# Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.

H))

2000-E-41

118

cos ω t:
ω A + [1/CR1]B = 0 ⇒ A = -B/ω CR1
sin ω t:
-ω B + [1/CR1]A = I0/C
-ω B + [1/CR1][-B/ω CR1] = I0/C
B = I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]
A = -[I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]/ω CR1
Complete solution
V(t) = Ke-(1/CR1)t + [-[I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]/ω CR1]sin ω t + [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]cos ω t
At t = 0+
V(0+) = Ke-(1/CR1)0+ + [-[I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]/ω CR1]sin ω (0+) + [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]cos
ω (0+)
I0sin ω t [R1 + R2] = K(1) + [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]
I0sin ω t [R1 + R2] = K + [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]
K = I0sin ω t [R1 + R2] - [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]
V(t) = [I0sin ω t [R1 + R2] - [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]]e-(1/CR1)t + [-[I0/C[-ω 1/C2R12]]/ω CR1]sin ω t + [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]cos ω t
Q#6.29: Consider a series RLC network which is excited by a voltage source.
1. Determine the characteristic equation.
2. Locus of the roots of the equation.
3. Plot the roots of the equation.
Solution:

R

L
C

V(t)
i(t)

For t ≥ 0
According to KVL
di 1
L + ∫ idt + Ri = V(t)
dt C
Differentiating with respect to ‘t’
d2i i
di

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))

2000-E-41

L

119

+ +R =0
dt2 C
dt
Dividing both sides by ‘L’
d2i i
Rdi
+
+
=0
(i)
dt2 LC
Ldt
The characteristic equation can be found by substituting the trial solution i = est or
by the equivalent of substituting s2 for (d2i/dt2), and s for (di/dt); thus
1
2

s +

R

+
LC L

s=0

2)
ζ =0

n

ζ =1
ζ→∞

σ

ζ →∞
-jω

n

ζ =0
1
s2 +

R
+

s=0

LC L
Characteristic equation:
as2 + bs + c = 0
Here
a
b
c

s1, s2 =

-b ± √b2 – 4ac
2a

1
R
L
1
LC

U. Rcr. s2 = 2 2 R R ± L 2 1 - 4(1) L LC s1.H)) R R ± L 2 2000-E-41 120 1 - 4(1) L LC s1. This value is found by solving the equation 2 R 1 - 2L =0 LC .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B. s2 = 2(1) R R ± L 2 1 - 4(1) L LC s1. we define the value of resistance that causes the radical (pertaining to the root) term in the above equation as the critical resistance. s2 = 2 4 R = 2L R ± 2L 1 - 2L R = - 2 R ± 4(1) 4LC 2 1 - 2L LC radical term (ii) Hint: 4 = 2 To convert equation (i) to a standard form.

B.H)) R = Rcr 2 Rcr 1 - =0 2L LC 2 Rcr 1 = 2L LC Taking square root of both the sides 2 Rcr 1 = 2L LC Rcr 1 = 2L LC Using cross multiplication L Rcr = 2 C Hint: 1 =1 R ζ = ζ = Rcr R C 2 L 2000-E-41 121 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U.

s2 = 2 √4ζ 2ω 2 n 2 Simplifying we get s1.H)) 2000-E-41 1 ω n= LC R 2ζ ω n = L 1 ω 2 n = LC Substituting the corresponding values in equation (i) we get s2 + 2ζ ω ns + ω n2 = 0 roots of the characteristic equation are Characteristic equation: as2 + bs + c = 0 Here a b c s1. s2 = 1 2ζ ω ω n2 -b ± √b2 – 4ac 2a s1. s2 = -ζ ω n ± ω n√ ζ n ± ω n√(0)2 – 1 2 –1 when ζ = 0 s1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s2 = -2ζ ω ± n √(2ζ ω n )2 – 4(1)(ω 2(1) -2ζ ω n ± s1.U. s2 = -(0)ω – 4ω n 2 2 n ) n 122 .B.

s2 = ± jω n Hint: √–1 = j 3) 500 Ω 1H 1 × 10-6 F R L C Substituting the corresponding values in equation (ii) 500 = 2(1) 500 ± 2 1 (1)(10-6) 2(1) (ii) = -250 ± √62500 .1000000 = -250 ± √-937500 = -250 ± √937500√-1 s1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.246 1000 Ω 1H 1 × 10-6 F R L C Substituting the corresponding values in equation (ii) 1000 = 2(1) 1000 ± 2 1 - 2(1) = -500 ± √250000 .H)) 2000-E-41 s1.U. s2 = -250 ± j968.1000000 = -500 ± √-750000 = -500 ± √750000√-1 (1)(10-6) (ii) 123 . s2 = ± ω n√–1 s1.

