly. Parasurama may have been a very young cousin of Yadu. Kartavirya Arjuna proved far more powerful than Ravana in a small challenge. 5. Bhrgus wife Pauloma was the mother of their son Cyavana, who married Sukanya. Sukanya was Anartas sister. Anarta was Raivatas grandfather.Cyavanas father-in-law, ie Sukanyas father was Saryati, and his father was Vaivaswatha Manu. That makes Saryati and Bhrgu: sambandhis or viyankulu.. 6. Bhrgu and Bharadwaja had discussions on many subjects. (Mahabharata). Vasishtha: 1. Vasishtha was a son (manasa putra) of Brahma.

2. He was one of the rishis present at the time of the Ksheera Sagara
Mathanam and acquired the cow Nandini that was the daughter of the cow Kamadhenu that emerged from the Ksheera Sagara Mathanam. 3. He was a contemporary of Satyavrata Manu of the Matsya Avatar and was one of the saptarishis that was saved on the boat.

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4. He was a contemporary of Ikshwaku, Manus son. 5. His wife was Arundhati.

Satya Sarada Kandula

6. Vasistha was a contemporary of Sri Ramas ancestors and Sita Devis


ancestors. 7. He was great grandfather to Vyasa and therefore, the 6th generation ancestor of the Kauravas.

8. Vaivaswatha Manu (Satyavrata Manu) was a contemporary of Vasishtha


(Matsya Avatara). His son Saryati was of Sakthis generation, grandson, Anarta was of Parasaras generation, great-grandson Revata was of Vyasas generation. Revatas son, Raivata Kakudmin was of Dhritarashtras generation. Raivatas son-in-law Balarama and Dhrtarashtras sons, the Kauravas were of the same generation and very close together in age. (This is as per Bhagavatham.) 9. Ikshvaku Sakthi and Saryati must have been of the same generation. Dasaratha must have been of Parasaras and Anartas generation. Revata must have been of Vyasas and Sri Ramas generation. Raivata Kakudmin of Dhrtarashtras and Lava Kusas generation. Balarama, Sri Krishna, Pandavas and the Kauravas must have been of the generation of children of Lava and Kusa. (This is my speculation needs to be verified with data Satya.) 10. Vasishtha may have been 50-60 years older than Sri Rama and may have served as a purohita for 3-4 generations of Ikshvakus prior to Sri Ramas time. Dasaratha was definitely one of them. Therefore between Dasaratha and Ikshwaku, we cannot count too many kings.

11. Vasistha was angry with King Nimi, Janakas ancestor that he employed
Gauthama Maharshi in his stead for a Yajna. Satananda the Janakas purohita was the son of Gautham and Ahalya. Devarata the eldest son of Nimi received the Siva Dhanus from the Devas after the Daksha Yajna nasanam. (So Sakthi and Devarata may have been of the same generation). Gauthama was a contemporary of Nimi and Satananda was a contemporary of Raja Janaka. Devarata may have been of the generation between Nimi and Janaka, but again, we cannot count too many kings between Nimi and Janaka. 12. Vasishtha, Vaivaswata and Nimi; Sakthi, Ikshvaku and Devarata; Parasara, Dasaratha and Janaka; Vyasa, Rama and Sita. (This is my speculation needs to be verified with data Satya.) 13. Nahusha, Vasishtha; Yayati, Sakthi; Yadu, Kuru, Puru, Parasara; (No one from vasishthas generation? Check) Santanu, Dushyanta, Ganga, Satyavati, Sakuntala; Bhishma, Vyasa, Sarvadamana Bharata, Rama. some issue here. 14. Kartavirya Arjuna was killed by Parasurama, he was a Haihaya, a descendant of Yadu as per Vishnu Purana. Viswamitra : 1. Madhavi, the daughter of Yayati was the wife of Viswamitra and the mother of 3 lines of kings. Possible causes of errors in the Puranic Lineages as variously listed:

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1. Purvaja: Purvaja simply means the one born earlier. It can be an elder
brother, uncle or ancestor. It need not always be taken as ancestor.

