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PROF. PETAR RASHKOV PENCHEV, DOCTOR OF TECHNICAL SCIENCES,
DOCTOR HONORIS CAUSA OF SOFIA TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
THERE IS NO NATURAL PHENOMENON
WITHOUT MOTION OF MATTER
FROM A UNITARY ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER
TO A UNITARY ELECTROMAGNETIC SCIENCE OF IT
WITH A SINGLE
DETERMINISTIC THEORETICAL BASIS
“A crucial prerequisite for the power of knowledge is
not the belief in a reputedly infallible authority, but
the irresistible power of experimental facts which
irrefutably reveal the most reliable authority, Nature
itself.”
(Life’s wisdom)
“Our ideas of reality cannot be final, so we should
always be ready to change our point of view, i. e. to
change the axiomatic basis of physics so as to
substantiate the new experimental data observed by us
into a logically most perfect way.”
A. Einstein, 1931
Sofia
2011
2
PETAR RASHKOV PENCHEV
ANNOTATION
Having detected a number of considerable flaws in physics, and basing his research on
a profound analysis of wellknown yet not accounted for experimental facts, among which
some of Isaac Newton’s of 1704 and 1718 and of G. Kirchhoff’s of 1860, as well as some
others from modern physics, which facts prove most convincingly that matter (mass) in the
nature (the world) is only electromagnetic, the author brings forth a new theoretical basis of
the entire physics. In compliance with the new theoretical basis of physics, the author asserts
that:
 gravitational field is a secondary electromagnetic field;
 there exists a unitary theory of motion for objects both at velocities (
v c =
) much
lower than velocity of light and at velocities (
v c <
) close to velocity of light;
 relativistic electrodynamics results from Isaac Newton’s 1704 experimental facts and
it explains that mass (matter) of bodies increases along with velocity, since magnetic
(kinetic) energy is generated, whose mass is summed with the mass of the object at
zero velocity;
 carrier of thermal energy are not only molecules of gas, but photons as well, which are
carriers of electromagnetic energy of the photon gas, which photons are emitted by
atoms, but there are no photons in atoms, there is magnetic (kinetic) energy, which can
convert into photons ;
 and some other new effects.
Some of the flaws, which contradict experiment or have no experimental
confirmation, are left out of physics, and they are:
 principle of constancy of the velocity of light c relative to an observer, which is
disproved by Doppler effect, which was deduced by Einstein as well. However, this
principle holds true in relation to a source of light, as per Fresnel’s law of 1818 –
this principle remains;
 theory of relativity, Lorentz transformations and spacetime continuum, which
contradict experimental facts;
 de Broglie’s waves of a body of mass m and velocity v, whose energy of de Broglie’s
waves is
2
. .
B
W h mv · ν ·
, where h is Planck constant. Since the real energy of the
body is
2
.
R
W mc ·
, the ratio
2 2
/ / 1
B R
W W v c · <
(c is velocity of light) shows that de
Broglie’s waves are rejected by the law of energy conservation.
These and others flaws in presentday physics require a correction in the sense of
rationalizing its theoretical basis and thence, the whole physics.
RATIONAL PHYSICS
ISBN 9789548655132
Sofia, January 2011
Publisher „KrisanC”
3A, Ivan Borimechkata St, Sofia
Author and producer: Prof. P. R. Penchev, Dr Tech Scs
Book cover: Vladimir Stanchev
Addresses for contact with the author, Prof. P.R. Penchev
Sofia Technical University
Electrotechnical Department
8, Kl. Gotwald Blvd
Sofia, 1000
email: iliana@tusofia.bg
yatchev@tusofia.bg
Mladost 1,
bl. 90, entr. 9
Sofia 1797
Home phone: +359 2 870 68 05
+359 885 13 83 09
email: iliana@tusofia.bg
yatchev@tusofia.bg
© P. R. Penchev. Rational physics, 2011
3
CONTENTS
Annotation 2
Foreword 8
1. General formulations 8
2. The road of the new in science 8
3. Epilogue 8
Literature 8
Preambule 9
Some emphases, which support the preambule in the part that it is wrong to believe that
everything in science is perfectly wellgrounded 9
Methodological essay 14
1. Some features of the requirements on scientific reasoning 14
2. Some methodological definitions 17
2.1. On the notions of explicit and potential (implicit) properties17
2.2. On the synonymy of the notions of scientific, theoretical and logical 17
2.3. Some aspects in the science as a unitary whole – the science of nature18
2.4. On the approach (method) of attaining new knowledge 18
2.4.1. General formulations 18
2.4.2. On the method of formal logic – MFL 19
3. On the unity of nature and of the science about it 19
3.1. General formulations 19
3.2. Is matter of genetically homogenous essence 21
3.2.1. General formulations 21
3.2.2. The model of unitary homogenous matter 22
4. Conclusion 24
Chapter one
Theoretical basis of Newtonian electrodynamics and of all dynamics in general 25
1. Introduction 25
2. Some definitions concerning the classical physics of Newton 28
2.1. Newton was the first who realized and showed in his theory that science does not
create mirror images of reality, but its models, which reflect (are imprints), only of the most essential
properties for a particular purpose of a study with abstracted (simplified) notions defined for the particular
purpose. IN THIS ASPECT, THE SAME REALITY MAY HAVE SEVERAL MODELS DEPENDING
ON THE PURPOSES OF THE STUDY 28
2.1.1. What is the meaning of the notion of mass 28
2.2. What is the meaning of the notion of force 30
2.3. Isaac Newton was the first to give the law for conservation of energy 32
2.3.1. Introductory thoughts 32
2.3.2. Motivation 33
2.4. On the double role of the notions of space and time 36
2.4.1. Introductory thoughts 36
2.4.2. Interpretations 37
2.5. Principle of relativity and Galileo’s transformations 37
2.5.1. Basic formulations 37
2.5.2.Galileo’s transformations – GT 39
4
3. Mathematical notation of the theoretical foundations of Newtonian electrodynamics: the
Principal 41
4. Newtonian electrodynamics 46
5. Restructuring of electrons and electromagnetic energy 54
5.1. General formulations 54
5.2. Kinetic energy is magnetic energy 59
5.2.1. The mass of electron at rest is electrostatic mass 59
5.2.2. Magnetic energy of the electron at
0
const.
e e
m m · · and velocity v
59
5.2.3. Full mass m
e
and energy W
e
of the electron at v < c 60
5.2.4. Full mass m
T
and energy W
T
of electrically neutral bodies 61
5.2.5. Kinetic energy W
ke
and mass m
ke
of the electron at 62
5.2.6. Kinetic energy of a body with mass at rest m
T0
63
5.2.7. Inference 63
5.2.8. Conclusion 64
6. The notions of velocity and acceleration 64
7. Correspondence between the laws of Newtonian electrodynamics and the laws of
classical mechanics70
8. Flaws in the theory of motion of matter 76
Chapter two
Nature of the notion of interaction 80
2.1. General formulations 80
2.2. On the essence and place of Newtonian dynamics in science 84
2.3. Inferences 87
Chapter three
Substance (atoms and molecules) is a structure of electromagnetic matter 87
3.1. General solutions 87
3.2. Inferences 90
3.3. The atom is an electromagnetic structure, i.e. the atom is a structure of electromagnetic
matter 92
3.4. Conclusion 93
Chapter four
The inertial force is an electromagnetic force 93
4.1. Manifestations (properties) of electrons 94
4.1.1. Electrostatic: field, energy and mass of the electron 94
4.1.2. Magnetic field and magnetic (kinetic) energy and mass 94
4.2. Transfer of electromagnetic energy from one object to another 96
4.2.1. General formulations 96
4.2.2.. Summaries 96
4.3. Electromagnetic mechanism of inertial force formation 97
Chapter five
Emission of electromagnetic energy by electrons in the form of electromagnetic waves –
photons 99
5.1. When an electron hits a hard surface 99
5.2. General assumptions about the emission of a photon by the electrons in the atoms100
5.3. Emission of photons by atoms 103
5.4. Absorption of photons by atoms104
5
5.5. Emission of electromagnetic waves in externally electrically neutral bodies (objects)
105
5.6. Essence and consequences of Planck’s constant 106
Chapter six
Wave processes 107
6.1. Introduction 107
6.2. Mass, energy and velocity of mechanical and electromagnetic wave processes 108
6.2.1. General formulations 108
6.3. Analogies between electromagnetic and mechanical wave processes 110
6.3.1. Electromagnetic wave processes 110
6.3.2. Mechanical wave processes 111
6.3.2.1. Emission by atoms of substance at deformation 113
6.3.2.2. Oscillating current frame of capacity C
0
and inductivity L
0
114
6.3.2.3. When electrons pass through very narrow channels 115
6.3.2.4. Commentary 115
Chapter seven
Gravitation of objects with a volume greater than zero116
7.1. General formulations 116
7.2. Gravitation of bodies with volume V larger than zero 117
7.2.1. Electromagnetic masses and energies of electrons 117
7.2.2 Gravitation of electrons at velocity v<<c 117
7.3. Gravitational fields and forces 118
7.3.1. Gravitational fields and forces 118
7.3.2. Gravitational fields, energies, masses and forces of electrons 118
7.3.2.1. General formulations 118
7.3.2.2. When the electron is at rest (v
в
= 0) 120
7.3.2.3. Gravitational field of electromagnetic waves 120
7.3.2.4. How good is the motivation for the hypothesis that at small distance, below 10
16
m, gravitational forces prevail over electromagnetic forces 123
7.3.3. Examples of gravitational fields 124
7.4. There is not and there cannot be a principle of equivalence 128
7.4.1. General formulations 128
7.4.2. There is no uniform gravitational field 129
7.4.3. Conclusion 130
7.5. Examples in support of the electromagnetic essence of the gravitational fields of
objects 130
7.5.1. Conversion of gravitational energy into kinetic (magnetic) and vice versa 130
7.5.2. Deviation of a ray of light from a star by the gravitational field of the sun 132
7.5.2.1. Gravitational field of a photon (electromagnetic waves) 132
7.5.3. Value of the light ray deviation 134
7.5.4. Graviphoton: a quantized gravitational field 135
7.5.5. General inferences 136
7.5.6. Conclusion 137
7.6. Flaws in Kepler’s second law and the angular momentum of planets 137
7.6.1. Introduction 137
6
7.6.2. The distance from the earth to the sun at the perihelion changes for time of half a
year 137
7.6.3. Value of the sector velocity τ 138
7.6.4. Another proof that sector velocity is not constant – inaccuracy of Kepler’s second
law 139
7.6.5. Value of the angular momentum of planets with elliptic orbits 140
7.6.5.1. General formulations 140
7.6.5.2. Emphasis 141
7.6.6. Conclusion 141
7.6.7. Literature 141
7.7. Interpretation of Allais’s effect 141
7.8. On acceleration of falling bodies 142
7.9. Transverse gravitational force and the sun 144
Chapter eight
Thermodynamics – thermoelectrodynamics 144
8.1. Introductory thoughts144
8.2. Incorrect and correct approaches in thermodynamics of the gas 147
8.3. What is thermal energy 156
8.3.1. Introductory thoughts 156
8.3.2. Essence of the answer to “what is thermal energy?” 157
8.4. Temperature is proportional to the density of thermal energy 163
8.5. Generation of thermal energy 164
8.5.1. General formulations 164
8.5.2. Photons are generated in the following processes 164
8.5.2.1. In interaction between a particle and an antiparticle and in particular in
annihilation of an electron e

and a positron e
+
are generated photons with energy w
f
= h.v: 164
8.5.2.2. In case an electron collides against a wall at velocity v ≠ 0,since the velocity of
the electron for time Δt << 1 drops from v ≠ 0 to v
1
= 0, the result is a mean acceleration
e
t
v
a ·
∆
and
according to classical electrodynamics
0
e
a ≠
, at , the electron emits power which is 165
8.5.2.3. When certain effort (pressure or extension) is exerted upon substance, the
orbitals of the electrons change their normal state and they emit photons (inside or outside the substance).
This is the reason why, in mechanical treatment (cutting or plastic treatment), the substance gets hot.
165
8.5.2.4. In friction between smooth surfaces of the bodies, since they are not perfectly
smooth, the structural bonds of part of the molecules with the bodies tear apart, which are generated by
the forces of cohesion  the derivative of LennardJones potential. And in another part of the molecules
deformations are generated in a relatively thin layer of the bodies. 165
8.5.3. Why cosmic bodies are heated to high temperatures 165
8.5.4. On Brownian motion 166
8.6. Mechanism of transfer of thermal energy from a gas through a solid medium 166
8.6.1. General formulation 166
8.7. How a solid body turns into gas 171
7
8.8. Why are the solutions in presentday thermodynamics reliable despite the incorrect
formulation that molecules are carriers of thermal energy 171
8.9. Photon pressure and cosmic objects 176
8.10. Conclusive inferences 176
8.11. Something on entropy 179
Chapter nine
Conclusion about physics 181
Supplement 183
1. Why physics foundations need to be rationalized 183
2. Flaws in interpretation of MichelsonMorley’s experiment (MME) and some implications
for Lorentz Transformations (LT) and the special theory of relativity 184
3. Flaws in the definition of simultaneousness 188
4. Nature of gravitational field 189
5. Flaws in the principle of constancy of the velocity of light – PCVL 191
6. Flaws in Lorentz Transformations (LT) 192
6.1. Initial formulations 192
6.2. Experiment which rejects LT 193
7. Flaws in the quantum mechanics statement that in classical physics energy propagates
continuously 195
8. The statement that there are de Broglie’s waves is flawed 196
Conclusion to item 8 199
9. Flaws in Heisenberg’s inequality 199
10. Flaws in Schrödinger’s equation 200
11. Flaws in N. Bohr’s statement that the stationary orbits of electrons in atoms contradict
classical physics and that they are only a quantum effect 201
11.1. Initial conditions 201
11.1.1. The simplest atomic structure of the hydrogen atom is used as a model in the
analysis. The hydrogen atom has the main features of emission of electromagnetic waves, in the form of
photons; such are in all atoms, where, however, the number of other electrons exerts influence. 201
11.1.2. In this model, the electron is characterized by: 202
11.2. Emission of a photon by electron in atoms 203
11.2.1. General formulations in emission and absorption of photons 203
11.2.2. An illustrative solution to the case of photon emission, according to classical
electrodynamics 206
12. Quantum mechanics has no place in physics 207
13. Flaws in the treatment of the nature of thermal energy and its carrier 208
14. Conclusion to the supplement 208
8
FOREWORD
1. GENERAL FORMULATIONS
This book is an attempt, mainly in qualitative terms, to unite different parts of physics under a
theoretical basis, called Principal, on the basis of the uniform and homogenous nature of matter in the form
of electromagnetic matter.
This approach, the first of its kind for physics as a unitary electromagnetic whole, is based on the fact
that all sciences, including such a leader of sciences as physics, investigate (study) the manifestations (states, in
the sense of states of quantities of matter and energy, and states of rest and motion, and of various structural
states) of matter. Provided that matter is homogeneous and electromagnetic, as it results from the writings of
Isaac Newton and is shown in this book, it follows that all natural phenomena are genetically homogeneous,
i.e. they have the essence of the unitary electromagnetic matter  they are electromagnetic phenomena. Or at
the root of the theories of all natural manifestations (phenomena) are the theoretical basis of the manifestations
(states) of electromagnetic matter, called Principal.
Due to the circumstance that the presented attempt to seek unity in all physical phenomena due to the
homogeneous matter of nature, is essentially the first attempt in the history of physics, after Wilhelm Wien’s
ideas of 1900, the emphasis here being mainly on the qualitative aspect of his presentation. Therefore, in the
precise meaning, the ideas presented herein may be incomplete or some errors may be found here or there.
That is why the author kindly asks his readers to forgive his mistakes and omissions, and to read the book till
the end, because it is not until the whole book has been read that some of the omissions could be compensated
and a more complete rationale be obtained of the genetic uniformity of natural phenomena in the science of
physics.
2. THE ROAD OF THE NEW IN SCIENCE
In [1] (p. 7) we read: In the history of science, it has been not a rare occasion for scientists to fail to
recognize new scientific facts, (as is the case, for instance, with Newton’s Opticks in 1704 – P. P.’s note) even
when they emerge before their eyes. This may happen either because an observer is theoretically unprepared or
because there is not a sufficiently developed theory in the store of collective knowledge, ready to assimilate the
new observations”. (All italics in this foreword are P.P.’s), or some described experimental facts and
theoretical conclusions made by previous researchers have not been given due attention.
Further, in [2] (p. 129) we read: “The carriers of old ideas and theoretical assumptions will not surrender
without fight. That is why new ideas only succeed in establishing themselves after decades or even centuries.”
The famous physicist Max Planck wrote: “In the 80s and 90s of last century (referring to 19th century – P. P.’s
note), I realized how frustrating it feels when a researcher arrives at ideas superior to the dominant ones, for his
voice is too weak to make the scientific society listen to him... The old routines, ideas and assumptions in
science, even if they run counter to the new scientific data, are very viable. They will hardly succumb to re
consideration; this is so because, more often than not, they are bound to a chain of other scientific assumptions.
The process of demolition of outdated scientific views affects the interests and prestige of a wide circle of
scientists, WHO WILL RESIST IN ANY WAY AGAINST THE INTRODUCTION OF THE NEW. Even inadmissible contrivances, very
remote from the scientific style, may be used sometimes, such as humiliation or public exposure of the carriers
of new ideas. It is well known that Newton’s theory faced the opposition of so authoritative scholars in their
times as Huygens, Leibnitz, Bernoulli, Euler, and others.”
According to Immanuel Kant, ONE OF THE HARDEST REFORMS IS THE ONE IN HUMAN THOUGHT.
3. EPILOGUE
The author of this book does not believe that the ideas and solutions proposed by him in the book
will be readily accepted by the society of physicists, irrespective of the positive fact that sufficient number
of validating experimental (scientific) facts are presented in support. The author, however, hopes that sooner or
later, in one or another form, these ideas will cut a road through the official academic physical science.
Most researchers at first would probably look down upon the author from the heights of the artificially
exalted image of infallibility of certain scientists and along with this of the ingenuity of their theories. Or, they
might feel sorry for the author, as for a man in a pitiful plight with regard of something in his head. What
should this author in a pitiful plight do? Since it is always possible that some of the ideas of the scientific
authorities may be refuted by the irresistible force of experimentally validated facts, BEFORE WHICH EVEN
SCIENTIFIC GENII, AS WELL AS GODS, SHOULD KEEP SILENT!
LITERATURE
1. Methodological Principles of Physics. Academy of USSR, Nauka, Moscow, 1975 (in Russian)
2. I. D. Andreev. Theory as a Form of Scientific Knowledge Organization, Nauka, M., 1979.
9
PREAMBULE
I T WOU L D B E WR ON G T O B E L I E V E T HA T A L L I N S C I E N C E I S
P E R F E C T L Y WE L L  GR OU N D E D , i . e . pr o v e d. The r e i s a l wa y s
s o me i nt ui t i ve e l e me nt i n s c i e nc e i n t he f or m of
as s umpt i o ns a nd hy po t he s e s , i . e . a be l i e f i n s o me t hi ng
unpr o v e n, whi c h i s ye t t o be pr ove d or di s pr o ve d by
br i ng i ng f or t h ne w i de as . Or , a s Goe t he put i t , “Br a ve
t houg ht s ( i de as ) r e s e mbl e pa wns ve nt ur i ng f or war d i n a
ga me ( of c he s s ) . The y pe r i s h i n or de r t o e ns ur e vi c t o r y. ”
I . e . t o pos t ul a t e t he t r ue i de a be hi nd a di s c o v e r y me a ns
t o o ut l i ne t he de ve l opme nt o f s c i e nc e f or y e a r s t o c o me ,
e v e n t hough a f t e r war ds , f r om t he he i ght s o f a t he o r y o n
a pe r mane nt maki ng, t hi s i de a may s e e m qui t e o bvi ous
or c ommon.
HOWEVER, UNDERS TANDI NG A DI S COVERY ( BRAVE
I DEAS ) WI LL OF TEN REQUI RE DENI AL OF S OMETHI NG
WHI CH EVERYONE HAS CONS I DERED AN OBVI OUS TRUTH.
THE R E I S A WO N D E R F U L E X P R E S S I O N B Y DE S C A R T E S ( 1 59 6 –
16 5 0) „I N O R D E R T O K N O W T HE T R U T H, WE N E E D T O Q U E S T I O N
E V E R Y T HI N G A S MU C H A S P O S S I B L E A T L E A S T O N C E I N O U R L I F E ,
I . E . T O MI S T R U S T WHA T S E E MS E V I D E N T B Y I T S E L F , WHA T
P R O HI B I T S A N Y D O U B T S , A N D T O S U C C E E D I N B R E A K I N G T HE V I C I O U S
C I R C L E O F S O  C A L L E D T R U T HS , WHI C H A R E O F T E N A P P A R E N T O N L Y
B E C A U S E N O O N E HA S E V E R MU S E D O V E R T HE M L O N G E N O U G H. ”
SOME EMPHASES,
WHICH SUPPORT THE PREAMBULE IN THE PART
THAT IT IS WRONG TO BELIEVE THAT EVERYTHING IN SCIENCE IS
PERFECTLY WELLGROUNDED
First. Flawed interpretation of MichelsonMorley’s experiment (MME). MichelsonMorley’s
experiment consists in: first of two fixed to each other perpendicular arms
АО
and
ВО
of equal lengths
0
l
, along which propagate light beams from a light source, fixed to the arms and forming together with
them the interferometer of Michelson. I.e. the source of light and the arms are one whole. In this
sense, Michelson’s interferometer is also source of light in the sense of A. Fresnel’s law of 1818
which states: “The velocity of light is constant relative to its source, regardless of its state of motion or
rest”. Einstein in the introduction to his article “Zur Elektrodynamik der bewegter Körper” Ann. Phys.
1905, 17, 891 – 921, wrote: “..., namely, that light in vacuum always propagates at velocity c, which does
not depend on the state of the emitting body.” I.e., he cited Fresnel’s law. In this case, since Michelson’s
interferometer is also source of light, it follows that velocity of light relative to both its arms is constant
and equal to c, and since the arms are of equal lengths, according to Fresnel’s law, times t
A
and t
B
, for
which the beams will run along of the arms will be equal
0 0
2. 2.
;
A B
t t
c c
· · ·
l l
(11)
as it is proved by MME as well. This apparent, even at first sight, fact, brings up this question why this
10
flawed experiment is taught in the courses of physics in secondary and tertiary education.
Second. Although Isaac Newton in his book, “Opticks or a treatise of the reflections, refractions,
inflections and colours of light” of 1704 wrote (quotations are given in a synthesized form compared to
the original, P.P.’s note):
„All bodies emit and absorb light”
“Bodies convert into light, and light – into bodies."
”These are normal natural phenomena  facts.”
And in 1860 Gustav Kirchhoff proved the empirical law that „the ratio of energy emitted by a
body to the absorbed ray (electromagnetic) (P.P.’s note) energy is constant and does not depend on the
kind of material of bodies.” Moreover, Kirchhoff confirmed Newton’s experimental facts that
matter in nature has the essence of electromagnetic waves, i.e. electromagnetic matter. Up to this
day, no one has paid due attention to the corollary of these experimental facts, which are an unconditional
natural law, which states that matter in the world is homogenous and has electromagnetic essence, i.e. that
matter in nature is only and solely electromagnetic.
These wellknown, crucial for science facts have been ignored up to this day, although they have
always been available for researchers of physics.
Third. J. Maxwell in “Treatise on electricity and magnetism” of 1873 wrote: in paragraph 636:
“Kinetic energy in a unit of volume is
0
. E B ] µ
]
r r
and it exists wherever there is magnetic field, i.e. in all
parts of the field.” And in paragraph 638 he wrote, “We should consider both magnetic and
electromagnetic energies as kinetic energies” and further on, “Therefore, energy of fields consists of
two kinds of electrostatic or potential energy and electromagnetic or kinetic energy”.
This quotation entails that when an electron of mass at rest
0 e
m
moves at velocity
v c <
magnetic
energy is generated around the electron
a) ( )
1
2 2
2
0
. 1 1 ;
He e
W m c
− ]
· −β −
]
]
b) ;
v
c
β · (31)
which magnetic energy at very low velocities
a)
; v c =
b) 1;
v
c
β · = or c) 0;
v
c
β · →
(32)
is described by the simplified formula
2
0
.
;
2
e
He
m v
W · (33)
These magnetic energies (31) and (33), according to Maxwell, are kinetic energies of electrons.
But Einstein in his article „Zur Elektrodynamik der bewegter Körper” Ann. Phys. 1905, 17.891 – 921”,
where he derived formula (31) as kinetic energy of the electron, did not take into consideration that
according to Maxwell that was magnetic energy; instead, he called it kinetic energy without explaining
that according to Maxwell that was electromagnetic energy. Despite that, Einstein in his article
“Autobiographisches” in his book “Albert Einstein. PhilosopherScientist” of 1945 wrote: “The special
theory of relativity arose from Maxwell’s equations”. And he insisted on that being the expression of
kinetic energies of all bodies at velocities
a)
; v c <
b) 1;
v
c
β · <
(34)
This idea (31) was assumed in physics for the kinetic energy of all bodies. And the expression (3
3) is derived from (31) on condition (32) whereby the expression
( )
1
2
2
1
−
−β
is expanded in a power
series and only the first two terms of the series are taken and (33) is obtained.
The presented above entails a categorical conclusion: kinetic energy of electromagnetic matter is
magnetic energy, but in physics no analysis like this has ever been performed, and it should have been,
according to Maxwell’ electromagnetic theory.
Fourth. Maxwell in „Treatise on electricity and magnetism” of 1873 in paragraph 792 wrote:
“That is why in a medium, where waves propagate, there is pressure in direction perpendicular to the
11
waves and numerically equal to the energy in a unit of volume.”
This law was written in words by Maxwell as a subtitle „energy and pressure during emission”.
And at density of mass , density of energy w and velocity c of electromagnetic waves, the above law is
notated by formula
2
. ; w c · ρ (41)
When integrating (41) for volume V we have it in the form
a)
2 2 2
. . . . . ; W wdV c dV c m W mc · · ρ · − ·
∫ ∫
b)
2
;
W
m
c
· (42)
These regularities are confirmed experimentally by P. Lebedev in 1900 at the congress of physicist
in Paris.
Since the law (42) results from Maxwell’s law (41) it should be assumed that the law
2
. W mc · is a law given by Maxwell, although Einstein was the first to announce it, without
mentioning Maxwell.
This fact is not reported in modern physics, although it has been known since 1873 and even has
repeatedly been cited by P. Lebedev during and after 1900.
Fifth. In classical physics, according to Newton’s "Principles ...", it is assumed that matter
in the world is homogenous in essence. Only that in “Opticks ... " it was not called electromagnetic. In
Maxwell’s electrodynamics and in the relativistic electrodynamics, however, in particular the special
theory of relativity, it is accepted that matter is electromagnetic. Moreover, the electromagnetic laws of
relativistic electrodynamics (mechanics) at very low velocities, condition (32), get transformed into laws
of classical physics (mechanics). This fact clearly speaks that the homogenous matter in classical
mechanics should be electromagnetic, since with both homogenous matter and electromagnetic matter
defined as available, there would be a contradiction: one part of matter is homogenous, and the other is
electromagnetic, i.e. that there are two kinds of matter. Therefore, it should be assumed that there is
only one kind of matter and this is electromagnetic matter. But despite these facts, even today, modern
physics operates with two kinds of matter, which fact is a physical incorrectness.
Sixth. It is well known that: a) electromagnetic matter in the form of electromagnetic waves
(light) generates gravitational field and therefore is attracted by the sun and b) electromagnetic matter
in the form of electrons and positrons with masses at rest
a)
( )
( )
2
2
0
2
0 0
. ;
4. . .
e
e e m
e
q
m q k
r c
· ·
π.ε
m
m b)
( )
1
2
0 0
4. . . ;
m
k r c
−
· π.ε (61)
generate gravitational field
( )
2
0 0
. .
. 0;
2
e
E e m
m r
G q k
γ
· − · − <
r
r
m
(62)
where:
e
q m
is the electrical charge of the electron and the positron: ε
0
– dielectric constant of vacuum;
r
e0
– computational radius of the electron and the positron; c – velocity of electromagnetic waves (light)
and – gravitational constant.
It is also known that the electron and the positron at rest generate electrostatic field E
e
, an in motion
– magnetic field H
e
, which have densities of their masses
a)
2
0
2
.
;
2.
e
E
E
c
ε
ρ · b)
2
0
2
.
;
2.
H
H
c
µ
ρ · (63)
where:
0
and
0
are dielectric and magnetic constants of vacuum.
As it is known, masses m
e0
,
e
and
H
generate gravitational fields
a)
0 0
0
2
. .
;
e
e
m r
G
r
γ
· −
r
r
b)
0
2
. .
;
E
E
r
G
r
ρ
ρ γ
· −
r
r
c)
0
2
. .
;
H
H
r
G
r
ρ
ρ γ
· −
r
r
(64)
These facts show that in modern physics it has been proved (known) that electromagnetic matter
in substantial and field form (electric and magnetic fields) generates gravitational fields. However, this
remarkable fact has not been paid due attention by researchers. These gravitational fields in essence
are always positive and have electromagnetic essence, but the functions of the squares of the electrical
12
charges ( )
2
0
e
q > m are always positive so these gravitational fields are unipolar. And here they are called
secondary electromagnetic fields unlike the familiar electric and magnetic field, which are proportional to
the first power of the electric charges and therefore are bipolar  negative and positive.
By calculating the gravitational energies of the gravitational fields, generated by the electron at rest
with mass
2
0
. ,
e e m
m q k · its electrostatic field
2
0
2
0
.
4. . .
e
q r
E
r
·
πε
r
r
and its magnetic field
[ ]
0 0 0
0
2
0
. . . .
.
4. . .
e
v q v r
H v E
r
ε
] · ε ·
]
πε
r r
r r
r
respectively and from the electromagnetic waves.
we have the density of gravitational energy
2
;
2.
G
G
w ·
γ
(65)
Proceeing from the density of gravitational energy, we obtain the densities of the gravitational
energies, which are generated by:
a) the mass of the electron at rest
2 4 2 4 2
0
0
4 4 4
. . . .
. ; . ;
2. 2. 2
e e m m
Gq q q
m q k q k
w K K
r r r
γ γ γ
· · · (66)
b) the density of the mass of the electric field – of electromagnetic waves
( ) ( )
2 2 4 2 2 4 2
0 0 0
0 0 4 4 4
4
0 0
. . . . . .
. ;
2 4
4. . . 4. 4. .
E e e
GE E E
E r q
w K K
r
r
ρ γ ε γ ε γ ε γ
· · · · ·
πε πε
(67)
c) the density of the mass of the magnetic field – of electromagnetic waves
( ) ( )
2 2 4 2 4 4 4 4 2 4
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 4 4 4
4 4
0 0
. . . . . . .
. ; ;
2 4
4 4. . . . 4 4. .
H e e
GH e H
H v q q
w K K
r
c r
ρ γ ε γ µ ε µ ε
· · · · ·
πε πε
(68)
The respective gravitational energies are:
a) gravitational energy of electron
0 0
4 4
0 2 4
0 0
4
0 0
. . .4. . . . . ; ;
e e
q
e e
Gq Gq q q q e q
r r
e e
K
q q
W w dV K r dr K K q K
r r r
∞ ∞
· · π · · ·
∫ ∫
(69)
b) gravitational energy of electric field E of the electron and of electromagnetic waves
0 0
4
2 4 0
0
4
0 0
. .4, . . . ; ;
e e
e E E
GE GE E r e E
r r
e e
q K K
W w dV K r dr q K
r r r
∞ ∞
· · π · ·
∫ ∫
(610)
c) gravitational energy of magnetic field of electron at velocity v and of electromagnetic waves at
velocity c
0 0
4 4
2 4 4
0
4
0
.
. .4. . . . . ; ;
e e
e EH
GH GH H H e H
r r
e
v q K
W w dV K r dr K v q K
r r
∞ ∞
· · π · ·
∫ ∫
(611)
From the presented above, it is evident that the gravitational energy of the electron and of its
electric and magnetic fields (as well as of the electromagnetic field of electromagnetic waves) are
electromagnetic energy. This is another motivation of the argument that the gravitational field is an
electromagnetic field, proven by facts, known in modern physics but so far unnoticed. ON THE OTHER
HAND, THE FACT THAT ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER GENERATES GRAVITATIONAL FIELD IS ALSO A PROOF THAT UNITARY
MATTER OF THE WORLD IS ONLY ELECTROMAGNETIC.
Seventh. A. Einstein’s observations expressed in various articles, as follows:
1. In [1] he wrote: "It cannot be claimed that these parts of the general theory of relativity, which
are now considered to be complete, make a complete and satisfactory foundation of physics."
2. In [2] he wrote: "In order to finish the foundations of the general theory of relativity it is
necessary to introduce in it electromagnetic field as well, which, according to our present ideas, is
the material out of which we are to build the basic entities of matter.”
3. In [3] wrote: "For example, according to our modern views, in their essence elementary
13
particles are nothing but thickened electromagnetic field." And further he wrote:
"Of course it would be a major step forward if we could unite gravitational and electromagnetic
field into one picture. Then the epoch of theoretical physics, which originates from Faraday and
Maxwell would be appropriately completed.
4. In [4] he wrote: "The purpose of my work is to simplify the theory and, in particular, to reduce it
into a formula, combining gravitational and electromagnetic fields", and further on he wrote:
"Now and only now we know that the forces, which move the electrons in ellipses around the nuclei
in the atoms, are the same forces, which move the Earth along its annual path around the Sun and also
that they bring us the light rays and heat, which make life on our planet possible. "
5. in [1] wrote: „We have to admit that physics does not have common theoretical foundations,
i.e. it lacks a logical foundation.”
Literature to Einstein’s obseravations:
1. A. Einstein. Considerations concerning the Fundaments of Theoretical Physics. Science. 1940,
91, 487 – 492.
2. A. Einstein. Grund gedamken und Probleme der Relativitätstheorie in Nobelstiltelsen les Prix
Nobel en 19221 – 1922” Imprimerie Royale, Stockholm. 1923.
3. A. Einstein. Ather und Relativitätstheorie Verlag von Julius Springer. Berlin. 1920.
4. A. Einstein. Zur Einheitlichen Feldtheorie. Sitzunbericht preass. Akad Wiss. Physsmath K1,
1929, 2 – 7.
Eighth. Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman, Professor in quantum mechanics, wrote in his book
"The Character of Physical Law”, Cox and Wyman Ltd. London. 1965
1. In Lecture 1 he wrote:
"Today our theories of physics, the laws of physics, are a multitude of different parts and pieces
that do not fit together very well. We do not have one structure from which all is deduced; we have
several pieces that do not quite fit exactly yet.”
2. In Lecture 2 he wrote:
"As long as physics is incomplete, […] we are trying to understand the other laws”.
3. In Lecture 3 he wrote:
3.1. "[b]ut across the variety of these detailed laws there sweep great general principles which all
the laws seem to follow."
3.2. "If you thought before that science was certain  well, that is just an error on your part."
4. In Lecture 6 he wrote:
"I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics.”
5. In Lecture 7 he wrote:
5.1. "I will tell you a little, then, about the stuff on which all of these principles are supposed
to have been working. First of all there is matter  and, remarkably enough, all matter is the same."
5.2. "If we put all these principles together, we discover that
there are too many. They are inconsistent with each other.”
5.3. "But all the principles that are known are inconsistent with each other, so something has
to be removed."
5.4. "At least in the past it has always turned out that some deeply held idea had to be thrown
away."
5.5. "I believe that it has to be given that certain things exist  not all the 50odd particles,
but a few little things like electrons, etc.  and then with all the principles the great complexities that
come out are probably a definite consequence."
5.6. "We have to find a new view of the world that has to agree with everything that is known,
but disagree in its predictions somewhere, otherwise it is not interesting."
CONCLUSION
This is part of the known facts in modern physics, which are inconsistent with physical reality and
which require rationalizing, both of its theoretical foundations and of physics as a whole.
14
METHODOLOGICAL ESSAY
1. SOME FEATURES OF THE REQUIREMENTS ON SCIENTIFIC
REASONING
It is known that science does not construct images mirroring natural facts (reality), but it
constructs models of them which are simplified (idealized, abstracted) by means of simplified
(idealized, abstracted) notions in conformity with the purpose (task) of a specific scientific research. In
this way a model is created containing only the most essential (important) major properties
(manifestations) of reality (natural facts, obnjects) depending on the purposes of study.
The notion of natural fact or reality should be understood as something material (in a field or
substantial form of matter or both), which can be perceived (sensed) directly or indirectly through
human senses. The notions of these realities, perceived by humans, after certain interpretation assumes
the rank of scientific facts, expressed through relevant notions.
It should be emphasized, that the realities always (immutably) have the physical property of
quantity (quantitative relations) which are the subject of mathematics. Because of this circumstance,
mathematics can describe, in the language of quantities (quantitative relations), the phenomena
(processes, objects) of all sciences, which deal with (use) only strictly simply defined quantities in the
form of relevant notions.
The thing that generates diverse realities (natural phenomena, nature) is called matter. It is the
carrier and generator of realities and is synonymous to the notion of nature. When studying the realities
(natural manifestations, including those of humankind as an element of nature),respectively matter, or
rather its manifestations, matter is always the initial principle and logical point of support in the
conceptual interpretation of the diversity of facts (manifestations).
THAT IS TO SAY THAT MATTER, IN SUBSTANTIAL ASPECT, AS THE CARRIER BOTH
OF ITS ETERNITY – THE PRINCIPLE OF ITS CONSERVATION – AND OF THE TRANSIENCE
OF ITS STRUCTURES (ITS MUTABILITY) – THE PRINCIPLE OF ITS INTERACTIONS, I.E. THE
LAWS OF MATER MANIFESTATIONS (PROCESSES) ARE EXPRESSION OF THE LAWS OF
THEIR LOGIC IN THE NEVERCEASING ALTERATION OF ITS MANIFESTATIONS IN TIME
AND SPACE – IN THE NATURE. Therefore, when studying parts of nature (individual objects –
manifestations) as well as nature (matter) as a whole, matter manifests in a way for which there are
natural conditions, i.e. first and above all, conditions should be accounted for and they should be the
explanation of some or other manifestations and statesof matter, subject to respective laws.
In the meaning of the aforesaid, matter is not a metaphysical body, but a unity – a complex of
its diverse facts (manifestations) or a complex entity in a field and substantial form: a material
continuum.
It should be noted that the two abstracted notions of matter, mass m, and its property, energy W, do
not exist as separate quantities. They are always inseparable from each other, because energy is an
attributive property of the conceptual (complex) notion of matter, whose abstracted notion is mass, and
that is why matter and energy cannot exist separately from each other. Matter and energy, according to
physics, are related to the velocity of light ‘c’ through the regularity,
2
. W mc · , (11)
which is universal. And always, when it is spoken of energy W, unconditionally should also be
considered the fact, that it has a carrier, a corresponding quantity of matter, or mass m.
2
/ m W c · ; (12)
and vice versa, when matter is meant, it always goes alongside with energy, i. e. matter as a synonym of nature,
in the methodology of knowledge (scientific studies, sciences), should be considered as a tentative abstraction
(theoretical construct) of the carrier and generator of the commonest in the diversity of objects: their property of
materiality, which characterizes their unity and reality. Or matter is the only groundwork and initial qwuantity
(basis), as initial resource, which is the carrier, source (cause) of the realities and all natural phenomena
(objects, manifestations) in nature.
The above statement contains the scientific belief and creed of the author of this study – this
scientific creed has its fundamental thesis, as follows:
15
The initial principle of knowledge about nature as a unitary system and about its specific
facts (objects, manifestations) as well as of the criterion of veracity and reliability of knowledge is
the experiment  practice. This thesis is based on the idea that each natural reality (manifestation) is
material, i.e. that there is no reality that could not be perceived by the human mind, by means of our
senses (directly or indirectly), and by means of our logical thinking. And experiments, and practice, are
realities.
The notion of reality should be understood as something material (in a field or substantial
form of matter or both), which can be perceived (sensed) directly or indirectly through human
senses. The notions of these realities, perceived by humans, after certain interpretation assumes the
rank of scientific facts, expressed through relevant notions.
It should be pointed out that realities always (irrevokably) have the physical property of
quantitative relations which are the subject of mathematics. Because of this circumstance,
mathematics can describe, in the language of quantities (quantitative relations), the phenomena
(processes, objects) of all sciences, which deal with (use) only strictly simply defined quantities in the
form of relevant notions. Therefore, philosophy cannot use the language of mathematics – philosophical
notions are not strictly defined – they are too flexible.
In the aspect of the above thesis, the primary purpose of science (scientific study) is to unite the
vast diversity of natural manifestations using sme common properties into one whole system as an
expression of the unitary science of nature, called naturology (nature science), which should
combinethe following properties (features):
First  it should have a genetically unitary material essence;
Second – it should have hierarchical order of its causeandeffect relations;
Third – it should reflect the fact that the Universe is in its essence a homogenous material
continuum of substantial and field forms of matter (natural phenomena), i. e. that there is no place in the
nature without matter in a field or substantial form. And more specifically, there is no place
without a gravitational field and photon gas (electromagnetic fields);
Fourth  it should reflect the fact that matter itself (the material continuum) is the carrier and
generator of its own manifestations (Natura causa sui est  Spinosa);
Fifth  that in human mind (brain) there is nothing else real than that, which was perceived
through the senses or human thought, as a reflection of natural phenomena or of human thoughts.
Due to this fact (reason), it is only the aggregate sum of these reflections that forms the initial resource
(raw material) of forming, via processes of thinking, i.e. by means of internal cerebral material processes
of interaction. between material carriers of images, of laws about realities, which are an expression of the
knowledge – the truth about the world;
Sixth  that matter, which is the carrier and generator of natural manifestations, is not a compact
object (fragment) in the form of metaphysical body, but a complex entity of its diverse manifestations
(states) in space and time, i. e. a mentally idealized (abstracted) object. Or matter is the primary initial
logical point of support in conceptual interpretation of reality.
In this form and meaning as a conceptual notion, matter is the only primary and initial
(starting) basis (notion, idea) for forming (constructing) of a scientific view of nature and its parts
(fragments), since all studied phenomena and their laws are product of matter. I.e. only if matter is
homogenous in essence, can there be a unitary science of nature.
In this aspect matter is not inactive (passive), but active because it carries in itself the active
principle called the reason of its own conservation (existence) and evolution.
Seventh – the veracity of the truth of the scientific claims (thoughts), in the form of inferences and
laws, definitions and principles, can only be proved by relevant supportive experiments and facts
(empirical regularities), i. e. that no nonempirical (apriori) truths or sciences exist, but all sciences use
(are basically product of) the principle of observation of material manifestations  experimental data,
i.e. the principle of observation.
The above idea is grounded in the circumstance that experimental data have the status of irresistible
strength of proof or that they have the status of an irresistible proof – ranking to a principle and argument for
reliable information and truth. That is to say that the material experiment is a material expression of the
logic (truth, regularity) – the logical necessity – of the reliable, veracious idea about the essence of the
16
relevant natural fact in dynamic aspect. Moreover, regardless of whether we want it or not, the experiment is
imposed on us as an unconditional irresistible natural truth. And that is why the experiment is a logical point of
support for evidence and inferences from natural truths  logical laws. And the summarized inferences from the
experimental data are the beginning (the root) of theoretical inferences (laws), which, when they are more
comprehensive, are called principles – and the system of them is called logic, and they always have an
empirical basis, i. e. a material origin, because there is nothing of which it is claimed to have real laws
which is not material, i.e. this thing is not an expression (direct or indirect) of a specific reality.