288) s1.966.1000000 = -1500 ± √ 1250000 = -1500 ± 1118.288 = (-2500 + 2291.034).034 = (-1500 + 1118. (-1500 .B.H)) 2000-E-41 s1. -4791. s2 = -500 ± j 866.034) s1.025 3000 Ω 1H 1 × 10-6 F R L C Substituting the corresponding values in equation (ii) 3000 = 2(1) 3000 ± 2 1 (1)(10-6) 2(1) (ii) = -1500 ± √2250000 .712. -2618. s2 = -381.288).1118. (-2500 . s2 = -208.U.034 5000 Ω 1H 1 × 10-6 F R L C Substituting the corresponding values in equation (ii) 5000 = 2(1) 5000 ± 2 1 - 2(1) = -2500 ± √6250000 .1000000 = -2500 ± √ 5250000 = -2500 ± 2291.288 (1)(10-6) (ii) 124 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.2291.

Solution: 1H + i2 1Ω K1i1 + - 1Ω V1(t) 1Ω i1 1Ω i3 1F Loop i1: For t ≥ 0 According to KVL V1(t) = (i1)(1 Ω ) + (i1 – i2)(1 Ω ) + (i1 – i3)(1 Ω ) + (i1 – i3)(XC) 1 XC = j2π fc ω = 2π f j2π fc = jω c jω = s 1 XC = sc c =1F 1 XC = s(1 F) 1 XC = s 1 V1(t) = (i1)(1 Ω ) + (i1 – i2)(1 Ω ) + (i1 – i3)(1 Ω ) + (i1 – i3) . Find the range of values of k1 for which the roots of the characteristic equation have positive real parts. and determine the characteristic equation for the currents in the network as a function of k1.B.U. Find the values of k1 for which the roots of the characteristic equation are on the imaginary axis of the s plane.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.31: Analyze the network given in the figure on the loop basis.H)) 2000-E-41 125 Q#6.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)) Simplifying s 1 V1(t) = i1 + i1 – i2 + i1 – i3 + i1 1 .i3 s 1 V1(t) = (3 + s 1 )i1 – i2 – (1 + s ) (i) s Loop i2: For t ≥ 0 According to KVL (i2 – i1)(1 Ω ) + i2(XL) = 0 XL = jω L s = jω XL = s(1 H) XL = s Substituting (i2 – i1)(1 Ω ) + i2(s) = 0 Simplifying i2 – i1 + si2 = 0 (1 + s)i2 – i1 = 0 (ii) Loop i3: For t ≥ 0 According to KVL Sum of voltage rise = sum of voltage drop Sum of voltage rise = k1i1 (a) 1 Sum of voltage drop = (i3 – i1)(1 Ω ) + (i3 – i1) s Substituting in (a) 1 (i3 – i1)(1 Ω ) + (i3 – i1) s + (i3)(1 Ω ) = k1i1 Simplifying 1 (i3 – i1)(1 Ω ) + (i3 – i1) 1 i3 – i1 + i3 1 .i1 s s + (i3)(1 Ω ) .k1i1 = 0 + i3 – k1i1 = 0 s + (i3)(1 Ω ) 2000-E-41 126 .

(-1) 1 + k1 + s .U.H)) 1 2000-E-41 127 1 - + k1 + 1 i1 + 2 + i3 = 0 s (iii) s Equations (i).B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.(0)(0) + (-) (-1) 2+ s 1+ 1 (-1)0 – (-) s After simplifying Characteristic equation: (5 – k1)s2 + (6 – 2k1)s + (2 – k1) = 0 When k1 = 0 (5 – 0)s2 + (6 – 2(0))s + (2 – 0) = 0 5s2 + 6s + 2 = 0 as2 + bs + c = 0 Here 1 + k1 + (1 + s) s 1 - s 1 (0) . (ii) & (iii) can be written in matrix form 1 1 3+ -1 - 1+ i1 s V1 s -1 (1 + s) 0 i2 = 1 - 0 1 1 + k1 + 0 2+ s i3 0 s A X B Determinant of A = 1 3+ 1 (1 + s) 2 + s 1 .