2. Pressure on brahmans: Brahmans had to eschew wealth and power to


continue their intellectual pursuits. Dependent on the Kshatriyas they had to modify the lineage lists to suit the rulers. Frequently, it only meant adding a few names in a list without altering the texts. Many Jains and Buddhists also find themselves swelling the ranks of the Ikhsvakus.

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Other Important Dates and Discussions


Caksusha Manvantaram ends with the Matysa Avataram Flood, Vaivaswata Manvantaram Begins : Srimad Bhagavatam.
There was a flood at the end of the Cakshusha Manvantaram (6th Manvantaram). Then the Dravidesvara, Satyavrata, Vaivasvatha Manu, the ancestor of Sri Rama and disciple of Vasishtha, was rescued by Matsya Avataram. After this it was the Vaivaswatha Manvantaram. (See Also:http://oldthoughts.wordpress.com/kalpasyugas-manvantaras/ ). Please find below the original sanskrit sloka and translation from the Srimad Bhagavatham. Significance : Traditionally, we are at the beginning of the kaliyugam of the 28th caturyugam of the Vaivaswata Manvantaram. Thus there are 28 caturygas minus the duration of 1 kaliyuga, that separate us in time from the Matsya Avataram flood. For the different durations types and durations if yugas you may see : How many kinds of Yugas are there? Calculations : We have to select the right scale and origin. Let us suppose that the Brahma Yugam of 5 years was used from the time of Brahma till the beginning of our Kruta Yuga. Then for theKrutha, Tretha and Dwapara Yuga, the 60 year Barhaspatya Yuhas were used. 1. Then we have 27*(5*4) = 540 years till the beginning of our Krutha yuga, from the Matsya Avataram Flood. 2. And we have 60*3 = 180 years, from the Krutha Yuga beginning to the end of Dwapara Yuga (the Avarohanam (Ascent) of Sri Krishna) and the beginning of our Kaliyuga

3. I think that at this time, we adopted the astronomical scale, that


includes more astronomical bodies. So our Kaliyuga is 4320000 years long instead of 60 years long. It is possible that some of the early. We have indpendent reasons for agreeing with 3102 BCE as the start date of our Kaliyuga. (See : Date of the Mahabharata War). Translating to Common Era Dates : using the scales above. (We can recalculate variously using different scales and origins. And pick the one that matches the evidence of the Saptarishi calendar, theSaraswathi river and other astronomical and geographical data.) Beginning of Vaiwasvatha Manvantaram : 3102 BCE + 180 + 540 = 3822 BCE Starting of the 28th Caturyugam : 3102 + 180 = 3282 BCE Beginning of our Tretha Yugam : 3102 + 120 = 3220 BCE Beginning of our Dwapara Yugam : 3162 BCE

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Beginning of our Kaliyugam : 3102 BCE A 60 year dwapara yuga is too short to accomodate all the events that took place in it.
Source : Srimad Bhagavatham : 1.3.15 rpa sa jaghe mtsya ckuodadhi-samplave nvy ropya mah-mayym apd vaivasvata manum : rpam form; sa He; jaghe accepted; mtsyam of a fish; ckua Ckua; udadhi water; samplave inundation; nvi on the boat; ropya keeping on; mah the earth; mayym drowned in; apt protected; vaivasvatam Vaivasvata; Manum Manu. When there was a complete inundation after the period of the Ckua Manu and the whole world was deep within water, the Lord accepted the form of a fish and protected Vaivasvata Manu, keeping him up on a boat.

