OBJECTIVE The aim of this experiment is to determine the vapor pressure of gasoline and white spirit. 1.

0 INTRODUCTION Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its condensed phase. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquids evaporation rate. If the vapor pressure is higher, the sample will be more volatile andwill more readily evaporate. Unlike distillation data, vapor pressure provides a single value that reflects the combined effect of the individual vapor pressure of the different petroleum fractions in accordance with their mole ratios. It is thus possible for two wholly different products to exhibit the same vapor pressure at the same temperature - provided the cumulative pressures exerted by the fractions are the same. Temperature affects vapor pressure. According to Le Chatelier's principle a system disturbed by rise in temperature will react to relieve this stress. A liquid will boil, when the temperature is increased enough to raise the vapor pressure to atmospheric pressure. The liquid will boil much more when the atmospheric pressure is zero as in a vacuum system. This is the basis for obtaining pure samples of liquid with high boiling points in a vacuum distillation process .The presence of dissolved substances in liquid or solid also affects vapor pressure. A setavap 2 vapor pressure tester is used to determine vapor pressure of gasoline and other similar solvents. A vacuum pump is attached to the equipmentto ensure that the solvent is tested under a complete vacuum.

2.0 Literature Review EXPERIMENTAL DESCRIPTION Solvent Gasoline consists of aliphatic hydrocarbons obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enriched with iso -octane or the aromatic hydrocarbons toluene and benzene to increase its octane rating.

A transparent organic solvent used for cleaning. It is used to hold the septum. light crude oils . solvents. paints. Septum Holder A screw at the top of the vapor pressure tester which allow access to the tester cylinder.White spirit .1°C and thevapourtoliquidratioi s 4:1. Setavap Tester The Setavap 2 Vapour Pressure Tester is an automated instrument used for the measurement of the vapour pressure of gasoline. It is mixture of saturated aliphat ic and alicyclic with a maximum of25% of seven carbon atom to twelve carbon atoms alkyl aromatic Hydrocarbon. Fully evacuated chamber technology guarantees that the sample is tested under a full vacuum. It drains out all the liquid in the tester and evacuates the air so that a vacuum exist in the vacuum tester. A two button keypad and a rotary control allow access to all functions. varnishes et al.EPArequire ments. Vacuum Pump This is attached to the vapor pressure tester. Silicon grease An ointment used to lubricate the septum Hamilton micro litre syringe A syringe used to siphon and measure the solvent.etc. an audible prompt is sounded .The digital display points the operator through the test sequence. Then a sample gasoline/white spirit is injected through a septum into a fixed volume chamberwhich is maintainedat37.whichdeterminestheendofthe test.Atoneminuteintervals. degreasing and also as solvent in aerosol. If an action is required from the operator.dry vapourpressureequivalent(DVPE).1 kPa. Septum A small round rubber attached to the top of the screw nub which helps to guarantee complete vacuum. It consist of a chamber centrally located (cylinder of 15ml) and an electrical register which displays the pressure. The test resultscanbedisplayedastotalpressure(Ptot). the pressure is automatically measureduntilthreeReadings are within 0.8°C±0. displays the instrument status and the test results. .

The button was tuned and the top line of the tester displayed "Draining 10". an audible warning (beep) was he ard. y y y y After 10seconds. which allowed the system to drain for I Osecs. At the instruction of the display unit. The vacuum pump and the setavap tester were powered on. A new septum was fitted into the septum holder and silicon grease was smeared on the exposed surface.2 Experimental Procedure y y y y The waste container was placed under the drain. the message displayed "purging 120" and counted down to zero. the septum was removed by unscrewing the septum holder. The "insert new septum" display came up.Fig I: A Setavap Tester 3. After 120 seconds. .

8°C Pressure of vacuum = 0. The sample was drained to 3. 4. The same procedure was followed for the white spirit and results were recorded . When three consecutive readings were within 0. y The start button was taped and the system was automatically evacuated for 300 minutes. The sample was injected into the septum holder until the syringe was in contact with the bottom of the septum holder. The button on the Setavap was tuned and it displayed" inject sample".1Kpa the test was automatically terminated. Test Conditions: Temperature of vacuum = 37. y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y NOTE: The needle is a side-exit type. DVPE. EP A were read from the display unit by tuning the knob.y The septum holder was firmly screwed into the Setavap Tester to give a vacuum tight" seal. . The Setavap Tester originally took reading at one minute interval The readings were recorded. On the instruction of the Setavap tester the sample was prepared by siphoning 3. At the end ofthe evacuation process an audible warning (beep) was heard.0 RESULTS The white spirit sample was tested at the following conditions. The button was tuned to put the test in progress. Take care to avoid spill to yourself or colleagues.0ml to expel air. A warning beep sound was heard and the test result displayed The ptot.2Kpa The following results were obtained from the vapor pressure experiment for white spirit.5ml of sample into a properly cleaned syringe.

6 4.8 120 62.5 4.1 180 63.3 260 63. Table 3: Vapor pressure measurement for Gasoline Test Time 1st pressure (kpas) 0 61 20 62.1 160 63.6 55.0 1.8 55.6 4.2 55.4 60 62.2kpa The following results were obtained from the vapor pressure experiment for gasoline.7 55.9 140 63.5 4.7 0.5 55.6 2nd pressure (Kpas) 3.6 55.3 55.1 Test No.5 The white spirit sample was tested at the following conditions.6 4.1 4.4 55.9 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4.8°C : Pressure of vacuum = O.1 55.1 DVPE 0.2 EPA 2.7 55. Test Conditions: Temperature of vacuum = 37.2 200 63.5 4.4 2nd pressure (Kpas) 53 54.3 220 63.6 4.2 P-tot 4.3 240 63.6 80 62.1 4.Table 1: Vapor pressure measurement for White Spirit Test Time 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 1st pressure (kpas) 4.6 4.1 4.2 40 62.6 54.6 4.1 54.6 4.6 4.8 .1 Table 2: DVPE and EPA for White Spirit Vapor Pressure (kpa) Test No.7 100 62.5 4.

4 55. y All instructions concerning the tester must be followed 0 obtain accurate results y The setavap tester should be connected to its data logger or printer .kpas The vapor pressure for gasoline is higher than that of white spirit an indication that whit spirit is less volatile than gasoline White spirit and gasoline have different vapor pressures because they are d ifferent solvents and have different cumulative pressure.1 EPA (kpas) 58. thereby compromising the existence of complete vacuum.2 P-tot (kpas) 63.4 63.4 63. 6.280 300 320 340 360 380 63.1kpas and white spirit is 5.3 : White Spirit plot showing Vapor pressure Vs Time Fig.0 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS.8 DVPE (kpas) 57.1 Test No.8 55.8 55.8 55.8 55.4 63.8 Vapor Pressure (kpa) Test No.4 50.4 55.4 63.0 RECOMMENDATION y Appropriate personal protective equipment must be worn before performing this experiment.4: Gasoline & White spirit plot showing Vapor pressure Vs Time 5.0 Fig.4 63.2 : Gasoline plot showing Vapor pressure Vs Time Fig. SOURCES OF ERROR y Error due to parallax in measuring the quantity ofthe solvent y Error due to inadequate smearing silicon grease over the septum.8 55. CONCLUSIONS Gasoline has a vapor pressure of 13.3 51.

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