In support of the above reasoning come some maxims, such as:
• “Even gods remain speechless before facts” or, paraphrased “Even genii concede to scientific
facts”;
• “Facts have an irresistible strength of proof”;
• “True is only that idea which has an analog in nature”  Aristotle;
• “Science is an offspring of experiment” – Leonardo da Vinci (1452 1519);
Eighth  the theoretical or logical laws (the logic), are applicable for reliable interpretation only in
thoughts (claims), which are reliable (experimentally validated) truths (facts) about natural phenomena.
Otherwise, when interpreting unreliable truths by logical laws (logic) we will derive nontruths. The
reason for this requirement (property) of logical laws (the theoretical foundations) is the circumstance,
that they are only generated by (are product of) real (reliable) natural phenomena.
Here we should emphasize the fact that, in general, all laws are logical laws, because they are
an expression of truth  of the essence of the relevant natural phenomenon (manifestation)  of an
empirical fact. In this sense, the essential meaning of the notions expressed via the terms  law, logic,
principle and truth are synonyms, which validate the reliability of the relevant empirical regularity
manifesting itself in a relevant experiment. In practice, the term logic (logical) is most often used about
more comprehensive and more general, yet reliable, experimentally confirmed, regularities. While the
term law is used for specific explicit manifestations.
Brief systematization of paragraph 1.
1. Science studies the manifestations (states) of objects of homogenous matter out of which is
formed the material continuum, which synonymous to the notion of nature.
2. Science does not construct mirror reflexions of natural facts, but simplified (abstracted)
models of abstracted notions of the parts of nature, which are essential for the purpose of studies. I.e.
models refer to cutoff parts of the material continuum – the nature.
3. The abstracted notion of a quantity of matter is the notion of mass.
4. The notion of energy is another abstracted notion of the notion ‘matter’, or of its essence (its
manifestation) to move and get restructured into various structural forms and states, which is also
understood as a material manifestation, reflecting the possibility for material objects to move and
restructure from one structural state into another.
5. The model of a unitary science of nature (material continuum) is a system of models of natural
facts, which are structural elements of the system (unitary science – naturology), which reflects the
manifestations of the regularities of the material continuum.
6. The initial principle and criterion of the reliability of scientific models are experimental facts,
which are an expression of the material regularities and are logical laws.
2. SOME METHODOLOGICAL DEFINITIONS
2.1. On the notions of explicit and potential (implicit) properties
Explicit properties (manifestations) of parts, systems of parts or of nature as a whole are only
these properties, for which there are or there have been conditions (situations) when they are in the
form or condition where their existence can be observed and they can be registered as observable.
And those regularities (properties) of the objects (parts, systems or of nature as a whole), for
which up to this moment there have not been proper conditions to manifest themselves as explicit are
called potential (implicit, nonobservable) laws (properties). And they are such until the moment when
conditions arise for them to become observable.
17
The number of the potential regularities (properties) of each object is unknown, and because of this
fact, an indeterminate number of notions for diverse properties (manifestations) of object (the system, the
nature) can be formulated from their unknown number. Or by the notion of diversity or diverse
manifestations it should be understood that if there are n known (explicit) diversities of an object, then
there always exist 0 > m more potential (unknown) diversities.
For example, Newton’s mechanics, which was developed without the field form of matter, was
without the potential property of field matter. Whereas Maxwell’s electrodynamics is based on explicit
field property of matter of electromagnetic fields. And thus, the discovery of the potential properties of
an object as explicit ones may lead to new theoretical inferences. Therefore, the availability of
potential properties leads us to the conclusion, that any new theory can always be the last but one word
(theory) in its respective scientific area.
The purpose of scientific research is to discover and describe as explicit those properties which
have been potential (implicit).
2.2. ON THE SYNONYMY OF THE NOTIONS OF SCIENTIFIC,
THEORETICAL AND LOGICAL
The theoretical foundations (regularities) as well as the logical foundations (laws)  the logic of
sciences start forming (amassing) themselves in the human mind from a human being’s birth to the end of
his conscious life in the form of experimental resource, through observation and mental activities
(education, media (radio, television), literature, etc.). This is actually the initial logical resource (product,
raw material), which is then processed by the material mental process in the brain so that new truths
(logical inferences) may be deduced as the scientific resource of science (study). Due to the presented
above, there is no place here for any nonmaterial activities brought into scientific studies via the
notion of apriori, i.e. something before the experiment. Since there is no real assertion that is something
true if it is not about a material reality (natural fact) – there is not anything and there cannot be anything
which, being generated in reality, was not generated by something material.
In the above sense, selfevident are the following truths:
First  that there are no laws, which are not logical, as long as they meet the requirements of a
reliable, experimentally validated truth, which has an analog in nature.
Second  that there is no natural fact (object), whose properties (regularities) are all known
(explicit); due to which the number of its diverse manifestations is not known.
Third – the preceding two truths imply that it is impossible to give a complete (exhaustive)
description of a natural fact, but only a simplified model of the relevant reality of nature can be given
(without its potential and other properties).
Fourth – in scientific studies, the following essential points should be taken into consideration:
1) Each real thing in nature, which is perceived through senses, is material;
2) The notion of matter is a specific synonym of the notion of nature;
3) The initial (rawmaterial) resource of notions (ideas) in the human mind (brain), out of which
we form inferences (truths) about nature as a whole and about its parts, are only the images of natural
phenomena reflected in our brain, through our organs of senses plus the resources of human brain
and nervous system . Out of these images, after a relevant interpretation, we can create relevant scientific
facts (notions)  SF (SN), which are the initial scientific resource.
Scientific facts have irresistible strength of proof, similar to that of Archimedes’ point of
support, because their beginning (the root) is in the experimental data, and this fact is an
expression of the logical necessity for the natural phenomena;
4) Science (theory) is not a mirror reflection of natural phenomena, but only their schematic
image (model) by means of abstracted notions of the parts reality  nature. Depending on the purpose
of a study, the abstracted (simplified) notions always reveal some flaw (incompleteness) relative to
their relevant physical (chemical or biological) reality.
5) From point 4) the categorical statement (conclusion) follows, that every scientific theory
(achievement) in a certain natural field is only the last but one word in this field. Which means that
scientific advance is unlimited, i. e. it is boundless, because every new achievement can be followed by
18
another one, which has been potential up to the moment, i. e. this is a mathematically endless process.
This means that
SCIENTIFIC ADVANCE IS UNLIMITED – IT IS ENDLESS.
2.3. Some aspects in the science as a unitary whole – the science of nature
2.3.1. The fact of the incessant alteration of natural occurrences entails the law that there exists and
incessant development of science (knowledge of nature). And also that due to this circumstance we
should always be ready to alter our scientific ideas about natural occurrences by new, more perfect
in compliance with the new facts in experimental and logical aspects.
2.3.2. With the advancement of science, our ideas about fundamental laws get more simplified
and summarized, and thus the theoretical foundations of science become more simplified and more
perfect deductive principles.
2.3.3. The ultimate task before researchers and scientists is to discover the basic initial laws
(deductive principles), out of which, by means of a unified approach, starting from an initial
principle, to explain (describe) all natural occurrences (manifestations), and thus to unite all
sections of physics under unitary fundamental laws – the theoretical basis (logical foundations,) the
common deductive principle, which is called here Principal.
2.3.4. The task of this book, probably the first more comprehensive attempt, in aspect to formulate
and develop the directions of physics as an expression of a unitary genetic principle in the evolution of
nature (the world) and concurrently, to postulate the initial scientific factor for studying and constructing
the theoretical foundations of the science of Universe, treated as a whole, which is called here Principal,
as well as of its details, which are studied by specialized sciences – components of the unitary science of
the nature – called naturology, all resulting from the Principal.
2.4. On the approach (method) of attaining new knowledge
2.4.1. General formulations
The purpose of science of nature as one whole is to unite all natural diversity under a common
indicator, which should be a universal principle. Based on such an indicator of universal validity, which
the author assumes to be the principle of uniformity of the essence of matter, i.e. all the diversity of natural
facts (objects, phenomena, processes, etc.) in mineral (dead) and living matter are formed out of the same
(homogenous) initial resource.
Provided the homogenous essence of natural factsis proven, a model of a unitary science of nature
as one whole should be made. This model should essentially be a system of homogenous structural
elements of different structures, which are specific models of abstracted notions of diverse natural facts.
For such a model to be reliable, it should meet the following initial formulations.
First. All scientific truths (knowledge) should be models of homogenous matter. They should be
constructed out of abstracted notions, which reflect not only the uniformity of their resource (matter) but also
their specificities depending on their structural states, in space and time. I.e. the model of the science of
naturology should be made out of the models of specific (specialized) sciences, which are components
(structural elements) of the system (model) of naturology.
Second. The initial (starting) deductive principle (theoretical basis or logical foundation) of
naturology should be valid for specific sciences as well, but they should also have their specific
(particular) components of their deductive principles, which essentailly are secondary principles. In this
sense, specific sciences have a broader spectrum of deductive principles, while retaining the same
homogeneity as that of naturology. The motivation for this statement is the circumstance that knowledge is a
generalized idea of the manifestations of a unitary in its essence matter.
Third. The realization of the two preceding formulations would be a realiable truth (scientific fact)
only with the unconditional proof that matter is homogenous in essence, and its diverse manifestations in
the form of natural facts result from their diverse structural, quantitative and organizational forms (states).
Emphasis. In his mechanics, I. Newton deduced the initial laws only by summarizing experimental
facts, without discussing the essence of matter, of which he introduced the abstract notion of mass. But
the fact that matter is the motivation of all mechanical manifestations in nature, respectively of all
natural laws, entails the inference that Newton considered that matter was of homogenous essence.
19
That idea of Newton’s is also confirmed by the fact that in the theory of gravitation he did not take into
consideration any influence of the essence of matter when the force of attraction is generated either of
bodies, or of light (electromagnetic matter). That is why he wrote in “Opticks” of 1704 that bodies
attracted light.
Besides, in his book „Opticks...” of 1704 he wrote that gravitational, electrical and magnetic
forces act with all bodies, which circumstance is only possible with homogenous matter.
2.4.2. On the method of formal logic – MFL
The approach for attainment of new truths (knowledge) was formed in Antiquity in the fourth
century B.C. by Aristotle, who summarized knowledge of nature under the term of philosophy of nature.
Aristotle asserted that new truths could only be derived from known truths, i.e.
First. We should proceed from a system of known truths, which system he called a prerequisite. This
prerequisite, in Euclidean geometry – EG, is called a system of axioms (truths).
Second. After making a logical analysis of the prerequisites (the system of known, reliable truths),
logical inferences (laws) are deduced, which in EG are called theorems.
Third. The inferences are correct (reliable inferences), if they have analogue in nature.
Apparently, this approach of Aristotle, which in philosophy is called method of formal logic, is
applicable to all sciences. Mathematicians, claiming that their science, mathematics, is the initial principle
for all sciences, point out, without calling it MFL, that this method is mathematical logic. But historical
facts disprove them.
Here it should be noted that, although Aristotle stated that inferences (laws) should have their
analogue in nature, i.e. they should have experimental validation, he personally, and other scientists after
him, did not firmly adhere to the experimental validation, since Galileo disproved it with reference to the
claim that heavier bodies fall faster during his experiments from the leaning tower of Pisa.
In general, Galileo introduced into modern sciences the abstracted notions, the inferences by
means of MFL and the experimental confirmation of the inferences.
3. ON THE UNITY OF NATURE AND OF THE SCIENCE ABOUT IT
3.1. General formulations
„The principle of unity of the science about nature, whose subject is nature as one whole, as Max
Planck put it, has its root in Antiquity, i.e. since ancient times, for as long as studies of nature have
existed, this ideal has always stood as a task of highest rank: to unite the multitude of diverse
phenomena into one system, and if possible, into one only formula”.
As R. Feynman wrote: „The purpose is to understand the phenomena in all nature as
manifestations of one common source. The aim is to find out the laws, lying behind experiment and
uniting these phenomena”.
The thesis of unitary essence (uniformity) of the knowledge of the nature as one whole, is
synonymous to the uniformity of the manifestations of the unitary matter and of the unitary science of it,
which can be called naturology or science of nature. I.e. this science should have the nature as one whole
for its subject. The motivation of this thought is the fact (circumstance) that in all history of science,
knowledge has accumulated as an expression of general interpretations of experimentally discovered
manifestations (states) of matter, because which it is assumed to be of homogenous essence.
The notion of matter should be understood not as a metaphysical body, but as a mentallty idealized
object, which is an integral carrier of the common general primary (regularities) of all natural facts. And
the carrier and generator of these common primary properties of matter is the initial (starting)
homogenous resource, which is called substance or substratum of matter. That is to say that
substratum (substance) of matter implies the initial homogenous homogenous starting resource, out of
which it was created.
In this definition of the material unity of natural phenomena, is also the objective basis of the unity
of the science of nature, i.e. the unity of knowledge about nature as one whole is generated by one
homogenous in essence primary initial resource. The notion “essence of something” should be
understood that this is one or more real major features of this thing in the form of unequivocal
primary properties, which are unmutable and durable features, which characterize some quantitative
definiteness of this thing. In this sense, the essence of this thing is determined by its internal contents and
20
external manifestations. This means that its features and the organizations of its structural
*
elements are
important.
This statement is based on what Max Planck wrote: „Science is an internal unitary whole. Its division
into individual fields results not from the nature of things, but from the limited human capability to summarize
knowledge. In actual fact, there exists a continuous chain, from physics and chemistry through biology and
anthropology to social sciences. A chain, which cannot be broken in any of its links, unless at random.”
The scientific fact, which is interpretation and summary of experimental facts, serves as a
reference point, and is a startard for the logical constructions of the laws out of which are formed its
theoretical foundations.
Emphases
Nobel Prize in Physics Laureate R. Feynman in his book „Feynman’s Lectures” claimed that till
that day it was not known what energy was.
However, in this aspect, as a counterbalance, two significant facts can be pointed out.
First emphasis
There is a law of energy and mass conservation, i.e. energy and mass are eternal.
This law entails the categorical fact that energy is something made of matter, because only material
objects can be said to be conserved, or more specifically that their matter can be conserved.
This fact implies that energy is a manifestation (property) of a real (explicit) or potential structural
state of homogenous matter of the World.
Second emphasis
The other inference from the above law of conservation is the categorical claim that energy in the world,
as one whole, is solely and only homogenous. The motivation of this claim is the circumstance that if
energy were diverse in essence, there would not be (theer would be a contradiction to) the law of its
conservation, because it would not be clear for which of the diverse energies the law of energy
conservation holds true. The real and permanent existence (the law of conservation) of energy is the
motivation to assert that it is something real and material, i.e. that energy is a material object with mass –
quantity of matter, because only about something made of matter can it be claimed that it is mass. And this
quantity of matter (energy) has a respective structure depending on conditions. However, energies must be only
of homogenous essence, for, if they were not homogenous, the law of energy and mass conservation cannot
hold true.
The fact of the homogeneity of energy, which is inseparable from mass, respectively from its
homogenous matter, means that energy is a manifestation of the homogenous matter itself, i.e. energy
is an expression of the respective state of matter –there is no energy in a separate (independent) state
without matter (mass), it is a state of matter, which generates motion and performs work. In this sense
the expression “does work’ means a process of restructuring of the unitary matter from one state into
another, i.e. this term ‘energy’ is synonymous to the expressions „process of restructuring of matter” or
„performing work”, whose meaning is the same in the issue under question.
Therefore, energy is matter, which is studied in a state of restructuring, and homogenous in
essence, and matter is eternal.
These facts, after it has been assumed in physics that there are magnetic, electrostatic and
gravitational energies and masses, entail that in science they are homogenous. And indeed, they can be
generated in the form of genetically homogenous, only of homogenous in essence, elementary particles
electrons (electron and positron). In this sense, the fact that are generated from homogenous in essence
elementary particles and antiparticles, is a proof that they have homogenous genetical principle, i.e. they
are genetically homogenous.
The thesis of the homogeneity (homogenous essence) of nature and that it is one homogenous
whole, which is synonymous to the unitary matter (material continuum) predetermines the availability
only of one unitary science, a science that is one whole and so it should be called Naturology. The
motivation for this are:
a) Science of nature is unitary (one whole) for it is a fact that science studies the essence, the states
*
By structure of matter should be understood the spatial distribution (by place and density) of the structural
elements of the thing (the substance).
By organization of matter should be understood the sum total of all movements of the structural elements and
forces that ensure its motion within a certain volume (finite motion) in order to conserve the respective dynamic
structure.
21
and the manifestations of unitary matter, both the one whole and its parts, which have relative
independence;
b) The name, Naturology, results from the accepted principle that science about the manifestations
of a certain subject should be named by a term, which includes the name of the subject. Most often this
name is of Latin origin and ends in „logy”.
The scientific study of the scientific manifestations of the parts of the whole (nature, material
continuum) by specific sciences, which are carriers both of the general scientific principle of the
manifestations (properties) of the whole, and of the specific features (properties) of the part, which is
reflected by the whole, i.e. a specific science is a science about the manifestations of an object, which is part
of the nature.
Under these conditions, it is evident that before determining the specific scientific features of the
parts of the whole, it is necessary to study and find out (discover) the main features (regularities) of the
whole. This thought is grounded in the circumstance that the specific features of the object, which is part
of the whole, result from the features of the whole plus additional (specific) features of the cutoff part of
the whole, bent by (adapted to) the specific situations (conditions), in which the object is studied as a cut
off part of the whole.
That means the the features of the initial resource in scientific studies determine the primary
attributive properties of the part cut off the whole (the object), and the structural and
organizational states, through which the resource manifests itself, depending on the conditions, in
which the object is placed, determine its specific features.
Quite often researchers neglect the fact that the object is part of the whole – the nature. And so they
do not take into consideration some of the features of the whole and treat the object as something entirely
independent. This circumstance as a common practice with researchers, makes it more difficult to descry
the unity of nature and of the science of it.
Here is a typical example of how a scholar of great erudition and laureate of Nobel Prize Prof. R.
Feynman missed to discern the genetic unity between electromagnetic and gravitational fields.
In his book "The characters of Physical law" Coxand Wyman Ltd. London 1963 Professor R.
Feynman in lecture I "An example of natural law  the law of gravitation" on p. 31 of the translation of this
book from Russian , ed. Mir, 1968 wrote:
„So far nobody has been able to present gravitation and electricity as two different manifestations
of the same reality”.
Prof. Feynman himself in his book „Feynman’s lectures in physics”, which was published about two
years before „The character...” wrote on the gravitational interaction between the electron and the
proton.” And before this interaction, he wrote in „Feynman’s lectures...” about the electric and magnetic
fields and energies generated by the electrons (electrical charges)”.
This comes to show how a famous scientist (Professor Feynman) in one of his books wrote that one
and the same reality (the electron) generates electric and gravitational field and energies. And in another
book, after the first, he wrote that no one has been able to present electricity and gravitation as
manifestations of one and the same reality.
This absurd situation, is a real fact about a renown scholar.
This fact is in support of Rene Descartes’s thesis that no scientific claim should be given
credit before we have made sure that it is a reality which has experimental confirmation.
3.2. Is matter of genetically homogenous essence
3.2.1. General formulations
When it is alleged that nature is a whole, this means that it generally is formed by something that is
homogeneous, i.e. something that is a homogeneous natural resource, which is called homogeneous
(uniform) matter. And scientific truths that have experienced confirmation reflect properties of the unitary
mater in the form of models of abstracted notions of the parts which are here called natural facts. This
means that the models are expression of the properties of the cutoff parts of the whole – unitary matter
which is synonymous with the concept of matter.
In this sense the law follows that the parts are carriers of two properties different by their media,
such as:
a) the general properties of matter (attributive properties)  nature as one whole;
b) the specific properties (structural properties) of the severed part of the whole, i.e. the material
continuum.
The above law entails that to the whole unitary and homogenous matter in nature correspond the
22
fundamental principles – the single deductive principle (logical foundation, theoretical basis) of the science of
nature, regarded as one whole, which here is called Naturology. And this single deductive principle is in the
base of the deductive principles of the specific (concrete) sciences, which have as their subject the individual
parts (natural facts). Therefore, the specific sciences are diverse components of the diverse (specific)
manifestations of natural facts formed only from one homogenous resource.
Emphasis
Only when nature is interpreted as a system of parts (natural facts) connected in one whole, can the
basic laws (principles) of the connections (mutial relationship) between them and the whole be revealed
in full. It is exactly their integral unity and the principles of the whole system (the nature) that is the
task of this book.
The notion of a unitary science should not be understood (interpreted) that it must be
reduced to a formula or a system of equations, but it should be understood that it must have an
initial principle, since nature as a whole is a system structured by material elements (realities) in
the form of material bodies, manifestations and processes which are interdependent because they
are mutually linked with force (structural) connections, i.e. it is one material whole (material
continuum). Therefore, without matter there is no reality – there is no matter, or the notions of matter
and nature are essentially synonymous. Because of this condition, we can contemplate a unity of
sciences only in homogeneity (uniformity) of matters of diverse natural facts (realities). That is to
say that the unity of science is predetermined only on condition that matter in nature (world), as a
whole is homogeneous in essence, i.e. it is manifested in various parts which are object different in
structure and organization, but with a homogeneous genetic essence, because they are formed from a
single homogenous resource.
Here, by diverse parts (objects) it should be understood such parts of nonliving (mineral) and
living (living organisms) matter, including human matter, since living matter is a product of mineral
matter.
While searching a solution to the unitary essence of matter, i.e. to the material continuum of matter,
which is synonymous with the notion of nature (Universe) a question arises, a common sense question –
about the feasibility of such a solution, by means of scientific thinking and the MFL (Method of formal
logic). The answer is yes. I.e. MFL provides solutions in the sense of common sense that the solution is
logically properly only then, when the starting point (the system of truths) called prerequisite, is
experimentally confirmed – a reliable truth. And that the inferences are also confirmed
experimentally.
That is why Rene Descartes asserted that no scientific claims should be accepted without
experimental confirmation or application in practice.
Another question also arises, as to whether such a quest for a deductive principle, which is the
theoretical basis of the whole knowledge of science of nature as one whole, is really needed.
The answer to this question is positive as a consequence of citations a) and b) and of what laureate
of Nobel prize Richard Feynman wrote:
a) „We do not have one structure from which all is deduced; we have several pieces that do
not quite fit exactly yet.” and “If we put all these principles together, WE DISCOVER THAT
THERE ARE TOO MANY. THEY ARE INCONSISTENT WITH EACH OTHER”
b) „across the variety of these detailed laws THERE SWEEP GREAT GENERAL PRINCIPLES
WHICH ALL THE LAWS SEEM TO FOLLOW.”
These citations of the Novel Prize Laureate, not specifically but in a categorical way state that in present
day physics there are realy ad hoc hypothses, gaps and flaws in the form of incorrect or experimentally not
conformed or obsolete or not updated truths, which should be dropped off physics.
But R. Feynman spoke quite clearly and explicitly about the availability of some unknown (potential)
initial and basic principles which underlie the foundations of our physical knowledge.
3.2.2. The model of unitary homogenous matter
3.2.2.1. Initial formulation
In this sense, the notion of mass is a model (abstracted notion) of the notion quantity of matter
(body, object) with the same quantity of matter, but concentrated in one point (without any volume or
shape) but with the respective real properties, such as inertness and gravitation.
The model of material objects, respectively of the diverse natural facts, are structurs with a relative
independence relative to the unitary material continuum, since they are also structural elements of the
nature (material continuum). And the structural elements of the structures of material objects are formed
out of homogenous (but of unknown essence) initial resource.
23
The motivation of the inference (principle) of this claim (law) that matter is of homogenous
essence, is:
a) The unknowness of the initial resource is due to the circumstance that it is inseparable from its
property spatiality, i.e. it cannot exist as a reality, without manifesting itself as a spatial structure with a
volume, different and greater than zero.
b) The initial resource is carrier of the inherent (attributive) properties of the specific material
objects, and these properties are the same only in essence for all objects.
c) the diversity of the objects, respectively of their properties is determined by the diversity of
their structures as well as by the varieties in the kind of their structural elements (the structural
elements can be separate diverse structures), and also by their number and their spatial states. For
example, the same number and kind of structural elements can be structured into objects of various
properties only through altering the spatial distribution of the places of their structural elements. Such
diverse objects are called isomers in chemistry.
That is, the structural diversity of systems, such as natural facts, although the essence of their
structural elements is homogenous, determines the diversity of their properties.
HERE WE SHOULD EMPHASIZE THE EXPERIMENTAL FACT THAT EACH QUANTITATIVE ALTERATION OF
THE INITIAL RESOURCE OF INDIVIDUAL NATURAL FACTS, REFLECTS ON THEIR STRUCTURAL STATE  A FACT,
WHICH RESULTS INTO ALTERATION OF THEIR PROPERTIES.
In view of the fact that in some cases, within certain limits of change in the structures of objects,
their properties are slightly modified, whereby the objects do not alter their essential core features, so
there is the notion of measure introduced as a measure of alteration of the boundaries of the structural
states, where it is assumed that objects retain their properties.
3.2.2.2. Inferences
First. All natural facts in the form of relatively independent material objects are product of respective
quantities of a homogenous initial resource, which is characterized by its basic properties, as follows:
a) law of conservation of the quantity of the initial resource (respectively, matter) – also known under
the name of inertness
b) structural and organizational states, as a result of which objects manifest in two forms, which are:
1) substantial, with relatively greater density of matter, in various structural states
2) field form, with relatively much smaller density of matter and in various structures, such as: electric,
magnetic and gravitational fields.
Second. These properties of the initial resource remain inseparable (inalienable, they form one
whole) in each object (natuaral fact) and are called inherent, or attributive.
Third. The diversity of structures in the different objects has the effect that the objects have other
properties as well, which are a consequence of the type of their structure, and for them this law holds true:
that these properties determined the type of the respective structure are generated at the moment of
generating of their structure and disappears at the moment of disintegration of their structure. Therefore,
these properties are determined by the structure, which is not eternal, but there are structures which are
considered to be lasting (eternal), of the order of 10
30
years. Such is the elementary particle proton. The
atoms and the molecules, which are a substantial form of matter, are also longlasting.
Fourth. The properties determined by the structure should depend on the complexity of structure.
Thus it follows that the simplest in terms of their structures objects have the fewes structurally determined
properties. This means that there may exist objects with extremely small number of structures and
structurally determined properties.
Therefore, the existence of such objects, as electron e
−
and positron e
+
should be assumed as
the initial, the lowest structural level of unitary matter. These elementary particles should be
assumed to be the models after which are formed all other, more complex structures of elementary
particles and macro objects. In the line of this thought, assumed as a core formulation, is the thesis of
the homogeneous essence of unitary matter, out of which was formed the material continuum of various
objects, which are structural elements of the concept of the notion Nature (Universe). This statement,
regarded as a scientific fact (principle), motivates the notion of interaction between objects  an
expression of the alteration of the structural bonds (force bonds) between them and the formation of a
homogenous whole, called nature.
Fifth. So that the above formulations be true, as a result of which the principle of a homogeneous
whole, called nature, is formed, it is necessary to validate by means of experiments the factstruths that:
a) all natural facts are formed from a single (homogeneous) initial source, from which their
diverse structures are created.
b) some elementary particles, with respective structure, may under certain conditions become
(restructure) in others which are of the same resource (uniform in essence with the initial ones), but
with different structurally determined properties.
cthe elementary particles with the simple structure can be restructured into more complex in
24
structure, such as atoms and molecules, which form makro objects, i.e. the system of nature.
d) material elementary particles can become (restructure) into a field, and vice versa. That is
matter can be transformed from a substantial into a field form and vice versa.
f) motion in its simplest form, such as trabsfer of matter from one place to another is inherent to
material objects, i.e. motion is inextricable (immanent ) property of the initial resource, respectively, of
all material structures.
4. CONCLUSION
Electrons e
−
and positrons at rest are the initial model, out of which through interactions
occur
*
:
a) All natural facts are connected in one whole system called nature;
b) The initial deductive principle, the theoretical foundations both of nature as one whole, i.e. of
the unitary science of nature, and of the fundamental deductive principles of individual natural facts,
respectively of the theoretical foundations of specific sciences, which are called here Principal.
The above conclusion is grounded on the following:
1. they are stable spatial substantial (fermions) of the smallest, relatively independent structures in
the form of independent electrical charges, from the initial homogenous resource, which without the
property spatiality (volume different from zero) cannot be an explicit (notable) object, and therefore, an
explicit, real object.
2. The different polarity of the charges is explained by the reciprocity of the structures, which fact
allows them during interaction to get restructured into diverse natural facts, both at micro and macro level
by means of respective order and number of restructuring, such as:
2.1. Accelerated electrons and positrons generate protons and neutrons;
2.2. Protons, neutrons and electrons make up atoms;
2.3. Atoms make up molecules, and they – substances;
Fundamental motivation
Electrons and positrons during respective interactions form all elementary particles, respectively
substantial and field forms of electromagnetic matter, i.e. all natural objects, phenomena and
processes are products of interactions between the bipolar electric charges  electron and positron.
NEWTONIAN SCIENCE IS NOT A HISTORICAL RELIC, BUT A
THEORETICAL BASIS OF PRESENTTIME AND FUTURE SCIENCE
OF NATURE
ISAAC NEWTON WAS A MECHANIC AND ELECTRODYNAMIC
CHAPTER ONE
THEORETICAL BASIS OF NEWTONIAN ELECTRODYNAMICS AND OF ALL
DYNAMICS IN GENERAL
1. INTRODUCTION
IT IS KNOWN THAT A CRUCIAL PREREQUISITE FOR THE POWER OF
KNOWLEDGE IS NOT THE BELIEF IN A REPUTEDLY INFALLIBLE AUTHORITY, BUT
THE IRRESISTIBLE POWER OF EXPERIMENTAL FACTS THROUGH WHICH THE MOST
RELIABLE AUTHORITY SPEAKS TO US, THE AUTHORITY OF NATURE.
There exists an unwritten methodological principle in science, which states that when new
experimental facts become known, they should be reflected in the already existing theory of the
*
Academician Y. B. Zeldovni in his book “Drama idey v poznanie prirody” (Drama of ideas in exploration of
nature), 1988 (p. 61), wrote: “The electron is indesctuctible, that is why it retains its electric charge. All the variety
of forms in the surrounding nature is a result of motion, bounding and restructuring of electrons.”
25
respective scientific field. If they cannot be directly reconciled with the existing theories, a possibility to
correct these theories should be sought or a new theory should be created in order to realize the unity
of knowledge in that scientific field and in science in general.
Such is the nature of man that he describes the material reality, in which he comes into immediate
sensuous contact, by breaking it into separate parts (fragments), keeps them in his memory (mind) in the
form of reflected images, and then he forms models. In essence, science is a system of fundamental
models of nature as a whole, i.e. a system of models of its parts. The models are not mirror reflections
of reality, but they are more or less an adequate reflection of the real natural facts, respectively of the
development of reality.
Moreover, the terms, used to describe the models, are also modeled, in the sense of being simplified
(abstracted) in the form of pointlike objects, which are carriers only of the most essential properties. For
instance, instead of the notion ‘matter’, the notion ‘mass’ is used, the latter being pointlike, without a
volume or structure.
Human knowledge of complex objects always endeavors to reduce them to something more
elementary and simpler, to some elementary essence, relevant to the given stage (level) of scientific
development of the structure of matter.
The problem of the elementary, in the aspect of the initial elementary essence (substance,
substratum, or initial resource) of the model of matter, is crucial from the viewpoint of the choice of an
initial principle for a theoretical description of the substantial essence of matter, which in this book is
treated solely and only as and in the from of electromagnetic matter, whose incomplete theory
(since it did not describe the laws of gravitational field) was given by Maxwell.
But after classical mechanics assumes that matter in nature is unitary (homogenous), and, on
the other hand, electrodynamics (including relativist dynamics) assumes that there is
electromagnetic matter, there follows the conclusion that there is no place without electromagnetic
matter, i.e. electromagnetic matter is the single unitary matter of nature (the world).
In these circumstances, the model of the elementary is essentially a model of electromagnetic
matter whose direct and primary (at the lowest structural level) holders of its essence, should be assumed
to be: a) in a substantial form, as elementary particles: the electron and positron, and b) in a field form:
the photon.
These elementary particles, which are considered models of electromagnetic matter, are formed
(structured) of unknown initial resource. It is unknown, because it cannot manifest itself as something
real without being in the form of a spatial structure, and for the time being experiments suggest that
the smallest material structures of electromagnetic matter are elementary particles electron and
positron. Essentially, they are the smallest independent bipolar electric charges. These charges are
essentially reciprocal structures of the unknown initial resource. But from a formal perspective, since
they are the smallest substantial building blocks of the unitary matter, they may be treated as the
initial resource of electromagnetic matter that can convert into a field form.
Out of electrons (electron and positron), through interactions are structured all natural facts
(objects, phenomena and processes). Therefore, all natural facts are interrelated and interdependent, i.e.
nature, which is a system of natural facts, is one whole. But the study of these facts is necessary to define
their models and thus to form the knowledge of them as a system of models, because science is a system of
models of natural facts (objects, phenomena, processes).
But during the study, the interdependence is cut off (structural bonds are canceled) and separate parts
are obtained according to the purpose of the study. It is not until the parts have been analyzed as separate
units, that grounds to unite them into one whole are sought.
All natural events (objects, phenomena, processes, etc.) unconditionally result from (are
consequence from) or are essentially a product of the process of interaction, i.e. result of motion of
matter from one place to another. The interactions result from the movement of matters in different
quantitative values from one place to another (from one object to another) at corresponding speeds and
forces (exchange of matter) between objects and other objects. And as a consequence of the interaction,
the quantitative values of the matters of objects are altered, and this fact entails alteration of their
structural states. Because of these changes in the quantities of materials and structures of objects
changes occur in their properties and dynamic states. Or in a global aspect, these processes explain the
nature of their changes in a progressive or regressive development.
26
The global sense of the process of interaction, which is essentially, on the one hand, a process
of motion of parts of matter or objects from one (certain) to another (certain) place in nature, or from
one to another relatively independent objects, and on the other hand, it is restructuring of matter
(objects). In physics, this is a dynamic process, which is the fundamental principle (process) for all
natural phenomena (processes) and which determines the eternal (continuous) alteration of the states
(the structural states) of matter.
The reasons for the above statements is that in nature (material continuum) there are no parts or
places without the matter, at least in the form of gravitational fields and photon gas (electromagnetic
fields) which do not generate interaction, i.e. there are no places without movement and restructuring of
matters. And the processes of movement and restructuring in the simplest forms are interpreted in the
section dynamics of physics. This fact states that all natural processes that lead to modification of
properties and states of matter result from a process of interactions, respectively, the dynamic
processes that cause changes in the quantities and structures of physical objects and their properties .
Therefore, in a global sense, all natural processes are dynamic processes, i.e. processes of
motion and restructuring of matters under different conditions of micro and macro levels, and
physics studies only their simplest forms, treated formally only as motion.
In this global aspect, all physics and the sciences chemistry and biology treat dynamic processes.
But under different conditions of motion and restructuring of matter and that is why they are chemical
and biological dynamics and therefore physics is the leader of Sciences of nature.
In this sense, the processes of perception and thinking in the mind (brain matter) of living
organisms, including humans, are dynamic processes of transfer  movement of materials and
restructuring at micro level. But because of the special conditions under which they take place, they
are given various specific names.
I.E. TEHRE IS NO PHENOMENON (PROCESS) IN NATURE WHOSE MOTIVATION (CAUSE) IN ITS BASIS (ROOT) IS NOT A PROCESS OF
DYNAMICS  MOTION OF MATTER WHICH IS THE EXPRESSION OF THE ESSENCE OF THE PROCESS OF INTERACTION  OF MOVEMENT AND
RESTRUCTURING OF QUNTITIES OF MATTER.
The motivation for this assertion is the fact that without motion of matter, i.e. without dynamics, there
will be no change in the properties of matter of objects – there is no interaction and no alteration of the
properties of objects, i.e. nature will be forever frozen in a stationary state.
Thus the dynamic process reflects the nature of the process of interaction between objects, only possible on
condition that matter is homogeneous in nature, as implicitly and unawarely it was treated by Isaac Newton, who
laid the effective foundations of the Sciences of Nature. In support of this assertion comes also the fact that the
notions quantity of matter, respectively mass, were described by the same properties in his books: "Mathematical
Principles of Natural Philosophy" of 1687 and "Opticks ..." of 1704.
I.e. all natural phenomena (processes) are inherently processes of interaction between parts (objects) of a
homogeneous electromagnetic matter whose simplest forms of action are treated in the section dynamics of
physics.
Here the question of the unitary (homogeneous) in its essence nature is crucial because unitary
matter is the initial and grounding (fundamental) factor to justify the viewpoint of a unitary nature (world)
and of the unity of the science of natural phenomena, because science explores the manifestations of
matter .
Moreover, the characteristic features of the conceptual picture of nature are:
1. Nature is a unitary whole  a material continuum, whose parts (objects) are genetically related in a
coherent whole.
2. Matter is unitary and its essence is electromagnetic.
3. Matter is eternal, it can neither be created from nothing, nor can it turn into anything (disappear).
4. The details of are in perpetual motion (alteration) and restructuring.
5. All natural laws are interrelated because they have one deductive principle  one theoretical basis.
Or the summary of these features states:
Nature is a whole, comprehensive system that is a harmonious whole, in the form of a
material continuum, which is functionally and genetically homogeneous selfevolving system. This
conception is essentially interpreted as a principle of materiality  PM.
To substantiate the above features of the conceptual picture of nature, there are enough
27
experimental facts in physics. But the nature of the contents of this physics, in essence, almost
contradicts the above features, whose numbers are: 1, 2 and 5, although there are sufficient
experimental proofs for their justification (grounding), two of which are, for example, in
chronological order:
First. ISAAC NEWTON, IN HIS BOOKS OF 1687 "MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY” AND
THE 1704 "OPTICKS OR A TREATISE OF THE REFLECTIONS, REFRACTIONS, INFLECTIONS AND COLOURS OF LIGHT”,
FIRST GAVE THE CUMULATIVELY IDEA OF UNITY, CONTINUITY AND INTERNAL LOGIC OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT NATURE
AND NATURAL PHENOMENA AS ONE WHOLE.
But researchers and his followers studied initially only his book of 1687 "Principles ..." and
did not relate his ideas from this book with his ideas from “Opticks ... "of 1704 that form one
complete whole  Newtonian electrodynamics. This assertion is motivated by the fact that Newton in
“Opticks ... " managed to prove experimentally in a most categorical way that the unitary matter in
nature is solely and only of electromagnetic essence – it is electromagnetic matter, what is revealed
by the synthesized quotes and the experimental facts from “Opticks ...", and which are described
with modern terminology:
„All bodies emit and absorb electromagnetic waves.”
“Bodies turn into electromagnetic waves and electromagnetic waves turn into bodies ...”
"These are normal natural laws.”
Since electromagnetic waves are a field form of electromagnetic matter in the form of electric
and magnetic fields, and they themselves generate gravitational fields, the great cumulatively idea
that follows from this quote is obvious.
Second. MOREOVER, THIS QUOTE, IN A PARAPHRASED FORM OF THE ABOVE QUOTES BY NEWTON WAS STATED IN
1860 BY THE LAW OF G. KIRCHHOFF: "THE RATIO OF THE EMITTED AND ABSORBED RADIANT ENERGY DOES NOT DEPEND
ON THE KIND OF THE BODIES."
IF RESEARCHERS OF NEWTON HAD TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION NEWTON’S IDEAS IN HIS TWO BOOKS AS ONE
WHOLE, THEN THEY COULD HAVE DEVELOPED DYNAMICS IN MODERN PHYSICS AS A UNIFIED SCIENCE OF MOTION OF
OBJECTS IN THE SENSE OF MOTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER WHICH ENCOMPASSES MAXWELL’S THEORIES, PART
FROM THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY AND NEWTON’S GRAVITATION IN A WHOLE, ALLCOMPREHENSIVE THEORY 
NEWTONIAN ELECTRODYNAMICS. SUCH AN ATTEMPT WILL BE MADE IN THIS BOOK.
2. SOME DEFINITIONS CONCERNING THE CLASSICAL PHYSICS OF NEWTON
2.1. Newton was the first who realized and showed in his theory that science does not
create mirror images of reality, but its models, which reflect (are imprints), only of the
most essential properties for a particular purpose of a study with abstracted (simplified)
notions defined for the particular purpose. IN THIS ASPECT, THE SAME REALITY MAY HAVE
SEVERAL MODELS DEPENDING ON THE PURPOSES OF THE STUDY
2.1.1. What is the meaning of the notion of mass
Newton introduced the notion of mass as a simplified mathematical model of the notion quantity
of matter rather than as a property of matter.
Academician A. Polikarov wrote:
1. „We should pay attention to the fact that as a general rule, the notion of mass is defined through
the laws of dynamics, which in turn are formulated through the notion of mass.”
2. „It is known that Galileo had landed upon the idea of proportionality between force and
acceleration, but was unable to formulate the law of momentum. Nor to define the notion of force, since
the linking notion of “mass” was missing. The situation with the law of gravitation was similar. An idea
was ripe that the force of attraction, is inversely proportional to the square of the distance (Borelin and
Hook), but without the notion of mass the law could not be formulated.”
3. „The notion of mass turned out to be the key that could help solve the ripe problems of the
time. That was exactly what Newton did by starting his ”Principia” with the definition of the notion of
mass.”
4. “The definition of the notion of mass presupposes that in its every specific form, matter has a
quantitative aspect, which could be expressed, i.e. which could be measured. For this purpose, general
28
properties of matter are used, such as: gravitation, inertia etc., which are proportional to the amount of
substance and have additive character. We express them through the respective quantity of mass, which is
used to measure them. Quantity of mass gives us the answer to the question „how much” (regardless of
the form or kind).”
It is required that the location of the mass m in the volume of the body (of its quantity of matter
Q), be so determined that a working model is obtained, which should describe the laws of its dynamics,
i.e. the laws of its motion, whereby the acceleration a
r
, the velocity v
r
, the energy W and the trajectory
of their motion depending on the time t, relative to a reference system K. This requirement could be
met, if the location of the mass (the point in which the mass is concentrated) fulfills the following
conditions:
a) The action of the total force upon the mass should have such a total result as it has during its
action distributed upon the sum of all points of the volume of the body regardless of the form of its
quantity of matter, whereby the total force is applied at the center of gravity of the body;
b) The distances between the bodies r with matters Q
1
and Q
2
should be equal to the distances
between their masses m
1
and m
2
i.e. between the centers of their gravities.
c) The accelerations a
r
, the velocities v
r
of the trajectories of motion of the bodies, as a result of
the action of force
F
r
, applied to the mass, should allow description in the space by means of Euclid’s
geometry in relation to the reference system K.
For the above requirements (conditions a, b and c) on the definition of the location of the mass, it
should be taken into consideration that by Newton’s time, there had existed the notion of force
F
r
, but it
was not defined and did not have a mathematical notation.
The written above, namely that the notion of mass is an abstract of the notion of quantity of matter
(body) and the experimental fact that the same quantity of matter (body) has (generates) the properties of
matter such as gravitational field and inertial force, an unequivocal (without alternative) inference follows
that the same mass m generates both gravitational field
G
ur
and inertial force
i F
ur
, i.e.
a)
0
2
. . m r
G
r
γ
· −
r
r
b) .
i
F ma · −
r
r
; (1.21)
therefore, there is only one kind of mass, which generates
G
r
and
F
r
.
The thesis of one kind of mass (m), in contrast to the thesis of two kinds of masses – gravitational
(m
G
) and inertial (m
1
), explains the experiments of Yotvesh, Dike, and others.
