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Procedures painful under proper anesthesia Stress has negative results on pharmacological response Full duration of experiment Anesthesia

hesia is necessary to exclude stress Analgesics, anesthetics, sedatives - used - control pain Anesthetics affect CVS, respiratory, thermoregulatory mechanism

ANESTHESIA

CNS Preparation for anesthesia overnight fasting 12- 24hrs Use pre anesthetics which block parasympathetic Stimulation of CVS and pulmonary system Reduced salivary secretion eg:- Atropine Precheck animals inspection of auscultation and palpitation regulatory tests hemoglobin, haematocrit. Urine ph - be performed

Local and General anesthetics


LOCAL ANESTHETICS Regional and reversible elimination of pain with chemical compounds Recommended - gentle and calm animals eg:- Tetracain, Proparacaine surface anesthesia Procaine, Lidocaine - injectables GENERAL ANESTHETICS Number of agents inhalants Iv and im injections Ketamine and barbiturates Species characteristics and variations kept in mind Side effects excess salivation, Convulsions, hallucinations controlled Animals under veterinary care until recovered completely

Easy death procedure quickly and painless in atmosphere free from

EUTHANASIA

fear and anxiety Method as humane - initial depressive CNS for immediate insensitivity to pain Methods physical and chemical PHYSICAL METHODS: Stunning : by concussion (severe blow on head), electrical stunning or captive bolt Cervical dislocation: destroying brain stem eg:- exsanguination Decapitation: process of separation of head from neck ruprure blood vessels decreased BP and loss of consciousness - suitable for warm blooded animals. Cold blooded animals stunning prior to decap[itation Micro wave irradiation: study of brain metabolites without destroying brain anatomy

Chemical agents:
Cause death : toxicity, anesthetics over dose Agents: volatile anestehtics Halothane, Enflurane, Isoflurane, carbon

dioxide(80 100%) Injectable anesthetics: sodium pentabarbitone ip or iv, T61(mixture of local anesthetic + Hypnotic + curare form compound) Methods not to be used Rapid freezing, Pithing, hypothermia, Asphyxia Chemicals not to be used CO, HCN, N2, N2O, chloral hydrate, KCl NMJ blockers like curare, succinyl choline Ketamine not suitable(since wide safety range 50 500mg) Mice decapitation, euthanasia with 80% CO2 Rat decapitation or microwave irradiation Rabbit stunning with captive bolt, sodium pentabarbitone with 120mg/kg

COMMON LAB ANIMALS

RAT(Rattus norvegicus)
Commonest - small size greatest sensitivity inbred Withstand long period experimentation Strains wistar, sprague dawley rats Anatomical peculiarities:

Lack vomiting centre , tonsil, gall bladder


Extremely diffused pancreas pancreatectomy difficult diabetic rat Being omnivorous resembles man nutritionally

Rat as experimental animal: Suitable for psychopharmacological agents(training easily) eg:- development of conditioned reflux Assay of different hormones Study of oestrus cycle, mating behaviour, lactation Study of drugs on BP Share rat method evaluation of anti-ulcer drugs(pyloric ligation ) Unique for study of gastric secretion(continous secretion fasting 24 -72hrs,

Quantitative method: for assay of inhibitors of acid gastric

secretion developed by ghosh Normal temperature Normal respiration rate Humidity Room temperature Mating age Estrous cycle Gestation period Litters Average litter size Weaning age Weight of adult

- 37.5C or 99.5F 220 per min. 44 - 545% 18.5 - 21C or 65 to 75F 70 - 84 days - 4 - 5 days 21 - 23 days 7 - 9 yearly 7 23 to 28 days 120 to 250 Gms

Feed: Cracked wheat

- 66% Ground nut oil - 17% Cracked Bengal gram - 15% Yeast powder - 1% Fishmeal - 7%, Shark liver oil - 1% Add 1 unit of whole milk for every 100 units of mixtures. Each rat consumes about 15 g/day. Breeding rats are given germinated pulses containing Bengal gram - 1 part, Lentil Maser - 1 part, Green gram - 1 part.

For study of analgesic drugs radiant heat tail


Routinely toxicity studies acute and chronic 24hrs old rat similar to 6 months old infant so used for the

evaluation of compounds supposed to be administered in infants of this age For study of physiology of liver For testing of drugs for teratogenicity and carcinogenicity Isolated tissues - uterus, stomach, colon Study of drug action Uterus of rat - inhibited by adrenaline basis for bioassays of adrenaline

MOUSE (Mus musculus)


Normal temperature Normal respiration rate Pulse rate Humidity Room temperature Mating age Oestrous cycle Gestation period Litters Average litter size Weaning age Weight of adult

- 37.4C or 99.3F 160 per min. 120 per min. 60 - 70% 20 to 21C 6 to 8weeks 4 to 5 days 19 to 21 days 8 to 12 yearly 7 to 8 19 to 21days - 25 to 30g

Feed: Cracked wheat

- 70% Shark liver oil - 0.25% Yeast powder - 4%, Sesame oil 7.25% Cracked Bengal gram - 20% Fish meal 5% Add 4 units of milk for every 100 units of mixtures. An average mouse consumes 6g of food every day.