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Vaivaswatha Manu to Revati Devi, wife of Balarama Deva : Srimad Bhagavatham


Source Srimad Bhagavatham 9th Canto : Vaivaswatha Manu undertook meditation, to get more sons after Sudyumna (Ila) entered Vanaprastha Asrama. Let us consider two of the famous sons of Vaivaswatha, Ikshvaku, the ancestor of Sri Rama and Saryati, the ancestor of Revati Devi, the sister-in-law of Sri Krishna. Saryatis daughter Sukanya married Bhrgus son Cyavana. Saryati had a son called Anarta, a grandson called Revata, a great grandson called Raivata Kakudmi and a great-great- grand daughter called Revati Devi. Thus Revati Devi is the 7th generation from Saryati and 8th from Vaivaswatha Manu. Revata built Kusasthali in the ocean, which Sri Krishna later converted into Dwaraka. Raivata Kakudmi and Revata visited Brahma. In the duration of listening to a concert, while waiting for him, 27 Caturyugas passed as well as the Krutha and Treta Yugas of the 28th caturyuga. On Brahmas advice, Revati Devi was given in marriage to Balarama. 1. I initially tried using relativistic equations to determine how fast Brahma loka was moving away from Bhu Loka. But I later felt that the explanation may have been simpler. 2. I later did an analysis based on precession., treating this story as an overload on the term Revati as the lady and the nakshatram so that this was a story that encoded astronomy.

a. Revathi Nakshatram b. Revati and 27 CaturYugas 3. I think currently that Vyasa needed to explain what happened in the 27
missing caturyugas between theMatsya Avataram and the start of our Caturyuga. Vyasa had no problem in conceptualising time travel and Indians believe in time cycles as opposed to time lines. And he used this to make a scale and origin correction in the calendar. To my mind it is the Matsya Avataram that had to be back-dated to solve some other problem. (May be to accomodate his greater knowledge of astronomy, after all Vyasa composed one of the astronomical Siddhantas). 4. Currently, I think that that the Matsya Avataram and the end of the Caksusa Manvantaram, took place at the beginning of our Kruta Yugam.

a. See : Caksusha Manvantaram ends with the Matysa Avataram Flood,


Vaivaswata Manvantaram Begins : Srimad Bhagavatam.

b. See Also : How many kinds of Yugas are there? 5. This puts the historic Vaivaswatha Manu, spanning time from the end of the
historic Caksusa Manvantaram to the beginning of our Krutha Yuga, which is the first Caturyuga of the Vaivaswata Manvantaram. (The astronomical Caksusa Manvantaram is still 27.9 caturyugas ago.)

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6. The Kruta and Tretha Yuga together covered 6 generations. Vaiwasvatha,


Saryati, Anarta from Krutha Yuga., Revata, Raivata and Revati from Tretha. This causes no difficulty if we take 60/100 year yugas. We also have to decide whether to take the 4:3:2:1 or 1:1:1:1 ratios for the yuga durations. (How many kinds of Yugas are there?) 7. It also validates these analyses.

a. Generations between Rama and Krishna. b. Generations previous to Sri Rama. c. How long did ancient Indians live?

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Date of Veda Mantras


Reference 1 : History of Astronomy in India: Sen and Shukla : Indian National Science Academy : National Commission for the Compilation of the history of sciences in India 1985 1. A survey of source materials : Prof. K.V. Sarma, FormerlyDirector, Visvesvarananda Vedic Research Institute, Hoshiarpur, Punjab. The harbingers of the autumnal equinox are given in different mantras of the Rig Veda as,

Aditi (Punarvasu, Pollux 113 long) : ~ 6200 BC/BCE Daksha (Abhijit, Vega, 284 long) : ~ 5400 BC/BCE Rudra (Ardra, Betelguese, 88 long) : ~ 4350 BC/BCE Rohini (Aldebran, long 69 deg) : ~ 3070 BC/BCE

(* Rough calculations done by Sri Sarma using 72 years per degree approximately : 27 Nakashatras 360 degrees ~ 13.33 deg per nakshatra ~ 960 years: Depending on which point of the star, beginning, end or middle was meant there can be an offset not exceeding 500 1000 years in the dates given. So based on other data such as the date of the Bharata War , we have to fine tune the offset error.) R.V : 3.99 : Krittika is the autmn star c 2350 BCE (assuming a 1000 year offset error, we are looking at 3350 BCE which better correlates with the date calculated for the Bharata War) Viswamitra R.V. 1.164 Autumn Star Agni (Krittika, Alcyon 59.5 long) : Dirgha tamas. R.V. 5.40-49, the total eclipse of the sun determined by P.C. Sen Gupta as 3298 BCE. The RV references do not seem to be mandala suktha mantra but some other numbering so I cant verify them at this instant