However, as it is known, when one fact can be explained equally well by several theories, of crucial
importance when deciding which theory is more reliable is the principle of simplicity. In this meaning
Einstein wrote in [4] (p. 266): „... this theory is the most perfect that has the simplest formulations in
its basis.” (emphasis added by P.P.).
Therefore, the unyielding inference is that there are not two kinds of mass, but only one kind, and
it is not a property, but an abstract of the notion of quantity of matter.
The obvious incorrectness of the claim that the notion of mass is a property of matter is even
more conspicuous in its application in the law of gravitational force
1 2
0 0
2
. .
. ; ,
G
m m r
F r r
c r
γ
· − ·
r
r
r r
r (1.22)
compared to Newton’s thought in the citation, “...that all bodies about the earth gravitate
towards the earth, and that in proportion to the quantity of matter which they severally contain; that
the moon likewise, according to the quantity of its matter, gravitates towards the earth.”;.
It is therefore necessary to rationalize physics with regard to the use of the notion of mass.
IN THIS SENSE, IN ORDER TO DESCRIBE THE LAWS OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES IN THE LANGUAGE OF MATHEMATICS,
WHICH DEALS WITH OBJECTS WHOSE GEOMETRYC IMAGE IS A MATHEMATICAL POINT, MODELS SHOULD BE CREATED OF
PHYSICAL QUANTITIES IN THE FORM OF APOINTLIKE NOTIONS WITHOUT VOLUME AND SHAPE, AND THUS THEY ARE REDUCED
TO DIMENSIONLESS POINTS.
In presentday physics, although it is known that science explores the manifestations of what is
called matter, in the form of natural facts, and matter is generator of these manifestations, the most
commonly used notion is ‘mass’ instead of ‘quantity of matter’, or only matter. In the measurement
29
system the quantity of matter is called amount of substance in chemistry and it has a unit of measurement
called the mole (mol), the quantity of matter is the abstracted notion of mass and it has a unit of
measurement called kilogram, which is also defined as the quantity of matter, by its weight.
Here are some citations from I. Newton’s “The Principles …” of 1687 which prove that the
abstracted notion which is both a physical and a mathematical model of the notion quantity of matter is
the notion of mass:
1. On p. 23 he wrote, „The quantity of matter (mass)...; “It is this quantity that I mean hereafter
everywhere under the name of body or mass”;
2. On p. 503: “...that all bodies about the earth gravitate towards the earth, and that in proportion to
the quantity of matter which they severally contain”.
3. On p. 518: “... attraction exists between all bodies and is proportional to the mass of every
body... and the attraction of planets one to another is inversely proportional to the square of the distance
between the centers of the planets”;
4. On p. 515: “Therefore the quantity of substance (mass) of gold relates to the quantity (of
substance) of wood as the weight of the former to the weight of the latter. The same holds true for other
bodies as well”. More texts like the above citations can be found in [2].
5. There are other texts in the book as well, in the spirit of the above citations in the sense that the
notion of mass is an abstracted notion of the notion of quantity of matter.
The interpretation of the above citations demonstrates with an irresistible evidential force of
experimental facts that the notion of mass is an abstracted notion, it is a model of the notion of
quantity of matter without volume or shape in the form of a dimensionless point, as a mathematical
quantity whose geometric image is a point.
On the other hand, this definition was also questioned by Newton himself who wrote that there is
gravitational and inert masses. He explores them by help of a pendulum and wrote that they differ in
value with accuracy of 10
7
. Then they were examined by Yotvesh, Dike and others, who wrote that the
masses are hardly different from each other, with accuracy of 10
12
.
TODAY WE BELIEVE THAT THERE IS ONLY ONE MASS WITH TWO PROPERTIES  GRAVITY AND INERTIA – WHAT WAS
ALSO NEWTON’S FIRST IDEA, THAT THE MASS IS A MODEL OF THE QUANTITY OF MATTER. THIS MEANS THAT THE SAME
QUANTITY OF MATTER (MASS) GENERATES SIMULTANEOUSLY THE PROPERTIES OF GRAVITY AND INERTIA, AS IT IS IN
REALITY.
In conclusion, these are the definitions:
1. MASS IS NOT A PROPERTY OF MATTER, BUT ONLY ITS ABSTRACTED NOTION. IN THIS SENSE, THE NOTION OF MASS
IS SYNONYMOUS WITH THE NOTION OF QUANTITY OF MATTER, BUT CONCENTRATED IN A POINT.
2. The expression of the correlation between the notions of matter and mass is: mass is matter
without a volume and structure, m = Q
3. There is no inert and gravitational masses, but only one notion with inert and gravitational
properties because there are no separate kinds of inert matter and of gravitational matter whose
abstracted notions are respectively inert mass and gravitational mass.
4. Any form (field or substantial) of the quantity of matter, whose abstracted notion is mass,
depends on its state of rest or motion.
30
Epilogue
THE NOTION OF MASS IS A BASIC THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT IN PHYSICS, WHICH IS AN ABSTRACTED IMAGE AND IS
SYNONYMOUS WITH THE NOTION OF QUANTITY OF MATTER, WITHOUT A VOLUME, WITHOUT A SHAPE, WITHOUT A COLOR,
WITHOUT A TEMPERATURE, ETC. IN THE FORM OF A DIMENSIONLESS, BUT MATERIAL POINT, WHICH IS PLACED AT THE
CENTER OF GRAVITY OF THE INTERPRETED OBJECT.
The physical quantity of matter, which is initial and fundamental for the formation of nature
while concurrently, it is a uniting link for all natural facts (objects, phenomena, processes,
properties, etc.), through its abstracted notion of mass, participates directly or indirectly, through
its properties, in mathematical formalizations and interpretations of all physical laws, since it is
their generator and carrier.
TREATMENT OF THE NOTION OF MASS AS PROPERTY OF MATTER IS AN ESSENTIAL FLAW WITH REGARD TO
NEWTON’S IDEAS, WHEN WE TAKE INTO ACCOUNT ITS REAL MEANING IN THE ABOVE CIITATIONS AND HIS ROLE IN
PHYSICAL LAWS
Emphasis
THUS, BY INTRODUCING THE CONCEPT OF MASS (QUANTITY OF MATTER, WHICH IS CONCENTRATED INTO A POINT)
IN THE CENTER OF GRAVITY OF THE OBJECT (BODY) THE START WAS GIVEN FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCIENCE OF
MOTION OF OBJECTS  DYNAMICS  MECHANICS.
2.2. What is the meaning of the notion of force
According to the system of measurements SI, the notion of force F has dimensionality
[ ] [ ] [ ]
(pathway) distance distance
1
unit per energy energy
meter
joule
m J Newton N F · · · ⋅ · · →
−
(1.23)
i.e. the action of a force means that a body (mass) releases energy along a unit of distance (pathway)
to another body, if the force is motive, or that energy is taken away along a unit of distance (pathway),
if the force is arresting.
And bearing in mind the law of energy W and mass m.
a)
2
. ; · W mc b) 2
; ·
W
m
c
(1.24)
it follows that force is carrier of energy, which is carrier of mass as well, and releases or takes away mass
2
; ·
F
F
W
m
c
(1.25)
Since Newton called the force "action" or "resistance", it is evident that formally there was
no reason to consider the force as a factor (as it was not analyzed by its dimensionality), which fact
changes the energy (mass) of the bodies upon which it acts, and namely, this circumstance accounts
for the flawed interpretation of the first law of classical mechanics.
The definition of the notion of force is the second law of Newton in mechanics, and its
interpretations is
Law ІІ. “The alteration of the quantity of motion is proportional to the applied motive force and
takes place along the direction of this straight line, along which the force acts.”
( ) d . d
d d
· ·
r
r
r
mv P
F
t t
; [ ] [ ]
nce dist
energy
m J N
α
· · →
−1
. (1.26)
where:
r
v – velocity of body of mass m.
The interpretation of this (the second) law in Newton’s mechanics, according to academician S.
Vavilov in his book "Isaac Newton", published by The Academy of Sciences of SSSR in 1961, Moscow,
and translated into Bulgarian, Tehnika Publ. House, 1965, Sofia, Vavilov wrote on p. 142:
"The force in the second law can be determined through the alteration of the quantity of motion
( ) . mv ∆
, where ∆ signifies the alteration, i.e. the mass m of the velocity v.
31
Mathematically, this law can be expressed in this way:
( ) . . ; ∆ · ∆ mv F t
(1.27)
where: F is the force; t ∆ – the interval of time, when the alteration of the quantity of motion takes place.
Or Newton’s definition of the force is:
a)
( ) . d
;
d
∆
· ·
∆
r
r
r
mv P
F
t t
b) . ; ·
r
r
P mv c)
const.; ≠ m
(1.28)
i.e. in Newton’s formula, the second law was not defined at m = const. And in this form( ) const. ≠ m
it is used in the theory of relativity.
If we look at Newton’s second law (1.28) as a definition of the mass through the force, we can
make a general conclusion based on the experiment of P. I. Lebedev, who experimentally proved in
1900 that light exerts pressure upon the encountered bodies, i.e. it carries in itself a momentum. The
size of this pressure, exerted upon a black plate of 1 cm
2
is
2
w
c
, where w is density of energy of the
light, which falls in one second, and c – velocity of light. According to Newton’s second law (1.28), a
momentum is understood as force of the light pressure, which corresponds to the alteration of the
quantity of motion ( ) . mv ∆
.
Light falling upon a black plate of mass m has initial velocity of light c. Being absorbed by the
plate for time
τ
, the light "stops" – the final velocity of light is equal to zero. Therefore, according to
Newton’s second law
( ) . . . . .0 ; ∆ · − · − ·
w
mv mc mv mc m
c
(1.29)
whence the mass of light can be determined.
2
; ·
w
m
c
(1.210)
Thus, by applying Newton’s law to the light, we have to ascribe mass to light.” End of citation
from Vavilov’s book.
This citation of S. Vavilov’s is about the light, which in the form of elementary particles, photons,
which are a quantity of matter (electromagnetic matter) with electromagnetic energy in the form of
momentums of electromagnetic waves moving at velocity c. That is why their velocity does not affect
their mass. Because between the mass m
f
of the photon and its energy W
f
there is a relationship
a)
2
. . ; · ν ·
f f
W h m c
b)
2
; ·
f
f
W
m
c
(1.211)
In this line of thought, according to Newton’s ideas in mechanics, the law of momentum holds true
for the photon too
a)
0
. · ·
r
r r
f
f f
W
P m c c
c
; b) W
f
=
2
. . ·
r
r
f f
P c m c =
0
r
f
W
c
c
=
r
r
c
c
; c)
2
;
f
f
Q
m
c
· (1.212)
and, moreover, there is none of contradiction with the special theory of relativity (STR); on the
contrary, STR uses the notions of momentum, mass and force defined by Newton.
Another reason for this conclusion is the fact that the quantity of n photons, to which energy
.
n
f f
W nW ·
corresponds, and which fall upon surface S, have momentum
n
n
f
f
W
P
c
·
r
and generate force
( )
2
0 0 0 0
d /
d d d
. . . ; ;
d d .d d
· · · · ·
r
r
r
r r r r
r
n n n n
f f f f
n
W c
P W W
c
F c c c c
t t c t r c
(1.213)
I.e. by accounting for the fact that electromagnetic matter is in substantial and field form and that it
can convert itself from one into another form and vice versa while retaining its quantity of matter (mass),
32
it follows that the conclusions from the above citations and consequences from Newton’s laws coincide
with the laws of Maxwell’s electrodynamics. In Treatise on electricity and magnetism, in paragraph 792,
in 1873, he wrote: "In a medium where electromagnetic waves propagate, pressure is generated in
direction of the waves, which is numerically equal to the quantity of energy in a unit of volume.” The
mathematical notation of this citation is
a)
2
. ; · ρ w c b)
2
; ρ ·
w
c
(1.214 a)
where: w – the density of energy in a unit of volume;
ρ
– the density of the electromagnetic mass.
If (1.214 a) is integrated for volume V, we have the formulae, which Einstein
∗
gave as a novelty
in 1905 because this regularity had not been clearly pointed out in publications by Maxwell’s
researchers.
a)
2
. ; · W mc b) 2
; ·
W
m
c
(1.214 b)
There are two notes to the above definition of Maxwell’s:
First note
In paragraph 636 of “Treatise…” Maxwell wrote: "We should consider both magnetic and
electromagnetic energies as kinetic energies”
Second note
Paragraph 636 of “Treatise...” states: “..., that kinetic energy is available wherever there is a
magnetic field. The quantity of the kinetic energy in a unit of volume of the field is
2
0
.
2 2
H
ВН H
w
µ
· ·
”.
P. I. Lebedev in Sobranie sochineniy (Collected Works), Publ. by Academy of Sciences of the
SSSR, 1963, on p. 379 wrote: "The analogy existing between light, sound and hydrodynamic oscillations
is not confined only to the kinematic side of these phenomena, but goes much deeper and comprising also
their dynamic properties. In 1902 Lord John Rayleigh proved theoretically that any waveform motion,
which propagates at finite velocity, generates pressure upon any obstacle it encounters on its way of
propagation ". I.e. once a phenomenon is proved to be of wave character, then it follows that this
phenomenon always generates a force of pressure  momentum.
FROM MAXWELL’S LAW (1.214) AND THE SUMMARY MADE BY LORD RAYLEIGH IT FOLLOWS THAT WHEN
DESCRIBING PHOTONS WE SHOULD ACCOUNT FOR THE FACT THAT THEY GENERATE PRESSURES.
2.3. Isaac Newton was the first to give the law for conservation of energy
2.3.1. Introductory thoughts
In general, the beginning of modern science was laid by Isaac Newton in the seventeenth century
by his publications, among which his books Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy of 1687
[Literature 1], Opticks or a treatise of the reflections, refractions, inflections and colours of light” of
1704 [Literature 2] and a number of other works, including the creation of differential and integral
calculus, i.e. without Newton’s works, modern science of nature and in particular of physics would
hardly be possible.
In his first book, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, translated into Russian by
Academician Krylov, 1936, the emphasis is on the laws for motion of discrete electromagnetically
neutral objects (bodies) at velocities much lower than the velocity of light (electromagnetic waves,
photons) c – v c = as well as on the law for the gravitational force. And by applying widely a
mathematical analysis, he also laid the foundations of cosmology.
Since at the time of initial development of mechanics, the science of electricity was not of current
concern, in [1] no special attention was paid to it, however, that was done by Newton’s book Opticks or
a treatise of the reflections, refractions, inflections and colours of light of 1704. That book contains
essential laws, described as empirical laws, which are a remarkable contribution to the entire
development of mechanics [the laws for the motion of matter (the bodies, which are discrete parts of the
A. Einstein. “Zur Elektrodynamik der bevegter Körper” Ann. Phys. 1905, 17 (891 – 921).
33
matter of nature)]. Here, by experimental facts, it was essentially proved that the matter of nature is
only of electromagnetic essence – it is electromagnetic matter.
After Newton, until the nineteenth century, mechanics (the science for the motion of bodies), has
developed mostly extensively and has been established by the laws of Mathematical Principles of
Natural Philosophy and their mathematical interpretation of electromagnetically neutral solid bodies
made by Lagrange, Euler and others for velocities v much slower than the velocity of light c – v c = ,
but has not been intensified by the relevant laws from [2] – “Opticks…”.
2.3.2. Motivation
Newton, who in “Principles...” of 1687 and “Opticks...” of 1704 used the notions of his age, when
the notion ‘energy’ did not exist, because it was first introduced by Thomas Young in 1807 according to
Y. Gelfer, who in his book “Istoriya i metodologiya termodinamiki i statisticheskoy fiziki” (History and
Methodology of Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics), Publ. by Visshaya Shkola, Moscow, 1981, on
p. 132 and 133, wrote: “Thomas Young, in his lectures on natural philosophy, wrote: “In almost all
cases, the work required to produce motion is proportionate not to the moment, but to the energy of the
performed work for the production of the motion. The notion of energy means the product of the mass
or weight multiplied by the square of speed”... “The product of the mass of bodies and the square of
speed is called energy.” On p. 133 Gelfer wrote: “With Young, the expression
2
.
2
mv
was introduced by
G. Coriolis”. Newton, in “Principles…” gave the following formulations as definitions and laws,
including some notes to them related to the law of energy conservation. The formulations relating to the
laws of conservation are:
A. „Definition ІІ in [1] (p. 24). “The quantity of motion is the measure of the same, arising from
the velocity and quantity of matter conjointly.”
Nowadays the notion of quantity of motion is called momentum and is designated by
0
. ·
r
r
P m v ; (1.215)
B. Definition ІІІ in [1] (p. 25). “The vis insita, or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting, by
which every body, as much as in it lies (is not connected to another body – P. P.’s note), continues in its
present state, whether it be of rest, or of moving uniformly forwards in a right line.” “This force is always
proportional to the body whose force it is and differs nothing from the inactivity of the mass, but in our
manner of conceiving it. A body, from the inert nature of matter, is not without difficulty put out of its
state of rest or motion. (emphasis added by P. P.). Upon which account, this vis insita may, by a most
significant name, be called inertia (vis inertiae) or force of inactivity.”
Newton describes the inertial force as a negative product of the mass
0
m
and the acceleration
a
r
, i.e. with
an opposite (negative) sign of the motive force
0
.
d
F m a ·
r
r
a)
0 0
. . · − · −
r
r
r
i
dv
F m m a
dt
; b)
·
r
r dv
a
dt
; (1.216)
C. „Definition ІV in [1] (p. 26). “An impressed force is an action exerted upon a body, in order
to change its state, either of rest, or of uniform motion in a right line.”... “This force consists in the
action only, and remains no longer in the body when the action is over”, the above definitions A, B
and C are given in Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy [1] 1687
D. Newton’s laws on mechanics, according to [1] (p. 39 – 41) are:
Law І. Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a right line, unless it is
compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it.”
Or, paraphrased using modern terminology, Law I states: Every body has the property to retain its
energy state, i.e. for each one body the law of conservation of its energy W holds true, i.e.
a) at 0 0 . v W const · → · ·
b) at v = const. ≠ 0 W = const. ≠ 0
c) i.e. at v = 0 or v = const. ≠ 0 W = const.;
¹
'
¹
(1.217)
34
In order to make a more complete and more precise interpretation of (conclusions to) the above
four (A, B, C and D) formulations, it is necessary to take into account the mathematical solutions, which
Newton could have given as consequences of these formulations, as well as to analyze the dimensionality
of the quantities, which were used, as seen today, at the contemporary level of knowledge.
The first essential question arises in relation with Law І is clarification of the questions “What
does the notion “state” mean and what is its dimensionality?”
The second essential question is, “What is the physical meaning and what is the dimensionality
of the notions “impressed force” and “innate force” – respectively “inertial force”.
Answers:
1. In the sense of Newton’s mathematical descriptions and solutions, according to which “the
impressed force” changes the states of rest or uniform motion in a right line, it can be implied that the
notion of ‘state’ according to Newton, as a result of the above formulations, and with our presentday
ideas, is reduced to the energy states of the kinetic energy levels
K
W
of bodies in their respective states of
rest or uniform motion.
The inference that energy states (levels) are implied is motivated by the fact that the
dimensionality of the notion of force is “released” energy per unit of distance, which in the system SI is
[ ]
[ ]
1
J joule
F J.m =
m distance
energy W
= ;
distance r
−
] → · ·
]
·
(1.218)
I.e. when the force
1
. F J m
−
] →
]
acts upon the body along the distance (path)
dr
r
, it imparts
energy to it and the body starts moving at velocity 0 v ≠ , whereby the energy is
a)
[ ]
1
dW F.dr J.m . m
J joules (energy W);
−
] · → ·
]
·
r r
b) ; W dW → ·
∫
(1.219)
or the force is
0
.
.
.
· · ·
r r
r
r
r dW v dP dP
F r
dr v dt dt
; (1.220)
I.e. we have the complete physical meaning of the notion of force, which is in full compliance with its
dimensionality, and corresponds to its definition by Newton.
However, Newton applied the principle of simplicity, which is obvious in [1] (p. 96):
“Rule І. We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and
sufficient to explain their appearances.”
Therefore, in defining the force, only the derivative of momentum
P
r
of the body is used, which is
·
r
r
dP
F
dt
; (1.221)
I.e. the force is a derivative of the notion of momentum
P
r
in relation to time, which notion
(quantity) in physics is of a lower rank than the notion of energy.
2. According to Newton the notion of inertia means that the body does not change the state of its
kinetic energy, respectively the state of its quantity of motion, i.e. at velocities
a) 0 ·
r
v ;
→
b)
0
. 0 · ·
r
r
P m v ;
→
c)
2
0
0,
2
K
m v
W · · (1.222)
and at uniform straightline motion at velocity
a) const.; · →
r
v b)
0
. const.; P m v · · →
r
r
c)
2
0
const.
2
· ·
K
m v
W ; (1.223)
And the meaning of the notion of “innate force” is inertial force
35
0 0
. . · − · −
r
r
r
i
dv
F m a m
dt
, (1.224)
which at both velocities ( ) 0 и 0 . · ≠ · v v const
is
0 0
0 0
0 0
) 0; ) . .0 0
) const; ) . .0 0
) const; ) . 0
¹
· → · − · − ·
¹
¹
¹
· → · − · − ·
'
¹
¹
≠ → · − · − ≠
¹
¹
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r r
i
i
i
dv
a v b F m m
dt
dv
b v b F m m
dt
dv
c v b F m m a
dt
; (1.225)
I.e. the innate force of bodies is that they always endeavor to maintain the state (quantity) of
their kinetic energy, which means that when force
F
r
is applied upon them (kinetic energy is supplied
to them from outside through the force) they must counteract to the change of the state of the quantity
of the value of momentum
P
r
and their kinetic energy
K
W
, by inertial force
r
i
F , equal in value to force
F
r
applied from outside but with an opposite sign, i.e.
a)
;
i
dW
F F
dr
· − · −
r r
b) 0 + ·
r r
i
F F ; (1.226)
I.e. since the meaning of the force is energy per unit of path (distance), it follows that the inertial
force acts to conserve the energy of the bodies via counteraction to the force applied from outside, i.e.
this fact means that the bodies have the innate property to conserve their energy and this property
is called inertia – the inertia, which in modern terminology has the meaning and is called:
LAW OF ENERGY CONSERVATION – LEC
In this meaning Newton quite consciously, through “Law І” (the first law of mechanics) using
the notion of his time, inertia, formulated LEC and strictly observed it in his works. The fact that
Newton strictly observed LEC is irresistible proof that Newton introduced LEC. IN THIS MEANING
NEWTON, THROUGH THE FIRST LAW OF MECHANICS, “LAW І”, BY MEANS OF THE NOTION OF INERTIA, INTRODUCED BY
NEWTON, WHICH IN MEANING IS CONSERVATION OF THE ENERGY OF THE BODY (THE OBJECT), FORMULATED LEC IN THE
CLASSICAL MECHANICS.
The quantity of kinetic energy, according to Newton at
0
. m const ·
is
2
0
0
.
2
· ·
∫
ur r
v
K
m v
W F dr ; (1.227)
And the derivative of W
K
in relation to the velocity v is equal to the momentum
0
0 0
.
. ;
k
dW v v
P m v v
dv v
· · ·
r r
r
r r
r ; (1.228)
This fact
0
k
dW
P v
dv
·
r
r
means that for the quantity of motion (the momentum), there should also exist a law
– the Law of conservation of the momentum, LCM, as well as a Law of conservation of the kinetic energy, LCKE,
which is synonymous to the Law of energy conservation, LEC.
Conclusion
The formulations set forth in this paragraph imply that Isaac Newton considered the law of energy
conservation – LEC, as the first law of mechanics with the meaning of LEC and it is expressed through the
meaning of the notion (property) of inertia (inertness). That is, the notion of inertness means that the state
of the kinetic energy of a body with mass m remains constant, and that this law is inherent to all bodies
(objects) for in those time the notion of energy did not exist . And the external manifestation of LEC is
“the inertial force”
i
F
r
, by which the body responds, by means of its property LEC, in the process of
action from an external (applied) force acting towards changing the energy of the body, which
phenomenon is validated by the fact that the dimensionality of the acting force
F
r
is the energy
36
released per unit of distance (path) of its action, or the energy, which the external energy releases from
an external object to a given object.
a)
. ·
ur r
dW F dr
; b)
. · ·
∫
ur r
k
W F dr W
; (1.229)
And the inertial force
ur
i
F counteracts with the energy
a) . . · · −
ur r ur r
i
i
dW F dr F dr ; b)
. ·
∫
uur r
i i
W F dr
; (1.230)
This is the explanation as to why in all his works Isaac Newton most strictly observed LEC. THIS
FACT HAS IRRESISTIBLE EVIDENTIAL FORCE IN THE MEANING THAT NEWTON BY THE NOTION OF INERTIA MEANT THE
PRESENTDAY NOTION OF LEC.
2.3.3. Law ІІІ. “To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction: or, the mutual
actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal, and directed to contrary parts, otherwise the
interactions between two bodies are equal but opposite in direction.”
To this law there is a text in Principles, which states, “Such actions always result in change not
in velocities, but in the quantities of motion, as long as the bodies are not subjected to other forces.”
Here, in this context, when “action” is mentioned, force should be understood, as it is in the text
“otherwise the interactions between two bodies are equal but opposite in direction”. And also, Definition
ІV (p. 26 of Principles) states, “The applied force is an action, exerted on the body so that the body
should change its state of rest of or regular straightline motion – the force is manifest only in action,
and as soon as the action is discontinued, it does not remain in the body. The body after this continues
to retain its new state only due to its inertia.”
Definition ІІІ (p. 25) states: “The vis insita, or innate force of matter, is a power of resisting,
by which every body, as much as in it lies, continues in its present state, whether it be of rest, or of
moving uniformly forwards in a right line. … This force could be called inertial force.”
In the sense set forth herein, the third law results from the first one. I.e. LEC implies as a
consequence that when motive force F
d
acts, there must always be a reaction with the inertial force F
i
so
that
a) 0;
d i
F F + ·
r r
or b) ;
i d
F F · −
r r
(1.231)
or this notations is an expression of the effort toward energy conservation, i.e. LEC is in force.
2.4. On the double role of the notions of space and time
2.4.1. Introductory thoughts
The notions of space and time should be regarded in the following aspects:
 space is an abstracted notion of the property expansion (volume) of unitary matter;
 time is a chronological coordinate for determining the sequence of the moment values of
matter when describing its property mutability (development and degradation).
Each material object (process, phenomenon), is characterized by the notions of space and time
in two aspects (roles):
a) as quantity of volume (expansion) of space and as quantity of duration (durability);
b) as coordinate parameters (properties) of the object, which directly are not carriers of its
essential (substantial) properties, but are necessary when describing it through mathematics, for specific
identification (localization) of its arrangement in place and in space and in a chronological order of the
specific states in time, in relation to a reference system (reference frame, reference) randomly chosen
beforehand. Due to this the quantitative values of the coordinate properties are multivariant, without
this exerting influence upon the essence and the quantity of the real properties, which are described in
the previous point a).
IT IS EXACTLY IN THIS MEANING THAT THE COORDINATE PROPERTIES SPACE AND TIME ARE NOT DIRECTLY
DEPENDENT ON THE SUBSTANTIAL ESSENCE OF MATTER (OBJECTS) BUT OUTSIDE MATTER THEY ARE INCONCEIVABLE.
c) by means of respective mathematical operations, most often through the difference between
the coordinate parameters or only through difference between the coordinates, the quantitative values
of expansion and of durability are obtained.
For instance:
37
C.1. With spatial coordinates, in relation to a random reference i, for the beginning
1 i
r
and end
2 i
r
of the length of a rod, its real length is
a)
12 1 2
.;
i i
r r r inv · − ·
b)
1
var.;
i
r ·
c)
2
var.;
i
r ·
(1.232)
C.2. With coordinates of time, in relation to a random reference j for the beginning 1 j
t
of the time of
setting in motion and
2 j
t
for the moment of stopping the motion of the object, the motion has taken the time
a) 12 1 2
inv.;
j j
t t t · − ·
b)
1
var.;
i
t ·
c)
2
var.;
i
t ·
(1.233)
C.3. Here, the formulation that the coordinate notions of space and time, as numerical values
are random holds true, as long as their reference (the starting reference point) is randomly chosen and
therefore they are variables ( )
var.; var.
i j
r t · ·
, but the real intervals of space and time determined by
them are invariable ( i.e. independent of the choice of reference
12
inv. r ·
and the reference
12
inv. t ·
).
2.4.2. Interpretations
In the above meaning, the coordinate notions of space and time are idealizations, with regard to
numerical values (dimensional notions), of the real expansion and durability, determined in relation to a
randomly chosen convenient reference – a reference system – RS, for mathematical description of the
manifestations of a given object and its manifestations.
In this meaning the coordinate notions are not carriers of any gram of matter in material or
field forms, but are inconceivable without matter in nature.
The above definition is the reason to state that:
 space is homogenous and isotropic and does not interact with matter, but matter influences it only by
its inherent property expansion – alteration of the coordinates of its state. All manifestations of matter
take place in space.
AND WHEN AVAILABILITY OF MATTER IN THE FORM OF GRAVITATIONAL FIELD IS TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION, SINCE
THERE IS NO PLACE WITHOUT MATTER IN NATURE, RESPECTIVELY, GRAVITATIONAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS, IT (THE
GRAVITATIONAL FIELD) INTERACTS WITH THE LIGHT RAYS AND DISTORTS THEIR TRAJECTORY, IT, HOWEVER, DOES NOT
DISTORT SPACE, AS IT IS SOMETIMES INCORRECTLY STATED THAT SPACE IS BEING DISTORTED.
In this sense the notion of a homogenous and isotropic spatial continuum is motivated as a
carrier of the notion of coordinate space – coordinates.
 Time arranges and makes sense in chronological aspect of the sequence of moment states of
material phenomena, of which it is accepted that they are in static states, which are interpreted by the
notion of a constant change or motion of objects, in the process of their development, as a result of the
constant interaction between them.
When measuring the alterations of an object in time from one into another state, we count the
cycles n of an object chosen as a measuring one, which has uniform cycles of alterations (emission) by a
unit of interval of time
0
T
, which is the standard measurement of time.
In this way we have a homogenous and linear measuring of intervals of time through the standard
measurement of time.
In this meaning, the physical notion of time interval from one into another state of the object is
measured by coordinate time for n cycles.
0
. ; t nT ·
(1.234)
From the aspect that the development of matter is without a beginning and without an end, it
follows that time as a parameter of matter and is also without a beginning and without an end, i.e. it is
eternal as is matter.
2.5. Principle of relativity and Galileo’s transformations
2.5.1. Basic formulations
The fact of unity of all natural phenomena (natural occurrences), as a result of the homogenous
essence of matter in nature, which is a carrier and generator of all natural occurrences in the processes
of their development (alteration) and as a result of the eternal interactions between them in space and
38
time, entails the problem how to describe mathematically these processes and their regularities.
It should be taken into consideration that all manifestations of matter on the one hand are
homogenous and interdependent, by means of their structural bonds (forces), which determine the unity in
the system of nature. However, on the other hand, they (the manifestations) have relative independence,
which is expressed in this:
a) they are of different quantities of matter;
b) they have different structures;
c) they are in different states of motion (at different velocities);
d) they are in different places in the space of the unitary nature;
e) they alter in the time by different regularities;
f) in relation to different observers, they have identical regularities of their essential parameters, but
their description has different coordinates for space and time.
From these facts a question arises, by what rules (by what algorithm) can the mathematical description
of the manifestations (of the interactions) be made in relation to an observer, who is in a given place and at a
given time, so that it (the description) could reflect the reliable truth about the respective manifestation (object).
For this purpose the principle of relativity, PR, states:
“Phenomena do not depend on the state of the reference system (RS), in which the observer is, if
the system moves at constant velocity, i.e. const. v ·
r
” Such systems at const. v ·
r
, in relation to which
the manifestations of matter are described are called inertial reference systems: IRS. In this aspect all RS,
which move at constant velocity one toward another are physically equal and are called IRS. The
mathematical descriptions of their physical regularities are externally different, but there are correlative
relationships between them, which make it always possible to ascertain essential regularities of the
physical phenomena described in them.
In this meaning, the notion of relativity is in the aspect of specific relationships of the features of
the description of the manifestations (phenomena, objects) observed by observers in one IRS – K in
relation to another IRS – K’. I.e. the relativity is an expression on the one hand of this that there exists
physical equality between the descriptions in the two IRS, and on the other hand that the descriptions
in the two IRS are for the same observer.
The first formulation (inference) of THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY – PR is this of Galileo. He
established that an observer, who moves uniformly in a straight line in relation to a given natural
phenomenon (process) cannot see any change in this phenomenon, if it is described in IRS (inertial
reference system), which moves at constant (uniform) velocity, in relation to which the phenomenon is
described.
PR as a scientific fact (law) was first described by Galileo in 1632 in his book “Dialogue
Concerning the Two Chief World Systems: Copernican and Ptolemaic”, where he stated that the existing
phenomena upon the deck of a ship do not depend on whether the ship is at rest or in uniform motion, i.e.
that phenomena seem the same to two observers, of whom one is at rest, and the other moves in a straight
line and uniformly in relation to the phenomena on deck of the ship.
From this assertion, as a formulation of PR of Galileo two main questions arise:
1. How does the motion of the reference systems, RS, influence the description of the phenomena,
given by PR, during the transition from one IRS – K to the other IRS – K’, which moves at constant and
straightline velocity
v
.
2. Are the changed (observed) parameters (quantities) of the same physical phenomenon in the different IRS
comparable and under what conditions?
The answers to these two questions are:
a) the descriptions of the phenomena (the natural manifestations) does not depend on whether
they are observed or not, provided the state and the form of the observers do not influence the energy
upon the phenomena and
b) for the descriptions of the phenomena, subject of PR, during a transition from one IRS – K to
another IRS – K’, their coordinates and their velocities are always different in values, but are
comparable, since they correlate one toward the other depending on the values and the directions of the
velocities between the respective IRS, if the movements of the latter are in a straight line and uniform for
either IRS.
39
In the theory of Galileo PR was accepted as an apparent fact – a physical truth, and the
introduction of IRS – K was necessary as a point of support (fact) for the mathematical description of the
physical phenomenon by means of PR through IRS of the observers – IRS – K’, K”, etc., which have
straightline and uniform velocities –
1
', v v v" →
, etc.
Since it is confirmed experimentally that PR of Galileo also holds true for electromagnetic
phenomena, then quite reasonably PR should be updated according to the new facts, by accepting
that it holds true for all physical phenomena (“mechanical” and “electromagnetic”).
BY THIS SUMMARY (UPDATE) WE WOULD LIKE TO EMPHASIZE THE FACT THAT PR IS ALSO VALID FOR THE
VELOCITY OF LIGHT C, SINCE LIGHT IS AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENON AND THEREFORE NO OTHER
TRANSFORMATIONS ARE NEEDED EXCEPT THOSE OF GALILEO, I.E. ACCORDING THE PRINCIPLE OF SIMPLICITY, LT ARE
NOT NEEDED. HOWEVER, DOPPLER EFFECT SHOULD BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT AS WELL AS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
MASS AND VELOCITY WHICH WERE ASCERTAINED WITHOUT LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS (KAUFMANN’S EXPERIMENT IN
1901)
2.5.2.Galileo’s transformations – GT
PR means that there is physical equality between all IRS in respect of the algorithm of description of all
mechanical and electromagnetic phenomena, in relation to all IRS, whose algorithm and description, set forth
in a general form, bear the name (are called) Galileo’s transformations – GT. But only by PR, as a fact, it is
impossible to achieve the analytical relationship (connection) between the different physical manifestations in
the world without determining the algorithm of the transformations from one IRS to another IRS, by which they
will be described in the language of mathematics. The transformation of the notation of the physical laws is
done by equations of the transition from one IRS – K into another IRS – K’, which moves at a straightline and
uniform velocity in relation to IRS – K, in which the observer is located. Since it has been proven that PR holds
true for all physical phenomena (mechanical and electromagnetic), then the description of the transformations of
the physical laws established in the respective IRS – K, will also be done through equations called GT, which hold
true for all physical phenomena (mechanical and electromagnetic). In a general form, GT for the coordinates, the
velocities, the accelerations and the time when transforming one IRS – K into another IRS – K’, which moves in
parallel to the axis x at velocity v, these formulae hold true:
a)
. r x v t · −
; b)
' t t ·
; c)
2
2
d r
a
dt
·
at d) 0
' . m m m const · · ·
; (1.23)
If during the motion of K’ in relation to K ' x x ↑↑ or v x ↑↑
r r
and ' v x ↑↑
r r
a)
. x x v t · −
; b)
' y y ·
; c) ' z z · ; d) ' t t · ; (1.24)
whereby for the description of the differences (segments) in the coordinates 2 and 1 in IRS – K and IRS –
K’ it holds true
a)
, ,
2 1 2 1
r r r r − · −
; b)
, ,
2 1 2 1
x x x x − · −
; c)
, ,
2 1 2 1
y y y y − · −
; d)
, ,
2 1 2 1
z z z z − · −
(1.235)
where
a) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
2 1 2 1 2 1
r x x y y z z · − + − + − ; b) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
' 2 , , , , , ,
2 1 2 1 2 1
r x x y y z z · − + − + − ;
(1.236)
and for the velocities and the accelerations from (1.23), since const. v · the following relationships are
obtained
a)
1 2
'
'
dr
v v v
dt
· · +
; b)
dr
v
dt
·
; c)
'
'
dv dv
a a
dt dt
· · ·
, (1.237)
whereby for the differences between the velocities in points 1 and 2 i.e. K and K’ this relationship holds
true
2 1 12
v v w − · ∆
. (1.238)
In forming GT, Euclid’s geometry was used, which is considered to be the first and initial
section of physics and which is experimentally validated. Apropos, Euclid’s geometry has no
experimental confirmation, either.
GT are the missing link at the beginning of the development of physics, so as to connect the
different natural manifestations in one system, and thence to connect the laws (the manifestations) of
physics in the different points of space as well, so that there is a reason for achieving a unity of physical
knowledge.
40
These formulae of GT hold true for all physical phenomena, including the velocity of light, with
the presentday concept that there is no luminiferous ether, taking into consideration Doppler effect – DE,
discovered in 1842, described by GT, and experimentally confirmed for light in 1867. Einstein also
deduced it in the special theory of relativity in 1905 in “Zur Elektrodynamik der bewegter Körper” Ann.
Phys. 1905, 17, 891 – 921, in paragraph 7. For the velocity of light
c
u
in relation to an observer moving
at velocity
v c t <
, as a result of Doppler effect, at length of the wave s
0
' . const λ · λ ·
and at angle
between c and 0 v → ϕ · this relationship holds true:
( ) ( )
0
a) ' ' . . ;
c
c v c c v
u c v const c
c c
0
t +
· ν.λ · ν .λ · · t ≠ ≠
b) 0 0
. c const ν .λ · ·
(1.239)
where the frequency ' v and the length of the waves ’ with Einstein are
a)
( )
0
1
2
2
2
' ;
1
c v
v
c
c
ν t
ν ·
 `
−
. ,
b)
1
2
2
0
2
' 1
v
c
 `
λ · λ −
. ,
;
( )
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
с) ' ' . . ;
1
c
v
c v c
u c v const c
c
v
c
 `
−
t
. ,
· ν.λ · · t ≠ ≠
 `
−
. ,
(1.240)
It is obvious and clear that as a result of DE , according to Einstein [1], the velocity of light in
relation to a moving observer can be
a)
c
u =c+v c ≥
; b)
c
u =cv c ≤
; (1.241)
Therefore the velocity of light
c
u
in relation to a moving observer can be higher or lower than its wave
velocity, i.e. there exist superlight velocities and transmission of signals at superlight velocity. This is a
physical fact wellknown for a long time, and facilities, necessary for practice are designed and used based on
this fact. DE is unconditionally a reliable fact, due to which such is also the law (1.239) or (1.240). This law,
as well as the case with DE, is a completely identical consequence of GT at velocity v t and two IRS – K and
IRS – K’, for it was deduced by means of description of the phenomenon through GT.
After W. Kaufmann in 1901 experimentally proved that matter (mass) of the electron
e
m
is function of
its mass
0 e
m
at rest and its velocity v, i.e.
( )
1
2 2
1
2 2
0 0
2
1 1 ;
e e e
v v
m m m
c c
−
−  `
· − · −β β ·
. ,
; (1.242)
and this relationship was summarized by Einstein in [1] in 1905, in paragraph 4, item 11, and here, in this
book, it is only deduced in the sense that this relationship holds true for masses (matter) of all objects (bodies),
i.e. that the masses
m
of all bodies at velocity
v
are function of their masses
0
m
at rest and the velocity
v
, i.e.
( )
1
2 2
0
1 m m
−
· −β ; (1.243)
this regularity should be taken into consideration with GT as well. In addition the expression for kinetic
energy is altered as well, which according to Newton is
2
0
0
.
;
2
k
m v
W · (1.244)
whereby after calculating at v < c , Einstein obtained it for an electron, in paragraph 10, in this form
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2 2 2
0 0
) 1 1 . 1 1 ;
k
a W W m c
− −
] ]
· −β − · −β −
] ]
] ]
b)
2
0 0
. W m c · ; (1.245)
Here it is essential to emphasize that with electromagnetic fields, GT must be applied only for the
densities of energies and their masses, and not to be applied not for the fields, since the relationship
(1.243) is for their masses.
For instance, the electric field of the electron at IRSK’ rest (v = 0) is
41
a) 0
2 2
0
.
4. .
e e e
q q k
E
r r
· ·
π.ε
;b) ( )
1
0
4.
e
k
−
· π.ε ; (1.246)
to which correspond densities of energy
e
w
and masses
e
ρ
a)
2
0 0
0
.
2
e
E
w
ε
· ; b)
0
0
2
e
e
w
c
ρ · ; (1.247)
where:
0
ε
is the dielectric constant.
When transforming
0 e
w
and
0 e
ρ
in IRS – K’, which moves at velocity const. v · the densities
alter to
a)
( )
1
2 2
0
. 1
e e
w w
−
· −β ; b)
( )
1
2 2
0
1
e e
−
ρ · ρ −β ; (1.248)
hence it follows
a)
( )
2 2
1
2 2 0 0 0
. . '
1 ;
2 2
e
E E
w
−
ε ε
· −β · → b)
( )
1
2 4
0
' 1 E E
−
· −β ; and
a)
( )
2
1
2 2 0
0
2
. '
1 ;
2.
e e
E
c
−
ε
ρ · ρ −β · → b)
( )
1
2 4
0
' 1 E E
−
· −β ;
(1.249)
In this sense, in relativistic electrodynamics, fields should be transformed through masses or
energies, and this should be done not by means of Lorentz transformations, but by means of GT.
Here Lorentz transformations – LT, are not used because they are incorrect.
The arguments about LT irrelevance are given in the supplement under number 6.
3. MATHEMATICAL NOTATION OF THE THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF
NEWTONIAN ELECTRODYNAMICS: THE PRINCIPAL
This presentation of physics under the name of rational or updated physics is essentially a
historical summary of dynamics in line with the idea of Newton
1
about physics with a single initial
principle, which is in line with the experimental laws established by him, and they, in a systemized form,
as a system K, state:
“All bodies emit and absorb light.” І
K
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
“The changing of Bodies into Light, and Light into Bodies ...” ІІ
“... is very conformable to the Course of Nature ...” ІІІ
In modern terminology, these Newtonian laws for the system K state:
“All bodies emit and absorb electromagnetic matter in a field form.” І’
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
K
“The substantial form of electromagnetic matter convert into a field form,
and the field form of electromagnetic matter converts into a substantial form.”