s2 = -6 ± √-1√4 10 s1. s2 = -6 ± √-4 10 s1. s2 = -6 ± √36 – 40 10 s1.2 s1. s2 = (-0.2) When k1 = 1 (5 – 1)s2 + (6 – 2(1))s + (2 – 1) = 0 4s2 + 4s + 1 = 0 as2 + bs + c = 0 Here a b c s1.2).6 + j0. s2 = -0.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s2 = -6 ± √62 – 4(5)(2) 2(5) s1. s2 = -6 ± j2 10 s1.j0. s2 = 2000-E-41 5 6 2 -b ± √b2 – 4ac 2a s1.B.H)) a b c s1. s2 = -b ± √b2 – 4ac 2a 4 4 1 128 .U.6 .6 ± j0. (-0.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s2 = -4 ± 0 8 s1. s2 = -2 ± √4 – 0 6 -2 ± √4 6 s1.5.667 3 2 0 129 . s2 = 2000-E-41 -4 ± √42 – 4(4)(1) 2(4) s1. s2 = s1. s2 = -2 ± 2 6 s1. s2 = 0. -0. s2 = -4 ± √16 – 16 8 s1.H)) s1. s2 = -4 ± √0 8 s1. 0. s2 = -2 ± √22 – 4(3)(0) 2(3) s1.5 When k1 = 2 (5 – 2)s2 + (6 – 2(2))s + (2 – 2) = 0 3s2 + 2s + 0 = 0 as2 + bs + c = 0 Here a b c s1.B. s2 = -b ± √b2 – 4ac 2a s1.U. s2 = -0.

s2 = (-1. s2 = -8 ± √82 – 4(6)(3) 2(6) s1.nt cos (ω n√1 .472) Q#6. (-1. s2 = -8 ± √64 – 72 12 -8 ± √-8 6 s1.B.ζ 2 t + φ ) Give the values for k and φ in terms of k5 and k6 of Eq.32: Show that equation 6-121 can be written in the form ζω i = ke. s2 = -b ± √b2 – 4ac 2a s1.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P. s2 = s1.U. s2 = -8 ± √-1√8 6 -8 ± j2. Solution: Let k5 = kcosφ (i) k6 = -ksinφ (ii) 2 k = (kcosφ ) + (-ksinφ )2 k = k2cos2φ + k2sin2φ 2000-E-41 6 8 3 130 .334 + j0.828 6 s1.472).H)) When k1 = -1 (5 – (-1))s2 + (6 – 2(-1))s + (2 – (-1)) = 0 6s2 + 8s + 3 = 0 as2 + bs + c = 0 Here a b c s1. (6-121).j0.334 . s2 = s1.

B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U.H)) 2000-E-41 k = k2(cos2φ + sin2φ ) k = k2(1) k = √k2 = √k52 + k62 Dividing Eq. Thus 131 . (a) Solution: sw t=0 R L V i For t ≥ 0 According to KVL di V = iR + L dt Dividing both sides by ‘L’ di R V + i= dt L L This is a linear non-homogeneous equation of the first order and its solution is. (i) by (ii) kcosφ k5 = -cot φ = -ksinφ k6 -1 k5 φ = cot k6 Using the trigonometric identity cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y Q#6.33: A switch is closed at t = 0 connecting a battery of voltage V with a series RL circuit.

U.H)) R P= L V Q= L Hence the solution of this equation i = e-Pt∫ QePtdt + ke-Pt V i = e-(R/L)t∫ e(R/L)tdt + ke-(R/L)t L V ∫ e(R/L)tdt + ke-(R/L)t -(R/L)t i=e L e(R/L)t ∫e (R/L)t dt = d dt (R/L)t L e(R/L)t ∫ e(R/L)tdt = R Substituting V L e(R/L)t i = e-(R/L)t + ke-(R/L)t L R V + ke-(R/L)t i= R i(0-) = i(0+) = 0 Substituting i = 0 at t = 0 V + ke-(R/L)(0) 0= R 0 e =1 2000-E-41 132 .B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.