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Age of the Earth


Scriptures: A Kalpa (Hindu) is equal to 4.32 billion years, a day (day only - not night) of Brahma. This has been calculated as the time when all known planets (at that time), stars (selected) and the apogees and perigees of the orbits were in line. (See how many kinds of yugas are there for further details.) Brahma creates at the beginning of his day and dissolves his creation at the beginning of his night. One second of Brahma = 1 human year! Science: The oldest rocks which have been found so far (on the Earth) date to about 3.8 to 3.9 billion years ago (by several radiometric dating methods). Some of these rocks are sedimentary, and include minerals which are themselves as old as 4.1 to 4.2 billion years. Rocks of this age are relatively rare, however rocks that are at least 3.5 billion years in age have been found on North America, Greenland, Australia, Africa, and Asia. While these values do not compute an age for the Earth, they do establish a lower limit (the Earth must be at least as old as any formation on it). This lower limit is at least concordant with the independently derived figure of 4.55 billion years for the Earths actual age. .from http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-age-of-earth.html The most direct means for calculating the Earths age is a Pb/Pb isochron age. Most of the other measurements for the age of the Earth rest upon calculating an age for the solar system by dating objects which are expected to have formed with the planets but are not geologically active (and therefore cannot erase evidence of their formation), such as meteorites. Based on these methods, the tables at the above links give values of 4.21 to 4.59 billions of years as the age of the earth.

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Measurements
Measurements Bhagavatham
Reference 1: as Maitreya told Vidura.

All matter is an assembly of Parama anus. (Fundamental particles atoms?). The time of a Paramanu is related to its size. 2 anus make a paramanu. tryah (trio) make 3 renus trasarenu. These tiny particles can be seen through when sunshine passes through the tiny joles of a sieve or net. 3 trasarenus take up the time that is remembered as Truti. 100 of those is a Vedha Thrice that is a Lava The duration of time of three lavas is equal to one nimea, The combination of three nimeas makes one kaa, Five kaas combined together make one kh, Fifteen khs make one laghu. Fifteen laghus make one nik, Two nadikas make one muhrta, 6 or 7 Praharas make a Yaamaah. There are 4 yaamaah in the day and 4 yaamaah in the night of mortals. 15 days make the krshna paksha and 15 days make the sukla paksha. Two pakshas make a masa which makes a day and night of the Pitrs. 2 masas make a rtu. 6 such masas (months) make an ayanam the Uttarayanam and the Dakshinanayanam the Divi (Sky heaven) An ayanam is a day of the Devas. 12 masas is a vatsara. A human lives for a 100 years. The names of the vatsaras are Samvatsara, parivatsara, idavatsra, anuvatsra and vatsara. 12 divine years (varshas) form the caturyugas of krta, tretha, dvapara and kali. Multiplying by 4,3,2,1 in Krta etc Yugas, numbering thousands and 2 hundreds. (He is asking Vidura to multiply 1200 by 4,3,2,1, etc to get the duration of the different yugas as confirmed by Markandeya in the Mahabharata). The yuga sandhya periods are in hundreds of years (not in thousands in the same ratio. Matches with Markandeya) 1000 of the caturyugas of the trilokas, form the day of the Brahma and he has a night of equal period. There are 14 manus in a day of Brahma. Each Manu lasts a little over 71 Mahayugas. A 100 years of Brahma is less than a nimisha of Sri Vishnu.

Time Measuring Instrument and Method: A copper pot weighing six palas has a hole bored in it by a gold probe weighing 4 masas, measuring 4 angulas.The time it takes to fill up with water is a called a prastha.