ІІ’
“These conversions are ascertained through experiments, i.e. they are
natural (empirical) laws.”
ІІІ’
These assertions were presented by Newton in his book “Opticks...” in 1704 and they have to be
considered an inseparable part of his ideas in his book “Principles..”
**
of 1687., where he set fourth the
thesis that matter is unitary (homogenous), and here, in “Opticks...” he proved that unitary
(homogenous) matter has electromagnetic essence – it is electromagnetic matter.
By unitary electromagnetic matter it is understood that matter is a structure formed from a
homogenous initial resource of unknown essence. The initial resource remains unknown because it
cannot manifest itself as spatial (volumetric) reality without being in the form of some real spatial
1
Is. Newton. Opticks or a treatise of the reflections, refractions, inflections and colours of light, in Russian,
Gostehizdat, Moscow, 1954
*
**
Is. Newton. Mathematical Principles of natural philosophy. transl. into Russian by A. N. Krylov. Publ. by
Academy of Science of SSSR, vol. 7, 1936.
42
structure. This initial resource is the carrier of the attributive properties of the object, and the diversity
of structural states of objects are the carriers of its structural properties.
Attributive properties are:
1. Quantity of matter (mass), which is a carrier of the tandem
m w
T
−
mass  energy.
2. Inert property  an outward expression of the law of matter (mass) and energy conservation 
m w
T
−
, i.e. the law of matter and energy conservation, LMEC.
3. Interaction between components (objects) of matter (mass).
4. Restructuring of the parts (objects) of matter (mass).
5. Generation of electromagnetic quantities (features) such as: electric charges, fields, masses and
energies.
6. Generation of gravitational (secondary electromagnetic) quantities (objects) such as:
gravitational charges (masses), gravitational fields, gravitational masses and gravitational energies
On the structural properties
Structural properties are those properties of electromagnetic objects, which are formed by
modifying the spatial and quantitative structure of objects. Whereby:
a) a spatial structure means the spatial location of the structural elements of the object. Even with
the same number and types of structural elements depending on their spatial distribution, an object can
have different properties. In chemistry, this phenomenon is called isomerism. For example when the same
number of carbon C and hydrogen H in the molecule C
5
H
12
, depending on their spatial location there are
three substances: pentane, methylbutan and dimethylpropan and in chemistry this phenomenon is called
isomerism;
b) each quantitative modification of matter (mass) of the object results in alteration of the number
of its structural elements, which also requires alteration of the structure of the object, and thus some of its
properties or creation of new properties. Natural diversity is due to the structural diversity of structures
of homogeneous electromagnetic elements. When a property is changed within certain limits, it is
assumed that the main feature is retained, it is in atomic isotopes.
In this sense, the lowest structural state of the electromagnetic matter in the form of elementary
material (fermion) particles are the electron e

and positron e
+
. That is why they are assumed to be the
model of electromagnetic matter and can be converted from substantial into a field form of
electromagnetic matter, i.e. in the form of electric, magnetic and gravitational fields  in γ photons
and vice versa, from photons (field form) into a substances form, for instance, gamma photons
γ
Г
in
collision against a nucleus of an atom can convert into electron e

plus positron e
+
.
Electrons (electron e

and positron e
+
) are the smallest independent electric charges with values
19
1, 6.10 C
−
· m
e
q that generate electric, magnetic and gravitational fields.
a)
0
2
0
.
;
4. . .
·
πε
r
r
e
q r
E
r
b)
0
. . ; ] · ε
]
r r
r
H v E
c)
0
0 0
2
.
. ; ;
γ
· − ·
r
r
r r
r
e
m r
G r r
r r
(1.31)
where:
0
ε
is dielectric constant of vacuum;
r
v – velocity of motion of the electron;
γ
– the gravitational
constant.
a)
( )
( )
2
2
0
2
0 0
. ;
4. . . .
· ·
πε
m
m
e
e e m
e
q
m q k
r c
b)
( )
1
2
0 0
4. . . . ;
−
· πε
m e
k r c c) ( )
2
0;
e
q > m (1.32)
is the mass of the electron ( )
0 0
,
− +
e e
at rest.
where:
0 e
r
is computational radius of the electron.
Electric
r
E
and magnetic
r
H
fields have density of energies
E
w
and
H
w
and of masses
ρ
E
and
ρ
H
, as follows
a)
2
0
.
;
2
ε
·
E
E
w b)
2
0
.
;
2
µ
·
H
H
w c)
2
; ρ ·
E
E
w
c
d)
2
; ρ ·
H
H
w
c
(1.33)
43
To
ρ
E
and
ρ
H
correspond gravitational fields
a)
0
2
. . ;
γ
· −ρ
r
r
E E
G r
r
b)
0
2
.
. ;
ρ γ
· −
r
r
H
H
G r
r
(1.34)
where: 0
µ
is the magnetic constant of vacuum.
It is evident that electron e

and positron e
+
generate electromagnetic and gravitational fields, energies,
masses of electromagnetic matter. I.e. they are sources and carriers of the manifestations (properties) of
electromagnetic matter, thus they are assumed, here and below, as model of electromagnetic matter. And
their fundamental laws form the unitary theoretical basis (the unitary deductive principle) of the theory of the
manifestations (properties) of electromagnetic matter.
The reasons for this assumption are:
First. Macroobjects are formed from elementary particles of matter.
Second. There is a wellknown experimental fact that from the initial state of matter in the form
of electron and positron, under appropriately selected conditions and the reactions of interaction, any
of the preselected elementary particles can be obtained. I.e. by electromagnetic interactions between
elementary particles, other elementary particles can be obtained.
Third. The first and second reasons entail conclusions about the following laws:
a) All elementary particles, including protons and neutrons have homogenous electromagnetic
essence – they are electromagnetic matter. This thesis was put forward by W. Heisenberg, and now this
thesis is a routine fact.
b) All natural resources (objects, phenomena, processes, etc.) are only electromagnetic, incl.
atoms and molecules, they are all structures of electromagnetic particles, i.e. they are structural objects
of electromagnetic matter.
Under these conditions the theoretical foundations of the manifestations of electromagnetic matter
are formed from the theoretical foundations of electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena, which they
generate. i.e. the system of equations of electromagnetic theory of Maxwell (Maxwell’s equations of
1873) and the gravitational theory of Newton, described by the equations of S. Poisson of 1813 formed
the theoretical basis (logical foundation) of the manifestations (natural facts ) of electromagnetic matter.
Because the resulting system of equations of Maxwell and Poisson is effective as initial
principle of the theory of all natural facts, respectively for all specialized (specific) sciences, this
system essentially plays the role of a leading major initial principle and has been named Principal.
From the equations of Maxwell and Poisson is formed
THE PRINCIPAL
0
0
a) ; b) ; c) . I
a) ; b) 0; c) . II
a) 0; b) .4. . ; III
e
m
B
rotE divE D E
t
D
rotH i divB B H
t
rotG divG
∂ ρ ¹
· − · · ε
¹
∂ ε
¹
¹
∂ ¹
· + · · µ
'
∂
¹
¹
· · −ρ π γ
¹
¹
¹
r r r r
r
r r r r
r r
(1.35)
In this Principal, all quantities are genetically homogenous
where:
B
r
and
D
r
are magnetic and electric inductions:
е
ρ
– density of the electric charge;
m
ρ
– density
of electromagnetic matter (mass);
γ
– gravitational constant;
0
ε
and
0
µ
dielectric and magnetic
constants of mass; j
r
– density of current (if there is any).
Consequences of the Principal
1. It describes the unity of regularities both in field and substantial forms of matter.
2. It proves the unity (homogeneity) of electromagnetic and gravitational fields, i.e. their genetic
unity.
3. It shows that there is a genetic unity between field and substantial forms of matter, and they can
be converted into each other.
44
4. When this system of differential equations is integrated under respective, unlimited in
number, boundary conditions, for the respective situations, the regularities of the respective diverse
natural facts (manifestations) are obtained.
5. It is apparent for these diverse manifestations that there is no natural phenomenon without
concurrent participation of electromagnetic and gravitational fields, since every electromagnetic field
has a mass, density of mass
m
ρ
, and it generates a gravitational field.
6. For independent electromagnetic fields without electric charge (
e
0 ρ ·
), electromagnetic
waves are obtained whose masses generate gravitational fields G, i.e. the densities of the masses
mE
ρ
and
mH
ρ
of the electric field E and of the magnetic field H of the waves generate gravitational fields.
7. The Principal (1.35) motivates the fact that in nature (world), without any discontinuation in its
space, there is electromagnetic matter in the form of:
a) gravitational field (electromagnetic field of second kind).
b) photon gas (electromagnetic wave).
I.e. the Principal(1.35) is a synthesized expression of the principles:
7.1. Principle of unitary electromagnetic matter in nature (world).
7.2. Principle that nature is a material continuum, i.e. that matter in nature is continuous or that in
nature there is no place without matter.
7.3. The synthesis of principles 7.1. and 7.2 leads to the conclusion that: The notions of
electromagnetic continuum or material continuum are synonymous to the notion of nature (world).
8. IT IS APPARENT FROM THEM THAT THERE IS NO NATURAL PHENOMENON (OBJECT) WITHOUT CONCURRENT
PARTICIPATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC AND GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS, SINCE EVERY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD HAS A
MASS, DENSITY OF MASS
m
ρ
, AND IT GENERATES A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD.
Emphasis І
Here the fact should be emphasized that the differential equations practically have unlimited
number of real solutions, which depend on the boundary conditions, determined by the unlimited
number of situations, in which they are solved. This property of theirs enables them to describe the
natural diversity, i.e. they satisfy the requirement of unlimited number of solutions for the natural
diversity of objects, phenomena, processes , etc.
Emphasis ІІ
In explicit form and partly in implicit form, this Principal indicates that all natural phenomena
are manifested only in altering the quantities and structures of material objects through motion from
one place to another and from one state into another. I.e., in other words, the natural diversity is a
result of the incessant processes of interaction between parts of matter (natural facts, which have
relative independence).
I.e. all natural facts (objects, phenomena, processes, etc.), changing in time are products as a
result of:
a) motions of different quantities of the initial resource, in the diverse structure of homogenous
matter;
b) motions of matter along different trajectories;
c) any kinds of setting into motion, which are all only different forms of electromagnetic forces
generated by various structures of a homogenous initial resource.
OR DEFINED IN A MOST GENERAL FORM – WITHOUT MOTION OR WITHOUT INTERACTION OF RELATIVELY
INDEPENDENT PARTS OF HOMOGENOUS MATTERS THERE ARE NOT ANY NATURAL PHENOPMENA, I.E. WITHOUT MOTION OF
TH PARTS OF AMTTER THERE CANNOT BE INTERACTION BETWEEN NATURAL AFCTS  THERE IS NO DIVERSE NATURAL
EVOLUTION OF MATTER WHATSOEVER.
Emphasis ІІІ
Since science studies manifestations (objects, phenomena, processes, etc.) of unitary
electromagnetic matter, out of which nature is formed, it follows that science of nature is one
(homogenous) whole and should be called Naturology. And this unitary science of nature takes its
45
origin from the theoretical basis of the Principal. Or this thesis holds true: Unitary electromagnetic
matter entails unity of sciences.
Emphasis ІV
Basically, the fact that matter is homogenous in its essence means that it is impossible for
natural manifestations to be interpreted by more than one deductive principle (Principal), respectively
by more than one logic or one logical foundation, i.e. by more than one initial theoretical basis of its
electromagnetic matter – one Principal.
Emphasis V
THIS INITIAL DEDUCTIVE PRINCIPLE IS THE EMBRYO, AS AN INITIAL PRINCIPLE, WHICH DIRECTLY OR
INDIRECTLY, IS IN THE ROOT OF ALL SCIENCES, WHICH STUDY NATURAL OBJECTS. THE MOTIVATION OF THIS ASSERTION
IS THE FACT THAT HUMANS AND HUMAN MIND ARE NATURAL PRODUCTS, WHERE MIND IS ALSO PRODUCT OF BRAIN
ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER WHICH CONSISTS OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES, WHICH INTERACT WITH THE QUANTITIES OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER (ENERGY) BROUGHT IN FROM THE OUTSIDE BY MEANS OF THE ORGANS OF PERCEPTION.
THE RESULT OF THIS MATERIAL INTERACTION IS THE ACT OF MOTION OF LIVING ORGANISMS OF THE FLORA, FAUNA
AND THE HUMANKIND .
Emphasis VІ
About the gravitational filed Einstein
*
wrote: "Now we will try to find out the laws of gravitational
field. In doing this, the equation of Poisson in the theory of Newton will serve as a model
.4. . ; divG · −ρ π γ
r
(1.36)
where: is gravitational constant.
The basis of this equation is the idea that the source of gravitational field is the density of matter
. It should be so in the general theory of relativity as well” (P.P.’s emphasis)
Therefore, the density of electromagnetic matter of electron
e
ρ
of the electromagnetic waves in
(1.36) generates gravitational field. In real fact, Newton in “Opticks...” described an experiment,
where the sun rays deflected from massive bodies.
Einstein
*
*
wrote: “However, we cannot claim that these parts of the general theory of relativity,
which can not be considered complete, are the full and satisfactory foundations of physics. Because it
seems that the external field consists of two logically unrelated parts: gravity and electromagnetism", and
"For now we must admit that physics has no common theoretical foundations, which can be
regarded as its logical foundation."
Einstein
*
**
also wrote: “So as to finish building the foundations of the general theory of relativity,
it is necessary that electromagnetic field is also included in it, which, according to our conviction, is
the material out of which we have to build the elementary structures of matter.”
As regards unification of gravitational and electromagnetic fields as two sides of one whole,
Einstein
*
***
wrote:
“It is quite natural that unification of gravitational and electromagnetic fields into a common
picture would be a huge step forward. That would be a praiseworthy corollary of the age of theoretical
physics, which starts with Faraday and Maxwell..., and the entire physics would become a closed
theory...”
Those observations of Einstein’s show that the Principal is not in contradiction with the views
of Einstein, but rather – it gives the decision he sought – a unified theory of electromagnetic and
gravitational fields.
*
A. Einstein. “The meaning of relativity” Princeton Unic. Press. Princeton. N. J. 1921.
*
*
A. Einstein Considerations concerning the Fundaments of Theoretical Physics Science, 1940. 91, 481.7492.
*
**
A. Einstein. Considerations concerning the Fundaments of Theoretical Physics. Science. 1940, 91, 487 – 492.
****
A. Einstein. Aether und Relativitäts theorie” Verlag von Julius Springer. Berlin, 1920.
46
Accent VII
Einstein in the article "Prologue" in the book M. Plank. Where is science going? London. 1933, 9
14, wrote: "With each significant movement of physics forward the fundamental laws get more and
more simplified.
Conclusion to the third paragraph
MATTER AND ITS MANIFESTATIONS AS WELL AS ALL FORCE INTERACTIONS AS CAUSATIVELY AND GENETICALLY
UNIFORM PHENOMENA, HAVE ONLY ELECTROMAGNITEN NATURE, I.E. THE PRINCIPLE THAT UNITARY MATTER OF NATURE IS
ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER AND IS UNCONDITIONALLY AND CATEGORICALLY ADEQUATE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF
PHYSICS.
4. NEWTONIAN ELECTRODYNAMICS
From the presented above, according to Newton, these regularities are known:
1. Electromagnetic matter exists in discrete quantities (parts) of matter (mass) m in the form of
bodies and elementary particles.
2. Parts, including the elementary particles, of electromagnetic matter are ceaselessly converting
from a substantial into a field form and vice versa, i.e. electromagnetic matter manifests in substantial and
field forms.
3. The parts of electromagnetic matter in the form of electromagnetic waves (photons) are in
constant motion at velocity of light c.
4. Matter (mass) m of electromagnetic waves, which move at the velocity of light c and have a
momentum
. ·
r
r
c
P mc (1.41)
5. When electromagnetic matter (mass) m of electromagnetic waves at velocity c and momentum
c
P
r
(1.41) collides (converts) for time dt into its substantial form (substance), electromagnetic
force is generated
. . . 0; · · + · +
r
r
r
r r dP dm dc dm
F c m c
dt dt dt dt
(1.42)
6. The energy dW, which electromagnetic force F imparts onto the object, on which it acts along
distance . dr c dt ·
r
, i.e. for time dt is
a)
2
. . . . ; · · ·
r
r r r dm
dW F dr c c dt dmc
dt
b)
2
0
. ; · ·
∫
m
W dW mc (1.43)
7. Since electromagnetic substance can convert into field and vice versa, it follows that the law
(1.43)b
2
. ; · W mc (1.43)b
holds true both for the field and for the substantial forms of electromagnetic matter.
8. From (1.42) and (1.43) the inference follows that the substantial quantities of
electromagnetic matter (masses) are always in states of variable values and can move at
velocities v lower than c
a)
; <
r r
v c
b)
1; β · <
v
c
c)
const.; m ≠
(1.44)
9. Under these conditions (1.43)b and (1.44), it follows that the expression of the momentum of
substance is
a) . ; ·
r
r
P mv b)
; < v c
c)
const.; ≠ v
(1.45)
and the force is
47
. . ; · · +
r
r
r
r dP dm dv
F v m
dt dt dt
(1.46)
10. Under condition (1.44)c, the relationship of the energy is
( )
2 2
1
. . . . . . ;
2
· · · · +
r
r r
r r r dP
dW F dr v dt v dP md v v dm
dt
(1.47)
11. From dW (1.47) and W (1.43)b we have the value of the differential of mass (quantity of
electromagnetic matter)
d)
( )
2
2 2
2
1 1
. . . . 1 ;
2 2
dW v
dm md md dm
c c
 `
· · · −β + β
. ,
b) ;
v
c
β · (1.48)
and after processing (1.48) we have the differential equation
( )
( )
1 1
. ;
2 1
d dm
m
−β
· −
−β
(1.49)
When this equation is solved for the following boundary conditions
a) v = 0 m = m
0
= mass at rest; b) 0
0 ; ≠ → · > v m m m
(1.410)
we have the full mass m of a body with mass m
0
at rest as function of velocity, and with accounting for
(1.43)b, we have the full energy W of the body at velocity v, i.e.
a)
( )
1
2 2
0
1 ;
−
· −β m m b)
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2 2 2
0 0
. 1 1 ;
− −
· −β · −β W m c W (1.411)
Where the term
2
0 0
. ; · W m c (1.412)
is an expression of the internal energy of the part of electromagnetic matter at rest ( ) 0 · v
. I.e. this
formula (1.412) entails the inference that each quantity of electromagnetic matter m
0
at rest,
according to (1.43)b, has internal energy, according to (1.412).
Therefore, after we subtract the internal energy W
0
= m
0
.c
2
(1.412) from the full energy of the
body with mass m
0
at rest W (1.411)b, the energy W
K
remains, which was called by Newton in
“Principles...” in 1687 kinetic energy, and by Maxwell in “Treatise...”magnetic or electromagnetic
energy”, and which has this value
( )
1
2 2 2
0
. 1 1 ;
K o H
W W W m c W
−
]
· − · −β − ·
]
]
(1.413)
and whose magnetic or electromagnetic (kinetic) mass essentially is
( )
1
2 2
0
2 2
1 1 ;
K H
H K
W W
m m m
c c
−
]
· · · · −β −
]
]
(1.414)
Here it is important to emphasize that the formula given by Einstein for the relationship of the
mass of bodies and velocity, in the Newtonian electrodynamics (1.413) and (1.414) is derived only
from the experimental fact established by Newton in 1704 in "Opticks ... "that matter is only of
electromagnetic essence, i.e. it is only electromagnetic matter and from Galileo’s transformations,
without the postulates of Einstein, or Lorentz transformations and without the special theory of
relativity.
Magnetic (kinetic) energy W
K
(1.413) and magnetic (kinetic) mass
H K
m m ·
(1.414), here are
obtained as values, which are product of electromagnetic matter, whose theory was developed by J. Cl.
Maxwell in his book "Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism" in 1873, where he made it clear that in the
theory of electromagnetic matter the role of kinetic energy is played by magnetic and electromagnetic
energies. Whereby
48
a) in paragraph 636 he wrote: "..., kinetic energy exists wherever there is a magnetic field, i.e. in
all parts in general, where there is a magnetic field. Quantitatively, the density of magnetic (kinetic)
energy is
2
0
.
;
2
µ
· ·
K H
H
W W ” (1.415)
where:
0
µ
is magnetic permeability of vacuum; H – magnetic field.”
b) in paragraph 638 Maxwell wrote:
“THEREFORE WE SHOULD CONSIDER BOTH MAGNETIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGIES AS KINETIC ENERGIES.”
This statement of Maxwell is confirmed by the inference from the formula of the kinetic energy of
the electron by Einstein
*
, with mass
a)
( )
1
2 2
0
1 ;
−
· −β
e e
m m b) ; β ·
v
c
(1.416)
where for mass m
e0
he assumed that the mass of the electron at rest, i.e. at velocity v = 0; c – velocity of
light.
In the inference (1.416), Einstein in paragraph 10 assumed the electron as a model of matter and
that it is set into motion at velocity
v c <
by the electrostatic force of an external electrostatic field
r
B
E ,
where the force is
( )
( )
3
2 2
0
.
. 1 . ;
−
· · · · −β
r r
r r
e
E e B e
d m v dP dv
F q E m
dt dt dt
(1.417)
Thus the kinetic energy of the electron is obtained, which is essentially the magnetic energy of the
electron at velocity v, i.e.
( )
1
2 2 2
0
0
. . 1 1 ;
−
]
· · · −β −
]
]
∫
r
r
v
Ke He E e
W W F dx m c
(1.418)
where: q
e
is the electric charge of the electron, which at rest ( ) 0 · v
has mass m
e0
.
About this expression of magnetic energy of the electron, Einstein
*
*
, after the deduction of the
formula of
·
K He
W W
, without mentioning that it is W
He
, wrote:
“This expression of kinetic energy holds true for all bodies”.
If Einstein had made an enquiry with Maxwell’s treatise he could have written that the expression
is about magnetic energy of bodies.
EMPHASIS
THEREFORE, BY THE TIME WHEN MAXWELL’S ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY HAD BEN ESTABLISHD, RESEARCHERS
FAILED TO NOTICE THAT MAGNETIC ENERGY, IN THE OPINION OF MAXWELL, AND ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGIES ARE KINETIC
ENERGIES.
THIS FAILURE SHOULD BE CORRECTED IN THE SENSE THAT AT PRESENT AND IN THE FUTURE, IT SHOULD BE
ASSUMED THAT KINETIC ENERGY IS ONLY AND SOLELY MAGNETIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY.
In this comprehensive Newtonian mechanics, the momentum
r
P
(1.45) is
( )
1
2 2
0
. . 1 . ;
−
· · −β
r
r
P mv m v (1.419)
Force F (1.46) is
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2 2
0 0
2
.
1 . . 1 . ;
− −
· −β + −β
r r r
r
dv v v dv
F m m
dt c dt
(1.420)
*
A. Einstein. “Zur Elektordynamik der bevegter Körper” Ann. Phys. 1905, 17, (891 – 821).
*
*
A. Einstein. “Zur Elektordynamik der bevegter Körper” Ann. Phys. 1905, 17, (891 – 921).
49
By taking into account that
2
. . . ·
r
r dv dv
v v v
dt dt
and process (1.420) we have
( )
3
2 2
0
1 . ;
−
· −β
r
r
dv
F m
dt
(1.421)
Inert force is
( )
3
2 2
0
1 . ;
−
· − · − −β
r
r r
i
dv
F F m
dt
(1.422)
In general, there is no velocity, which is not a velocity v of motion of a body of mass 0 > m ,
i.e. there are no independent velocities free of the component of the momentum of a real body with
a real mass
a) . ; ·
r
r
P mv b) ; ·
r
r P
v
m
(1.423)
So, essentially, it follows from (1.423) that there is not and there cannot be , from a strictly
physical standpoint, any addition of independent velocities only, but there always should be addition of
velocities determined by a respective momentum, as described in (1.424)b, i.e.
1 2 1 2 2 1
1, 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
. .
;
.
+
· + · + ·
r r
r r
r r r P P v m v m
v v v
m m m m
(1.424)
Only when
a)
1 2
; · · m m m
b)
1 1
. ; ·
r
r
P mv c)
2 2
. ; ·
r
r
P mv (1.425)
it follows that
1 2
1, 2 1 2 1 2
; · + · + · +
r r
r r r r r P P
v v v v v
m m
(1.426)
Then at mass
( )
1
2 2
0
1
−
· −β m m the velocities can be added
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
1, 2 1 1
2 2 2 2
1 2
2
;
.
1 1 1
+
· + ·
−β −β +
v v v v
v
v v
c
(1.427)
The presented above updated Newtonian mechanics could have been developed by Newton himself,
since he was the creator of differential and integral calculus, or by a number of other scientists in the field of
mechanics and electrodynamics before Einstein. However, there was no reason to doubt the classical
mechanics of Newton, as was the issue with MichelsonMorley’s experiment or the experiment of W.
Kaufmann, who gave a negative answer to the expected results and thus challenged researchers two seek an
explanation of that negative answer by putting forward numerous ideas, summarized by Einstein into a new
theory called Special Theory of Relativity – STR, by introducing the principle of constancy of the velocity of
light – PCVL, about which principle Einstein
*
wrote:
“..The fundamental Lorentz’s principle that each light ray propagates in vacuum at constant
velocity, called the principle of constancy of velocity of light”, i.e. PCVL, was given by H. Lorentz, not by
Einstein.
Here, of significant importance are some citations from Newton’s “Opticks...” of 1704, which state:
1. “My design in this book is not to explain the properties of light by hypotheses, but to propose
and prove them by reason and experiments.”
2. “As it is in mathematics, so it is in natural philosophy (the science of nature – P. P.’s note)
*
A. Einstein. “Relativitäts theorie” from the book Die Physik Unter Redaktion von Lechner. V. 3. Alt. 3. Bd. 1
Leipzig Teulner. 1915.
50
that the method of analysis always precedes that of synthesis. Analysis consists in
conducting experiments and observations, from which inferences are made by means of
induction, whereby no other objections are admitted against those inferences but ones
obtained in experiments or in other reliable ways, for hypotheses are tried by
experimental science.”
3. “THE FIRST OBLIGATION OF SCIENCE OF NATURE IS TO DRAW CONCLUSIONS FROM THE PHENOMENA, NOT TO INVENT
HYPOTHESES, OR TO DISCUSS THE CAUSES FOR ACTIONS, AS LONG AS THE INITIAL CAUSE IS FOUND, THE
ORIGINAL CAUSE, NOT THE MECHANICAL CAUSE.”
4. “The Attractions of Gravity, Magnetism, and Electricity, reach to very sensible distances, and
so have been observed by vulgar Eyes... perhaps electrical Attraction may reach to such
small distances, even without being excited…”
5. “it's well known that Bodies act one upon another by the Attractions of Gravity, Magnetism,
and Electricity …”
The citations given here and the formation of the theory of Newtonian electrodynamics as the
initial principle of sciences of natural phenomena, support the thesis that the laws, which make up the
electromagnetic essence of unitary matter are confirmed by sufficient experimental facts.
On the occasion of the 200th anniversary of Newton’s death, Einstein writes: “In essence
Newton fulfilled the dream of the ancient philosophers, materialist Democritus and Epicurus, who
BELIEVED THERE WAS A CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP, WITHOUT EXCEPTION, IN ALL PHYSICAL PHENOMENA.”(emphasis
added by P.P.)
“The science of electricity and magnetism up to this present day has developed entirely under
the influence of Newton’s guiding ideas... Even the revolution made by Faraday and Maxwell in
electrodynamics and optics, which was the first, after Newton, remarkable radically new step in
theoretical development of physics, was carried out under the influence of Newton’s ideas.”
“What we have achieved so far would have been impossible without the clear system of Newton”.
The system of units SI proves that matter is electromagnetic
Proceeding from the brief definition of the essential aspect of the notion of science, which states
that there is science of a certain object only when the properties of this object are treated by measuring
them, i.e. WITHOUT MEASURING OF THE PROPERTIES OF THE OBJECT, THERE IS NO SCIENTIFIC TRUTH –
THERE IS NO SCIENCE OF THAT OBJECT. I.E. THE SCIENTIFIC NOTION OF THE ESSENCE OF THE OBJECTS IS
DEFINED AS A RESULT OF THE QUANTITIES OF THEIR MEASURED PROPERTIES IN REAL EXPERIMENTAL
CONFIRMATIONS.
In this sense, the whole knowledge about the natural occurrences (objects, phenomena,
processes, etc.) is impossible without a unitary system of measuring units for unified comparable
measurements of the properties of the natural occurrences in appropriate experiments.
The most correct knowledge is gained only if it is set forth in the universally comprehensible
language (terminology) of measurement, i.e. through a unitary (general) system of measuring units for all
properties of all natural occurrences.
In the basis of forming the unitary measuring system lies the principle: independent measuring units
are defined only for primary essences which are in the basis of the models of these essences, and for all other
quantities, the measuring units are defined through mathematical correlations, which relate them to the
primary essences (notions).
THE CHOICE OF THE SYSTEM SI WAS NOT RANDOM, AND WAS CONNECTED WITH THE IDEA (PRINCIPLE) THAT NATURE IS
ONE WHOLE SYSTEM (STRUCTURE) IN THE FORM OF A UNITARY MODEL, WHICH IS A SYSTEM OF HOMOGENOUS IN ESSENCE
SPECIFIC MODELS (FRAGMENTS), WHICH DESCRIBE (EXPRESS) THE DIVERSE NATURAL OCCURRENCES OF HOMOGENOUS
ESSENCE, BUT WITH DIFFERENT STRUCTURES. AND IT IS EXACTLY THOSE DIFFERENT STRUCTURES OF THE HOMOGENOUS
INITIAL RESOURCE, EXISTING IN DIFFERENT QUANTITIES AND STRUCTURES THAT DETERMINE THEIR DIFFERENT PROPERTIES,
WHICH ARE OBJECTS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDIES – THE DIFFERENT, SPECIFIC (CONCRETE) SCIENCES OR SCIENTIFIC FIELDS.
This assumption is a result (consequence) of the fact of realizing that there exists connection
of mutual dependence in the form of organic genetic connection between all natural occurrences
(phenomena and processes). I.e. that they have as their carrier and generator a homogenous
matter, called unitary matter, which was formed out of a unitary initial source.
51
In earlier times, it was believed that different natural phenomena were not organically connected with
each other and therefore, their measuring systems were different. For instance, mechanics had its own
measuring system. Electrical engineering had its own measuring system as well, different from the one of
mechanics, because different terminology was used for the same quantities.
Then it was realized that a unitary measuring system had to be created which should be valid for
all natural phenomena and processes by using only those measuring units which are in the basis of the
primary essences of the main scientific models in the different scientific fields (theories). For all other
quantities measuring units were to be obtained through their respective mathematical correlations, which
relate them to the primary essential measuring units.
HERE, IN VIEW OF THIS ANALYSIS OF THE NOTION OF MASS (QUANTITY OF MATTER), IT IS CRUCIAL THAT THE
SYSTEM SI AGREED ON A MEASURING UNIT OF THE QUANTITY OF MATTER, I.E. A QUANTITY OF THE SUBSTANTIAL FORM OF
MATTER, CALLED MOL.
This circumstance proves that the system SI admits that the notion of quantity of matter exists,
whose measuring unit of quantity is the unit of mole.
The reason for this statement is the fact that the mole as a unit of quantity of substance, essentially
means that the mole is a measuring unit of the substantial form of the quantity of matter, i.e. the mole is a
unit of the quantity of matter, which is most often used in chemistry, which matter is unconditionally
only of homogenous essence, because it is the carrier and generator of all natural facts (phenomena
and processes).
And this matter, homogenous in its essence, called unitary matter, is unconditionally solely of
electromagnetic essence, because it has already been admitted that such matter does exist,
according to Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory, and the fact that matter is unitary (homogenous)
excludes any speculations of there existing any other form of matter.
Conclusion
The initial principle, which is in the basis of the measuring system SI (the international system
of units), and which has irresistible evidential force with a rank of an experimental fact, is that
electromagnetic matter, unitary and homogenous in its essence, occurring in a field and a substantial
form, and being the generator of all natural occurrences (phenomena, processes, etc.) as an
experimental fact of irresistible evidential force, since in SI, there are basic measuring units for the
properties of electromagnetic matter .
The formulae of motion of bodies derived here result from Newton’s citations in “Principles…” of
1687 and in “Opticks ...” of 1704 and hold true for all velocities v lower than c ( ) < v c
, but the historical
development of Newtonian electrodynamics (mechanics) first gave the classical mechanics of Newton, which
treats motions of electromagnetic bodies at velocities v much lower than the velocity of light, i.e. at
a)
; = v c
b) 0; β · →
v
c
(1.428)
and in which classical physics takes into account only that matter is homogenous, while it dos not take
into account the fact that there is matter, which has electromagnetic essence, of which later Maxwell
developed a theory called electromagnetic theory of Maxwell.
Moreover, there exists a theory of electromagnetic matter at high velocities a)
; < v c
b) 1; β · <
v
c
(1.44), called relativist electrodynamics (relativist mechanics), from which on condition that velocities
are low, under condition a)
; = v c
b) 0;
v
c
β · → (1.428) is reduced to the classical mechanics of
Newton. The circumstance that it is reduced from relativist electrodynamics implies that it is also
electrodynamics – a theory of electromagnetic matter at low velocities, which is now implicitly treated as
a theory of unknown, but unitary (homogenous) matter.
THE RESULTING GENERAL NEWTONIAN ELECTRODYNAMICS (MECHANICS) AS A THEORY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC
MATTER, UNCONDITIONALLY LEADS TO THE CONCLUSION THAT THE CLASSICAL NEWTONIAN MECHANICS IS ALSO A
CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS, FOR IT DEALS WITH A UNITARY MATTER, WHICH IS ONLY ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER AND
OF WHICH THERE IS ONE UNITARY ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY, AND IT IS THE GENERAL NEWTONIAN ELECTRODYNAMICS
52
(MECHANICS).
Under condition (1.428) the expression
( )
1
2 2
1
−
−β can be expanded in a power series
( )
1
2 2 4 6 2
1 3 15
1 1 ...;
2 8 18
−
−β · + β − β + β
(1.429)
And by taking into consideration only the first two terms from (1.429), we have the energies,
masses, momentums and forces with smaller values than in the general Newtonian electrodynamics,
which are a specific case of it and coincide with classical mechanics, which should here be called
classical electrodynamics. The motivation of the name classical electrodynamics is in the circumstance
that the formulae of the General Newtonian electrodynamics hold also true under condition
( ) = v c
(1.4
28), but they are simplified with respect to the case at v < c (1.44), without introducing the condition that
matter is not electromagnetic. Therefore, under the condition
( ) = v c
(1.428) the formulae of the
General Newtonian electrodynamics (relativist electrodynamics) are reduced to:
A) for the kinetic (magnetic) energy and mass
a)
2
2 2 0
0
1 .
. 1 1 ;
2 2
]
· · + β − ·
]
]
K H
m v
W W m c
b)
2
0
0
2
.
;
2.
H K
m v
m m m
c
· · = (1.430)
B) for the momentum and the force
a)
( )
0 0
. . ; · ·
r
r r
H
d W
P v m v
dv
b) 0
. ; ; · · ·
r
r r
r
r
r
dP dv v
F m v
dt dt v
(1.431)
C) Whereby at
v c =
(1.428), the expressions of the values of the magnetic (kinetic) energy (1.4
13) and (1.430), are almost equal, i.e.
( )
2
1
2 2 2 0
0
.
. 1 1 ;
2
K H
m v
W W m c
−
]
· · −β − ≈
]
]
(1.432)
D) The addition of the velocity (instead of (1.427), because
1 2
2
.
0 →
v v
c
)
1, 2 1 2
· + v v v
(1.433)
Since the essence of matter remains electromagnetic. I.e. in the General Newtonian
electrodynamics matter remains unitary electromagnetic matter both at velocities
( ) < v c
(1.44) and at
( ) = v c
(1.428), and the deduction of the formulae is made without the theory of relativity and without
Lorentz transformations, but only with Galileo’s principle of relativity, Galileo’s transformations and the
assumption of the thesis of Newton that matter is electromagnetic in a field and substantial forms and
can convert from a substantial into a field form and vice versa (according to Newton’s citations in
paragraph 3).
Therefore, electromagnetic matter, according to Newton, generates gravitational forces (fields).
and indeed, in “Opticks ..” in 1704, Newton described experiments, in which sun rays deflected by
solid bodies as a result of gravitational forces.
Furthermore, there are wellknown calculations in literature of the ratios of the electric forces
E
F
r
between electrons and gravitational forces
r
G
F between the same electrons, which is
42
10 ; ≈
E
G
F
F
(1.434)
which fact proves that in presentday physics it is assumed that electrons generates gravitational forces
(fields).
The presented above entails the following conclusions:
General conclusion
1. NEWTON FIRST PROVED EXPERIMENTALLY IN 1704 THAT MATTER HAS UNITARY HOMOGENOUS ESSENCE AND IS
53
ONLY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ESSENCE, I.E. IT IS ONLY ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER, BUT UP TO THIS DAY THIS FACT HAS NOT
BEEN TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT IN MODERN PHYSICS, THEREFORE THERE IS A TASK FOR PHYSICISTS TO CONSIDER THIS FACT BY
DEVELOPING THE DETAILS OF PHYSICS AS LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER.
2. OTHER PROOFS, WHICH ARE LONG KNOWN TO RESEARCHERS OF PHYSICS, BUT HAVE NOT BEEN MADE EXPLICIT,
THAT MATTER IS ONLY ELECTROMAGNETIC, ARE:
2.1. THE ASSUMPTION THAT IN MAXWELL’S ELECTRODYNAMICS, THERE IS ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER, WHICH
THEORY IS MAXWELL’S ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY. THE FACT THAT IT IS PROVEN THAT MATTER IS HOMOGENOUS
NECESSITATES THE INFRENCE THAT THERE CANNOT BE ANY OTHER KIND OF MATTER EXCEPT ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER.
2.2. THE ASSUMPTION IN W. HEISENBERG’S THESIS THAT ALL ELEMENTARY PARTICLES ARE HOMOGENOUS IN
ESSENCE, WHICH IS GROUNDED IN THE EXPERIMENTAL FACT THAT ELEMENTARY PARTICLES CAN BE CONVERTED FROM ONE
INTO ANOTHER, WITH OBSERVANCE OF THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY.
THIS ASUMTION THAT ELEMENTARY PARTICLES ARE OF HOMOGENOUS ESSENCE IMPLIES THAT THE ELEMENTARY
PARTICLES, SUCH AS ELECTRON, POSITRON, PHOTON, PROTON, NEUTRON, ETC. HAVE A HOMOGENOUS ESSENCE, AS IS THE
ESSENCE OF THE ELECTRON, POSITRON AND PHOTON. HOWEVER THE ESSENCE OF THE ELECTRON, POSITRON AND PHOTON
IS ELECTROMAGNETIC, I.E. THEY ARE ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER. WHENCE, DUE TO THE FACT (ASSUMPTION) THAT ALL
ELEMENTARY PARTICLES, INCLUDING THE PROTON AND NEUTRON ARE ALSO WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC ESSENCE – THEY ARE
ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER. AND IN REAL FACT, THE EXPERIMENT (SEE NEXT PARAGRAPH) CONFIRMS THIS INFERENCE.
SINCE ATOMS (MOLECULES) ARE STRUCTURES OF ELECTRONS, PROTONS AND NEUTRONS, THE IT FOLLOWS THAT
ATOMS (MOLECULES) ARE ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER. OR THE MOST GENERAL CONCLUSION STATES:
ALL NATURAL FACTS (OBJECTS, PHENOMENA, PROCESSES, PROPERTIES, ETC) ARE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ESSENCE,
FOR THEY ARE PRODUCTS (PHENOMENA) OF ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER.
3. ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER IN SUBSTANTIAL AND FIELD FORMS GENERATES GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS.
I.E. GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS ARE SECONDARY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS. OR ALL FIELDS, WHICH ARE
GENERATED BY THE UNITARY ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER OF NATURE GENERATES, GENERATE ONLY ELECTROMAGNETIC
ENERGIES, FIELDS AND FORCES.
4. From the fact that all natural facts (according to Newton and Kirchhoff) emit electromagnetic
waves in the form of photons, makes it evident that there is a photon ensemble in space, called photon
gas. I.e. that in any point in space there are photons (density of photon gas), to which corresponds
density of mass of a field form of electromagnetic matter
ρ
f and density of electromagnetic energy
2
. · ρ
f f
w c
.
3. It should be taken into account that every photon is characterized by energy W
f
, mass m
f
and
momentum
r
f
P
a)
. ; · ν
f
w h
b)
2
; ·
f
f
w
m
c
c) 0 0
. . ; · · ·
r
r
r r r
r
f
f f
W
c
P m c c c
c c
(1.435)
If inside the photon gas there is a gas molecule of mass m
M
, upon which photons land, then each
photon will act for time
τ
, so it will act upon the molecule with an average value of force
; ·
τ
r
r
f
f
P
F
(1.436)
As a result of the density of the photons, which are in different directions, eventually the average
value of the acting force
.
r
fср
F at a respective density of photons, which is approximately proportional to
ρ
f , i.e.
.
2
; ≡ ρ ·
f
fср f
w
F
c
(1.437)
and sets the molecule in motion at acceleration
r
a and velocity
r
dv for time dt
a)
. .
; ·
r
r
fср
M
F
a
m
b) . ; ·
r r
dv a dt c) . ; ·
r r
v a t
(1.438)
54
I.e. the molecules, which are inside the photon gas, are set in motion by it at velocity
r
v , and
therefore, since there is no place in space without a photon gas, the molecules are always in motion.
It should be added that all the atoms (molecules) periodically emit and absorb photons, i.e. other
photons act upon them forcefully, and therefore independent molecules are also always in motion.
And since in the space around the Earth there is always a gravitational field, it follows that photons
with masses f
m
and molecules with masses
M
m
are moved by gravitational forces toward the center of
the Earth with the forces
a) . ; ·
r r
Gf fЗ
F m G b) . ; ·
r r
Gm MЗ
F m G (1.439)
where:
З
G
is the gravitational field of the Earth.
5. RESTRUCTURING OF ELECTRONS
AND ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY
5.1. General formulations
Electrons are used to illustrate restructuring, for they are generally used as a model of
electromagnetic matter, and Einstein also did so in his article “Zur Elektrodynamik der bewegter Körper”,
17, 891, 921.
The process of interaction between objects is accompanied by a process of their being
restructured. As a result of these processes, the objects obtain new properties or lose previous
properties and acquire properties different from these before the interaction.
To make a full and precise analysis and give an answer to the question of what energy is, it should
be proceeded from the formulae through a mathematical description of some typical processes of
interaction, which also have been experimentally confirmed for restructuring of matter of given objects
from one state into another (from some elementary particles into others).
First example
During interaction between electron
0
e
−
and positron
0
e
+
at rest (v = 0) they become restructured
into photons (momentums of electromagnetic waves) γ , which move at the velocity c of light (of
electromagnetic waves), equation (1.5.11)a.
And when a gamma photon γ
Г
collides into the atom nucleus, the photon is restructured into
electron
0
e
−
and positron
0
e
+
, as follows
a)
0 0
2.
− +
+ → γ e e ; b)
0 0
− +
γ → +
Г
e e ; (1.5.11)
Or, if these reactions between the elementary particles electrons and photons are described through
their energies, taking into account that the energies W
0
and the masses m
0
of the particles and the
antiparticles (for example, the electron and the positron are a particle and its antiparticle) at rest have
identical values, it follows from (1.5.11) that:
a)
2 2 2
0 0
0 0 0
2. . . 2 . 2 2. .
