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Management: - management means the application of planning, organizing,

staffing, and controlling functions in the most efficient manner possible to accomplish objectives. In the other hand management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims. There are five function of management.

Function of Management

Planning

Organizing

Staffing

Leading

Controlling

Of all those function Staffing is an important function of management.

Staffing
Staffing is also called Human Resources Management (HRM).

Staffing / Human Resource Management: - Human resource


management is the set of organizational activities directed at attracting, developing, and maintaining an effective workforce. Human Resource Management (HRM) takes place within a complex and everchanging environmental context. We can discuss Human resource management on the basis of four broad aspects A. B. C. D. Attracting human resources Developing human resources Maintaining human resources Managing labor relations

First Aspect: - Attracting human resources


With an understanding of the environmental context of human resources management as a foundation, we are now ready to address its first aspectattracting qualified people who are interested in employment with the organization.

There are three steps of attracting human resources

Steps of Attracting Human Resources

Human Resource Planning

Recruiting Human Resources

Selecting Human Resources

First Step: - Human Resource Planning


The starting point in attracting qualified human resources is planning. Human resources planning in turn involve job analysis and forecasting the demand and supply of labor.

Job analysis: - Job analysis is a systematized procedure for collecting, and


recording information about jobs. A job analysis is made up two parts 1. job description 2. Job Specification 1. Job description: - The job description lists the duties of job, the jobs working condition and the tools, materials and equipment used to perform it. 2. Job Specification: - The job specification lists the skills, abilities, and other credentials needed to do the job. Job analysis information is used in many human resource activities.

Forecasting Human Resource Demand and Supply: - After managers fully


understand the jobs to be performed within the organization, they can start planning for the organizations future human resource needs. The following figure summarizes the steps most often used. The manager starts by assessing trends in past human resources usage, future organizational plans, and economic trends. A good sales forecast is often the foundation, for smaller organizations. Historical ratio can be used to predict demand for employees such as operating employees and sales representatives.

Assess trends in: External labor markets Current employees Future organizational plans General economic trends

Predict demand

Forecast internal supply

Forecast external supply

Compare future demand and internal supply

Plan for detailing with predicted shortfalls or overstaffing

Figure: Human Resource Planning

Forecasting the supply of labor is really two tasks:1. Internal Supply 2. External Supply 1. Internal supply: - The number and type of employee who will be in the firm at some future date. 2. External supply: - The number and type of people who will be available for hiring in the labor market at large. At higher levels of the organization, manager plan for specific people and positions. The technique most commonly used is the replacement chart, which lists each important managerial positions, who occupies it, how long he or she will probably stay in it before moving on, and who is now qualified or soon will be qualified to move into the position. To facilitate both planning and identifying persons for current transfer or promotion, some organizations also have an employee information system, or skills inventory which contains information on each employees education, skills, experience, and career aspirations. It is a computerized system.

Matching Human Resource Supply and Demand: - After comparing future


demand and internal supply, managers can make plans to manage predicted, shortfalls or overstaffing. If a shortfall is predicted, employees can be hired; present employees can be retained and transferred into the understaffed area. If the organization needs to hire, the external labor supply forecast helps managers plan how to recruit, based on whether the type of person needed is readily available or scarce in the labor market.

Step-2:- Recruiting Human Resources


Recruiting is the process of attracting qualified persons to apply for the jobs that are open. There are two way of recruiting human resources 1. Internal Recruiting 2. External Recruiting
1. Internal Recruiting: - Internal- recruiting means considering current

employees as candidates for higher-level jobs in the organization. Promotion from within can help build morale and keep high-quality employees from leaving the firm. 2. External Recruiting: - External-recruiting involves attracting persons outside the organization to apply for jobs. External recruiting methods include advertising, campus interviews, employment agencies or executive search firms, referrals by present employees etc. One generally successful method for facilitating a good person-job fit is through the so-called realistic job preview (RJP), Realistic Job Preview (RJP):- Which provides the applicant with a real picture of what performing the job that the organization is trying to fill would be like.

Step-3:- Selecting Human Resources


Once the recruiting process has attracted a pool of applicants, the next step is to select whom to hire. The intent of the selection process is to gather from applicants information that will predict their job success and then to hire the candidates likely to be most successful. The steps of selecting human resources are given below:1. Application blanks: The first step in selection is usually asking the

candidate to fill out an application blank. Application blanks are an efficient methods of gathering information about the applicants previous work history, educational background, and job-related demographic data .
2. Tests: - Tests of ability, skill, aptitude, or knowledge that is relevant to the

particular job are usually the best predictors of job success. Test of general intelligence or personality are also important. Tests should be administered and scored consistently.
3. Interviews: - In structured interview, questions are written in advance and

all interviews follow the same question list with each candidate they interview. This procedure introduces consistency into the interview procedure and allows the organization to validate the content of the questions to be asked.
4. Assessment Centers: - Assessment centers are a popular used to select

managers. They are particularly good for selecting current employees for promotion. A typical center is formed with six to twelve practicing managers from different levels. A center also may include interviews, public speaking, and standardized ability tests.
5. Other technique: - Organization also uses other selection techniques,

depending on the circumstances. For example: - Polygraph tests, physical tests, drug tests, credit cheeks etc.