B.b)2 = a2 + b2 – 2ab t V2 WR = ∫ (1 + e-2(R/L)t – 2(1)(e-(R/L)t))Rdt 2 0 R t V2 WR = ∫ (1 + e-2(R/L)t – 2e-(R/L)t)dt 0 R V2 WR = R Simplifying t t t ∫ (1)dt + ∫ e-2(R/L)tdt + ∫ (-2e-(R/L)tdt) 0 0 0 V2 WR = 2L e-(R/L)t - t+ R (b) Li2 WL = 2 LV2 R L 3L e-2(R/L)t 2R 2R 2000-E-41 133 .e-(R/L)t ) i= R P = i2R t WR = ∫ i2R dt 0 t V 2 WR = ∫ (1 .Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.H)) V k=R Substituting V -V i= e-(R/L)t + R R V (1 .U.e-(R/L)t )2Rdt 0 R (a .

e-(R/L)0)2 2 2R LV2 WL = (1 – e0)2 2 2R LV2 WL = (1 – 1)2 2R2 WL = 0 joules At t = ∞ LV2 ∞ WL = (1 .H)) (1 .)2 WL = 2R2 - L 0 (0) + R V2 L e-2(R/L)(0) 2R R V2 WR = -(R/L)(0) 3L 0 e 2R 3L (1) 2R 2R 2R 3L 2R 2000-E-41 134 .e-(R/L)t )2 WL = 2R 2 (c) At t = 0 V2 WR = R 2L (0) + e 2L e R 2L WR = L (1) R R V2 WR = 0 R WR = 0 joules At t = 0 LV2 WL = (1 .e-(R/L) )2 2R2 LV2 ∞ (1 – e.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.U.B.

the frequency of the driving force voltage is (1) ω = ω n (2) ω = ω n√1 .ζ 2 Solution: 1000 Ω 1H + - 100 sin ω t For t ≥ 0 According to KVL di 100 sin ω t = L + iR + dt Here ω =ω n di 100 sin ω nt = L + iR + dt 1 ω n= i(t) 1µ F 1 C ∫ idt 1 C ∫ idt … (i) 135 .B.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.34: In the series RLC circuit shown in the accompanying diagram.U.H)) 2000-E-41 LV2 (1 – 0)2 WL = 2R2 LV2 WL = joules 2R2 (d) In steady state total energy supply W = WR + WL V2 W = 2L e-(R/L)t - t+ R L R 3L e-2(R/L)t 2R + 2R LV2 (1 – e-(R/L)t)2 2R2 Q#6.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B 1000000sin 1000t (ip)′ = Ist derivative (ip)′ ′ = 2nd derivative 100000cos 1000t = -1000000A cos 1000t .B.U.B 1000000sin 1000t + 1000(-1000A sin 1000t + B 1000cos 1000t) + 1000000(A cos 1000t + B sin 1000t) Simplifying 100000cos 1000t = -1000000A cos 1000t – 1000000B sin 1000t .1000000A sin 1000t + 1000000B cos 1000t + 1000000A cos 1000t + 1000000B sin 1000t Simplifying Equating the coefficients Cos: 100000 = 1000000B 100000 B= 1000000 B = 0.H)) 2000-E-41 136 LC L=1H C = 1 × 10-6 F 1 ω n= (1 H)( 1 × 10-6 F) After simplifying ω n = 1000 rad/sec Substituting in (i) we get di 1 100 sin 1000t = L + iR + ∫ idt … (i) dt C Differentiating both the sides & substituting the values of L & C we get d2i di i 100 (1000) cos 1000t = (1) + (1000) + dt2 dt 10-6 Simplifying we get d2i di 100000cos 1000t = + (1000) + 1000000i 2 dt dt The trial solution for the particular integral is ip = A cos 1000t + B sin 1000t d2ip dip 100000cos 1000t = + (1000) + 1000000ip dt2 dt (ip)′ = -1000A sin 1000t + B 1000cos 1000t (ip)′ ′ = -1000000A cos 1000t .1 .

U. 2000-E-41 137 .1 A (2) ω = ω n√1 .1 Transient response 2j In steady state At resonance XL = XC In a series RLC circuit Z = R + j(XL .ζ 2 Determine the values of ω n & ζ substitute & simplify Do yourself.Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.XC) Z=R V Im = Z 100 Im = 1000 Im = 0.1) sin 1000t ip = 0.XC) Z = R + j(XC .H)) Sin: 0 = .B.1000000B – 1000000A + 1000000B 0 = –1000000A A=0 ip = A cos 1000t + B sin 1000t Substituting the values of A & B ip = (0) cos 1000t + (0.1 sin 1000t ω ej t – e-j ωt sin ω t = 2j Here ω = 1000 ej1000t – e-j1000t sin 1000t = 2j ej1000t – e-j1000t ip = 0.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)) THE END 2000-E-41 138 .