− + − +
+ · · + · · ·
e e f
e e eo e
W W W m c m c m c W h v
;
b)
2
0
2
0 0
. .
. .
· → λ · λ · · ·
e
k
e e
m c c h c h
v
h v m c m c
; c)
2
0
. 2. . · ·
Г Г e
W h v m c ;
(1.5.12)
where:
0 e
W
− and
0 e
W
+ are the energies at rest (the internal energies) of the electron and positron;
eo
m
−
and
0 e
m
+  the masses of the electron and positron at rest; f
W
 energy of photon; h  Planck’s constant;
ν  frequency of the photon; v
Г
 frequency of the gamma photon, because in this reaction (1.5.11)b
photons have the frequency of a gamma photon; c  velocity of light in vacuum (velocity of the
electromagnetic waves in vacuum),
k
– Compton’s wave length.
55
Second example:
It is a wellknown experimental fact that during interaction between accelerated electron e
−
and
positron e
+
, depending on the conditions, their kinetic (magnetic) energies are restructured into protons
(proton p and antiproton
p
) or in neutrons (neutron n and antineutron n ) as follows:
a)
0 0
( )
− + − +
+ → + → + e e e e p p ; b)
0 0
( )
− + − +
+ → + → + e e e e n n ; (1.5.13)
Here it should be noted that:
1) The mass of the electron at rest
eo
m
is equal to the mass of energy
0 e
W
of its electrostatic field.
a)
2
0
. ·
e e E
W q k ; b) ( )
1
0 0
4 .
−
· πε
E e
k r ; c)
0
2 0
2
. · ·
e
e e m
W
m q k
c
; d)
2
.
−
·
m E
k k c ; (1.5.14)
where: ε
0
is the dielectric constant of vacuum; r
e0
 the computational (classical) radius of the
electron.
2) The full (total) electromagnetic energy
E
W
of the electron at velocity
v c <
is
a)
( )
1
1 2
2
2 2 2 2 2
2
0 0 0
2
1 . 1 . . ;
t e He e e e e
v v
W W W m c m c m c m c
c c
−
−  `
· + · · − · −β · β ·
. ,
; (1.5.15)
where:
e
m
is the mass dependent on velocity, and it is
( )
1
2
2
0
1
−
· −β
e e
m m
; (1.5.16)
and the kinetic (magnetic) energy of the electron
He
W
, since according to Maxwell, magnetic and
electromagnetic energies are kinetic energies, is:
a) ( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
0 0
. 1 1 . . 1 1 ;
He t e e e m Ke
W W W m c q k c W
− − ] ]
· − · −β − · −β − ·
] ]
] ]
b)
2
;
He
He
W
m
c
· (1.5.17)
Here the mass gain is
2 2
He Ke
e
W W
m
c c
∆ · · , as a result of the mass of its magnetic (kinetic)
energy at velocity v.
Then with these conditions the notation of (1.5.13) through the energies is:
a)
2
0
2 2 2. .
eo e p
He He
W W W W m c
− +
+ + · +
; b)
2
He
He He
W W W
− +
· +
(1.5.18)
or it follows from (1.5.18) that:
a)
2
0 0 0
2. 2. 2 2. .
e He e p
W W W m c + · +
; b)
2
0
2 2
He p
W m c ·
; (1.5.19)
and from (1.5.19) and (1.5.17) it follows that:
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2
2 2
0 0 0
2
1 1 . 1 1 ;
He
p p eе m p
W
m m m q k
c
− − ] ]
· · −β − · −β −
] ]
] ]
(1.5.110)
With an analogous procedure for the neutron (1.5.13)b it follows that:
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2
2 2
0 0 0
2
1 1 . 1 1 ;
He
n n e e m n
W
m m m q k
c
− − ] ]
· · −β − · −β −
] ]
] ]
(1.5.111)
where:
p
p
v
c
β · and
p
p
v
c
β · , p
v
and
n
v
are velocities of the electrons in reactions (1.5.13)a and
(1.5.13)b, since protons and neutrons have different masses p n
m m ≠
. Moreover, the internal energies
(the energies at rest) of the proton and the neutron are:
a)
2
0 0
. ·
p p
W m c
; b)
2
0 0
. ·
n n
W m c
; (1.5.112)
and they are equal to the respective magnetic (kinetic) energies of the electron or the positron, i.e.
a)
2
0 0
.
He ke p p
W W W m c · · ·
; b)
2
0 0
.
He ke n n
W W W m c · · ·
; (1.5.113)
56
And vice versa  the masses at rest of the proton and neutron are equal to the masses of the
magnetic (kinetic) energies of the electron or positron:
a)
0
2
He
p
W
m
c
·
; b)
0
2
He
n
W
m
c
·
; (1.5.114)
The regularities described above are experimentally confirmed, which fact implies that these
regularities are axiomatic truths  axioms. Because of this circumstance, it ought to be made clear
that the analysis and the conclusions drawn from the axioms are logically well grounded, i.e. they
are reliable.
Under these conditions, when replacing the expression for the magnetic (kinetic) energy of the
electrons in (1.5.110) and (1.5.111) by
He
W
from (1.5.17), we have these formulae for the masses 0 p
m
and
0 n
m
:
1 1
2 2
2 2
2 2
0 0
2 2 2
1 1 1 1 . .
He
p e e m p m
W v v
m m q k Q k
c c c
− − ] ]
 `  `
] ]
· · − − · − − ·
] ]
. , . ,
] ]
] ]
;
(1.5.115)
1 1
2 2
2 2
2 2
0 0
2 2 2
1 1 1 1 . .
He
n e e m n m
W v v
m m q k Q k
c c c
− − ] ]
 `  `
] ]
· · − − · − − ·
] ]
. , . ,
] ]
] ]
;
(1.5.116)
It is apparent from (1.5.17), (1.5.19), (1.5.110) and (1.5.111) that the magnetic energies of
electrons (electron and positron) have been restructured (transformed) into masses of proton and
neutron. This is the theoretical ground of the wellknown experimental facts, described by (1.5.13) a
and (1.5.13) b.
We introduce the notions of squares of integral or effective electric charges of proton
2
p
Q
and
neutron
2
n
Q .
a)
1
2
2
2 2
2
1 1
− ]
 `
]
· − −
]
. ,
]
]
p e
v
Q q
c
; b)
1
2
2
2 2
2
1 1
− ]
 `
]
· − −
]
. ,
]
]
n e
v
Q q
c
; (1.5.117)
The reason to introduce these effective electric charges is the circumstance that:
First. The terms
1
2
2
2
1 1
− ]
 `
]
− −
]
. ,
]
]
v
c
are dimensionless values;
Second. The electric charges are quantized variables in their values, and
Third. Since from the electromagnetic energy of the gamma photons
Г
γ
during collision into the
atomic nucleus, the electrons
0
е
−
and
0
е
+
are generated, i.e.
a)
0 0
− +
γ → +
Г
е е
; b)
0 0
2.
− +
+ → γ е е
; (1.5.118)
this fact implies by analogy that the magnetic energy of electrons can be restructured in a system of
electric charges, for example:
a)
1 2
3 3
 `
· +
. ,
∑ pq e e
Q q q ; b)
1 2
3 3
 `
· +
. ,
∑ nq e e
Q q q ; (1.5.119)
It is an accepted hypothesis that in protons and neutrons there are quarks  electric charges with
values
1
3
e
q m
and
2
3
e
q m
, and in protons dominate the positive ones, whereas in neutrons their sum is
equal to zero.
But with the squares of the effective electric charges
2
p
Q
and
2
n
Q (1.5.117), the sum of the squares
of the quarks is always positive and greater than zero:
57
a)
2 2
2
1 2
0
3 3
 `  `
· + >
. , . ,
∑ ∑ p e e
Q q q ; b)
2 2
2
1 2
0
3 3
 `  `
· + >
. , . ,
∑ ∑ n e e
Q q q ; (1.5.120)
The constant k
m
in (1.5.14), (1.5.115) and (1.5.116) has a numerical value:
( ) ( )
[ ]
[ ]
;
charge el. of square
mass
10 . 55 . 3
10 . 81 , 2
1
10 . 9 . 10 . 81 , 2 . 10 . 85 , 8 4 . . 4
2
7
8
1
16 15 12
1
2
0 0
C
kg
c r k
e m
→ → · ·
· · ·
−
−
− −
−
π π ε
(1.5.121)
Here it is necessary to emphasize that the sums pq
Q
and mq
Q
are not a square root of the real
electric charges
2
p
Q
and
2
n
Q , i.e.:
a)
≠
p pq
Q Q
; b)
≠
n nq
Q Q
; (1.5.122)
In this sense, when the mass of an object (body)
T
m
is known, we can obtain the square of its
effective charge:
a)
2 8 2
.2,81,10 ] · ·
]
T
T T
m
m
Q m C
k
; b)
2 2 7
. .3,55.10 ; · ·
T T m T
m Q k Q (1.5.123)
but we cannot calculate the sum
Tq
Q
of its real charges.
For example:
If the real charges of a body have the sum:
4 5
T e e
Q q q
ρ
· − + ·
4 electrons+5 positrons = 1.
e
q
, (1.5.124)
the square of its effective charge is:
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
4 5 16 25 41 · − + · + ·
T e e e e e
Q q q q q q ; (1.5.125)
With this formulation, after we know the mass of the proton
27
1, 672.10
p
m kg
−
·
and the mass of
the neutron
27
1, 674.10
n
m kg
−
· , the squares of their effective charges are:
2 1 27 7 34 2
. 1, 672.10 : 3,55.10 4, 7 .10
− − −
] · · ·
]
p p m
Q m k C
; (1.5.126)
2 1 27 7 34 2
. 1, 674.10 : 3,55.10 4, 715 .10
− − −
] · · ·
]
n n m
Q m k C
; (1.5.127)
It can be operated with these squares of the charges of the proton p and the neutron n in a
similar way to the square of the charge of the electron
2
e
q when calculating the masses and the
energies of the objects and any interactions whatsoever, including the emitted powers, according to
paragraph 3.4 in Chapter 3.
But here, there is the significant fact that the masses and the energies of protons and neutrons
are functions of the squares of the electric charges of the electrons (
2
e
q ).
If it is required to calculate from
2
p
Q
and
2
n
Q to how many charges of the electron N
e
they
correspond, then the answer is:
( )
2
34
4
2 2
19
e
4, 7 .10
1,835 .10
q
1, 6 . 10
−
−
· · ·
p
ep
Q
N
effective, but not real electrons the proton p has; (1.5.128)
( )
2 34
4
2 2
19
e
4, 715. 10
1,841.10
q
1, 6 .10
−
−
· · ·
n
en
Q
N
effective, but not real electrons the neutron n has; (1.5.129)
When multiplying ep
N
and
en
N
by the mass at rest of the electron
0 e
m
, we obtain the masses of the
proton and the neutron:
a)
4 31 26
0 0 0
. 1,835 .10 . 9,1.10 1, 669 .10
p e e
m N m kg
− −
· · ·
; (1.5.130)
58
b)
4 31 26
0 0
. 1,841.10 . 9,1.10 1, 676 .10 kg
n en e
m N m
− −
· · · ; (1.5.131)
The results are approximate, because here the calculations are made with 1 to 3 digits after the
decimal point, and the precise data are made with more than 5 digits after the decimal point.
Under these conditions, the full energy of a body with mass
T
m
is:
a)
1
2
2
2 2 2
2
. . . 1 .
−
 `
· · −
. ,
T T T m
v
W m c Q k c
c
; b)
( )
1
2 2
0
. 1 ;
T T
m m
−
· −β (1.5.132)
The energy of the body at rest is:
2 2 2
0
. . . · ·
T T m
W m c Q k c ; (1.5.133)
The magnetic (kinetic) energy of the body is:
1
2
2
2 2
0
2
. . 1 1
− ]
 `
]
· · − · − −
]
. ,
]
]
H k T T m
v
W W W W Q k c
c
; (1.5.134)
which is in full congruence with the quantities in the electrons.
Emphasis 1
From the known experimentally confirmed facts that:
a) during interaction of accelerated electron e

and positron e
+
are generated protons (proton p
and antiproton
p
).
0 0
− + − +
+ → + + + e e e e p p ; (1.5.135)
b) the formula of the magnetic energy
не
W
of the electron is
( ) ( )
1
1
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
0
. . 1 1 1 1 . . ;
не e e m
v
W m c q k c
c
− − ]
]
· −β − · −β − β ·
]
]
]
]
; (1.5.136)
which is also the formula for the kinetic energy
ке
W
(1.5.136) of the electron, i.e.
ке не
W W ·
.
Since the masses of the electron
0
e
−
and the positron
0
e
+
at rest are equal
0 0 е e
m m
− +
·
and the masses
of the proton p and the antiproton
p
at rest are equal 0 0 p p
m m ·
, then the notation through the energies
(internal
2
0
. m c and kinetic
k
W
) is
2 2 2
0 0 0
2 . 2 . 2. .
e He He e p
m c W W m c m c
− +
+ + · +
; (1.5.137)
whence it follows that
a)
2
0
2 2 .
He p
W m c ·
; b)
2
0
. ·
ke p
W m c
; c)
0
2
He
p
W
m
c
· ; (1.5.138)
i.e. the result of the experiment (1.5.134) proves that:
First
a) magnetic (kinetic) energy is a structural state of electromagnetic matter;
b) magnetic ( kinetic) energy can be restructured (transformed) into elementary particles 
protons and neutrons, etc.
Second
a) The relationship (the law)
ке не
W W ·
implies that kinetic energy is magnetic (electromagnetic
matter), which can be restructured into substantial elementary particles  protons and neutrons.
b) protons and neutrons are electromagnetic elementary particles, since they are formed out of
electromagnetic (magnetic) matter.
c) the atom and its magnetic (kinetic) energy are structures of masses and the magnetic energies of
electrons, protons and neutrons, which have a square of the electric charge of the atom
2
,
AT
Q mass
AT
m
and magnetic (kinetic) energy W
HA
= W
KAT
at v << c of the atom
a)
2
/ ;
AT AT m
Q m k · b)
2
. ;
AT AT m
m Q k · c)
2 2 2
. . .
;
2 2
AT AT m
HAT KAT
m v Q k v
W W · · · (1.5.139)
59
d) the molecule and its magnetic (kinetic) energy, without the energy of the bond, are a structure
of masses and the magnetic energies of the atoms with the square of the effective electric charge of the
molecule
2
M
Q , mass
M
m
and magnetic (kinetic) energy
HM KM
W W ·
of the molecule at v << c
a)
2
/ ;
M M m
Q m k · b)
2
. ;
A M m
m Q k · c)
2 2 2
. . .
;
2 2
M M m
HM KM
m v Q k v
W W · · · (1.5.140)
e) substance is an electromagnetic structure made up of a large number of molecules N, with a
square of the effective electric charge
2
,
N
Q mass
N
m
and magnetic (kinetic) energy
HN KN
W W ·
of the
substance at v << c
a)
2
/ ;
N N m
Q m k · b)
2
. ;
N N m
m Q k · c)
2 2 2
. . .
;
2 2
N N m
HN KN
m v Q k v
W W · · · (1.5.141)
5.2. Kinetic energy is magnetic energy
5.2.1. The mass of electron at rest is electrostatic mass
The electron, which is an independent negative electric charge
19
1, 6.10 C
e
q
−
· − , generates
electrostatic field
0
2
0
.
;
4 .
e
e
q r
E
r
·
πε
r
(1.5.21)
This field has densities of electrostatic energy
0
e
w
and mass
2
/
e e
q w c · , as follows
a)
( )
2 2
0 0
4
0
. .
;
2 2 4. . .
ε ε
· ·
πε
e e
E q
w
r
b)
( )
2
0
2 2
2 4
0
.
;
2. 4. . . .
e e
e
w q
q
c
c r
ε
· ·
πε
(1.5.22)
The electrostatic energies w
e
and masses
0 e e
m m ·
of the electron are
( )
0 0
2 2
2 2 0
0 0 2
4
0 0
0
.
. .4. . . . ;
4. . .
2 4. . .
e e
e e
E E e e
r r
e
q q
W w dV r dr Q m c
r
r
∞ ∞
ε
· · π · · ·
πε
πε
∫ ∫
(1.5.23)
a)
2
2
0
2 2
0 0
. ;
4. . . .
E e
E e e m
e
w q
m m q k
c r c
· · · ·
πε
b)
( )
1
2
0 0
4. . . . ;
m e
k r c
−
· πε (1.5.24)
where: r
e0
is computational (classical) radius of electron. I.e. the mass of the electron at rest is the mass of
its electrostatic energy. Therefore, the mass of the electron at rest is electrostatic – electromagnetic, when
magnetic mass is also added to it at velocity 0 v > .
5.2.2. Magnetic energy of the electron at
0
const.
e e
m m · ·
and velocity v
r
When an electron moves at velocity v
r
magnetic field is generated around it
a) [ ]
0 0 0 0
2 2
. .
. . . . ;
4. . 4. .
e e
v q v q
H v E v r l
r r
] · ε · ·
]
π π
r r r
r r r
b) [ ]
0 0 0
. ; l v r ·
r
r r
c) 0
;
v
v
v
·
r
r
r (1.5.25)
The densities of the magnetic energy w
H
and mass
H
ρ
are
a)
( )
2 2 2
0 0
2
4
. . .
;
2
2. 4. .
e
H
H v q
w
r
µ µ
· ·
π
b)
( )
2 2
0
2 2
4 2
. .
;
2. 4. . .
H e
H
w v q
c
r c
µ
ρ · ·
π
(1.5.26)
The magnetic energy W
He
and mass m
He
of the electron at
v c =
are
a)
0
2
0
.
. ;
2
e
e
He H
r
m v
W w dV
∞
· ·
∫
b)
2
0
0
2 2
. ;
2
He e
He e
W m v
m m
c c
· · = (1.5.27)
60
5.2.3. Full mass m
e
and energy W
e
of the electron at v < c
The mass of the electron is variable, which fact results from equation (1.5.17), where
He
m
is the
magnetic mass inseparable from the mass of the electron at rest
0 e
m
(1.5.14), i.e. when there is a
magnetic mass, the mass of the electron moving at velocity 0 v > has a resultant value, which is a sum of
m
e0
plus m
He
, i.e.
a)
0 0
;
e e He e
m m m m · + >
b)
const.;
e
m ≠
(1.5.28)
Under this condition, the mass of the electron
const.;
e
m ≠
and the momentum of the electron is
. ;
He e
P m v ·
r
r
(1.5.29)
And the force, which acts upon it accelerating it to velocity v
r
is
a) ( )
0
0
. . . . ; b) 0;
He He e
e e e He
dP dv dm dv dm dm
F m v m m v
dt dt dt dt dt dt
· · + · + + ·
r
r r
r
r r
(1.5.210)
The differential of electromagnetic energy dW
e
for the action of force
P
r
along distance . dr v dt ·
r r
is
( )
2 2
1
. . . . . ;
2
e e e e
dW F dr m d v v dm · · +
r
r
(1.5.211)
And the differential of the electromagnetic mass of the electron is
( )
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
1 1
. . . 1 . ; ;
2 2
e
e e e e e
dW v v v
dm m d dm m d dm
c c c c
 `  `
· · + · − −β + β β ·
. , . ,
(1.5.212)
or
( ) ( )
2 2
1
1 . . 1 ;
2
e e
dm m d −β · − −β (1.5.213)
or
( )
( )
2
2
1
1
;
2 1
e
e
d
dm
m
−β
· −
−β
The solution to this equation is under the following boundary conditions
a)
0
0 ;
e e
v m m · → ·
b)
0 ;
e v ev
v m m m ≠ → · ≠
(1.5.214)
Hence it follows for the electromagnetic mass m
e
and the full electromagnetic energy
e
W
of the
electron
a)
1
2 2
0
2
1 ;
e e
v
m m
c
−
 `
· −
. ,
b)
1
2 2
2 2
0
2
. . 1 ;
e e e
v
W m c m c
c
−
 `
· · −
. ,
(1.5.215)
In these m
e
and W
e
are included the mass and energy of the electron at rest, respectively m
e0
(1.5.2
11) and the internal (electrostatic) energy (1.5.210)
2
0 0
.
e e
W m c · , whereas only the magnetic masses and
energy of the electron at velocity v are
a) ( )
1
2 2
0 0
1 1 ;
H e e e
m m m m
−
]
· − · −β −
]
]
b) ( )
1
2 2 2 2
0
. . . 1 1 ;
H H e
W m c m c
−
]
· · −β −
]
]
(1.5.216)
61
5.2.4. Full mass m
T
and energy W
T
of electrically neutral bodies
5.2.4.1. On condition that the mass of a body at rest is
0 T T
m m · and the velocity is v c =
To an electrically neutral body of mass m
T0
at rest, i.e.
0
const.
T
m ·
, corresponds a square of its
effective electric charge
a)
2 0
0
;
T
T
m
m
Q
k
·
b)
( )
1
2
0 0
4. . . . ;
m e
k r c
−
· πε c)
2
0 0
. ;
T T m
m Q k · (1.5.217)
At velocity
v c =
, to this charge
2
T
Q corresponds a generated magnetic field
a)
0
. ;
T T
H v E ] · ε
]
r r
r
b)
0
2
0
.
;
4. . .
T
T
Q r
E
r
·
πε
r
r
(1.5.218)
And density of magnetic energy w
TH
and mass
TH
a)
( )
2 2 2
0 0
0 2
4
. .
. ;
2
4. .
T T
TH
H v Q
w
r
µ
· µ ·
π
b)
2
;
TH
H
w
c
ρ · (1.5.219)
The magnetic energy W
TH
and mass m
TH
of the body are
a)
2
0
.
. ;
2
T
TH TH
m v
W w dV · ·
∫
b)
2
0
2 2
.
;
2.
TH T
TH
W m v
m
c c
· · (1.5.220)
5.2.4.2. At variable mass const.
T
m ≠ of the body at velocity
v c <
It is evident from m
T0
and m
TH
(1.5.132) that at velocity 0 v > , the mass of the body increases from
0 T
m
at rest, by the mass m
TH
of the magnetic field, which is inseparable from m
T0
, respectively from
2
0 T
Q ,
since the resultant mass is
a)
0 0
;
TP T TH T
m m m m · + >
b)
const.;
TP T
m m · ≠
(1.5.221)
On condition m
T
(1.5.220) and velocity
v c <
, to the body also corresponds a magnetic mass,
moreover, the mass at rest
2
0 0
.
T T m
m Q k · is itself electromagnetic, that is why to it corresponds
electromagnetic momentum
a)
0
. . ;
TH
TH T
dW
P v m v
dv
· ·
r
r r
b) 0
v
v
v
·
r
r
r (1.5.222)
The electromagnetic force, which corresponds to
TH
P
r
is
a) . ;
TH T
TH T
dP dv dm
F m v
dt dt dt
· · +
r
r
b)
( )
0
;
T TH T TH
d m m dm dm
dt dt dt
+
· · (1.5.223)
Since
0
const.
T
m ·
, its derivative
0
0
T
dm
dt
·
.
The differential of the electromagnetic energy of a body with mass m
T
is
( )
2 2
1
. . . . ;
2
T TH T T
dW F dr m d v v dm · · +
r
(1.5.224)
And the differential of the electromagnetic mass of a body with mass m
T0
at rest, at velocity
v c <
is
( )
2 2
2 2
2
1 1
. 1 . ; ;
2 2
T
T T T T T
dW v v v
dm m d dm m d dm
c c c c
 `  `
· · + · − −β + β β ·
. , . ,
(1.5.225)
or
62
a) ( ) ( )
2 2
1
1 1 ;
2
T T
dm dm −β · − −β → b)
( )
( )
2
2
1
;
1
T
T
d
dm
m
−β
·
− β
(1.5.226)
The solution to equation (1.5.226) is under the following boundary conditions
at a)
0
0 ;
T T
v m m · → ·
b)
0
0 ;
T T
v m m m ≠ → · ≠
(1.5.227)
Hence, the full electromagnetic mass m
T
of a body with mass at rest m
T0
(1.5.227)c, at velocity
v c <
and the full electromagnetic energy W
T
are
a)
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2 2 2
0
1 . 1 ;
T T T m
m m Q k
− −
· −β · −β
b)
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0 0
. . 1 . . 1 ;
T T T T m
W m c m c Q k c
− −
· · −β · −β
(1.5.228)
Here in (1.5.228)a the mass m
T
is a sum of the mass at rest m
T0
plus the mass m
TH
of the magnetic
energy
2
TH
TH
W
m
c
·
. Under these conditions, the mass only of the magnetic energy (magnetic mass) is
( )
1
2 2
0 0
1 1 ;
TH T T T
m m m m
−
]
· − · −β −
]
]
(1.5.229)
And the magnetic energy of a body with mass at rest m
T0
and velocity v is
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0
. 1 . . 1 1 ;
TH T T T T T
W W W m c m c m c
− −
]
· − · −β − · −β −
]
]
(1.5.230)
5.2.5. Kinetic energy W
ke
and mass m
ke
of the electron at
5.2.5.1. m
e
= m
e0
= const.
The momentum of the electron is
0
. ;
e e
P m v ·
r
r
(1.5.231)
The force, which imparts velocity v is
0
. ;
e
k e
dP dv
F m
dt dt
· ·
r
r
(1.5.232)
The differential of the kinetic energy is
0 0
. . . . . . ;
Ke k e e
dv
dW F dr m v dt m v dv
dt
· · ·
r
r r r r
(1.5.233)
The full kinetic energy and mass of the electron are
a)
2
0
0
.
;
V
e
Ke k
m v
W dW
c
· ·
∫
b)
2
0
0
2 2
.
;
2.
Ke e
k e
W m v
m m
c c
· · = (1.5.234)
5.2.5.2.
0
const.
e e
m m ≠ > – variable mass
The momentum is
. ;
e e
P m v ·
r
r
(1.5.235)
The force is
. . ;
K e e
dP dv
F m v dm
dt dt
· · +
r
(1.5.236)
The differential of the full energy of the electron
63
( )
2 2
1
. . ;
2
K K e e
dW F dr m d v v dm · · +
r
r
(1.5.237)
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2
1 1
. 1 ;
2 2
K
e e e e e
dW
dm m d dm m d dm
c
· · β +β · − −β +β
(1.5.238)
or
a) ( ) ( )
2 2
1
1 1 ;
2
e e
dm m d −β · − −β b)
( )
( )
2
2
1
;
1
e
e
d
dm
m
−β
·
−β
(1.5.239)
The solution to this equation is under the following boundary conditions
a)
0
0 ;
e e
v m m · → ·
b)
0
0 ;
e e e
v m m m ≠ → · ≠
c)
( )
1
2 2
0
1 ;
e e
m m
−
· −β
d)
( )
1
2 2 2 2
0
. . 1 ;
e e e
W m c m c
−
· · −β
(1.5.240)
In this full energy is also included the energy at rest W
e0
, which is a product of the mass m
e
(1.5.2
40)a at 0 β · , i.e.
0 e e
m m ·
multiplied by c
2
2
0 0
. ;
e e
W m c · (1.5.241)
Hence, we have for the kinetic energy W
K
and kinetic mass m
K
a) ( )
1
2 2 2
0 0
. 1 1 ;
K e e e
W W W m c
−
]
· − · −β −
]
]
b) ( )
1
2 2
0
2
1 1 ;
K
K e
W
m m
c
−
]
· · −β −
]
]
(1.5.242)
5.2.6. Kinetic energy of a body with mass at rest m
T0
5.2.6.1. On condition that
0
const.
T T
m m · ·
and velocity
v c =
The solution is analogous to the solution in paragraph 5 and case 5.1., where instead of the mass of
the electron m
e0
, the mass of the body m
T0
at rest is placed.
The kinetic energy and the mass of the body are
a)
2
0
.
;
2
T
KT Ke
m v
W W · ·
b)
2
0
2 2
.
;
2.
KT T
KT
W m v
m
c c
· · (1.5.243)
5.2.6.2. On condition that the mass of the body m
T
is variable
const.
T
m ≠
Here too the solution is the same as for the electron in paragraph 5.2.5.2.
The full mass and energy of the body are analogous to (1.5.240)
a)
( )
1
2 2
0
1 ;
T T
m m
−
· −β b)
( )
1
2 2 2 2
0
. . 1 ;
e T T
W m c m c
−
· · −β (1.5.244)
And the kinetic energy and its respective mass are analogous to (1.5.242), as follows
a)
( )
1
2 2 2
0 0
. 1 1 ;
K e T T
W W W m c
−
]
· − · −β −
]
]
b)
( )
1
2 2
0
2
1 1 ;
K
K T
w
m m
c
−
]
· · −β −
]
]
(1.5.245)
5.2.7. Inference
The fact that magnetic field and its energy and mass appear only in the presence of motion of
electric charges, which essentially are energy and mass of electromagnetic matter, is the reason why this
energy is assessed as kinetic energy and mass.
Einstein in the article "Consideration concerning the Fundaments of Theorical Physics. Science
1940 wrote: "But J.J. Thomson showed that according to Maxwell’s theory, an electrically charged body
in motion has a magnetic energy, which manifests itself as kinetic energy.
64
5.2.8. Conclusion
Indeed, since the unitary matter of the World (Nature) is only electromagnetic matter, whose
theoretical foundations are given by Maxwell, then it holds true the written in paragraph 638 of "Treatese
on electricity and magnetism" by Maxwell in 1873, "We must consider both magnetic, and
electromagnetic energies as kinetic energies ".
The obtained above results coincide with some of the special theory of relativity, but are proved
only on the basis of the classical electrodynamics of Maxwell of 1873 and by using only Galileo's
transformations, described by Isaac Newton in 1687 And since they are obtained with fewer initial
formulations (without the postulate of constancy of the velocity of light and without Lorentz
transformations), according to the principle of simplicity (Occam’s razor), they are more perfect, and
with this the approach is also more reliable. And since they explain the gain of the mass and its
magnetic energy, these results provide a more indepth analysis, i.e. this solution is preferable, since
it simplifies the physical laws and clarifies the physical meaning of mass gain.
6. THE NOTIONS OF VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION
The notions of velocity and acceleration in Newtonian electrodynamics, and in dynamics in general
as a section of physics, have meaning only if, when we take into account the fact that they are
manifestations of matter (mass) and they do not exist as independent quantities which are not related to a
moving material object, i.e. the velocities are components of the momentums of the bodies, which are
relatively independent objects, but their velocities are not independent. In this sense, the notion of velocity
v
r
(dynamic velocity) is inseparable from the notion of momentum
P
r
, which is equal to the product of
the quantity of matter (mass) of the body, which moves at velocity v
r
, i.e.
a) . ; P mv ·
r
r
b)
0
;
P
v P
m
· ·
r
r
r
c)
0
. ; P P m ·
r r
(1.61)
because in dynamics, there is no velocity v
r
without a momentum
0
. P mv ·
r
r
0
. . ;
P
P P m m
m
· ·
r
r r
(1.62)
i.e. there is no velocity which is not related to an object with mass 0 m ≠ , which moves at velocity
v
r
. I.e. the velocity v
r
as numerical value is momentum P
0
per a unit of mass
0
1. ; v P v · ·
r
r r
(1.63)
Because of this circumstance, at high velocities
a)
; v c < →
b)
( )
1
2 2
0
1 ; m m
−
· −β c)
1;
v
c
β · <
(1.64)
the mass m is function of the velocity v, since the electric charge generates magnetic energy, which has
magnetic mass.
Where at
a) 0
0; ; v m m · → ·
b)
( )
1
2 2
0
0 1 ; v m m
−
> → · −β (1.65)
And the momentums are
a) 0; .0 0; v P m · → · ·
r
b)
( )
1
2 2
0
. 1 . ; P mv m v
−
· · −β
r
r r
(1.66)
And the velocities are
a)
0 0
0
0;
P
v
m m
· · ·
r
b)
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2 2
0
0
. 1 1 ;
P P
v P
m m
− −
· · −β · −β
r r
r
r
(1.67)
Proceeding from the condition that force
F
r
is parallel to velocity v
r
, it follows that
a)
( )
( )
1
2
2
0
3
2
2
0
1 .
. 1 . ;
d m v
dP dv
F m
dt dt dt
−
−
]
− β
]
]
· · · − β →
r
r
r
r
b)
( )
3
2
2
0
1 . . ;
F
dv dt
m
−
−β ·
r
r
(1.68)
After multiplying (1.68)b by dt and integrating respectively from zero v and from zero to t we have
65
3
2 2
2
0 0
0
1 . . ;
v t
v F
dv dt
c m
−
 `
− ·
. ,
∫ ∫
(1.69)
a) ( )
1
2 2
0
1 . ;
F
v t
m
−
−β · →
b)
1
2 2
0
.
. 1 ;
.
o
F F t
v t
m m c
−
]
 `
] · +
]
. ,
]
(1.610)
Hence, at low velocities
a)
; v c =
b) 0;
v
c
β · → c)
0
.
;
F t
c
m
=
(1.611)
it follows that
0
. ; P m v ·
r
r
(1.612)
And at velocities
a)
; v c <
b) 1;
v
c
β · < (1.613)
the velocity is
a)
( ) ( )
1
2 2
1
2 2
1 1
2 2 2 2
0 0
0 0
0
.
1 1 . 1 1 ;
.
F t Ft c
v c c f t P
F
m m
t
m
−
−
− −
]
 `
]
]
 `
]
] · + · + · − β · − β
]
]
. ,
]
]
. ,
]
]
r
b)
0 0
. ; P f t ·
r
(1.614)
which at
a)
; t → ∞ →
b)
; v c ·
(1.615)
i.e.
lim ;
t
v c
→∞
·
(1.616)
but this result is practically unrealizable since the mass at
v c ·
, tends to infinity.
0 0
1
2 2
2
;
0
1
m m
m
v
c
· · · ∞
 `
−
. ,
(1.617)
The expression of the force
a) ( )
3
2 3 3 2
0 0 0
1 . . . . . ;
k
dv dv
F m m m a
dt dt
−
· − β · γ · γ
r r
r
b)
,
k
dv
a
dt
·
r
r
(1.618)
entails that the differential of the velocity is
a)
( ) ( )
3 3
2 2 2 2 0
0
0
1 . 1 . ;
F
dv dt f dt
m
· − β · − β
r
r
b) ( )
3
2 2
0
1
k
dv
f a
dt
· −β ≠
r
r
(1.619)
After integrating dv
r
from zero to v, respectively from zero to t , we have
a)
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2 2
0 0
. 1 1 . ;
d d
v f t P P v a t
− −
· − β · − β · · ·
r r r
r r r
b)
( )
1
2 2
0
1 ;
d
a f
−
· −β
r
(1.620)
At velocity
v c =
(1.611), the velocity is
a) 0 0
0
. . ;
F
v P f t t
m
· · ·
r r
r
b)
0
;
k
a f ·
r
r
(1.621)
where: k
a
r
is the kinematic acceleration; d
a
r
is the dynamic acceleration, which:
A. At velocity
0 ,
v
v c
c
 `
β · →
. ,
=
i.e. in classical mechanics (electrodynamics) d
a
r
is reduced to
( )
1
2 2
0 0
. 1 ;
d k
dv
a f f a
dt
−
· −β · · ·
r
r r
r r
(1.622)
66
B. At velocity 1 ,
v
v c
c
 `
< β · <
. ,
i.e. in Newtonian electrodynamics, it is
( )
1
2 2
0
. 1 ;
d
a f
−
· − β
r
r
(1.623)
It is apparent here that at
, v c ·
d
a
r
is annulled, i.e. the maximum velocity is limited, which fact is
seen also from the value of the velocity and from the value of the mass.
Distance r, covered (at
0
const.
k
a f · ·
r
) for time t is
a)
0 0
0
. . ; b) . . . ;
F
r v t f t dr v dt dt f dt
m
· · · · ·
r
r r
r r r r
(1.624)
whence formally, the velocity, which is essentially the momentum per a unit of mass is
0
0
. . ;
dr F
v t f t
dt m
· · ·
r
r
r
r
(1.625)
This linear relationship is only at low velocities.
On condition
v c <
(1.613) the relationship between the covered distance
d
r
depending on the
velocity is
( )
2
1
2 2
0 0
0
. . . 1 . . ;
d d
F t
r v t P t f t r f t
m r
−
· · · − β ≠ · ·
r
r r
r r
(1.626)
or
a) ( )
1
2 2
1 ;
d
r
r
−
· −β b) ( )
1
2 2
1 ;
d
v
v
−
· −β
(1.627)
I.e. the ratio
d
r
r
entails
( )
( )
1
2 2
1
2 2
1 ;
1
d
r
r r r vt
−
· · −β ≠ ·
−β
r
r r
(1.628)
or
( )
1
2 2
. 1 ;
d
d
dr dr
v v
dt dt
−
· · − β ≠ (1.629)
I.e. the velocity
d
v
, when it is a high velocity
a)
0 ;
d
v c = =
b) 1;
v
c
β · < (1.630)
is not equal of the derivative of the distance (pathway) relative the time, since is not in linear
relationship of distance and time.
This fact shows that the kinetic method, which is used in modern physics to define
acceleration and the velocity of motion is not correct when defining high velocities
v c <
(1.613) and
accelerations.
Moreover, high velocities and accelerations at low velocities, i.e. on condition
a)
; v c =
b)
0;
v
c
β · →
(1.631)
are transformed (converted) into a simplified (approximate) form, corresponding to their kinetic
values, i.e. into classical velocities and accelerations.
Inferences
1. Newtonian electrodynamics (relativist electrodynamics), which is also experimentally
confirmed, holds true for motion of all material objects, at micro and macro levels, at all
velocities lower than the velocity of electromagnetic waves (light)
, v c <
i.e. both at low
( ) v c =
and high ( ) 0 v c < =
velocities.
67
IN THIS SENSE THE NEWTONIAN ELECTRODYNAMICS IS THE MOSTGENERAL AND UNIVERSAL THEORY OF
MOTION OF THE QUANTITIES OF MATTERS (MASSES).
But the historically preceding theory of motion of objects, the classical Newtonian mechanics,
does not reject the above statement that Newtonian electrodynamics is a unitary (universal) theory of
motion of object (bodies).
Since at low velocities
a)
; v c =
b) 0;
v
c
β · → (1.632)
the description of the general Newtonian electrodynamics can be simplified to what is called classical
Newtonian mechanics. This description is sufficiently accuracy for practice, although it is a special case
of Newtonian electrodynamics, which is at velocities
a)
; v c <
b) 1;
v
c
β · < (1.633)
As for the accuracy of the classical mechanics (electrodynamics) compared to the Newtonian
electrodynamics, two examples can be given as illustrations
A. At velocity
6 1
3.10 m.s ;
A
v
−
· (1.634)
a)
1
12 2
0
0 0
16
9.10
1 1, 0001. ;
9.10 0,9999
m
m m m
−
 `
· − · ·
. ,
b)
0
1, 0001 0, 01%;
m
m
· ·
(1.635)
B. At velocity
4 1
3.10 m.s ;
B
v
−
· (1.636)
a)
1
8 2
0
0 0
16
9.10
1 1, 00000001. ;
9.10 0,99999999
m
m m m
−
 `
· − · ≈
. ,
b)
0
0, 0001%;
m
m
·
(1.637)
Obviously, at velocities of
6 1
3.10 m.s
−
, the error is 0.01% which is negligibly small, but the value
of the mass is always greater than the mass at rest
0
. m m >
I.e. the claim that in the classical
electrodynamics (mechanics) the mass is constant is, strictly speaking, not true, but as an estimate it is
true.
2. Since all natural phenomena result (originate) from some motion, which generates the
interaction of parts (objects) of the unitary electromagnetic matter, whose laws are those of Newtonian
electrodynamics, it follows that theories (sciences) about all natural phenomena (processes) have in
their roots the theory of Newtonian electrodynamics. In this aspect Newtonian electrodynamics is a
unitary principle – a unitary theoretical basis of the theory (science) of all natural phenomena because
they result from manifestations of motion only of the unitary matter, which is electromagnetic matter.
3. The above conclusion, referred specifically to chemistry and biology, is also valid the scientific
description and study of the processes of human thinking. The reasons for this conclusion is that the
external object of human bodies through their senses import into it energies
2
. W mc · and masses
2
W
m
c
· , which interact with the molecules (atoms) of the brain. In result of this the latter get
restructured into a brain code (model) of the external object. With intracerebral interactions between
codes (models), through their internal motions (fluctuations) at micro level, a relevant brain process
occurs  a process of thinking. That is, generally speaking, the process of thinking. It is a process of
motion of parts of brain matter. Such is also the formulation given by Nobel Prize Laureate of the
fifties of the 20th century Prof. Linus Carl Pauling: "Chemical processes are electrodynamic
processes at atomic and molecular level.
Emphasis
The main initial laws about the interaction between macro objects and microobjects were
formulated by Isaac Newton. He deduced them by summarizing in “Principles…” as deterministic
experimental facts (empirical laws) without referring to (interpreting) the inner essence or structure of
objects. He described the processes of interaction by means of notions introduced by him, such as force
68
and the abstracted deterministic notion of mass of a homogenous in essence quantity of matter, which is
in the form of a material point (without a volume, structure and without designating their nature).
Under these conditions Newton called the processes of interaction ‘mechanical phenomena’,
respectively, ‘mechanical processes’. And the quantities, by which he described the mechanical
processes, he also called mechanical  mechanical force, mechanical mass, mechanical velocity, etc.
In this sense classical mechanics is formed in compliance with the principle of the homogenous
essence of matter as a mechanical variable, quantity of matter, and it is called by its abstracted notion
of mass, and hence the names of its manifestations (properties) as mechanical phenomena and
mechanical properties. This statement is based on the fact that in mechanics no other kind of matter is
discussed in general, except for deterministic movement of objects, whereby the quantities, by which
motions are described, are called mechanical phenomena and quantities. I.e. the matters of all bodies
form a unitary homogenous natural whole of objects with relative independence, which are in a state
of motion, and which motions are called mechanical states, as a result of the initial formulation that
the process of force interaction is called a mechanical process and the quantities, with which it is
described are called mechanical, such as force, mass, velocity and so on, i.e. all natural processes of
motion of matter (mass) of nature are mechanical processes.
The motivation of this assertion is the fact that all interactions at the level of macro phenomena, are
principally deterministic, since they are a synthesis of the deterministic micro phenomena. Their
determination is grounded in the circumstances:
 natural facts (objects and phenomena) at micro level are deterministic products of homogenous
initial (original) resource, called substance or substrate.
 The substance (the initial resource) of the micro objects in the form of elementary particles
and their interactions can not exist in time and space without being of deterministic volume and
structure with a relevant organization, which being in this form, is something, called matter,
respectively elementary particles of matter, or just elementary particles, which are something
deterministic.
 Every natural process essentially has two stages: first, in deterministic conversion of the
structure of elementary particles from one into another deterministic state, and second, in synthesis of
microphenomena of elementary particles at macro level into one or more deterministic macro systems.
The determinacy of the macro system is conditioned by the determinacy of the processes at micro level
(of elementary particles), because, according to the Law of energy and mass conservation, out of non
deterministic structural elements at micro level cannot be synthesized (formed) deterministic macro
systems. I.E. DETERMINISTIC MICROELEMENTS AND THEIR PROCESSES OF INTERACTION GENERATE DETERMINISTIC
MACROPHENOMENA (PROCESS) OR THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF THE TANDEM MATTERENERGY REJECTS THE
POSSIBILITY OF NONDETERMINISTIC PHENOMENA (OBJECTS)  ELEMENTARY PARTICLES.