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Measurements Mahabharatam
Bhishma quotes Veda Vyasa in the SantiParva Mahabharata Section 231. Only Brahma, which is without beginning and without end, unborn, blazing with effulgence, above decay, immutable, indestructible, inconceivable, and transcending knowledge, exists before the Creation. The Rishis, measuring time, have named particular portions by particular names.

Five and ten winks of the eye make what is called a Kashtha. Thirty Kashthas would make what is called a Kala. Thirty Kalas, with the tenth part of a Kala added, make what is known as a Muhurta. Thirty Muhurtas make up one day and night. Thirty days and nights are called a month, and twelve months are called a year. Persons conversant with mathematical science say that a year is made up of two ayanas (dependent on suns motion), viz., the northern and the southern. The sun makes the day and the night for the world of man. The night is for the sleep of all living creatures, and the day is for the doing of action. A month of human beings is equal to a day and night of the Pitris. That division (as regards the Pitris) consists in this: the lighted fortnight (of men) is their day which is for the doing of acts; and the dark fortnight is their night for sleep. A year (of human beings) is equal to a day and night of the gods. The division (as regards the gods) consists in this: the half year for which the sun travels from the vernal to the autumnal equinox is the day of the deities, and the half year for which the sun travels from the latter to the former is their night. Computing by the days and nights of human beings about which I have told thee, I shall speak of the day and night of Brahman and his years also. I shall, in their order, tell thee the number of years, that are (thus) for different purposes computed differently in respect of the Krita, the Treta, the Dwapara, and the Kali yugas. Four thousand years (of the deities) is the duration of the first or Krita age. The morning of that epoch consists of four hundred years and its evening is of four hundred years. As regards the other yugas, the duration of each gradually decreases by a quarter in respect of both the substantive period with the conjoining portion and the conjoining portion itself. (Thus the duration of the Treta is three thousand years and its morning extends for three hundred years and its evening for three hundred). The duration of the Dwapara also is two thousand years, and its morning extends for two hundred years and its evening also for two hundred. The duration of the Kali yuga is one thousand years, and its morning extends for one hundred years, and its evening for one hundred. These periods always sustain the never-ending and eternal worlds.

They who are conversant with Brahma, O child, regard this as Immutable Brahma.

In the Krita age all the duties exists in their entirety, along with Truth. No knowledge or object came to men of that age through unrighteous or forbidden means. In the other yugas, duty, ordained in the Vedas, is seen to gradually decline by a quarter in each. Sinfulness grows in consequence of theft, untruth, and deception.

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In the Krita age, all persons are free from disease and crowned with success in respect of all their objects, and all live for four hundred years. In the Treta, the period of life decreases by a quarter. It has also been heard by us that, in the succeeding yugas, the words of theVedas, the periods of life, the blessings (uttered by Brahmanas), and the fruits of Vedic rites, all decrease gradually. The duties set down for the Krita yuga are of one kind. Those for the Treta are otherwise. Those for the Dwapara are different. And those for the Kali are otherwise. This is in accordance with that decline that marks every succeeding yuga. In the Krita, Penance occupies the foremost place. In the Treta, Knowledge is foremost. In the Dwapara, yajnya has been said to be the foremost, In the Kali yuga, only Gift is the one thing that has been laid down. The learned say that these twelve thousand years (of the deities) constitute what is called a yuga. A thousand such yugas compose a single day of Brahman. The same is the duration of Brahmans night. With the commencement of Brahmans day the universe begins to start into life. During the period of universal dissolution the Creator sleeps, having recourse to yoga-meditation. When the period of slumber expires, He awakes. That then which is Brahmans day extends for a thousand such yugas. His nights also extends for a thousand similar yugas. They who know this are said to know the day and the night.

On the expiry of His night, Brahman, waking up, modifies the indestructible chit by causing it to be overlaid with Avidya. He then causes Consciousness to spring up, whence proceeds Mind which is identical with the Manifest.