Mouse as experimental animal:


Albino mice - smallest lab animal bred uniformly, cheap and

easy to handle For acute toxicity studies For assay of insulin and analgesics(for chemically induced pain) General screening of chemotherapeutic agents Specially bred mice in cancer research Frequently testing of drugs - teratogenicity Nude mouse: A hairless genetic mutant that lacks a thymus gland and deficient in T- lymphocytes interest in field of tissue immunity and transplant research Being small isolated tissues rarely used

GUINEA PIG: (Cavia porcellus


Normal temperature Normal respiration rate

Pulse rate
Humidity Room temperature Mating age

Gestation period
Litters Average litter size Weaning age Weight of adult

37.6 to 38.9C or 96.6F to 102F 80 per min. 150 per min. 45% 18.5 - 21C or 65 to 75F 12 to 20weeks 59 to 72 days 3 per year 3 14 days 200 to 1000g

Feed
Feeds are given in pellet form, containing crushed oats and Croat, supplemented with cabbage and protein foods such as fish or meat meal. Docile animal susceptible to TB and anaphylactic shock Highly sensitive to histamine (followed by bronchoconstriction) Dopamine causes fall in BP As experimental animal: For evaluation of bronchodilator compounds against experimentally induced asthma (histamine or acetyl choline aerosols) Study of local anesthetics Bioassay of digitalis Having sensitive cochlea for hearing experiments Used for study of ascorbic acid metabolism Suitable host for microbacterial infections study of TB Isolated preparations - terminal ileum screening of antispasmodic compounds

RABBIT: (Oryctolagus cuniculus)


Normal temperature Normal respiration rate Pulse rate

Humidity
Room temperature Mating age Gestation period Litters Average litter size Weaning age

Weight of adult

38.7 to 39.1C. 55 per min. 135 per min. 40 - 50% 15.5 - 18.5C 6 to 9 months 28 to 31 days 4 per year 4 6 to 8 weeks 0.9 to 6.75 kg.

Feed
Lucerne grass

- 120 g / day Carrot 20g Bengal gram - 20g Wheat bran - 20g As experimental animal: For pyrogen testing iv fluids Insulin, anti-diabetic agents tested Skin relatively sensitive to irritants topical agents Very convenient for injecting and withdrawing blood from ear veins Research on reproduction

DOG: (Canin familiaris)


Normal temperature Humidity Mating age Gestation period Weaning age

-38.6F - 45 - 60% 18 months 58 to 63 days -7 to 8 weeks

As experimental animal: Study of Antihypertensives . Study of cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs. Screening of hypoglycemic drugs, neuromuscular blockers and Ganglion blocking agents . Toxicity studies . Gastric secretion studies in dog.

HAMSTER: (Mesocricetuz auratus or Cricetulus griseus)


Normal temperature Humidity Room temperature Mating age Litters Avg. litter size

Gestation period
Weaning age

36.7C or 38.3F 40 - 50% 20 to 22C 7 to 9 weeks 4 to 6 per year 6 16 to 17 days 3 to 4 weeks

Feed
Similar to mice and guinea pig; with milk added to bran or oats.

As experimental animal: Cytological investigations. Immunological and Diabetological studies. Assay of prostaglandins E and F. Genetics, tissue culture and radiation research. Host in parasitological investigations. Virology, Toxicology, nutrition research, reproductive Physiology.(Golden Hamsters).

MONKEY:
Normal temperature Normal respiration rate Normal Pulse rate Room temperature Gestation period

38.3C 20 per min. 100 per min. 20 to 22C 5 1/2 to 6 months

Feed:Bananas, oranges, carrots, eggs, lettuces, milk, whole wheat, bread, rice, potato etc. As experimental animal: For sub-acute and chronic toxicity studies. In Virology, parasitological, immunology, immuno suppression, nutrition, reproduction etc.

CAT
Studies on circulatory and neuromuscular systems similar to

man Drugs affecting BP Anesthetized and spinal preparations - assay of catecholamine's Contractions of nictitating membrane (third eyelid) recorded for - investigation of ganglionic blocking action of drugs Study of nerve centres in brain