In this sense, material macro phenomena are deterministic because they are product synthesis) of
deterministic micro phenomena. Since there cannot be any synthesis out of nondeterministic phenomena,
which would yield deterministic macro phenomena, as some groundless claims have it without any
experimental confirmation in quantum mechanics, that the processes of interaction are probabilities, i.e.
that the probabilistic processes at micro level yield deterministic macroprocesses. This claim is
contrary to the logic that the initial base (principles) is decisive for the final result. The need for
determinacy of microphenomena is also motivated by the unyielding logic of the law of matter
(mass) and energy conservation, which holds true for the phenomena and at micro level as well,
because up to this day, there has not been presented even a single experimental fact, which would
show that W. Heisenberg’s inequality holds true for micro phenomena. But despite the compelling
law of energy conservation, quantum mechanics offers such solutions that allegedly do no obey the law of
energy conservation, since at micro level it is, allegedly, impossible to determine simultaneously two
quantities of one object (micro object) as a momentum and as a coordinate, which fact is motivated by
Heisenberg’s inequality, which has no experimental confirmation and therefore, there is none of reason to
be considered a physical law. It is just an expression of conformist agreement between conventional
scientists, where it is assumed:
a) . x p h ∆ ∆ ≥ ; or b) . t w h ∆ ∆ ≥ ; (1.638)
where: x ∆ – distance, p ∆ – momentum; t ∆ – time; w ∆ – energy; h – Planck’s constant.
69
For example, according to (1.638) a, if p ∆ (momentum) is measured (determined), the coordinate
x ∆
cannot be determined. But here the fact is not taken into account that the momentum cannot be
determined without fixing the location (the coordinate), where it is determined, i.e. without x ∆ , i.e.
this claim is disproved by the experimental fact. Or according to (1.638) b, if w ∆ is determined, this
cannot be done, if the moment of time t is not determined, when w ∆ is determined and the location
where it has been determined.
Moreover, the determinacy of the interactions at micro level is also conditioned by the following
circumstances:
 To motivate the homogenous essence of elementary particles, it is necessary to accept that they
can interact with one another, it should be accepted that they are structured out of a homogenous resource
 substance. And the homogenous resources (substance) with its regularities (properties) lays the basis of
determinism of the manifestations (properties) and the existence of elementary particles, i.e. of the
deterministic interaction at micro level at quantitatively deterministic values, according to the law of
conservation.
 The idea of substance, which is the only initial resource for the structures of elementary
particles, is also the means for a deterministic synthesis of their manifestations, as a product of
unitary real deterministic principle. In this way the empirical diversity of natural objects, phenomena
and processes is motivated on the basis of a unitary, genetic foundation, as an expression of structures of
homogenous substantial essence. I.e. the substantial essence is the common link in natural facts, which
not only exists but is their carrier and comprises all necessary grounds (attributive properties) of their
existence and their manifestations.
 In the framework of a scientific deterministic analysis and synthesis, the notions of
substance and the law of conservation allow researchers to fully comprehend in a deterministic way
the whole nature of micro and macro phenomena, both in terms of their essence and in terms of
their specific realizations, as one whole. In this sense, matter, as a product of its substantial resource
is regarded as a deterministic, selfevolving natural unitary whole (material continuum) of
deterministic substance.
 In the above sense, it follows that elementary particles and their processes of interaction should be
deterministic, since:
a) They are not simple and nondeterministic elements, but they enter the processes of
interaction under strictly defined deterministic conditions, and get restructure (converted) in a
deterministic way into other deterministic elementary particles.
b) It is always possible that from a predetermined group of elementary particles, assumed as
initial, by a suitable succession of their reactions, could be obtained a deterministic group of
elementary particles.
In this sense it can be asserted that: the most general and deepest sense of the principle of
causality in the process of interaction consists in the following: every phenomenon is conditioned by
another phenomenon (according to Laplace’s determinism), i.e. the inner essence of matter is itself the
cause of its manifestations – it is itself the carrier and generator of its own deterministic essence,
which is motivated by the law of its conservation.
In the above sense of Laplace’s determinism, there is no place for quantum nondeterminacy
(probability) of the products of interaction of nondeterministic initial facts, i.e. ESSENTIALLY NATURAL
PHENOMENA ARE NOT PROBABILISTIC, BUT DETERMINISTIC.
IN THIS WAY THE EMPIRICAL DIVERSITY OF THE HOMOGENOUS ESSENCE OF MATTER IS MOTIVATED
ON THE BASIS OF A UNITARY, THEORETICAL FOUNDATION, AS AN EXPRESSION OF THE UNITARY SUBSTANTIAL
ESSENCE, I.E. AS A CONSEQUENCE OF THE UNITARY SUBSTANCE  HOMOGENOUS INITIAL RESOURCE.
Therefore, in this sense, the properties of objects are determined by the number, type and spatial
states of their structural elements, whereby the same quantity and type of structural elements, but in
different spatial states of the elements of objects, have different properties, i.e. with a homogenous
initial resource, the spatial structure of an object defines its properties, despite that the number and
type of the structural elements of objects can be the same.
I.e. any modification of natural objects can occur only in interaction of some objects with other
70
objects, under certain conditions  this is the meaning of the principle of mechanics  mechanical
motion.
IN THE ABOVE SENSE, MATTER (NATURE) AS PRODUCT OF AN INITIAL HOMOGENOUSEN RESOURCE (SUBSTANCE) IS
CONSIDERED AS A DEVELOPING IN ITSELF UNITARY NATURAL WHOLE (MATERIAL CONTINUUM) OF A HOMOGENOUS
RESOURCE.
GENERAL CONCLUSION ON THE PLACE OF INTERACTION IN NATURE
1. Interaction is a process, which determines all micro phenomena and the macro phenomena
(objects) synthesized by them as structural elements with their specific macro processes, which are an
expression of the micro phenomena growing in them and between them, on the basis of the properties
of their Initial resource (substance).
2. In essence, the immanent property of matter, called interaction between components (objects)
is also an implicit law of its immanent property of movement (mechanical motion) in the aspect of
permanent restructuring of its objects.
3. INSTEAD OF USING KINEMATIC ACCELERATION, DYNAMIC ACCELERATION SHOULD BE USED.
4. ALL NATURAL PHENOMENA AND THE PROCESS OF INTERACTION OF MACRO AND MICRO LEVEL
ARE DETERMINISTIC BOTH AS OBJECTS AND IN THE PROCESS OF FORMATION F OBJECTS THROUGH THE
DETERMINISTIC PROCESS OF INTERACTION, WHICH IS ALSO CONDITIONED BY THE LAW OF MASS
AND ENERGY CONSERVATION.
7. CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN THE LAWS
OF NEWTONIAN ELECTRODYNAMICS
AND THE LAWS OF CLASSICAL MECHANICS
This correspondence is presented in the following table:
Table 7.1
Laws of Newtonian electrodynamics at:
a)
; v c <
b) ( )
2
0
T
Q − ≠
; c) ( )
2
0
T
Q + ≠
;
Laws of classical mechanics at:
a)
; v c =
b) ( )
2
0
T
Q − ≠
; c) ( )
2
0
T
Q + ≠
;
1a. Mass – electromagnetic matter of the body 1b. Mass – electromagnetic matter of the body
1.1a. of the electron at 0 v · 1.1b. of the electron only at 0 v ·
( ) ( )
0 0
1
2
2
0
. ; 4. . . .
e e m m e
m q k k r c
−
· · πε m ( )
0
2
. .
e e m
m q k const · · m
1.2a. of the electron at
v c <
1.2b. of the electron at
v c =
( )
0
1 1
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
1 . 1
e e e m
v v
m m q k
c c
− −
 `  `
· − · −
. , . ,
m ; 0
.
e e
m m const · ·
;
1.3a. of body at 0 v · 1.3b. of body at 0 v ·
a) ( )
2
.
TO T m
m Q k · t
; b) ( )
2
/
T TO m
Q m k t ·
; a) ( )
2
.
TO T T m
m m Q k · · m
;
1.4a. of the body at
v c <
1.4b. of the body at
v c =
( )
1 1
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
1 . . 1
T TO T m
v v
m m Q k
c c
− −
 `  `
· − · −
. , . ,
m ;
( )
2
. .
T TO T m
m m Q k const · · · m
;
here ( )
2
0
/
TO m
Q m k · m
is the square of the effective
electric charge of a body with mass O
m
at
0 v ·
.
here ( )
2
0
/
TO m
Q m k · m
is the square of the effective
electric charge of a body with mass 0
m
at
0 v ·
.
2a. Momentum
1
2
2
2
. . 1 .
T TO
v
P m v m v
c
−
 `
· · −
. ,
r
r r
;
2b. Momentum
. .
T TO
P m v m v · ·
r
r r
;
3a. Forces 3b. Forces
3.1a. Motive force 3.1b. Motive force
71
0
3
2
2
2
.
.
.
1 .
d
TO
dW v dp dP
F r
dt v dt dt
v dv
m
c dt
−
· · · ·
 `
· − ·
. ,
r
r r
r
r
r
3
2
2
2
1 .
TO k
v
m a
c
−
 `
· −
. ,
r
; k
dv
a
dt
·
r
r
0
.
. . .
.
TO TO k
dW v dP dP dv
F r m m a
dt v dt dt dt
· · · · ·
r r
r r
r
r r
k
dv
a
dt
·
r
;
3.2a. Force of counteraction – inert force 3.2b. Force of counteraction – inert force
3
2
2
2
. 1 .
i TO k
v
F m a
c
−
 `
· − −
. ,
r
r
; .
i TO k
F m a · −
r
r
;
3.3. Forces of action and counteraction 3.3. Forces of action and counteraction
a) 0
d i
F F + ·
r r
; b)
i d
F F · −
r r
. a) 0
d i
F F + ·
r r
; b)
i d
F F · −
r r
.
4a. Dynamic acceleration
d
a
r
and velocity
d
v
r
4b. Dynamic acceleration
d
a
r
and velocity
d
v
r
4.1a. Dynamic acceleration 4.1b. Dynamic acceleration
( )
1
2
2
2
1
2
2 1
2 2
0
2
. 1 .
. 1 . 1 . ;
d k
TO
k k
T
F v
a a
m c
F v
a f a
m c
−
−
−
 `
· − ·
. ,
 `
· − · −β
. ,
r
r r
r
r
r
b)
0
0
T
F
f
m
·
r
r
; c) ;
v
c
β ·
a)
0
d
d k
TO
F v dv
a f a
m dt dt
· · · · ·
r
r r
r
r r
r ;
where the physical meaning of the quantity
0
f
r
is
force per a unit mass, i.e. the physical meaning of
acceleration
d
a
r
is force per a unit mass. Since the
expression
1
2
2
2
1
v
c
−
 `
−
. ,
is a dimensionless number,
when substituting the dimensional units of
0
f
, we
have
( )
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
1
1
2 2 2
0
.
1 m.s ,
d
T
J m
N F
a
m kg kg
−
−
−
]
]
] · −β → · ·
]
which dimensionality has only a dynamic meaning.
where the physical meaning of the quantity
0
f
r
is
force per a unit mass.
And the force is
0
.
TО
F m f ·
r r
the mass by the force
per a unit mass, i.e. the physical meaning of
acceleration
d
a
r
is force per a unit mass.
When substituting the quantity
0
f
with dimensional
units, we have
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
1
2
.
.
d
J m
N F
a ms
m kg kg
−
−
]
]
] · · ·
]
r
;
which dimensionality has only dynamic meaning,
but not a kinematic meaning.
But the acceleration must have a dynamic meaning,
because the force participates in the dynamic law,
the law of motion, which written in the form of
classical mechanics is
2
0
0 0 0 2
.
. . .
T k T T
dv d r r
F m a m m
dt dt
· · ·
r r
r
r
, where the
kinematic acceleration
2
0
2
.
k
d r r
a
dt
·
r
r
is without
participation of force, although there is no
acceleration without
a force, that is why dynamic acceleration is at
72
Table 7.1.continued
const.;
TO
m m · ·
0
;
d k
TO
F
a f a
m
· · ·
r
r
r r
4.2a. Dynamic velocity 4.2b. Dynamic velocity
From the formula of the dynamic acceleration at
) ; a v c <
const. 1;
v
c
→ <
From the formula of the force at
a)
v c =
; b) 0
v
c
→ ;
( )
1
2 2
0
. 1
d
T
F
a
m
−
· −β
r
r
;
.
TO
dv
F m
dt
·
r
r
;
the notation of the formula of dynamic velocity is the notation of the formula of the velocity is
1
2 2
2
0
. 1 .
d
T
F v
dv dt
m c
 `
· −
. ,
r
r
;
a)
0
. .
d
TO
F
dv dt f dt
m
· ·
r
r
r
; b)
2
0
m.s
TO
F
f
m
−
] · →
]
r
r
;
After integrating
d
dv
within boundaries from zero
to
v
we have
After integrating
d
dv
within boundaries from zero
to t we have
1 1
2 2 2 2
0
2 2
0
. . 1 . 1 . ;
d d
T T
F F v v
v t t f t P
m m c c
−
 `  `
· · − · − ·
. , . ,
r r
r
r
a)
0
. . ;
d
TO
F
v t f t p
m
· · ·
r
r
r r
→
b)
1
m.s
d
r
v
t
−
] · →
]
r
;
where
d
p
r
is the formula of the dynamic velocity or
if the dynamic velocity is notated in this form
i.e .in its physical meaning, the dynamic velocity at
v c =
is numerically equal to the kinematic
velocity, i.e. it is equal to the distance, covered for
time t, divided by time t , which, as an
interpretation, is not correct.
1 1
2 2
2 2
0
2 2
0
. 1 . . 1 . ;
d d
T
F v v
v p t f t
m c c
 `  `
· · − · −
. , . ,
r
r r
Since this way does not motivate the real fact that
the body, which moves at velocity
d
v
is inseparable
from the velocity or that there is not an independent
quantity velocity without the mass of the body,
which moves. On the contrary, this motivates that
the quantity velocity is not related to anything
material.
where:
0
TO
F
f
m
·
r
r
is the force per a unit mass
In this form, the dynamic velocity is momentum
d
p
r
per a unit of mass, i.e. in the physical
meaning the dynamic velocity is momentum per a
unit of mass.
Here, since distance dr is a product of the velocity
and time dt, it is a nonlinear function of time dt
a)
( )
1
2
2
0
. . . 1 ;
d d
dr v dt a t dt f
−
· · · −β
b)
1
2 2
0
2
. 1 .
d a
v
v a t f t
c
−
 `
· · −
. ,
r
.
That is why velocity cannot be the first derivative
of distance relative to time ;
d
dr
v
dt
≠
4.3a. Addition of dynamic velocities 4.3b. Addition of kinematic velocities
The definition of dynamic velocity as momentum These conditions entail that essentially the addition
73
Table 7.1. continued
per a unit of mass describes a real situation, that
the body (mass), which moves is inseparable from
the velocity.
of kinematic velocities
v
is not equal to the
addition of momentums
1
d
p
and
2
d
p
, i.e.
Because of this real circumstance, the addition of
dynamic velocities
1
d
v
and
2
d
v
is equal to the
addition of momentums
1
d
p
and
2
d
p
, i.e.
1 2 1 2
1, 2
;
d d d d
v v v p p ≠ + · +
but since at
v c =
, the
dynamic velocity is equal in numerical value to the
kinetic velocity, so there is addition of kinetic
velocities
1,2 1,2 1 2 1 2
d d d d d d
v p v v p p · · + · + ·
Or since at a)
v c =
; b)
0
v
c
→
the expression
1 2 1 2
1 1
1 2 2 2
2 2
2
1 2
2 2
.
1
1 1
v v v v
v v
v v
c
c c
+
· + ·
+
 `  `
− −
. , . ,
1
2
2
2
1 1
v
c
−
 `
− ≈
. ,
, and the expression
1 2
2
.
0
v v
c
→ ,
This law of addition of velocities holds true for all
velocities lower than the velocity of light, i.e. at
v < c, but not for
v c ·
.
i.e.
1,2
1 2
1 2
1 0
d
v v
v v v
+
· · +
+
;
Here Doppler effect holds true
This law for addition of velocities 1, 2 1 2
v v v · t
a)
( )
.
c
c v
v c c v c
c
t
· · t ≠ ; b)
c
v c ≠
, i.e. the
velocity of light v
c
relative to a moving observer at
velocity v can be higher or lower than the wave
velocity of light c.
holds true only at
v c =
. Whereas in Doppler
effect, this law holds true
a)
( )
.
c
c v
v c c v c
c
t
· · t ≠ ; b)
c
v c ≠
.
5a. Wave velocity 5b. Wave velocity
a)
1
1
2
2
0
0
w W
v c
m
 `
 `
· · ·
ρ
. ,
. ,
; b)
2
. W mc · ; a)
1 1 1
2 2 2
0 0
0
0 0 TO
E w W
v v
m
 `  `  `
· · · ·
ρ ρ
. , . , . ,
;
b)
2
0
.
TO
W m v · ;
6a. Relationship of energy and mass 6b. Relationship of energy and mass
2
. W mc · ;
2
. ;
TO
W m c ·
6a. Wave energy of the field form of
electromagnetic matter for a finite interval of time
0
0
.
n
n
v
τ · τ ·
, or for
n
waves, i.e. along distance
6a. Wave energy of deformation of mechanic
waves (waves of the substantial form of
electromagnetic matter) and of fluctuating
motions for a finite interval of time 0
0
.
n
nT
v
τ · ·
,
or for
n
waves along
0
.
.
n
n c
r n
v
· λ ·
is described by a formula, such as
the formula of energy of photon
distance
n
r
, is described by a formula, such as the
formula of energy of photon.
a)
0 0
. . . .
n
W n H n H
λ λ
· ν · ν
;
b) 0
.
f
W h · ν
;
a) ( )
0 0
. . . .
n
W n H H H n H
λ λ λ
· ν · ν − ·
; or for one
wave b)
0
. W H
λ λ
· ν
;
where: H is constant with dimensionality of
Planck’s constant, h has a dimensionality of
angular momentum = length multiplied by
momentum = energy by time.
where: H or
H
γ are constants with dimensionality
of Planck’s constant h , which has a dimensionality
– angular momentum = length multiplied by
momentum = energy by time.
7a. Energies of the body 7b. Energies of the body
7.1a. The internal energy of body is
2
.
TO TO
W m c ·
;
7.1b. No solution for the internal energy of the body
is given by classical mechanics
74
Table 7.1. continued
7.2a. The magnetic (kinetic) energy of the body is 7.2b. The magnetic (kinetic) energy of the body is
0
1
2
2
2
2
a) .
. . 1 1 ;
v
H K
TO
W W F dr
v
m c
c
−
· · ·
]
 `
]
· − −
]
. ,
]
]
∫
r
r
2
0 0
b) . ;
T T m
m Q k ·
a)
2
.
2
TO
H K
m v
W W · ·
;
2
0 0
b) . ;
T T m
m Q k ·
7.3a. Full energy of the body 7.3b. The full energy of the body in classical
mechanics is equal only to its magnetic (kinetic)
energy 0 H k
W W W · ·
2
0
1
2
2
2
2
.
. 1 . ;
TO H T
TO
W W W m c
v
m c
c
−
· + · ·
 `
· −
. ,
Since in classical mechanics internal energy is not
determined, there is no notion of (quantity of) full
energy.
8a. Modulus of elasticity (Young’s ) 8b. Modulus of elasticity (Young’s)
0
· · · ·
C
F force of cohesion Newton
E
S surface surface
0
· · · ·
C
F force of cohesion Newton
E
S surface surface
1
. · ·
electromagnetic energy
distance surface
1
. · ·
electromagnetic energy
distance surface
0
· ·
electromagnetic energy
w
volume
=
0
· ·
electromagnetic energy
w
volume
=
= density of electromagnetic energy; = density of electromagnetic energy;
P.S. Since the force of cohesion C
F
, which is
described in Chapter 8, paragraph 8.7, is
electromagnetic force, according to presentday
physics (this fact has been known since the middle
of 20
th
c.)
P.S. Since the force of cohesion C
F
, which is
described in Chapter 8, paragraph 8.7, is
electromagnetic force, according to presentday
physics (this fact has been known since the middle
of 20
th
c.)
The solution for Poisson’s modulus is analogous. The solution for Poisson’s modulus is analogous.
9d. Emission of electromagnetic power 9b. Emission of electromagnetic power of a body
with a square of the effective electric charge
a) for the electron
2 2
3
2 .
.
3
e
dW q a
N
dt c
· ·
;
0 2
;
T
T
m
m
Q
k
·
b) for a body with mass
2
.
TO T m
m Q k ·
and square of
the effective electric charge
2
/
T TO m
Q m k ·
2 2
3 3
2 . 2 .
.
3 3 .
T TO
T
m
Q a m a
N
c k c
· ·
;
2 2 2
3 3
2 .
. .
3
T TO
T
m
Q a m a
N
c k c
· ·
; here
a
is the
acceleration in large bodies, since the accelerations
are very small, the obtained energy
.
NT T
W N t ·
is
much smaller than their magnetic (kinetic) energy
HT
W
, i.e.
here
a
is the acceleration in large bodies, since the
accelerations are very small, the obtained energy
.
NT T
W N t ·
is much smaller than their magnetic
(kinetic) energy
2
.
2
O
HT KT
m v
W W · ·
, i.e.
NT HT
W W =
.
2
.
2
O
NT HT
m v
W W · =
;
That is why NT
W
is experimentally immeasurable
and therefore NT
W
is ignored, although
0
NT
W >
.
That is why it is not measured experimentally and
therefore NT
W
is ignored, although
0
NT
W >
.
10a. Gravitational fields and force 10b. Gravitational fields and force
10.1a. of the electron at
v c =
10.1b. of the electron
75
Table 7.1. continued
Gravitational field is Gravitational field is
2 0 0 0
2 2
. . . .
. 0
e m
e e
m r k r
G q
r r
γ γ
· − · <
r r
r
;
where: is gravitational constant.
2 0 0 0
2 2
. . . .
. 0
e m
e e
m r k r
G q
r r
γ γ
· − · <
r r
r
;
where: is gravitational constant.
Gravitational force between two electrons with
mass
1 2
2
0 0
.
e e e m
m m q k · ·
e
Gravitational force between two electrons with
mass
1 2
2
0 0
.
e e e m
m m q k · ·
e
( )
2
1
4
2
0 0 0
0 01
2 2
. . . . .
. 0
e e m
Ge e e e
m r q k r
F m G m
r r
γ γ
· · − · − <
r r
r r
;
( )
2
1 2
4
2
0 0 0
0 01
2 2
. . . . .
. 0;
e e m
Ge e e e
m r q k r
F m G m
r r
γ γ
· · − · − <
r r
r r
Gravitational fields, which correspond to densities
of masses E
ρ
of its electrostatic field E and H
ρ
(at
v c =
) of magnetic field H are
Gravitational fields, which correspond to densities
of masses E
ρ
and H
ρ
of electrostatic E and
magnetic field H (at
v c =
) since electromagnetic
theory of Maxwell is classical physics, are
a)
0
2
.
. 0
E E
r
G
r
γ
· −ρ <
r
r
; b)
0
2
.
. 0
H H
r
G
r
γ
· −ρ <
r
r
; a)
0
2
.
. 0
E E
r
G
r
γ
· −ρ <
r
r
; b)
0
2
.
. 0
H H
r
G
r
γ
· −ρ <
r
r
;
10.2a. of the body with mass T
m
and square of the
effective electric charge
2
T
Q
gravitational field is
2
0 0
2 2
. . . . .
T T m
T
m r Q k r
G
r r
γ γ
· − · −
r r
r
whence it is apparent that gravitational fields of
bodies are secondary electromagnetic fields since
they are determined by
2
0
T
Q >
, which reflects the
fact that gravitational field is unipolar. Here the
sign minus means that gravitational force is also
unipolar and is only of attraction between two
bodies with masses
1
T
m
and
2
T
m
10.2a. of body with mass T
m
and square of the
effective electric charge
2
T
Q
gravitational field is
2
0 0
2 2
. . . . .
T T m
T
m r Q k r
G
r r
γ γ
· − · −
r r
r
whence it is apparent that gravitational fields of
bodies are secondary electromagnetic fields since
they are determined by
2
0
T
Q >
, which reflects the
fact that gravitational field is unipolar. Here the sign
minus means that gravitational force is also
unipolar and is only of attraction between two
bodies with masses
1
T
m
and
2
T
m
1 2
1 2
1 2
0
2
2 2 2
0
2
. . .
.
. . . .
0
T T
GT T T
T T m
m m r
F m G
r
Q Q k r
r
γ
· − · − ·
γ
· − <
r
r r
r
.
1 2
1 2
1 2
0
2
2 2 2
0
2
. . .
.
. . . .
0
T T
GT T T
T T m
m m r
F m G
r
Q Q k r
r
γ
· − · − ·
γ
· − <
r
r r
r
.
8. FLAWS IN THE THEORY OF MOTION
OF MATTER
The flaws in the theory of motion of matter consists in that, on the one hand it is assumed in physics
that there is one theory of motion at very low velocities
a)
; v c =
b)
0;
v
c
β · →
(1.81)
by which theory, according to Newton, matter is only homogenous, which is obvious in “Principles...” of
1687 and in “Opticks...” of 1704, although the essence of matter at low and high velocities is the same as
the essence of light, i.e. it is electromagnetic matter. However, in presentday physics it is assumed that
matter in the theory of low velocities is only homogenous, but it is not discussed what specifically it is
like.
On the other hand, there is relativist theory of motion at high velocities
a)
; v c <
b)
1;
v
c
β · <
(1.82)
which is called relativist electrodynamics. However, theory essentially refers both to low and high
velocities (smaller than velocity of light), and according to its creator, A. Einstein, this theory is part of
the Special theory of relativity and is a consequence from Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetic matter.
This is evident in Einstein’s article “Autobiographische” in his book “Albert Einstein – Philosopher
Scientist” ed. by P. A. Schilpp. Evanston 1945, where he wrote: “The special theory of relativity
originates from Maxwell’s equations.” and § 10 “Dynamics of the slightly accelerated electron” in
chapter ІІ – “Electrodynamic part” in Einstein’s article “Zur Elektrodynamik der beregter Körper” Ann.
76
Phys. 1905, 17, 891 – 921.
But the formulae at very low velocities (1.81) are obtained from the formulae of the relativist
electrodynamics at (1.82) by being processed into a simplified form, which corresponds to the formulae
of classical dynamics, but which are essentially a specific case of the relativist electrodynamics in a
simplified notation, notwithstanding that Newton deduced them from experimental facts. Under these
conditions, it follows that:
First. The formulae of classical mechanics are essentially a simplified notation or a specific
case of the formulae of the relativist electrodynamics, i.e. classical mechanics is a specific case of the
relativist mechanics or classical mechanics is a simplified relativist electrodynamics, because in this
aspect it is a simplified theory of motion of electromagnetic matter.
Second. Since the procedure of simplifying involves expanding the expression
( )
1
2 2
1
−
−β into a
power series and taking only the first two terms, i.e. a value smaller than
( )
1
2 2
1
−
−β , i.e. the simplified
formulae or the formulae of classical mechanics have an error of relative to the ones of the relativist
electrodynamics in the sense that they yield smaller values, which in relative units is
( )
( )
1
2 2 2
1
2 2
1
1 1
2
1;
1
−
−
 `
−β − − β
. ,
∆ ·
−β
=
(1.83)
I.e. relativist electrodynamics is more accurate than classical mechanics. But the error is
insignificant. For instance, at velocity of a body
6 1
3.10 m.s v
−
· and mass at rest 0
m
, its magnetic
(kinetic) energy, according to relativist electrodynamics is
( )
( )
5 2
2
1
0
2 2 2 0
0
1 5.10 .
.
. 1 1 ;
2 2
H K
m v
m v
W W m c
−
−
+
]
· · −β − ≈ >
]
]
(1.84)
which is 5.10
5
times greater than the value according to classical mechanics, or by 0.005%.
Third. From the viewpoint of the physical interpretation of the two theories, the relativist
electrodynamics has certain significant advantages, which are:
3.a. It makes it clear that bodies have internal energy, whereas in classical mechanics they do not
have internal energy.
3.b. There is a field form of matter.
3.c. It clarifies that the mass of the bodies m
T
is function of their velocity, because to their mass m
T0
at
rest is added the mass
2 2
ГH K
TH
W W
m
c c
· ·
their magnetic (kinetic) energy TH K
W W ·
, which is function of
velocity and which has mass, which adds to the mass of the body at rest.
( )
1
2
2
0 0
1 ;
T T TH T
m m m m
−
· + · −β
(1.85)
These are the reasons, which give advantage to the relativist electrodynamics, i.e. to the assumption
that the initial basis (principle) of classical mechanics is the basis of relativist electrodynamics, i.e. that
classical mechanics is a specific and simplified case of the relativist electrodynamics or that classical
mechanics is simplified electrodynamics.
Fourth. The velocity of the body in the relativist electrodynamics is
1 1
2 2 2 2
0 2
0
0
. .
a) ; b) lim ;
.
.
1
1
.
t
c F t c
v v c
c m
F t
m
F t
m
→∞
· · ·
] ]
 `  `
+
] ] +
. ,
] ]
] . ,
]
(1.86)
The velocity
v
, since it is inseparable from the mass – it is momentum of the body, therefore it
cannot be determined as a derivative of the pathway (distance)
;
dr
v
dt
≠
(1.87)
whereas in classical mechanics, where
v c =
, the differential of the velocity dv and the velocity v are
77
a)
2
0
2
. . . ;
dr
dv a dt r dt
dt
· ·
r r r
b)
;
dr
v
dt
·
r
r
(1.88)
can be determined as a derivative of the pathway (distance) relative to the time.
Brief overview of Chapter one
Introduction to the overview
The classical mechanics of Newton, as presented in "Mathematical principles ..." in 1687 is the
initial principle of the science of physics, which was later developed in "Opticks ..." and in 1704 by
proving the electromagnetic essence of matter of objects, which have relative independence.
This classical mechanics is essentially the initial stage as a science of motion of objects from the
substantial form of the unitary matter at low velocities v, which are much smaller than the velocity of
light (of electromagnetic waves)
c
, i.e.
c v =
or / 0 v c → and that matter of the objects is
homogenous. And after it was discovered that there is electromagnetic matter in substantial and
field form (fields, electrical, magnetic and gravitational, and their respective masses and their
energies), up to the present time no one has undertaken to make one more step forward, to establish
the correlational relationship of these new facts according to the respective laws of the preceding
ideas (theories) about quantities, such as mass, force, energy, etc. and to establish their unitary
theoretical basis with the new facts available. Instead, a new relativist mechanics was created,
which apparently is substantially different from classical mechanics. MOREOVER, MODERN MECHANICS
(CLASSICAL AND RELATIVIST) DOES NOT TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE FULL SET OF VIEWS ON PHYSICS, PRESENTED IN
NEWTON’S BOOKS "MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY" OF 1687 AND "OPTICKS OR A TREATISE
OF THE REFLECTIONS, REFRACTIONS, INFLECTIONS AND COLOURS OF LIGHT "OF 1704, WHILE AT THE SAME TIME IT
REFLECTS ONLY A PART OF J. CL. MAXWELL’S IDEAS AND CONSEQUENCES FOR THE RELATIVIST MECHANICS
PRESENTED IN HIS BOOK "TREATISE ON ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM" OF 1873.
Under these conditions, here in this book, an attempt is made to set a theoretical basis of all the
unitary mechanics (dynamics), which should be a general, uniting theory under the name of Newtonian
electrodynamics (mechanics), and which should cover both classical and relativist mechanics in
accordance with what was written by Isaac Newton in "Opticks ..." from 1704, i.e. is should be the most
general theory of motion of matter. Furthermore, this unitary theoretical basis must take its origin from
the relativist mechanics, which is a fundamental theory for the motion of objects of electromagnetic
matter in field and substantial forms at all velocities from zero up to c (v <c) and which grows here into
the socalled Newtonian electrodynamics or mechanics. And from the laws of the unitary theoretical
basis of Newtonian electrodynamics (mechanics) are formed laws, which apply both to: a) the objects
of the substantial form of electromagnetic matter, which apparently are externally electrically neutral
and which move at velocities v, much smaller than the velocity of the electromagnetic waves (light)
c
–
c v =
or / 0 v c → , such as the laws of classical mechanics, i.e. the laws of classical mechanics
should be specific cases of the relativistic laws of electromagnetic matter under respective specific
conditions, therefore, their solutions have a simplified notation; b) and also for the objects, which
move at high velocity 0 v c < =
In this sense, the laws of gravity are also laws of electromagnetic matter, because it has been known
for a long time that electromagnetic matter in the form of electrons and electromagnetic waves generates
also gravitational fields and forces, which are generated by its electromagnetic mass. The notion of mass,
which was introduced by Newton, is and abstracted notion (a model for calculations) of the notion of
quantity of matter in the form of a dimensionless point, i.e. without a volume V (V = 0) without a form
and without any structure, placed in the center of gravity of the objects to whose quantity of matter the
mass refers. Thus Newton simplified the mathematical equations, by which are described the laws of
mechanics.
A. The Newtonian electrodynamics is formed by (results from) the following formulations:
A.1. Methodology of classical mechanics, given by Newton;
A.2. The three basic laws of classical mechanics  The laws of Newton;
A.3. The proof of I. Newton of 1704 in "Opticks ..." that matter is only of electromagnetic
essence, i.e. that matter is only electromagnetic in substantial and field forms, by proceeding
from:
“All bodies emit and absorb light”
“Bodies turn into light, and light turns into bodies”
78
“These are normal natural phenomena – experimental facts”
Given that according to modern physics, light is a field form of electromagnetic matter and that in
essence the summarized experimental facts (empirical laws) are logical laws, which have irresistible evidential
force, it follows that the above statements in the form of experimental facts given by Newton, in an updated
form are laws, which state:
“All bodies emit and absorb field electromagnetic matter”.
“Bodies convert into field electromagnetic matter (electromagnetic waves), and field
electromagnetic matter into electromagnetic substance.”
“These are normal natural laws.”
Or the unitary matter of nature is only electromagnetic in the form of substances and fields
(electric, magnetic and gravitational) and their respective masses and energies.
B. Classical mechanics is a result of:
From the Newtonian electrodynamics, which essentially is a theory of electromagnetic matter,
which at much smaller velocities v than the velocity of light
v c =
;
0
v
c
→
is reduced to simplified
formulae, which are the laws of classical mechanics.
I.e. the laws of Newtonian electrodynamics are reduced to laws of classical mechanics, which have
a shorter notation.
UNDER THESE CONDITIONS, THE FULL THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CLASSICAL MECHANICS ARE ALSO THE LAWS
OF NEWTONIAN ELECTRODYNAMICS, I.E. CLASSICAL MECHANICS IS A SPECIFIC CASE OF NEWTONIAN ELECTRODYNAMICS.
Emphasis
These natural laws (facts) are wellknown that in each place (each point) all over the nature there
are:
a) gravitational fields, which act as a force upon objects (bodies) and impart accelerations and
velocities to the objects, according to the laws of the gravitation which are essentially of electromagnetic
nature – gravitational structure of electromagnetic matter
b) electromagnetic fields, in the form of electromagnetic waves with different lengths or in the
form of photon gas, which generate forces upon objects, respectively generate Maxwellian pressure (for
instance, these forces of pressure are the forces, which decline the tails of comets, and partially of space
objects), which impart accelerations and velocities to the molecules of the gas of molecules.
I.e. there exists a natural law (fact) that upon all objects in nature always and concurrently act
electromagnetic and gravitational forces.
HOWEVER, DESPITE THIS NATURAL LAW, THE EQUATIONS OF THE MOTION OF BODIES ARE OFTEN NOTATED WITHOUT
THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCES AND MAXWELLIAN PRESSURES, WHICH IN REALITY ALWAYS ACT UPON BODIES. THE REASON FOR
THIS INCORRECTNESS IS THE CIRCUMSTANCE THAT THE QUANTITATIVE VALUES OF THE ABOVE FORCES ARE IMPLICITLY
ASSUMED TO BE IGNORABLE IN RELATION TO THE PRIMARY ONES FOR THE PRIMARY ELECTROMAGNETIC PROCESSES AND
THEREFORE THEY DO NOT HAVE MUCH PRACTICAL IMPORTANCE.
It is another question that there are cases with such conditions, when the gravitational forces and
Maxwellian pressures are of essential importance; in such cases, they participate in the equations of the
motion of bodies.
Note
The presentation herein of the laws of Einstein’s theory of relativity of 1905
*
about the mass and
energy at low and high velocities of motion ( ) 0 v c < <
1
2 2
0
2
1
v
m m
c
−
 `
· −
. ,
, and the relationship
between energy W and mass
2
. m W mc → · is done only on the basis of the classical electromagnetic
theories of Newton in “Principles...”and in “Opticks...” of 1704 and of Maxwell of 1873. Therefore,
since these laws are a result of classical theories, they should be called classical laws, notwithstanding
that Einstein obtained and published them on the basis of the principle of constancy of the velocity of
*
Einstein, A., Zur Elektrodynamik der bewegten Körper. Ann. Phys., 1905. 17. 891 – 921.
79
light irrespective of the states of motion of the observer or the source of light – a principle not only
without experimental confirmation, but experimentally rejected  and the Lorentz transformations in 1905
I.e., since the inferences from the laws
1
2 2
0
2
1
v
m m
c
−
 `
· −
. ,
and
2
. W mc · are deduced herein only by
using the classical laws of Newtonian electrodynamics which are confirmed by experimentally
established classical premises (formulations) fewer in number than those of Einstein, which makes them
more reliable and more perfect and according to what Einstein himself wrote: “Of two theories, which
equally well explain one phenomenon, this theory is more reliable and more perfect which is built on
fewer premises”, they should be regarded as classical laws.
Due to the presented facts, Newtonian electrodynamics should be considered as classical
electromagnetic theory, and hence Newtonian electrodynamics should be recognized as a classical
science.
In the above meaning, for all dynamics, being part of physics, it should be hold that it is:
First. Classical physics
Second. In essence, all natural phenomena are dynamic (mechanical) since in their basis, they
are always (without exception) a result of the motion of matter from one to another place (matter
exchange between two or more bodies), at micro level (chemical and biological processes
*
*
) as well as
at macro and cosmic levels.
I.E. ALL NATURAL PHENOMENA RESULT FROM DYNAMIC (MECHANICAL) PROCESSES, RESPECTIVELY ARE
MECHANICAL PROCESSES IN DIFFERENT CONDITIONS (SITUATIONS) OF ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER – THEY ARE
ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
The above results coincide with these in the special theory of relativity, but are deduced only on the
basis of Newtonian mechanics and of Maxwell’s classical electrodynamics of 1873 and by using only
Galileo’s transformations as described by Isaac Newton in 1687. And since they are obtained using fewer
initial formulations (without the postulate of constancy of the velocity of light and without Lorentz
transformations) according to the principle of simplicity (Occam’s razor) they present a more reliable
proof and therefore they are more perfect than the ones of the theory of relativity. And since they
explain the gain of mass of the electron by accretion of the mass of its magnetic energy, they give a
more indepth analysis, therefore this solution should be preferred, because it simplifies the physical
laws and clarifies the physical meaning of the gain of mass (matter) of the bodies, which fact does not
exist in modern physics.
In this sense, these solutions result from classical physics. And since they are obtained with fewer
initial formulations relative to the special theory of relativity (STR) according to the principle of
simplicity (Occam's razor) they must be accepted for initial principle of the theory of motion and
restructuring of electromagnetic matter (and for physics in general), although in this form they are first
published at present time.
And instead of referring separately to classical physics and relativist electrodynamics, they
should be integrated in the notion of Newtonian electrodynamics  mechanics or universal
electrodynamics. This Newtonian (universal) electrodynamics (mechanics), further developed by
Maxwell, Planck and others, according to Einstein is more perfect, because it deals with fewer
prerequisites.
Emphases
NEWTONIAN PHYSICS IS NOT A HISTORICAL RELIC, BUT A THEORETICAL BASIS OF CONTEMPORARY
AND FUTURE SCIENCE OF NATURE.
ISAAC NEWTON WAS THE FOUNDER NOT ONLY OF MODERN MECHANICS BUT ALSO OF ELECTRODYNAMICS.
HE WAS THE FIRST TO INTRODUCE THE CUMULATIVE IDEA OF UNITY, CONTINUITY AND INNER LOGIC OF
KNOWLEDGE ABOUT NATURE AND NATURAL PHENOMENA.
*
*
As the Nobel Prize Laureate, Prof. L.Pauling, put it, “Chemistry is electrodynamics at atom and molecular
levels”.
80
CHAPTER TWO
NATURE OF THE NOTION OF INTERACTION
2.1. GENERAL FORMULATIONS
The notion of interaction in physics is the process illustrating (motivating) the phenomenon of
restructuring of the structures of natural occurrences (NO) in result of the alteration of the quantities
of matter of the interacting objects, or a force interaction occurs which alters the spatial states of the
structural elements of a given object without altering their kind or number. In the section of dynamics
in physics, by the notion of interaction it is understood a processway of transfer of matter (energy) from
one object to another through acceleration or alteration of the velocity of a given object under the action of
force
F
r
generated by another object. But the nature of the process of setting into motion (accelerating)
under the action of force
F
r
should be interpreted by taking into account the measuring unit for force, which
is a Newton and which is equal to a Joule J upon a meter, i.e.
[ ]
[ ]
F
W
r
W
m
J
N F · · · · →
distance
energy
; (2.11)
and by accounting for the law of relationship between energy and mass
2
. W mc · ; (2.12)
where: m is mass (quantity of matter); c – velocity of light.
It follows that the dimensionality of the force is
[ ]
F
m F · ·
distance
c . matter) of (quantity mass
2
; (2.13)
I.e. the force transfers energy or mass (quantity of matter) along which it acts along a unit of
distance.
THEREFORE, WHEN A NATURAL OBJECT IS ACCELERATED, QUANTITY OF MATTER (MASS) m
F
AND
ENERGY W
F
IS IMPARTED TO IT, I.E. THE OBJECT ACTING BY FORCE F RELEASES A CERTAIN QUANTITY OF
MATTER (MASS) m
F
AND ENERGY W
F
TO THE OBJECT UPON WHICH IT ACTS AND WHICH GETS ACCELERATED
AND RESTRUCTURED BY THE FORCE. OR, IN ORDER THAT AN OBJECT COULD BE ACCELERATED AND
RESTRUCTUERD, MATTER (ENERGY) SHOULD BE IMPARTED (RELEASED) TO IT. IN THIS SENSE, THE PROCESS OF
ACCELERATING IS A PROCESS OF INTERACTION.
Here, with regard to object restructuring, two essential points should be taken into account:
 on the one hand, the substance (the unknown initial resource) of matter, as carrier of its
potential restructuring possibilities and attributive properties remains the same in the new structures;
 on the other hand, in the process of restructuring (transformation) their structures change,
their states of motion and their quantities of matter (their masses and energies), and therefore, their
properties should be changed as well, including those of force interaction, i.e. the typical features of
the interacting objects change.
I.e. in the process of restructuring (transformation, particles retain their substance, the possibilities
for their matter to be restructured, their total energy, their mass (quantity of matter) and their electric
charges, i.e. their attributive properties are preserved.
Or the structure of objects changes into one or more new objects, which determine their new
forms, their specific new properties of interaction, i.e. an object attains a new, specific nature (or only
nature), while retaining its substantial nature.
This substantial nature, and its connection to the attributive properties of matter, needs some
additional clarification. It is clear that attributive properties are inseparable both from each other and from
the notion of matter, which notion involves, in addition to them themselves, their attributive property to
be able to transform from one form (structure) into another while retaining the other attributive properties
of theirs. Due to this circumstance, the substantial essences or the substantial existence (in a broad
81
range of the notion of substance) of matter represents inseverable unity both of their attributive
properties and of the properties resulting form their structures.