Measurements Narada Purana


Source :

The small unit of time is a nimesha, fifteen nimeshas constitute one kashtha, thirty kashthas make a kala and thirty kalas are one kshana. There are six kshanas in one danda, two dandas in one muhurta and thirty muhurtas in one day. There are thrity days in a month and each month is divided into two pakshas of fifteen days each. Two months constitute a season (ritu) and three ritus constitute an ayana. There are thus six seasons and two ayanas in a year. The two ayanas are known as uttarayana and dakshinayana. One year for humans is equivalent to one day for the gods. Uttarayana corresponds to day for the gods and dashinayana to night. Twelve thousand years of the gods are known as a mahayauga. Each mahayuga is divided into four sub-periods of satya yuga, treta yuga, dvapara yuga and kali yuga. Two thousand mahayugas are merely one day for Brahma. There are fourteen eras (manvantara) in each of Brahmas days. Brahmas nights are just as long and it is during Brahmas night that the world is destroyed and flooded with water.

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Each of Brahmas days is called a kalpa. A hundred years for Brahma are equivalent to a single day for Vishnu.

Measurements Kautilya
Reference: Kautilya Arthasastra : Translation by Shama Shastry CHAPTER XX. MEASUREMENT OF SPACE AND TIME. THE Superintendent of lineal measure shall possess the knowledge of measuring space and time.

8 atoms (paramnavah) are equal 1 particle thrown off by the wheel of a chariot. to 8 particles are equal to 1 liksh. 8 likshs are equal to the middle of a yka (louse) or a yka of medium size. 8 ykas are equal to 1 yava (barley) of middle size. 1 angula ( of an English inch) or the middlemost joint of the middle finger of a man of medium size may be taken to be equal to an angula. 1 dhanurgraha. 1 dhanurmushti. 1 vitasti, or 1 chhypaurusha. 1 sama, sala, pariraya, or pada. 1 aratni or 1 prjpatya hasta 1 hasta used in measuring balances and cubic measures, and pasture lands. 1 kishku or 1 kamsa. 1 kishku according to sawyers and blacksmiths and used in measuring the grounds for the encampment of the army, for forts and palaces. 1 hasta used in measuring timber forests. 1 vyma, used in measuring ropes and the depth of digging, in terms of a mans height. 1 danda, 1 dhanus, 1 nlika and 1 paurusha. 1 garhapatya dhanus (i.e., a measure used by carpenters called grihapati). This measure is used in measuring roads and

8 yavas are equal to

4 angulas are equal to 8 angulas are equal to 12 angulas are equal to 14 angulas are equal to 2 vitastis are equal to 2 vitastis plus 1 dhanurgraha are equal to 2 vitastis plus 1 dhanurmusti

42 angulas are equal to

54 angulas are equal to 84 angulas are equal to 4 aratnis are equal to 108 angulas are equal to

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Satya Sarada Kandula

1 paurusha, a measure used in building sacrificial altars. 1 danda, used in measuring such lands as are gifted to Brhmans. 1 rajju. 1 paridesa (square measure). 1 nivartana (square measure). 1 bhu (arm). 1 goruta (sound of a cow). 1 yojana.

Thus are the lineal and square measures dealt with. Then with regard to the measures of time: (The divisions of time are) a truti, lava, nimesha, kshth, kal, nlik, muhrta, forenoon, afternoon, day, night, paksha, month, ritu(season), ayana (solstice); samvatsara (year), and yuga.

2 trutis are equal to 1 lava. 2 lavas are equal to 1 nimesha. 5 nimeshas are equal to 1 kshth. 30 kshths are equal to 1 kal. 1 nlik, or the time during which one dhaka of water passes out 40 kals are equal to of a pot through an aperture of the same diameter as that of a wire of 4 angulas in length and made of 4 mshas of gold. 2 nlikas are equal to 1 muhrta. 15 muhrtas are equal 1 day or 1 night. to
Such a day and night happen in the months of Chaitra and Asvayuja. Then after the period of six months it increases or diminishes by three muhrtas. When the length of shadow is eight paurushas (96 angulas), it is 1/18th part of the day. When it is 6 paurushas (72 angulas), it is 1/14th part of the day; when 4 paurushas, 1/8th part; when 2 paurushas, 1/6th part; when 1 paurusha, th part; when it is 8 angulas, 3/10th part (trayodasabhgah); when 4 angulas, 3/8th part; and when no shadow is cast, it is to be considered midday.