I.e. the connection between the parts (fragments) is a harmonic agreement, i.e. each part has its place
in the whole. Therefore, the whole (the nature) has new properties, which the independently existing parts
lack, or the integration of the parts into one whole is something more than their arithmetic sum.
Nature (natural processes), as a unitary system, is a unitary, integral system motivated only by its
internal forces and resources. It is only due to the properties of its parts, as independent entities and as one
whole, that it can change as a material entity (natural occurrence – NO).
In the above sense, therefore, the principle of materiality lies in the foundations of knowledge,
which principle states: “In essence, nature is a unitary, homogenous, continuous and allcomprising
material continuum in space and time, which is incessantly restructured and does not depend on
anything external to it, but only on its own reasons (causes), i.e. nature functions only on the grounds
of the properties, which are invested in it, through its initial resource”. In this sense, there is no place in
nature without matter or there is not anything in it which is not material, i.e. there are no nonmaterial parts in
nature, which are not a natural occurrence. Or everything, which is ascertained (discovered) in it (or its
interpretation) is only material, there none of nonmaterial natural occurrences (manifestations).
I.e. the action of a force upon an object (body) is an expression of the process of exchange of matter (energy
and mass) or of a sum of elementary particles , which process is an expression of the notion of interaction, used
for micro objects, elementary particles, as well.
As it is well known, matter has granular (discrete) structure, which consists of tiny quantities of
matter, called elementary particles, as well as of atoms and molecules which comprise elementary
particles. Because of this circumstance, exchange of matter during interaction between objects, is
essentially exchange of certain quantity of elementary particles of granular (discrete) structure, whose
sums of masses and energies are equal to the mass and energy, which corresponds to the interaction
caused by the force, i.e.
force = sum of masses and energies of elementary particles; (2.14)
Since in macro processes, the value of mass m
F
(2.13) and energy of the force W
F
(2.11) are much
greater than the values of energy W
f
of the elementary particles, i.e.
a)
;
F f
m m ?
b)
,
F f
W W ?
(2.15)
Therefore, the force is an approximated characteristic of a multitude of elementary particles. And
therefore, any alteration of energy and mass (quantity of matter) can be considered, during computational
operations at macro level, as a continuous process whenever mass m
f
energy W
f
of a separate elementary
particle is much smaller in value than the mass m
F
and energy W
F
exchanged between objects
corresponding to force ( )
F F
F W m F ≡ ≡
.
In this aspect, it turns out that each type of mass and energy at macro level is reducible to the
mass and energy of the sum of elementary particles m
f
and W
f
at macro level
a)
;
F f
m m ·
∑
b) ;
F f
W W ·
∑
(2.16)
And each force F is reducible to the velocity of transmission of momentums
fi
P
r
of the quanta of
fields
f
P
r
, i.e. of photon elementary particles
fi
i
d P
F
dt
·
∑
ur
r
; (2.17)
From a general viewpoint, the mechanism of the process of interaction described through force (at
macro level) or through elementary particles (at micro level) looks like this.
ONE OBJECT RELEASES, THROUGH DETACHING A CERTAIN QUANTITY OF MATTER AND ENERGY OFF ITS STRUCTURE IN
THE FORM OF A SUM OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES, WHICH QUANTITY MOVES APPROXIMATELY OR MOST OFTEN, BEING FIELD
PARTICLES (PHOTONS), THEY MOVE AT THE VELOCITY OF LIGHT, REACHES ANOTHER OBJECT AND ATTACHES TO ITS
STRUCTURE, RENDERING ITS QUANTITY OF MATTER (MASS), ENERGY AND MOMENTUM. AS A RESULT OF THESE FACTS, ONE
AND THE OTHER OBJECT GET RESTRUCTURED AS A WHOLE OR ONLY A PART OF THEM GETS RESTRUCTURED (FOR INSTANCE,
WITH MACRO OBJECTS, THIS CAN BE A PARTIAL DEFORMATION).
It is evident from the presented above that the mechanism of the process of interaction is only
82
possible on condition that the nature of the interacting objects is homogenous (electromagnetic, i.e.
they are products of electromagnetic matter.
This condition fulfilled, the process of interaction is characterized by the following features:
1. The process of interaction is only possible when there is motion of interacting objects A and B or parts
of matters (masses) one relative to another.
For instance, if objects A and B before the interaction had masses
0 A
m
and
0 B
m
, after the
interaction they have masses
A
m
and
B
m
, i.e.
a)
0 0 A B
m m ≠
; b)
0 B B
m m ≠
; c)
0 0 A B A B
m m m m + · +
; (2.18)
2. For time
AB
τ
of interaction, for instance, if object A is the one acting with force F, it releases
(gives off, emits) quantity of matter
0 AB A
m m ∆ ≤
, which quantity moves from object A to object B along
distance
AB
r
at a relevant velocity
AB
v
and is absorbed (attached or merged) by object B.
3. As a result of this process of exchange of matter
AB
m ∆ , after time
AB
τ
of the interaction, the
matters (masses) of objects A and B are
a)
0 A A AB
m m m · − ∆
; b)
0 B B AB
m m m · + ∆
; c)
0 0 A B A B
m m m m + · +
; (2.19)
i.e. the quantities of matter of objects A and B are changed, and along with that, the number of their
structural elements and spatial states also change while the law of mass and energy conservation is
observed.
4. As a result of the alteration of the structural elements in respect of their number and their
location, alteration is brought upon their structural (their restructuring occurs), or their
transformation into another kind of property, respectively, if the alteration is above the limit for
retention of their properties, and along with this, of their characteristics. Because the properties of
objects, as systems without their attributive properties, are explained through their structures, i.e. the
whole has such properties as its parts have, whereas, as individual elements they do not have them.
Here it should be pointed out that:
a) the process of interaction, or formation of new structures and new objects, respectively, out of
known (assigned) objects, according to the laws of conservation of matter and energy, is only possible if
objects A and B, or their structural elements, respectively, are of homogenous initial resource
(substance) i.e. if they have homogenous genetic unity;
b) the structural explanation of properties, (that properties are structurally determined), applied
in aspect of the whole and its parts (structural elements) shows that the process of interaction
(exchange of matter and motion (energy) between objects) is the cause of manifestation of new
properties;
c) that the process of interaction is a process of continuous motion – it is eternal and it exists in
various forms;
d) that during interaction between objects, there is always motion of matter, and since the carrier and
generator of this motion of matter is the entity, out of which matter is formed, which is the homogenous
initial resource (substance), then it follows that this resource (substance) is also the resource (substance)
of motion and restructuring, i.e. of interaction itself. I.E. THE PHENOMENON MOTION IS JUST ANOTHER ESSENCE
(FEATURE) OF THE INITIAL RESOURCE (SUBSTANCE). And this is actually the motivation of eternity – the eternal
motion and alteration – because the resource (substance) is eternal.
Therefore, the process of interaction (in a synthesized expression) has the following features:
 it is eternal (inalienable) attributive property of matter and is in the basis of all natural
occurrences in time and space;
 it is the reason for the eternal and incessant motion of matter from one object (a whole object)
to another object, which fact results in incessant alteration of quantities of matters of objects;
 the incessant and eternal alteration of the quantities of matter of objects leads to incessant
restructuring (transformation) of their matters into various structural states, which fact determines the
variety of their properties and characteristics and their incessant alteration;
 the matters of the various objects during interaction retain the homogenous essence of their
initial resource (substance), i.e. nature is a homogenous whole – a homogenous material continuum;
IN THIS WAY, THE EXPLORATION OF THE EMPIRICAL NATURAL DIVERSITY IS RENDERED MEANINGFUL ON THE
83
GROUNDS OF A UNITARY THEORETICAL BASIS, AS AN EXPRESSION OF THE UNITARY SUBSTANTIAL ESSENCE, I.E. AS A
RESULT OF UNITARY SUBSTANCE.
Therefore, in this sense, the structural properties of objects are determined by the number, type
and spatial states of their structural elements, whereby if the quantity and the type of the structural
elements are the same, but the spatial states of the elements of the object are different, they reveal
different properties, i.e. the spatial structure of an object determines its properties, regardless of the
fact that the number and type of the structural elements of the objects may be the same, i.e. the
properties are structurally determined.
THEREFORE, THE STRUCTURE AND THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS ARE INALIENABLE ATTRIBUTES (NATURE) OF
EACH OBJECT, I.E. THERE CANNOT EXIST A REAL OBJECT WITHOUT STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OR STRUCTURE AT A
RELEVANT LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION OF MATTER, FOR WITHOUT THEM, NO UNIFIED SYSTEM, CALLED OBJECT (BODY),
CAN EVER BE FORMED, NOR ANY STRUCTURAL CONNECTION OR PROPERTIES OF OBJECTS, AND IT IS ANOTHER QUESTION
WHETHER IT IS ALWAYS POSSIBLE TO DETERMINE EXPERIMENTALLY WHAT THE STRUCTURE OF A GIVEN OBJECT IS.
The principle of causality lies in the concept that each natural phenomenon is determined by
another natural phenomenon (object) via the process of interaction, according to Laplace’s
determinism. In this sense, the principle of causality is only another expression of the principle of self
motion and restructuring of matter as its inherent activity. I.e. each alteration of natural objects can
only occur during interaction of some objects with other objects, under certain conditions – and this is
the meaning of the principle of materiality.
IN THE ABOVE SENSE, MATTER (NATURE) AS PRODUCT OF THE HOMOGENOUS INITIAL RESOURCE (SUBSTANCE) IS
REGARDED AS SELFEVOLVING UNITARY NATURAL WHOLE (MATERIAL CONTINUUM) OF HOMOGENOUS RESOURCE.
2.2. ON THE ESSENCE AND PLACE OF NEWTONIAN DYNAMICS IN
SCIENCE
Evidently, it is a real fact that all natural manifestations (objects, phenomena, processes, etc.)
are unconditionally a result (consequence) or are essentially a product of the process of interaction.
I.e. they result from the motion of matter, at various quantitative values, from one place to another
(from one object to another) at respective velocities and forces (exchange of matter and energy)
between some objects and other objects. As a result of this, the values of the quantities of matters of the
objects change, and, consequently, their structural states change. Due to these changes of the objects, their
properties and dynamic states also undergo changes. Or in a global aspect, these processes account for the
essence of their changes in a progressive or regressive evolution. And when describing this process, it is
necessary to introduce the notion of time so as to arrange the various states, in the sense of quantities
of matter and energies and of structures and properties.
The above assertions are grounded in the circumstance that in nature (material continuum) there is
no place or parts without matter, at least in the form of gravitational fields or photon gas (electromagnetic
fields), which do not generate interaction, i.e. there are no places without any motion of matters. And the
process of motion in its simplest forms is interpreted in the section of dynamics in physics. This fact
states that all natural processes, which result in alteration of properties or states of matter, are
consequences of a process of interaction, or of dynamic processes respectively, which are the cause of the
change of the properties of the quantities and the structures of the material objects, as well as of their
properties.
In the above sense, the whole Newtonian electrodynamics should be seen as a general, initial
section of the physics of all natural phenomena without any exceptions, and it should be recognized that:
First. It is classical physics
Second. Essentially, all natural phenomena are dynamic (mechanic) since in their basis they
always (without exceptions) result from motion of matters and energies from one place to another
(exchange of matters between at least two objects), both at microlevel (chemical and biological
processes
*
) and at macro and cosmic levels.
I.E. ALL NATURAL PHENOMENA ARE CONSEQUENCE OF DYNAMIC (MECHANIC) PROCESSES, OR OF MECHANIC
PROCESSES IN VARIOUS RESPECTIVE CONDITIONS (SITUATIONS) OF ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER – THEY ARE
*
As Nobel Laureate Prof. L. Pauling put it,“Chemistry is electrodynamics at atomic and molecular levels.”
84
ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
Therefore, in a global sense, all natural processes are dynamic processes (phenomena), i.e.
processes of motion of matters, in various conditions at micro and macro levels, whereby physics
study their simplest forms.
In this global aspect, the whole physics and the sciences of nature, such as chemistry and biology,
treat dynamic processes. But in various conditions of motions and structuring of matters they are
chemical, biological or other dynamics, and therefore physics should be recognized as the leader of
sciences of nature.
In this sense, the processes of perception and thinking running in mind (cerebral matter) of living
organisms, including man, are dynamic processes of transfer – motion of matters at micro level. However, due
to the specific conditions, in which they develop, they are known under specific names.
Emphasis
The global meaning of the process of interaction, which, from an external point of view, is
essentially a process of motion of matter from one (certain) place to another (certain) place in
nature, or from one object to other relatively independent objects, is called a dynamic process in
physics, and this is a fundamental principle (process) in all natural phenomena (processes), which
determines the eternal (permanent) alteration of the states of matter.
In nature, there is no phenomenon (process) whose reason (cause) in its basis (root) is not a
dynamic process (a process of shifting matter from one place to another), and which is not an
expression of the essence of the process of interaction. The reason for this assertion is the fact that
without motion of matter, i.e. without dynamics (without mechanics), there are no changes of matter of
the objects – there is no interaction and there are no natural changes of the properties of the objects, i.e.
without dynamics (mechanics) nature should be absolutely fixed – in a static state.
In this sense, the notion of dynamics (mechanics) is an expression of the essence of the process
of interaction between the objects and is only possible on condition that matter is homogenous in its
essence, as it was treated by Isaac Newton in his times and thus the foundations of natural sciences
were effectively laid. The reason for this assertion is also the fact that the notions quantity of matter,
respectively mass, were described by identical properties in his books: “Mathematical Principles of
Natural Philosophy” of 1687 and “Opticks...” of 1704.
From the circumstances (the facts) that:
a) For all interactions between various objects Newton used only one kind of quantity of matter
via its abstracted notion of mass for the matters of the various kinds of objects.
b) While studying the gravitational property and the gravitational forces between various objects,
(including planets), although spectral analysis was not known in those times and no evidence was available,
he assumed (postulated) that the other space objects consisted of the same chemical elements. Then, as well
as today, the experimental facts confirm that all masses are really of homogenous essence, since they
generate homogenous in its essence gravitational fields and forces.
c) Therefore, this inference follows:
Isaac Newton developed modern mechanics (dynamics) dealing solely and only with
homogenous in its essence matter, which is known by the abstracted notion of mass and which is
placed in the center of gravity of the studied objects. However, in the section of electromagnetic
theory, (which involves dynamics as well, called electrodynamics), alongside with the notion of
electromagnetic or electric matter, the notion of mass is also used. Moreover, the mass of the
electromagnetic (electric) matter manifests the same properties as the mass in Newton, and it also
manifests inertial and gravitational properties. For instance, the abstracted notion of quantity of
electromagnetic matter of the electron, which is an independent electric charge (mass of the electron) is at
the same time carrier of electromagnetic (electric and magnetic), gravitational and inertial properties.
In the sense set forth herein, both in Newton’s times and now, physics deals with the idea that
matter is homogenous (unitary), and it is agreed that Maxwell’s theory is not complete without
gravitation; for this reason, the Principal (1.25) involves Newton’s theory of gravitation and only then
is the electromagnetic theory of electromagnetic matter complete. The motivation for this is the well
known experimental fact that electromagnetic waves (electromagnetic matter) generate gravitational
field and for this reason they are attracted by the gravitation of the Sun. In fact, the laws of Newton’s
85
mechanics at const. m · and low velocities
v c =
are derived as specific cases of the theory of
electromagnetic matter at mass m≠ const. and v < c.
I. e. t he onl y cause of t he al t erat i on of t he st at e and t he propert i es of obj ect s,
accordi ng t o Newt on’s el ect rodynami cs, i s t he al t erat i on of t he energy (mass) as a
resul t of t he act i on of a force whi ch i s essent i al l y rel eased or absorbed energy
(mass).
These facts make it apparent that the phenomenon of interaction involves release (emission)
of matter (mass and energy) from one object and its absorption (assimilation) by another object.
That assimilation (absorption) of the matter released from the other object by the matter of the
absorbing object is only possible on condition that the energies and matters (masses) of the objects
are of homogenous essence (of identical nature).
The fact that Newton believed that the objects interacting by force
F
r
are homogenous, is
essentially also confirmed by the circumstance that all quantities, which he used to describe the laws
were called by him only mechanical. Newton associated the notion of motion (shift) with the notion of
mechanical, i.e. the notion of mechanical is synonymous to the notion of motion. Or all quantities and
processes, which participate in a force interaction, were called by him mechanical since they are
characterized by motion, i.e. motion defines the essence of the quantities and processes, which he
called mechanical. Even at present (nowadays), motion is viewed as a mechanical process, regardless of
the essence of the cause (kind of the force), while the inherent essence of the objects which move is not
discussed (regardless of the essence of the matter of the objects which move).
On p. 748, Khaikin
*
wrote: “This means that the traditional division of the problems of body
motion into “Mechanics” and “Nonmechanics”, based on a totally obsolete division of forces into
“mechanics” and “nonmechanics”, has lost any meaning from the viewpoint of modern physical ideas.”
In the above aspect, Newtonian electrodynamics maintains the principle of the mechanical
essence of the process of motion of all objects. I.e. in the sense that every motion of objects is a
mechanical process of a homogenous essence of its substance, and which in the aspect of mechanical
motion have characteristics of motion (shift of homogenous matter from one place to another),
since they are participants in mechanical motion.
In this sense, the motion of the electron, which is a substantial form of electromagnetic matter (a
quantity of electromagnetic essence) is a mechanical process, from the viewpoint of classical and modern
mechanics. I.E. AT PRESENT, THE NOTION OF MECHANICS OR THE ADJECTIVE ‘MECHANICAL’ (MECHANIC) IMPLIES A
SECTION (FIELD) OF PHYSICS, WHICH DESCRIBES (STUDIES) THE PHENOMENON MOTION OF QUANTITY OF MATTER (MASS)
FROM ONE OBJECT TO ANOTHER, WITHOUT TREATING THE ESSENCE OF MATTER OF THE MOVING OBJECTS NOR THE
QUANTITATIVE OR STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF THE OBJECTS. I.e. THE INITIAL FORMULATION IS THAT THE PROCESS OF FORCE
INTERACTION WAS CALLED A MECHANICAL PROCESS BY NEWTON .
University physics, in its section of mechanics, discusses relativistic mechanics as well, which is
mechanics at velocities of motion close to the velocity of light; relativistic mechanics (Newtonian
electrodynamics) is at velocities:
a)
v c ≤
; b)
1
v
c
→
; c)
0 v c ≤ =
; (2.210)
Classical mechanics discusses electrodynamic processes at velocities
a)
v c =
; b)
0
v
c
→
; c)
0 v c < =
; (2.211)
Moreover, it is well known that from the laws of Newtonian electrodynamics, with assuming the
condition (2.211), which holds true for the velocity in classical mechanics, the laws of classical
mechanics can be derived, with the only difference that with Newtonian electrodynamics it is assumed
that objects are of electromagnetic matter, and this fact implies that the laws of Newtonian
electrodynamics are electromagnetic laws, and their processes of interaction – electromagnetic
processes. Furthermore, when electromagnetic processes occur at velocities as in (2.211), they can also
be described by the laws in (2.210) about which it is assumed that they are also Newton’s laws, but out
*
S. E. Khaikin. Fizicheskie osnovi mekaniki (Physical Grounds of Mechanics). Publ. “Nauka”. Moscow,
1971.
86
of them, under condition (2.211) are reduced the laws of classical mechanics.
Or the magnetic (kinetic) energy of an object with mass m
0
at rest, at velocity
= v c
(2.211) is
described by Newtonian electrodynamics at velocity v < c (2.210) and by classical mechanics at (2.311)
( )
2
1
2 2 2 0
0
.
. 1 1 ; ;
2
−
]
· · −β − · β ·
]
]
H K
m v v
W W m c
c
; (2.212)
but the simpler expression
2
0
.
.
2
m v
is preferred.
In this sense, the broadest laws of motion are described by the laws of Newtonian
electrodynamics, while the laws of classical mechanics, without any doubt or contradiction, are a
specific case of relativistic laws under condition (2.212).
These circumstances are known to researchers, who handle only classical mechanics, but
nonetheless, most of them, due to their conservatism, do not accept the fact that classical mechanics is a
specific case of relativistic mechanics (of Newtonian electrodynamics). Or rather, they do not like (enjoy)
this fact. This lack of enjoyment may be justified to a certain extent, since relativistic mechanics
(electrodynamics), which was created about 200 years after classical mechanics, uses the methodology of
classical mechanics, and this fact seems to be ignored in the above presentation, particularly in the text –
specific case.
THEREFORE, A SUMMARIZED ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT STATE OF NEWTONIAN ELECTRODYNAMICS MAKES IT CLEAR
THAT IT IS THE BROADEST MECHANICAL THEORY, WHICH INVOLVES BOTH RELATIVISTIC AND CLASSICAL MECHANICS IN ONE
WHOLE.
2.3. INFERENCES
1. Newtonian electrodynamics (relativistic electrodynamics), which holds true for all velocities,
from zero to the velocity of electromagnetic waves, is the initial theoretical basis of the laws of motion
of material objects.
2. Classical mechanics is a specific case of Newtonian electrodynamics at velocities much lower
than the velocity of electromagnetic waves, therefore, its laws are approximate (simplified), but
sufficiently precise for practice to describe mechanical processes at low velocities.
3. The laws of mechanics hold true only on condition that the essence of matter of the objects,
whose motion they describe, as well as their energies and masses (matters) are only of homogenous and
electromagnetic matter.
4. Newtonian electrodynamics at the present stage can be considered as appropriate to the ideal of
science or it could be regarded as the ideal of a science, which explains (describes) natural diversity in the
form of a system of homogenous in their essence models of abstracted notions. This system is
hierarchical and comprises genetically homogenous knowledge, which has one initial, genetically
homogenous deductive principle (theoretical basis, such as the Principal (see Chapter І, paragraph 3).
CHAPTER THREE
SUBSTANCE (ATOMS AND MOLECULES)
IS A STRUCTURE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER
3.1. GENERAL SOLUTIONS
The process of interaction between objects is accompanied by a process of their being
restructured. As a result of these processes, the objects obtain new properties, different from these
before the interaction.
To make a full and precise analysis and give an answer to the question of what substance is, it is
87
proceeded from the formulae through a mathematical description of several typical processes of
interaction, which also have been experimentally confirmed for restructuring of matter of given objects
from one state into another (from given elementary particles into others).
First Example
During interaction between electron
0
e
−
and positron
0
e
+
at rest (v = 0) they become restructured
into photons (momentums of electromagnetic waves) γ , which move at the velocity c of light (of
electromagnetic waves).
And when a gamma photon γ
Г
collides into the atom nucleus, the photon is restructured into
electron
0
e
−
and positron
0
e
+
a)
0 0
2. e e
− +
+ → γ ; b)
0 0 Г
e e
− +
γ → + ; (3.11)
Or, if these reactions between the elementary particles electrons and photons are described through
their energies, taking into account that the energies W
0
and the masses m
0
of the particles and the
antiparticles (for example, the electron and the positron are a particle and its antiparticle) at rest have
identical values, it follows from (3.11) that:
a)
2 2 2
0 0
0 0 0
2. . . 2 . 2 2. .
e e f
e e eo e
W W W m c m c m c W h v
− + − +
+ · · + · · ·
;
b)
2
0
2
0 0
. .
. .
e
k
e e
m c c h c h
v
h v m c m c
· → λ · λ · · ·
; c)
2
0
. 2. .
Г Г e
W h v m c · · ;
(3.12)
where:
0 e
W
− and
0 e
W
+ are the energies at rest (the internal energies) of the electron and positron;
eo
m
−
and
0 e
m
+  the masses of the electron and positron at rest; f
W
 energy of photon; h  Planck’s constant;
ν  frequency of the photon; v
Г
 frequency of the gamma photon, since photons in this reaction (3.11)b
have a frequency of a gamma photon; c  velocity of light in vacuum (velocity of the electromagnetic
waves in vacuum);
k
– Compton wave length.
Second example:
It is a wellknow experimental fact that during interaction between accelerated electron e
−
and
positron e
+
, depending on the conditions, their kinetic (magnetic) energies are restructured into protons
(proton p and antiproton
p
) or into neutrons (neutron n and antineutron n ) as follows:
a)
0 0
( ) e e e e p p
− + − +
+ → + → +
; b)
0 0
( ) e e e e n n
− + − +
+ → + → +
; (3.13)
Here it should be noted that:
1) The mass of the electron at rest
eo
m
is equal to the mass of energy
0 e
W
of its electrostatic field.
a)
2
0
.
e e E
W q k ·
; b) ( )
1
0 0
4 .
E e
k r
−
· πε
; c)
0
2 0
2
.
e
e e m
W
m q k
c
· ·
; d)
2
.
m E
k k c
−
·
; (3.14)
where: ε
0
is the dielectric constant of vacuum; r
e0
 the computational (the classical) radius of the
electron.
2) The full (total) electromagnetic energy t
W
of the electron at velocity
v c <
is
a)
( )
1
1 2
2
2 2 2 2
2
0 0 0
2
1 . 1 . ;
t e H e e e
v v
W W W m c m c m c
c c
−
−  `
· + · · − · −β β ·
. ,
; (3.15)
where: e
m
is the mass depending on velocity
( )
1
2
2
0
1
e e
m m
−
· − β ; (3.16)
and the magnetic (kinetic) energy of the electron He
W
is:
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
0 0
. 1 1 . . 1 1 ;
He t e e e m
W W W m c q k c
− − ] ]
· − · −β − · −β −
] ]
] ]
(3.17)
Then, under these conditions, the notation of (3.13) through the energies is:
88
a)
2
0
2 2 2. .
eo e p
ke ke
W W W W m c
− +
+ + · +
; b)
2
He
He He
W W W
− +
· +
(3.18)
or it follows from (3.18) that:
a)
2
0 0 0
2. 2. 2 2. .
e He e p
W W W m c + · +
; b)
2
0
2 2
He p
W m c ·
; (3.19)
and it follows from (3.19) and (3.17) that:
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2
2 2
0 0 0
. 1 1 1 1 ;
p pе m p e
m m q k m
− − ] ]
· · −β − · −β −
] ]
] ]
(3.110)
With an analogous procedure for (3.13b) it follows that:
( ) ( )
1 1
2 2 2
2 2
0 0 0
. 1 1 1 1
n n e m n e
m m q k m
− − ] ]
· · −β − · −β −
] ]
] ]
; (3.111)
where:
p
p
v
c
β ·
and
n
n
v
c
β ·
, p
v
and n
v
are the velocities of the electrons in reactions (3.13a) and
(3.13b), since protons and neutrons have various masses p n
m m ≠
. Moreover, the internal energies (the
energies at rest) of the proton and the neutron are:
a)
2
0 0
.
p p
W m c ·
; b)
2
0 0
.
n n
W m c ·
; (3.112)
and they are equal to the relevant kinetic energies of the electron or the positron, i.e.
a)
2
0 0
.
He p p
W W m c · ·
; b)
2
0 0
.
He n n
W W m c · ·
; (3.113)
And vice versa  the masses at rest of the proton and neutron are equal to the masses of the
magnetic energies of the electron or positron:
a)
0 2
He
p
W
m
c
·
; b)
0 2
He
n
W
m
c
·
; (3.114)
The regularities described above are experimentally confirmed, which fact implies that these
regularities are axiomatic truths  axioms. Because of this circumstance, it ought to be made clear
that the analysis and the conclusions drawn from the axioms are logically well grounded, i.e. they
are reliable.
Under these conditions, when replacing the expression for the magnetic (kinetic) energy of the
electrons in (3.110) and (3.111) with He
W
from (3.17), we have these formulae for the masses p
m
and
n
m
:
1 1
2 2
2 2
2 2
0 0 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 . .
He
p e e m p m
W v v
m m q k Q k
c c c
− − ] ]
 `  `
] ]
· · − − · − − ·
] ]
. , . ,
] ]
] ]
;
(3.115)
1 1
2 2
2 2
2 2
0 0 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 . .
He
n e e m n m
W v v
m m q k Q k
c c c
− − ] ]
 `  `
] ]
· · − − · − − ·
] ]
. , . ,
] ]
] ]
;
(3.116)
It is apparent from (3.17), (3.19), (3.110) and (3.111) that the kinetic (magnetic) energies of
electrons (electron and positron) have been restructured (transformed) into masses of proton and
neutron. This is the theoretical ground of the wellknown experimental facts, described by (3.13) a
and (3.13) b.
Here are used the notions introduced in Chapter one, paragraph 5 of integral or effective electric
charges of proton
2
p
Q
and neutron
2
n
Q
.
a)
1
2
2
2 2
2
1 1
p e
v
Q q
c
− ]
 `
]
· − −
]
. ,
]
]
; b)
1
2
2
2 2
2
1 1
n e
v
Q q
c
− ]
 `
]
· − −
]
. ,
]
]
; (3.117)
Under these conditions, the mass m
T
and the total energy of a body with mass T
m
are:
a)
2
. ;
T T m
m Q k ·
b)
1
2
2
2 2 2
2
. . . 1 . ;
T T T m
v
W m c Q k c
c
−
 `
· · −
. ,
(3.118)
89
The energy of the body at rest is:
2 2 2
0
. . .
T T m
W m c Q k c · · ; (3.119)
The magnetic (kinetic) energy of the body is:
1
2
2
2 2
0
2
. . 1 1
H k T T m
v
W W W W Q k c
c
− ]
 `
]
· · − · − −
]
. ,
]
]
; (3.120)
which is in full compliance with the values for electrons.
Emphasis
Magnetic energy and mass of an electron are essentially kinetic energy and mass of the electron.
This was defined in “Treatise on electricity and magnetism” by J. K. Maxwell of 1873 in paragraph
638, where he wrote: “we should consider both magnetic and electromagnetic energies as kinetic
energies”.
The results obtained above coincide with these in the special theory of relativity, but here they are
proved only on the basis of Maxwell’s classical electrodynamics of 1873 and by using only Galileo’s
transformations as described by Isaac Newton in 1687. And since they are obtained using fewer initial
formulations (without the postulate of constancy of the velocity of light and without Lorentz
transformations) according to the principle of simplicity (Occam’s razor) they are more perfect, and
along with this they represent a more reliable approach. And since they explain the gain of mass of the
electron by accretion of the mass of its magnetic energy, they give a more profound analysis, i.e.
this solution should be preferred as a general and initial one compared to the solution given by the
special theory of relativity, because it simplifies the physical laws and clarifies the physical meaning
of the gain of mass.
3.2. INFERENCES
First
Masses and internal energies of protons and neutrons (3.110), (3.111) and (3.112) are
proportional to the squares (
2
e
q ) of the electric charges of the electron and positron, respectively of the
mass of the electrons (
eo
m
), i.e. protons and neutrons are matter of electromagnetic essence 
electromagnetic elementary particles. Or protons and neutrons are electromagnetic matter.
Second
Kinetic energies of the proton and neutron are solely electromagnetic in the form of a magnetic
structure.
Conclusion to the second inference
All bodies of mass m
T
, including the neutron, which is externally electrically neutral, when
moving at velocity v < c and
v c <<
generate magnetic energy (magnetic fields) with a value (3.220)
( )
1
2 2
2
. . 1 1
He ke TO
W W m c
− ]
· · −β −
]
]
; (3.221)
This equation at v<<c →
0
v
c
→
, after expanding
( )
1
2
2
1
−
−β
in power series and taking only the
first two terms of the series is reduced to
2 2
2 0
2
1 .
. . .
2 2
H k TO
v m v
W W m c
c
· · · ; (3.222)
Here m
0
is the mass of the object (body) at rest (v=0).
This is an experimentally proved and undeniable scientific fact.
Third
Apparently, when the electron moves at velocity 0 v ≠ , which is obtained as a result of the
90
additional energy ∆ W imparted to it through the action of force
F
r
(which draws energy . W F r ∆ · ∆
r
r
from an external source (external field
Е
r
,
H
r
or
G
r
)), this energy W ∆ is transformed in the electron by
means of its electrostatic field
Е
r
into its own magnetic energy
H
W W ∆ · ∆
which has mass
2
H
W
m
c
∆
∆ ·
(since it is evident from the law
2
. W mc · that each energy W has mass
2
W
m
c
· )
This magnetic energy is function of the square of velocity of the electron v
2
. And the velocity is
altered, depending on the sign of alteration of the velocity v t∆ ,
H
W ∆
and m ∆ also alter by getting
increased or decreased. Here Faraday’s law of induction
d
d
H
Ф
E
t
 `
· −
. ,
manifests implicitly.
In this sense, the mass of alteration of an electron at velocity 0 v ≠ is always different from zero,
since there is always a gain of magnetic energy
0
H
W ∆ ≠
and mass
0
H
m ∆ ≠
. This fact means that
strictly speaking, the mass of bodies, which are in motion ( 0 v ≠ ) is not constant, but is always
greater than their mass at rest. But this additional mass m at velocity v<<c is much smaller than
their mass at rest m
e0
– m << m
e0
and therefore it is usually ignored.
Fourth
The mass of the electron
0 c
m
at rest (v=0) and the mass m
H
of magnetic energy W
H
bound to it
(at velocity v ≠ 0) always generate gravitational fields:
a)
0 0
0
2
. .
e
m r
G
r
γ
· −
r
r
; b)
0
2
. .
H
H
m r
G
r
∆
γ
· −
r
r
; (3.223)
where: is the gravitational constant
to which correspond the densities of their gravitational energies:
a)
2
0
0
2.
G
G
w ·
γ
; b)
2
2.
H
GH
G
w
∆
·
γ
; (3.224)
and respective gravitational energies after integrating (3.224)
a)
0 0
.d
G G
W w V ·
∫
; b)
.d
GH CH
W w V ·
∫
; (3.225)
and their respective gravitational masses:
a)
0
0
2
G
G
W
m
c
·
; b)
2
GH
GH
W
m
c
·
; (3.226)
which give an insignificant contribution to the full mass of the electron (of the body) and for this reason
are ignored. IT SHOULD BE NOTED THAT THERE ARE NO INDEPENDENT GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS, NOR INDEPENDENT
GRAVITATIONAL ENERGIES, WHICH ARE NOT DIRECTLY BOUND TO THE ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER WHICH GENERATES
THEM. FOR THE SAME REASON, THERE ARE NO INDEPENDENT GRAVITATIONAL WAVES.
Fifth
It is evident from the reactions (3.11 a) or (3.12 a), which describe the process of interaction
between electron
0
e
−
and positron
0
e
+
in a state of rest ( 0) v · , that as a result of this process of
interaction, they are restructured into the elementary particles photons with energies f
W
, masses f
m
and
momentums
f
P
r
, which move at velocity c, and which are:
a)
.
f
W h v ·
; b)
2
f
f
W
m
c
· ; c)
0
0 0
2
. .
. . ; d) ;
f f
f f f
W m r
c
P m c c G c
c c c
γ
· · · − ·
r
r
r r
r r r
r ; (3.227)
It is apparent from these experimentally confirmed reactions of interaction that in the electron
and positron at rest there exists (there is a potential of) in an implicit form their potential property of
91
selfmotion (or of motion). And this potential property of selfmotion in the conditions (the situation)
of the electron and positron one next to the other in a state of rest ( 0) v · is generated in explicit (real)
motion. This results in their restructuring into photons, which are selfmoving at the velocity of
electromagnetic waves c.
It is only at motion of the structural elements of the initial elementary particles (the electron and
positron) that they are restructured into new elementary particles (photons), which move at the velocity of
the electromagnetic waves c. This is the mechanism of restructuring as a result of the interaction, which
essentially is also a mechanism of performing work during the interaction between two objects. In
physics, this process is described by the action of force F, which by definition has dimensionality:
1
J.m F ] →
]
=
distance
joule
=
distance
energy
=
W
r
; (3.228)
I.e. by definition, during interaction between two objects, force F is carrier of the mass and
energy, which one object conveys to (exchanges with) the other object along a unit of pathway
during the interaction.
Since the energies W and the masses m are connected ( )
2
. W mc ·
, then to force F correspond energy
F
W
and mass
F
m
, exchanged along of a unit of pathway,
a)
F
W F ·
; b)
2 2
F
F
W F
m
c c
· ·
; (3.229)
These energy
F
W
and mass
F
m
are in the form of respective elementary particles of matter,
which in the electrons are photons, and they carry the electromagnetic matter (energy) and the
momentum from one object to another at the velocity of the electromagnetic waves (light) c.
IT IS EXACTLY THE MECHANISM DESCRIBED ABOVE THAT PROVES THAT ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER HAS THE
POTENTIAL PROPERTY OF SELFMOTION, WHICH DETERMINES ITS ABILITY TO BE RESTRUCTURED OR TO PERFORM WORK.
And the notion of force illustrates the conveyance of a certain quantity (quantum) of matter in the
process of interaction. This changes the quantities of matters of the interacting objects. Only when the
alteration of the quantities of their matters (masses) and their energies exceeds or is equal to their
measure of new properties of the object, only then is there restructuring, which leads to new
properties of the objects.
3.3. THE ATOM IS AN ELECTROMAGNETIC STRUCTURE, I.E. THE ATOM
IS A STRUCTURE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER
Since in a general case, the atom is a structure of N electrons, P protons and K neutrons, it follows,
in accordance with the presented above, that the mass of the atom is
( )
2 1 2
2 2 2 2
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . ;
AT e p n e m p m n m
e p m m AT m
m N m P m K m N q k PQ k K Q k
N q PQ K Q k Q k
· + + · + + ·
· + + ·
(3.330)
where the square of the effective electric charge of the atom is
2 2 2 2
. . . ;
AT e p n
Q N q P Q K Q · + +
(3.331)
And N, P and K are numbers, determining the values of the respective charges.
The mass of the atom is as the mass of an object (body)
2
. ;
AT AT m
m Q k ·
(3.332)
and if the value of the mass of the respective atom
1 AT
m
is known, its square of effective electric charge is
2 1
1
;
AT
AT
m
m
Q
k
·
(3.333)
I.e. from the known masses of the atoms of the chemical elements we can determine their
squares of effective electric charges. This fact implies that it is possible to determine the squares of
effective electric charges of all atoms. This condition means that we can handle the masses of atoms
92
m
AT
in the same was as the masses of electrons.
It should be noted that the masses of the molecules are not the arithmetic sum of the number of
their atom masses, since when they bound into molecules, the defects of their masses drop off.
Therefore, for each molecule, the specific value of its mass should be taken into consideration and
out of it be determined its respective square of effective electric charge.
For the quantity of mass of substance (electromagnetic matter), it is possible out of its weight to
determine the square of its effective electric charge and then handle it in the same way as a mass of
electron, i.e.
a) 2
. ;
B T T m
m m Q k · ·
b)
2
;
T
T
m
m
Q
k
·
(3.334)
The presented above cogently shows that the masses of real objects in nature can be handled in
the same way as masses of structures of electric charges, i.e. as masses of electrons.
In this sense, the masses, which are used in classical mechanics are also masses of
electromagnetic matter, and therefore, classical mechanics should be treated as classical
electrodynamics.
3.4. CONCLUSION
Masses of real natural objects, provided that their specific values are known, can be handled in the
same way as masses of electrons, and essentially, their kinetic energies are magnetic energies. That
explains why, at accelerations different from zero 0 a ≠ bodies always emit electromagnetic energy –
electromagnetic waves, as well as electrons with power
2 2
3
2. .
;
3.
T
dW a Q
N
dt c
· · (3.335)
This fact accounts for emission of electromagnetic waves in collisions between substantial objects,
where their velocity decreases from 0 v > to zero 0 v · in time
τ
, i.e. it decreases by mean acceleration
;
v
a ·
τ
(3.336)
In addition, the structural bonds between atoms and molecules break and electrons alter their orbits,
during which processes there is photon emission.
CHAPTER FOUR
THE INERTIAL FORCE IS AN ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE
Since the inertial force is a manifestation of electromagnetic matter, whose lowest or initial level
are the electromagnetic elementary particles of electrons (electron and positron), for a better cogency
of the idea of the electromagnetic mechanism of the inertial force, we shall first consider the electrons,
which are accepted as a model of electromagnetic matter, and which ensure the electromagnetic
essence of the inertial property of electromagnetic matter.
4.1. MANIFESTATIONS (PROPERTIES) OF ELECTRONS
4.1.1. Electrostatic: field, energy and mass of the electron
At distance r
r
from an electron at rest there is electrostatic field
e 0
2
0
.
4
q r
E
r
·
πε
r
r
; 0
r
r
r
·
r
r
r
; (4.11)
where: 0
ε
is the dielectric constant of vacuum.
The electrostatic field has densities of its energy and mass
93
a)
2
0
E
2
E
w
ε
·
; b)
E
E
2
c
w
ρ ·
, (4.12)
and electrostatic energy
eE0
W
and its mass
e0
m
, the mass of electron at rest, are:
a)
e0
2
e
eE0 e
0 e0
.dV
4 .
r
q
W w
r
∞
· ·
πε
∫
; b)
2
2 e
e0 e m
2
0 e0
.
4 . .
q
m q k
r c
· ·
πε
;
c)
( )
1
2
m 0 e0
4 . . k r c
−
· πε ;
(4.13)
where:
e0
r
is the computational (classical) radius of electron; V – volume.
4.1.2. Magnetic field and magnetic (kinetic) energy and mass
At velocity v < c, around the electron at distance r in point M and around it, magnetic field is
generated
a) [ ]
e
0 0 0
2
.
. .
4 .
q v
H v E v r
r
] · ε ·
]
π
r r
r r r
; b) 0
v
v
v
·
r
r
r ; (4.14)
with densities of the magnetic energy
H
w
and mass
H
ρ
of the electron
a)
2
H 0
2
H
w · µ ; b)
H
H
2
c
w
ρ · ; 0
2
0
1
.c
µ ·
ε
; (4.15)
In point M at distance r, besides the generated
H
w
and
H
ρ
, there are the constant and independent
of time
E
const. w ·
and
E
const. ρ ·
, since they only depend on the charge
e
const. q ·
Therefore, the resultant density of mass in point M is:
a)
M E H
ρ · ρ + ρ
; →b)
d 0 d d
M H H
ρ · + ρ · ρ
; (4.16)
where the density of the mass of the magnetic field
H
ρ
is function of the velocity v of the electron.
The generation of magnetic field, or of magnetic energy of electron respectively, results from (is at
the expense of) the energies imparted by the forces of interaction of external electric
B
E
r
or gravitational
B
G
r
fields, as a result of which it is set into motion at velocity v
r
, by force
a)
( )
e e
e e B
d . d
.
dt d
m v P
F q E
t
· · ·
r
r
r r
; b)
G e B
. F m G ·
r r
; (4.17)
whereby acceleration
e
a
r
, velocity
e
v
r
and momentum
e
P
r
are imparted to the electron
a)
e d
e
F
a a
m
· ·
r
r r
; b)
e d
. . .
e
F
v a t a t t
m
· · ·
r
r r r
; c)
e e e
. P m v ·
r
r
; (4.18)
Here the following circumstances should be emphasized:
First. Since the dimensionality of the force is ] . [ ] / [
1 −
· → m J meter joule F , the
energy imparted by external fields
B
E
and
B
G
to the electron, is transformed into energy of a
magnetic field, respectively magnetic energy of the electron.
Second. The mass of the electron
e
m
is the gravitational charge for gravitational field G , by
analogy from (4.17), like
e
q , which is electric charge for
B
E
.