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Likewise when the day declines, the same process in reverse order shall be observed. It is in the month of Ashdha that no shadow is cast in midday. After Ashdha, during the six months from Srvana upwards, the length of shadow successively increases by two angulas and during the next six months from Mgha upwards, it successively decreases by two angulas. Fifteen days and nights together make up one paksha. That paksha during which the moon waxes is white (sukla) and thatpaksha during which the moon wanes is bahula. Two pakshas make one month (msa). Thirty days and nights together make one work-a-month (prakarmamsah). The same (30 days and nights) with an additional half a day makes one solar month (saura). The same (30) less by half a day makes one lunar month (chandramsa). Twenty-seven (days and nights) make a sidereal month (nakshatramsa). Once in thirty-two months there comes one malamsa profane month, i.e., an extra month added to lunar year to harmonise it with the solar. Once in thirty-five months there comes a malamsa for Asvavhas. Once in forty months there comes a malamsa for hastivhas. Two months make one ritu (season). Srvana and proshthapada make the rainy season (varsh). Asvayuja and Krthka make the autumn (sarad). Mrgasrsha and Phausha make the winter (hemanta). Mgha and Phalguna make the dewy season (sisira). Chaitra and Vaiskha make the spring (vasanta). Jyeshthmlya and Ashdha make the summer (grishma). Seasons from sisira and upwards are uttaryana, and (those) from varsh and upwards are the winter solstice dakshinyana. Two ayanasmake one year (samvatsara). Five years make one yuga.

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The sun carries off (harati) 1/60th of a whole day every day and thus makes one complete day in every two months (ritau). Likewise the moon (falls behind by 1/60th of a whole day every day and falls behind one day in every two months). Thus in the middle of every third year, they (the sun and the moon) make one adhimsa, additional month, first in the summer season and second at the end of five years. [Thus ends Chapter XX, Measurement of Space and Time in Book II, The Duties of Government Superintendents of theArthasstra of Kautilya. End of the forty-first chapter from the beginning.] The above calculations give us about half a mile to a yojana.

1 Brahma second = 1 Human Year!!!


Posted by satyask on October 7, 2008 My entire life is about a minute and a half, in relation to Brahma. Even bacteria live longer in relation to us. No wonder he needed a creative process that is self sustaining. That is why he must have used the karma DNA evolutionary model etc. He has done his creation and left us to live it. It runs itself down by End of (his) Day (Kalpa). He goes to sleep at night and makes a brand new creation the next morning.! This is also why no one prays Brahma. Many Brahmas go into the time of Vishnu and Siva. But Vishnu and Siva actually descend onto earth and live with us in our time scale. May be that is why we love Krishna so much, because he got down (avatar) to our level and scale and time frame. People who go against Brahmas creation threaten it. Either like those Tapasvis, who refuse to eat, drink, mate etc, or like the rakhsasas who go around waging wars, killing folks and dominating worlds. He tries to distract the Tapasvis with Indras help and have the Rakshasas killed with Vishnus help. There are 14 Indras to a Kalpa. Each Indra lasts about 3086 Brahma seconds or about 51 Brahma minutes, that is about 50 100 human generations? 100 years of Indra = 3110400000 Indra seconds = 3086 seconds of Brahma 1007907 Indra seconds ~ 1 million Indra seconds = 1 Brahma second = 1 human year = 11.6 ~12 Indra Days = 12 human months.

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So Indra has about a day for every month of my life. So possibly people prayed to the Devas for two reasons one they are meant to look after us and we are meant to offer them prayers, and two, we may get relief from our problems at least in a month. Our life time is about 2 or 3 years for Indra.

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