Third. When external fields
E
r
and
G
r
interact with the charge of the electron
e
q
and its mass
e
m
, forces
e
F
r
and
G
F
r
are generated, which impart to the electron energy, or respectively, acceleration,
velocity and momentum for time dt , or they move it along distance d .d r v t ·
r r
, respectively. The energy
dW and mass dm imparted by the external fields in this process of movement, through the forces, are:
a) ( )
e
e e G e
d
d .d .d .d .d .d .
dt
P
W F r F r r v P v m v · · · · ·
r
r r r
r r r r r r
; b)
2
;
e
e
dW
dm
c
·
(4.19)
94
Since W. Kaufmann experimentally proved in 1901 that mass e
m
of the electron is a variable
function of velocity, this experimental result should be reflected in the derivative of
е
P
r
, respectively
through the force
e e
e
d d d
. .
dt d dt
P v m
F m v
t
· · +
r
r
r
r
;
(4.110)
And according to Chapter 1, paragraph 5, the magnetic energy and mass of the electron at velocities
a)
; v c <
b)
1;
v
c
β · <
(4.111)
are
a)
( )
1
2 2 2
0
. 1 1 ;
He e
W m c
−
]
· −β −
]
]
b)
2
;
He
He
W
m
c
·
(4.112)
These formulae for He
W
and He
m
hold true for all velocities of the electron v, lower than c
(v < c).
These formulae, however, are very complex for the cases when the velocity of the electron v is
much lower than the velocity of electromagnetic waves c, i.e. at
a)
v c <<
; →b)
1
v
c
<<
or c)
v
c
→0;
(4.113)
Here the function
( )
1
2
2
1
−
−β
is expanded in a power series
( )
1
2 2 4 6
2
1 3 15
1 1 ...
2 8 18
−
−β · + β − β + β
;
(4.114)
and with sufficient preciseness at
v c <<
, magnetic energy
He
W
of the electron is derived by taking only the
first two terms of the series (4.114), and we have
2 2 2
2 2 e0
He e0 e0 e0 ke
2 2
1 1 1 .
1 1 . . . .
2 2 2 2
v v m v
W W W m c W
c c
]
· + β − · · · ·
]
]
;
(4.115)
This expression of magnetic energy of the electron at
v c <<
is called kinetic energy in mechanics.
This mass of the magnetic energy also corresponds to it
a)
2
He e0
He e0 2 2
.
c 2.
W m v
m m
c
· · =
; b)
2
2
0;
v
c
→
; (4.116)
Due to which it is accepted that the sum of the mass of the electron e0
m
(4.113) and He
m
(4.112) is
2
e e0 He e0
. const.
e m
m m m m q k · + ≈ · ·
; (4.117)
i. e. because
He 0 e
m m <<
,
He
m
is dropped off and calculations are done only at
e0
m
.
However, formulae (4.115) and (4.216) for
He
W
and
He
m
hold also true at
v c <<
for
magnetic energy and masses, although
He k
W W ·
is called kinetic energy in classical mechanics, and
He
m
is never considered, because in I. Newton’s times, the notion of field was unknown nor was the
relationship between the internal energy and mass (
2
. W mc · ).
4.2. TRANSFER OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY FROM ONE OBJECT TO
ANOTHER
4.2.1. General formulations
There is a basic experiment in mechanics, in which two identical balls collide. When ball 1 moves
at velocity
1
v
and collides centrally with ball 2, which is at rest ( )
2
0 v ·
, after the collision ball 1
remains at rest ( )
1
0 v ·
in the place of collision, and ball 2 starts moving at velocity
2 1
v v ·
.
A similar effect is obtained with two electrons or with one electron and a body or with two bodies,
because they are made of electromagnetic matter, whose structural elements (electrons, protons, neutrons)
95
are products of electrons (bipolar independent electric charges), i.e. of electromagnetic elementary
particles.
For this purpose, in order to explain the process of transfer of magnetic (kinetic) energy from one
object to another, a model is considered of interaction of an electron at velocity
v c <<
and another
electron at rest ( ) 0 v ·
.
When an electron at velocity
v c <
and energy
He
W
, given in (4.112)a, encounters another
electron, which is at rest ( ) 0 v ·
, during an interaction for time dt, the electron reduces its velocity by
d d v a t ·
r r
( a
r
is acceleration) along distance d d r v t ·
r r
and performs work dA, which is equal to the
reduction of its energy by
d
He
W
, as follows:
( )
3
2 2
2
0
d .d d . 1 . d ;
e He e
v
A F r W m c v v
c
−
· · · −β β ·
r
r r r
; (4.21)
where force
e
F
r
is:
a)
( )
3
2 2
2
0 0
d d
. . . 1 . ;
d .d
He
e e
W P
F r v m c a
r v t
−
· · · −β
r
r
r r r
b)
d
d
v
a
t
·
r
v
; c) 0
r
r
r
·
r
r
r ; (4.22)
In forceful interaction at velocity from 0 v ≠ to 0 v · , electron one has mass 1 at rest, which mass
m
e01
has great acceleration and therefore it emits (gives out) electromagnetic energy
He
W
in the form of an
electromagnetic wave (a sum of photons) with power
2 2
3
2
.
3
e
a q
N
c
· at velocity c and performed work A.
( ) ( )
0 1 1
2 2 0 2 2
2 2
0 01
d . 1 . 1 1 . ;
He He e v e
v
A W W m c m c N t
− − ]
· · · −β · −β − ·
]
]
∫
(4.23)
This energy is absorbed by electron two which is and it is thus set into motion at velocity v
1
whereby the electron acquires electromagnetic (magnetic, kinetic) energy
He
W
while the energy emitted
into the surrounding space in the form of unabsorbed electromagnetic waves is ignored. This magnetic
energy at velocity
v c =
is
2 2
2 0
0
2
.
. 1 1
2. 2
e
He e k
v m v
W m c W
c
]  `
· − − · ·
]
. , ]
; (4.24)
For a neutral body with mass m
T
, the effective square of the electric charge
2 T
T
m
m
Q
k
·
is used and
the body is treated as electron with mass
2
.
T T m
m Q k · .
4.2.2.. Summaries
4.2.2.1. Electromagnetic matter is composed (structured) of restructured electric charges with a
square of effective value
2
T
Q . The fact that according to Maxwell kinetic energy is magnetic energy
implies the summarized conclusion that natural objects are made of electromagnetic matter (in a field
form and in a substantial form) and that it is a structure of restructured electric charges. These
charges are in explicit or implicit, restructured form, i.e. the charges is in independent or summarized
(as, for example, in neutrons and other elementary particles) implicit state.
HOWEVER, REGARDLESS OF WHAT STATE ELECTRIC CHARGES ARE IN, THEY ALWAYS MANIFEST THEIR MAIN
(ATTRIBUTIVE) PROPERTY AT MOTION (VELOCITY ( ) 0 v ≠
TO GENERATE (CREATE) A MAGNETIC FIELD ASSOCIATED
WITH THEMSELVES  MAGNETIC ENERGY, WHICH IS CALLED KINETIC. And the energy at rest ( ) 0 v ·
is the energy
of their electrostatic and gravitational fields. Almost always their gravitational energies and masses are
ignored (not accounted for), since they are about 10
40
times smaller than the electrostatic energy and
mass.
96
4.2.2.2. ESSENTIALLY, MAGNETIC ENERGY OF ELECTRIC CHARGES IS THE TRANSFORMED ENERGY
(ELECTROMAGNETIC OR GRAVITATIONAL), WHICH CHARGES HAVE ABSORBED FROM OUTSIDE IN ORDER TO BE ACCELERATED
(FOR THEIR MASS TO BE ACCELERATED) UP TO A RESPECTIVE VELOCITY V
d
e
F
v t
m
 `
·
. ,
r
r
, BY THE ACTION OF THE MOTION
FORCE
d
F
r
WHICH MAY BE GENERATED BY ELECTROMAGNETIC (
E
r
AND
H
r
) OR GRAVITATIONAL
G
r
FIELDS.
IN THIS SENSE, THE ENERGY ABSORBED FROM OUTSIDE IS TRANSFORMED INTO MAGNETIC ENERGY. IT IS THAT
ENERGY WHICH UNDER CONDITION (4.113) ( ) v c =
IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE MASS OF THE CHARGE q
m
AND THE
SQUARE OF ITS VELOCITY, I.E.
2
'
2
qH T
v
W m ·
; (4.25)
And this magnetic energy qH
W
has mass
2
qH
qH
W
m
c
·
, which is bound inseparably to the mass of
the charge at rest 0 q
m
. Because of this, the mass of the body is a sum of its mass at rest and its magnetic
mass, 0 qн T
m m =
and therefore it is ignored, i.e.
0 0 q T qH T
m m m m · + ≈
; (4.26)
Considering Newton’s formulation that mass is an abstracted notion of the notion of matter, this
conclusion follows:
WHEN A BODY (ITS CHARGE) IS ACCELERATED, ITS QUANTITY OF MATTER INCREASES, SINCE THE MATTER,
WHICH IT HAS OBTAINED FROM OUTSIDE – FROM ITS MOTIVE FORCE (ELECTROMAGNETIC OR GRAVITATIONAL) – ADDS
TO ITS MATTER AT REST ( 0 v · ).
But both matters, of the electrostatic as well as of the gravitational field, are electromagnetic,
and despite having different structures, they come from a homogenous initial source.
4.3. ELECTROMAGNETIC MECHANISM OF INERTIAL FORCE FORMATION
Proceeding from the fact that kinetic energy is magnetic and for an electron at velocity . v a t ·
r r
,
where a
r
is its acceleration, this circumstance means that when 0 a ≠
r
, its magnetic (kinetic) energy
alters, and respectively, magnetic flux Ф that encompasses the electron also alters. They increase when a
r
is a positive value – the velocity increases and vice versa – when a
r
is negative, the velocity decreases.
This alteration of the magnetic energy, respectively of the magnetic flux is related to the alteration of the
kinetic energy, which is also related to Faraday’s law of induction, i.e. according to Faraday’s law, the
alteration of magnetic flux in time
d
dt
Φ
results in generation of eddycurrent electric field
i
E
r
a)
d .
d
i
i
E
t
Φ
· −
r
r
; b)
;
a
a
i
a
·
r
r
r
(4.31)
This circumstance also implies the law that with any alteration of the kinetic (magnetic) energy of
the electron, eddycurrent electric field
i
E
r
is induced in it, according to (4.31) in direction opposite to
the acceleration
d
0 e
F
a
m
·
r
r
; (4.32)
as a result of the motive force
d
F
r
and inertial force .
ie e
F q E ·
r r
occurs.
I.e. force
ie
F
r
is in opposite direction to force
d
F
r
and therefore force
ie
F
r
is the inertial force of the
electron.
Below follows a detailed solution for the acquisition of the expression of the inertial force.
Through crosssection d S on a plane, going through the center of the electron and perpendicular to
acceleration a
r
, with dimension
1
o
l ·
, perpendicular to
0
r l ⊥
r
v
and dimension dr along r
r
in point M,
97
i.e.
0
d d 1.d S l r r · ·
, runs elementary magnetic flux
d d .
e
S B Φ ·
. The flux, which encompasses the
electron through the center and along a unit of length on the axis of a
r
is:
a)
0
0
2
0 0
. . . .
d
4
e
e e
e e
e e r
q a t m a t
r c q
∞
Φ · Φ · ·
πε
∫
; b) at a = 0 →Φ
e
= 0; (4.32)
The derivative of Φ
e
by the time, according to Faraday’s law induces electromotive field E
ei
in the
center of the electron in direction, opposite to acceleration a
r
0
2
0 0
d
d 4
e a e a e
ei
e e
i q ai m a
E
t r c q
Φ
· − · − · −
πε
r r
r
r
; a
a
i
a
·
r
r
r ; (4.34)
This
ei
E
r
field by its interaction with the electric charge
e
q
of the electron generates
electromagnetic force
a)
0
. .
ie e ei e
F q E m a · · −
r r
r
; (4.35)
which is equal in value and opposite in direction to the motive forces which set the electron into
motion
a)
d
.
e B e
F q E F · ·
r r r
; b)
d
.
e G
F m G F · ·
r r r
; c)
d ie e G
F F F F · − · − · −
r r r r
; (4.36)
or
d
0
ie
F F + ·
r r
; (4.37)
where: G
r
is gravitational field.
In this sense,
ie
F
r
is the inertial force, which in the sense of Newton is:
a)
d
.
i
F ma F · − · −
r r
r
; b)
d i
F F ·
r r
; (4.38)
i.e. the inertial force is electromagnetic in essence and is a result of a selfaction of the electron upon
itself. Essentially, the inertial force is a manifestation of the Law for conservation of the mass and the
energy of an object, by counteracting against the external factor, which aims at altering them (the motive
force
d
F
r
) with the same value, but with an opposite sign, so that their sum is zero
d i
F F +
r r
= 0 or the
object retains its mass and energy.
This solution for the inertial force is a result of the fact that kinetic energy is magnetic energy.
Hence this inference follows:
THE ALTERATION OF MAGNETIC (KINETIC) ENERGY RESULTS IN GENERATION OF INERTIAL FORCE.
In the general case, the acceleration, which is a vector quantity
a)
;
n
a a a
τ
· +
r r r
b)
2 2 2
;
n
a a a
τ
· + (4.39)
where: a
τ
r
is the component as a projection of the acceleration a
r
upon the initial velocity
0
v
r
of the
electron, which can be of sign plus (+) or minus (), i.e. energy could be imparted
2
0
.
0,
2
e
m v
W
τ
τ
∆ · > or
taken away
2
0
. 0
e
W m v
τ τ
∆ · <
r
. A
n
a
r
is the component as a projection of a
r
upon an axis perpendicular to
velocity
0
v
r
of the electron. In these conditions, taking energy away means that the electron will release
energy in the form of magnetic energy to other objects, or as emitted in the form of electromagnetic
energy emitted as electromagnetic waves (photons), to the surrounding space. In support of these
thoughts, comes this circumstance:
The released energy
d
a
W
is
2
d . .d . . .d . . . .d ;
a i e m
W F v t ma t t q k a t t · ∆ · ·
r
r
(4.310)
and the emitted energy
d
и
W
, according to literature about the electron is proportional
2 2
d .
и e
W q a ≡ ; (4.311)
i.e.
d
и
W
is part of
d
a
W
proportional to
2 2
.
e
q a . For electrons in atoms with circular velocity appr.
98
0
6
10 m/s
e
v
−
·
and acceleration (tangential), which reduces this velocity to
'
0 e e
v v < and is the reason
(according to the Law of conservation of kinetic and potential energies of the electron in an atom) for its
distance to the nucleus to decrease and normal acceleration to be generated, which increases its potential
energy. In this case the decreased kinetic (magnetic) energy is emitted in the form of photons.
Similarly, with Compton’s effect. Part of the energy of the photon which strikes the electron (its
value being equal to the potential energy of the electron) is emitted by the electron, and another part of
the energy of the striking photon is spent on accelerating the electron.
CHAPTER FIVE
EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY BY ELECTRONS IN
THE FORM OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES – PHOTONS
5.1. WHEN AN ELECTRON HITS A HARD SURFACE
According to electrodynamics, during the motion of electrons at acceleration a
r
, they emit power
2 2
e
3
d 2 .
.
d 3
W q a
N
t c
· · ; (5.11)
When an electron hits a hard surface at velocity
0
v
and is absorbed by the surface, its velocity
becomes equal to zero. If the duration of the collision is
τ
, the mean acceleration of the electron is:
0
v
a ·
τ
r
r
; (5.12)
Provided that pathway
a
r
, along which the velocity v
0
becomes zero (from v
0
and 0), is equal to the
diameter of the electron
e0 e0
2.
a
r D r · ·
, and the velocity
6 1
0
10 m.s v
−
· , the time is:
15
21 e0
6
0 0
5.62.10
5, 62.10 s
v v 10
a
r D
t
−
−
τ · ∆ · · · ·
; (5.13)
At velocity of the electron
0
v of the order of the velocities of electrons in the atom
6 1
0
10 . v mS
−
≈ and
15
eo
2.81.10 r m
−
· , the acceleration in the collision is:
6
27 2 0
21
10
1, 77.10 m.s
5, 62.10
v
a
−
−
· · ≈
τ
; (5.14)
From formula (5.11) by replacing the participating quantities with numerical values and
multiplying by time
τ
, we derive the emitted wave energy:
18
. 9,98.10 J W N
−
∆ · τ · ; (5.15)
which is of the order of the energy of a photon with frequency
16
10 Hz ν · (in the ultraviolet spectrum),
which is:
34 16 18
e
. 6, 625.10 .10 6.625.10 J W h
− −
· ν · · ; (5.16)
here the accepted velocity
6 2
0
10 s v
−
· is just tentative.
At velocities
2 3 1
0
10 10 m.s v
−
· ÷ , it follows that ( )
23 24 2
1, 77 10 10 m.s a
−
· ÷
and W ∆ ·
( )
26 24
9,98. 10 10 J
− −
· ÷
, and the frequency of photons is
( )
26 24
34
10 10
9,98
6, 625.10
− −
−
÷
ν · ·
( )
8 10
1,5 10 10 · ÷
Hz
With regard to the emission of energy from the electrons in connection with the direction of the
velocity of the electron
e
v
r
and the direction of acceleration
e
a
r
, which is determined by the direction and
value of the acting force
d
. F ma ·
r
r
, where m
e
is the mass, connected with the force of electrons
e
m
,
99
where the acceleration of the electron is:
d
e
e
F
a
m
·
r
r
; (5.17)
Here, the following rule holds true:
The projection of the acceleration
e
a
r
upon velocity
e
v
of the electron
ea
a
r
is called active,
because only when
ea
0 a ≠
r
has force
d
F
r
, which generates this acceleration, a projection
da
0 F ≠
r
upon
the velocity
e
v
r
of the electron. And only then the product of the elementary part of the trajectory of the
electron
e e
d .d r v t ·
r r
; (5.18)
multiplied by force
da
F
r
gives energy different from zero, i. e.
e d e d e
d .d .d .cos0 0 W F r F r
τ τ
· · ≠
r
r
; (5.19)
Id est only on condition (5.19) does the force acting on the electron
da
F
r
, which moves at velocity
v
, imparts the real value of energy
e
dW
to it. And depending on the sign of this energy
e
d 0 W ≠
, it
accelerates (
e
v
r
increases) or decelerates ( v
r
decreases) the electron. Or, in other words, depending on the
sign of
e
dW
(5.19), the kinetic energy of the electron increases or decreases.
If the projection of the acceleration
e
a
r
upon velocity
e
v
is zero (i. e. the acceleration is
perpendicular to
e e e
v a v − ⊥
r r
), then the acceleration is passive ( )
ep ep e
a a v ⊥
r r r
. In this case
e
dW
is:
a)
e d e d e
d .d .d .cos 0
2
W F r F r
τ τ
π
· · ·
r
r
; b)
;
d e
F v
τ
⊥
r
r
c)
. ;
e
dr v dt ·
r r
(5.110)
Id est in case ep e
a v ⊥
r r
, the force
dp er
. F ma ·
r
r
is perpendicular to the velocity of the electron, too,
and because of this it does not give out energy to the electron, owing to which the electron does not
change its energy, and thus the force
de
F
r
, or acceleration ep
a
r
respectively, changes only the
direction of its velocity.
THIS FACT DISPROVES N. BOHR’S ARGUMENT FOR THE ATOM MODEL THAT THE FACT THAT THE ELECTRON
DOES NOT FALL ON THE ATOM NUCLEUS, IS NOT AN EFFECT FROM CLASSICAL PHYSICS. For example, if the electron
is in the orbital of the atom, under the action of this force (acceleration), the electron will move
constantly only along one orbital – it will neither fall down onto nucleus, nor move up to a higher
orbital.
5.2. GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT THE EMISSION OF A PHOTON BY
THE ELECTRONS IN THE ATOMS
1. The electron has electric charge
19
e
1, 6.10 q C
−
· − .
2. The mass of the electron at the velocity
6 1
e
10 . v ms c
−
≈ <<
in the orbital of the atom is
( ) ( )
1
4 2 2
e0 e0 e m m 0 e0
1 1,11.10 . : 4 . . m m q k k r c
−
−
− ≈ · · πε
; (5.21)
3. In the atom of hydrogen, its nucleus has charge
19
я e
1, 6.10 q q C
−
· − · + .
4. The electric potential
e
V
and the potential energy ep
W
of the electron, which is in the orbital at
distance
a)
2
e 0
. r n r · ; b) nteger i n ... 3 ; 2 ; 1 · ; (5.22)
where:
0
r
is the smallest value of the radius of the electron in the atom, therefore the potential and the
potential energy of the electron are:
100
a)
e
e
0 e
4. . .
q
V
r
·
πε
; b)
eя
ep
2
0 e 0 0
. .
4. . . 4 . .
e n
q q q q
W
r r n
· ·
πε πε
; (5.23)
which are quantized, because they are functions of
e
q
and
я
q
, which are quantized electric charges,
because
e
q
is the smallest quantum (quantity) of electric charge, or from (5.23) we have
a)
e e 0 e
.4 . q V r · π.ε
; b) eя ep 0 e
. .4 . q q W r · πε
; c)
2
e 0
. r n r · ; (5.24)
It is evident from (5.24) that the distances
e
r
should be quantized
4. The force – Coulomb’s law is a derivative of ep
W
(5.23)b relative to
e
r
ep
eя 0
kk e 0
2
0 e
d
. .
.
dr 4 .
W
q q r
F F r
r
· · ·
π.ε
r
r
;
e
0
e
r
r
r ·
r
r
r
; (5.25)
4. From (5.24) the energy
a)
ep kk
d .d W F r ·
r
r
; b)
e
eя 0 e e я e я
ep
2 2
0 e 0 e 0 0
. . .d . .
4. . 4. . 4. . .
r
q q r r q q q q
W
r r n r
∞
· − · ·
π.ε π.ε π.ε
∫
r r
; (5.26)
therefore, the magnetic (kinetic) force
kk
F
is quantized as well.
7. The full energy
0
W
of the electron in the atom at velocity
e
v
is a sum of the potential energy ep
W
and the magnetic (kinetic) energy
2
e0 e
k
.
2
H
m v
W W · ·
2 2
e 0
0 ep k
0 n
.
8. . 2
e e
q m v
W W W
r
· + · − +
π.ε
;
2
n 0
. r n r · ; (5.27)
where: K H
W W ·
is the kinetic energy of the electron at e
v c =
.
It is evident from (5.27)) that the full energy of the electron in the atom is quantized, too.
8. Forces and energies during absorption and emission of a photon with energy
f
W
and mass
f
2 f
c
W
m · of the photon.
A hydrogen atom is interpreted, its full energy in stationary mode being
0
W
(5.27).
In a stationary mode, the electron moves along a stationary orbital with
n
const. r r · ·
owing to
which the centripetal
c
F
r
and centrifugal
j
F
r
are numerically equal, but with opposite directions, i. e.
a)
i j
0 F F + ·
r r
; →b) i j n
F F F · ·
r r
; (5.28)
Since forces
i
F
r
and
j
F
r
are derivatives of their energies
H K
W W ·
; therefore, their energies are
equal as well
a) ep k
W W ·
; →b)
2 2
e e0
0 n
.
4. . . 2
q m v
r
·
πε
; (5.29)
therefore, the radius is
2
2 e
n 0
2
0 e0 e
.
4 . .
q
r n r
m v
· ·
π.ε
; (5.210)
And the values of forces
i
F
r
and
j
F
r
or F
n
are
n e e e e
n i j 0 e0 e0 n
d .d d d
. . .
dr v.dt dt dt
W v P P V
F F F r m m a · · · · · · ·
r r r
r
r r
r r
; (5.211)
To these forces correspond equal in values centripetal
i
a
r
and centrifugal j
a
r
accelerations, which
have opposite directions
101
a)
2
2 n
i j n 0 n
n
. .
r
v
a a a r r · · · · −ω
r r r r
; b) i j
0 a a + ·
r r
; c) 2 ω· π.ν ; d)
n n
. v r · ω
; e)
n
0
n
r
r
r ·
r
r
r
; (5.212)
where:
ω
is the angular frequency of the electron at radius of the orbital
n
r ;
ν
 the frequency of the
revolutions of the electron along the orbital with
n
r
9. In a stationary mode, the accelerations
i
a
r
and j
a
r
are perpendicular to velocity
n
v
of the electron
upon the orbital with radius
n
r
, i. e.
a)
i n
a v ⊥
r r
; b) j n
a v ⊥
r r
; (5.213)
Therefore, forces
i
F
r
and
j
F
r
are perpendicular to velocity
n
v
r
as well, i. e.
a)
i n
F v ⊥
r
r
; b)
j n
F v ⊥
r
r
; (5.214)
since
a)
i e0 i
. F m a ·
r
r
; b) j e0 j
. F m a ·
r
; (5.215)
Because of this (5.125) and because
n n
d .d r v t ·
r r
, the work, which they do or the energy needed to
change the energy of the electron, is zero, i. e.
a)
i i i n i n i
d d .d . .d . .d .cos 0
2
n
A W F r F v t F v t
π
· · · · ·
r r
r r
;
b)
j j j n j
d d . .d . .d .cos 0
2
n
A W F v t F v t
π
· · · ·
r
r
;
(5.216)
Because of this (5.216), the energy of the electron does not change in a stationary mode along
one orbital and it constantly moves along the same orbital and does not fall down onto the nucleus.
The reason for this is (5.216) that the sum of the attractive (centripetal) force
i
F
r
and the centrifugal
force
j
F
r
in a stationary mode neutralize each other: their sum is zero (5.28)a.
THIS CONCLUSION, WHICH HAS ALSO BEEN EXPERIMENTALLY VALIDATED, DISPROVES NIELS BOHR’S CLAIMS,
WHEN REFERRING TO THE ATOM MODEL, THAT THIS DOES NOT RESULT FROM CLASSICAL PHYSICS, BUT IS SOMETHING
NEW, A FACT FROM THE QUANTUM MECHANICS. BUT AS WE HAVE SHOWN, IT IS A PURELY CLASSICAL EFFECT
RESULTING FROM THE CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS.
10. Therefore, in order to change the energy of an electron, which is in an atom orbital and moves
at velocity
e
v
r
, it is necessary that the angle θ between the force
i
F
r
, which acts upon it and its velocity
e
v
should be under an angle different from
2
π
, i. e.
2
π
θ ≠
; (5.217)
or the acceleration
i
a
r
which is imparted to it should be under an angle θ different from
2
π
relative to
its velocity
e
v
r
, so that the shift
n n
d .d r v t ·
r r
should not be perpendicular to force
i
F
r
and the product of
i
F
r
by
n
dr
r
, which is equal to work
i
d A
and energy
i
dW
be different from zero, i. e.
i i i e i e i
d d .d . .d . .d .cos 0
n
A W F r F v t F v t · · · · θ ≠
r r
r r
; (5.218)
In (5.218), two radically different solutions are possible depending on the value of angle θ .
10.1. When angle θ is smaller than
2
π
.
Then force
i
F
r
(the acceleration
i
a
r
) has a component (projection)
'
i
F
r
(
'
i
a
r
) upon the direction of
velocity
e
v
r
, owing to which it increases to
'
e e
v v > , and this entails an increases of the kinetic energy of
the electron from
k
W
to
'
k k
W W > . Since the sum of the kinetic energy
k
W
(magnetic energy
H
W
) and the
potential energy ep
W
of the electron must remain constant, the potential energy, therefore, must decrease
102
to
'
ep ep
W W <
by gaining
k
W ∆
of the kinetic (magnetic) energy, and this means that the radius
n
r
of the
orbital will increases to
'
n n
r r > or, proceeding from (5.29)e, we have
a)
2 '2
' e e0 e
ep
'
0 n
.
4 . 2
q m v
W
r
· ·
πε
; b)
2
' e
n n
'2
0 e0 e
2.
4 . .
q
r r
m v
· >
πε
; (5.219)
i. e. at
2
π
θ < the electron moves to a higher orbital with
'
n n
r r > , where its potential energy is lower.
Such is the case when the electron absorbs, from outside, a photon with energy
a)
'
f H H
W W W · −
; b)
;
H K
W W ·
(5.220)
10.2. When the angle θ is larger than
2
π
.
Then the projection of the force
i
F
r
(the acceleration
i
a
r
) is in the opposite direction of velocity
e
v
r
of the electron, because of which its velocity decreases to
''
e e
v v < , and hence its kinetic energy
decreases as well to
''
k k
W W < , and its potential energy increases
''
ep ep
W W <
, due to which the radius of its
orbital decreases to
''
n n
r r < ; by analogy to (5.219), for
' '
n
r we have
2
'' e
n n
'' 2
0 e0 e
2.
4 . .
q
r r
m v
· <
πε
; (5.221)
and has kinetic energy
''
k
W
and potential energy
''
ep
W
a)
''2
'' e0 e
H H f
.
2
m v
W W W · − ·
; b)
2
'' e
ep
''
0 n
4 .
q
W
r
·
πε
; (5.222)
The decrease of
k
W
to
''
k
W is by the energy of the photon
f
W
, which is emitted in this process at
2
π
θ > .
The presented herein contains the mechanisms of absorption and emission of photons by electrons
in the atom, which is a classical fact.
EMPHASIS.
THE ANALYSES IN ITEMS 10.1 AND 10.2 ARE MADE ONLY THROUGH THE LAWS OF CLASSICAL PHYSICS
(MECHANICS AND ELECTRODYNAMICS). AND THEY SHOW THAT THE PROCESSES OF ELECTRONS IN ATOMS (MOLECULES)
OBEY THE LAWS OF CLASSICAL PHYSICS. A CATEGORICAL CLAIM FOLLOWS FROM THIS FACT: THAT THE EMISSION AND
ABSORPTION OF PHOTONS BY ATOMS (MOLECULES) ARE CLASSICAL PHENOMENA.
It is another question that when electrons in atoms are more than one, they interact with each
other and then there occurs interaction between three bodies (the nucleus and two or more electrons)
and this problem presently has no solution in physics. That is why N. Bohr’s model cannot solve
problems with an atom having two or more electrons.
5.3. EMISSION OF PHOTONS BY ATOMS
Here it should be taken into account that the phenomena in atoms are determined by the phenomena
of their electrons and their nuclei.
An electron in the orbital of an atom with radius
i
r
and velocity
i
v c <<
has magnetic energy
Hi
W
,
to which, formally, corresponds frequency
ν
:
a)
2
e0
Hi
.
2
i
m v
W ·
; b)
Hi
i
h
W
ν ·
; (5.31)
where: h – Planck’s constant
Here the electron is in the central electric field
я
E
of the nucleus, due to which upon it acts a
central electric force
a)
я 0
csi e e e0 csi
2
0
.
. . .
4
я
i
Q r
F q E q m a
r
· · ·
πε
r
r r
r
; b)
2
i
csi 0
i
r
v
a r ·
r r
; (5.32)
103
where:
я
Q
is the charge of the nucleus. In the hydrogen atom, there is one electron with charge
e
q −
By analogy to (5.19),
csi
F
r
, acting along pathway i
dr
must take away electromagnetic energy
ei
dW
from its magnetic energy Hi
W
(called kinetic energy)
2
e
ei csi i 0 i s
2
0 1
d .d . d cos 0
4
q
W F r r r
r
· · α <
πε
r
r r r
; 1
d .d r v t ·
r r
; (5.33)
If the projection of the acceleration csi
a
r
upon the direction of velocity i
v
r
, is different from zero, i.
e. csi
a
r
has an active component on the axis of i
v
r
, under condition (5.113), as a result of the decreased
magnetic energy, the electron will move to a lower orbital, of a smaller radius j i
r r <
, and the energy
released at e я
q q · −
(hydrogen atom) is:
j
i
2
e
eij fij ei ij
0 j i r
1 1
d .
4
r
q
W W W h
r r
 `
· · · − · ν
πε
. ,
∫
;
(5.34)
Therefore, the magnetic energy of the electron Hj
W
and its velocity j
v
along the orbital of radius j
r
are:
a)
' 2
e0
Hj Hi ij
.
2
i
m v
W W h · − ν ·
; b)
ij ' 2 2 2
i i
e0
2. .
m
i
h
v v v
ν
· −
; (5.35)
From (5.35), on assigning:
a)
2
i 0 i
. r r n ·
; b)
2
j 0 j
. r r n ·
; c) i
1, 2... n ·
; d)
1, 2,...;
j
n ·
(5.36)
while allowing for the experimental law of the frequency of the photon through Rydberg constant R, the
result from (5.34) is
a)
2 2
0 j i
1 1 R
r n n
 `
ν · −
. ,
; b)
2 2
0 j j
1 1 1
R r n n
 `
ν
· −
. ,
; (5.37)
the formula (5.36) is written in the form:
2
e
eij eij ij
2 2
0 0 j i
1 1
.
4. .
q
W W h
r n n
 `
· · − · ν
π.ε
. ,
;
(5.38)
And the value of Planck’s constant is:
( )
1
2
e 0 0
4 . . const. h q r R
−
· πε ·
; (5.39)
The energy of the photon at velocities i
v
and j
v
.
( )
2
e0
fij Hi Hj i j
.
2
m
W W W v v · − · −
; (5.310)
5.4. ABSORPTION OF PHOTONS BY ATOMS
When a photon with energy f0 0
. W h · ν
hits an electron in an atom with orbital of radius i
r
,
velocity i
v
r
; and magnetic energy
2
e0 i
нei
.
2
m
W
ν
·
, and is absorbed by the atom, the magnetic energy of the
electron increases to
2
e0 j
нej нei 0
.
2
f
m v
W W W · + · ; (5.41)
And the velocity and its centrifugal acceleration become
a)
0
0
2.
f
j i
e
W
v v
m
· +
; b) ckj i j ci i i
/ / a v r a v r · > ·
; (5.42)
Because of this centrifugal force ekj
F
increases in relation to the attractive force at the orbital with
104
j ckj cei
r F F − >
r r
and the electron moves along distance ij
r ∆
into a higher orbital with radius j i
r r >
, i. e.
R0 R0
j i ij i i
ekj e0 ckj
F m .
W W
r r r r r
a
· + ∆ ≈ + ≈ +
; (5.43)
5.5. EMISSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN EXTERNALLY
ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL BODIES (OBJECTS)
We take the electron as a model of an electrically neutral body.
The electron at rest has mass
( )
2
0
a) . ;
e e m
m q k · m
( )
1
2
0 0
b) 4. . . const.
m e
k r c
−
· π.ε · (5.51)
where: ( )
2
0
e
q − > is the value of the square of the electric charge of the electron, which is called here
effective square of the electric charge of the electron;
0
ε
– the dielectric constant of vacuum;
0 e
r
–
computational (classical) radius of electromagnetic waves (light) in vacuum.
The value of the constant
m
k
is
( ) ( )
1
1
12 15 16 7
4. .8,85.10 .2,81.10 .9.10 2811,132 3,55.10
m
k
−
−
− −
· π · ·
31
2 40 2 0
7
9,1.10
) 2,56.10 ;
3,55.10
e
e
m
m
a q C
k
−
−
] · · ·
]
[ ]
19
) 1, 6.10 ;
e
b q C
−
·
(5.52)
For a body of mass
т
m
the square of its effective charge, according to Chapter One, paragraph 5,
by analogy to the electron, should be
2 8 2
.2,81.10
T
m T
m
m
Q m C
k
] · ·
]
; (5.53)
This charge
2
т
Q has a different value from the square of the sum of the real charge
2
p
Q
, i.e.
2 2
T p
Q Q ≠
; (5.54)
It can be operated with these squares of the effective charges in the same way as with the square of the
charge of the electron
2
e
q when calculating the masses and energies (the full
т
W
and the internal
0 т
W
) of
the bodies at velocity v.
1
2 2
2
2
) . 1 ;
T m m
v
a m Q k
c
−
 `
· −
. ,
1
2 2
2 2 2
2
) . 1 . ;
T T m
v
b W m c Q c
c
−
 `
· · −
. ,
(5.55)
2 2 2
0 0
. . . ;
Tт m
W m c Q k c · ·
(5.56)
The magnetic (kinetic) energy of the body is
1 1
2 2 2 2
2 2
0 0
2 2
. . 1 1 . 1 1 ;
H K T Tт m T
v v
W W W W Q k c m c
c c
− −
] ]
 `  `
] ]
· · − · − − · − −
] ]
. , . ,
] ]
(5.57)
which expression is in complete compliance with the description of the electron.
Under these conditions, proceeding from the formula of the power emitted by the electron
*
2 2
3
2 .
;
3
e
dW q a
N
dt c
· · (5.58)
it follows that a body of mass
1 m kg ·
at acceleration
3
10 / m s , which has a square of the effective
*
Encyclopedic Dictionary of Physics. Publ. Soviet Encyclopedia. Moscow. 1984. (p. 206).
105
electric charge
2 7 8 2
7
1
0, 281.10 2,81.10 C ;
3,55.10
T
T
m
m
Q
k
− −
] · · · ·
]
(5.59)
emits power (energy per second)
[ ]
8 6 2
26 28
24 24
2 2,81.10 .10 5, 62.10
. 0, 280.10 2,80.10 W ;
3 27.10 27.10
N
− −
− −
· · · ·
(5.510)
While the same body at velocity
3
10 / v at m s · · has magnetic (kinetic) energy
( )
[ ]
2
3
2 2 2 6
1. 10
. . . 10
J ;
2 2 2 2
T T m
H K
m v Q k v
W W · · · · ·
(5.511)
Under these conditions, the ratio of the emitted electromagnetic energy to its magnetic energy as
a result of the gained velocity v is
28
34
6
2, 2.08.10
4,16.10 1;
10
n
H
N
k
W
−
−
· · · =
(5.512)
that is why it has not been confirmed experimentally, because no device can measure power as subtle
as N = 2.8.10
 28
W.
Due to this and other similar facts, bodies, while having certain quantities of electromagnetic
mass (matter)
2
.
т т m
m Q k · , do not explicitly manifest their electromagnetic essence in any other way
except through the conventional concept of their kinetic energy, which is in essence magnetic energy.
5.6. ESSENCE AND CONSEQUENCES OF PLANCK’S CONSTANT
As it has already been ascertained, in annihilation of

0
e and positron
е
e
+
at 0 v ≈ , photons are
generated ( )

0 0
e e
+
+
→2.γ , whose wave length coincides with the length of the wave of Compton
13
k
2.42.10 m
−
λ · , which is in essence electromagnetic, and Planck’s constant determined by this reaction
(interaction) is
frequency
energy netic electromag
. . .
. . .
k e
2
e
k
2
e
2
e
k
e0
2
e0
· · · · · λ
ν ν ν
c k q
c k q W c m
h
→
[ ]
J.S
;
(5.61)
Similarly, for protons p and neutrons n, which at annihilation generate photons with respective
Compton lengths of waves and frequencies
a)
0 0
p p +
→ p
2.γ
; b)
0 n
2. n n + → γ
; b)
2
p0 p
2. . 2 . m c h · ν
; d)
n0 n
2 2. . m h · ν
; (5.62)
where the lengths and frequencies of Compton waves are
a)
16
kp
2
p0 p0
.
13,19.10
. .
h c h
m
m c m c
−
λ · · ·
; b)
15
pk
kp
2.27.10
c
Hz ν · ·
λ
; (5.63)
a)
16
kn
2
no n0
.
13.19.10
. .
h c h
m
m r m c
−
λ · · ·
; b)
15
nk
kn
2, 274.10
c
Hz ν · ·
λ
; (5.64)
Whence the physical essence of Planck’s constant is
( )
frequency
energy netic electromag
1 1 . . .
.
.
2
1
2 2
e
2
e
nk
2
n0
pk
2
p0
·
]
]
]
− − · · ·
−
β
ν ν
c k q
c m
c m
h
→
[ ]
J.S
;
(5.65)
It is apparent from the presented above that in essence h is constant only when determining the
106
energy of electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms for a finite time interval of n periods
0
1
. t nT · − τ ·
ν
. Therefore, Planck’s constant can only be used for electromagnetic waves, as well as for Compton
waves, which are only electromagnetic waves of fixed frequency
k
ν
and length of the wave
k
λ
. THE
FACT THAT IT IS USED FOR ALL ELEMENTARY PARTICLES SPEAKS THAT IT IS IMPLICITLY ACKNOWLEDGED THAT
ESSENTIALLY THEY ARE ONLY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ESSENCE (I.E. ALL ELEMENTARY PARTICLES ARE ONLY OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC ESSENCE) AND CAN BE RESTRUCTURED FROM A SUBSTANTIAL FORM INTO A FIELD FORM AND VICE
VERSA.
CHAPTER SIX
WAVE PROCESSES
6.1. INTRODUCTION
Here it should be pointed out that when doing new research work, we must always and
obligatory use the laws and formulations that have been validated by the respective time of the study,
only these laws and formulations that are relevant and adequate (reliable) at the time of the study and
that hold true for the respective scientific field. This requirement is the first and initial position for the
first step toward further reliable studies.
When studying velocities of material wave processes relative to the hitherto approach, there are
three new reliable scientific facts:
First. Matter (mass) is unitary in nature (essence) and is only electromagnetic, and it exists in a
field or substantial form, as it has been proven before.
Second. Wave processes of these two forms of electromagnetic matter are described by two wave
equations, whose mathematical structure is identical. In general, they are the same wave equation of the
quantities, characterizing the diverse quantities of the substantial form, indexed B, and the field form,
indexed C, of electromagnetic matter, from which we can obtain the respective specialized differential
wave equations:
a)
2 2
2
0 2 2
. ;
B B
y y
v
t r
∂ ∂
·
∂ ∂
b)
2 2
2
2 2
. ;
C C
y y
c
t r
∂ ∂
· →
∂ ∂
c)
2 2
2
2 2
. ,
y y
w
t r
∂ ∂
·
∂ ∂
(6.11)
where in the physical sense y, t, x, and the velocities
0
v c w · ·
are identical in a qualitative aspect, but in
a quantitative aspect they are different, due to the different forms (substantial and field structures) of
matter.
Third. The solutions to the two equations (6.11) a and (6.11) b have the same form, which,
notated so as to correspond to the substantial and field forms of their electromagnetic energy, in a most
general case (6.11) c (without the indexes “b” and “c”) is:
0
sin ;
r
y y t
w
 `
· ω −
. ,
(6.12)
where: y
0
is the amplitude of the wave; 2. .v ω· π – the angular frequency; v – the frequency of the wave;
t – the time, r – the distance from the assumed start of describing the wave process; v
0
– wave velocity for
the substantial form of matter; c – wave velocity for the field form of matter, w – the velocity without
index, which, depending on the form of matter is equal to v
0
or to c ( )
0
; w v w c · ·
.
In classical physics, these relationships are given for velocities:
a) . ; w v · λ b)
0
. ;
B B B
w v v · λ ·
c)
. ;
C C
v c λ ·
(6.13)
where:
0
;
B C
B C
w v c
v v v
 `
λ · → λ · λ ·
. ,
and
0
;
B C
B C
w c  ` ν
ν · → ν · ν ·
λ λ λ
. ,
are the wave length and the
frequency of the respective substantial or field wave process. It should be noted that up to this moment,
107
the existence of a wave process has only be proven for the electromagnetic field. For the gravitational
field, there is no known (recognized) independent (without electromagnetic waves) wave process.
6.2. MASS, ENERGY AND VELOCITY OF MECHANICAL AND
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROCESSES
6.2.1. General formulations
If the wellknown expression for the force
F
r
, which according to Newton is equal to the
derivative of momentum
P
r
relative to time t, is multiplied and divided by velocity v
r
, we have the
derivative of the energy relative to pathway r:
a)
0
d d
. . ;
d d
P v W
F r
t v r
· ·
r
r
r
r
r
b) d .d ; W v P ·
r
r
c) d .d ; r v t ·
r r
d) 0
;
r
r
r
·
r
r
r
(6.21)
In fact, this relationship is not new, it is known from classical physics, where it is assumed that
work A is equal to the product of force
F
r
and pathway ( )
. r A F r ·
r
r r
, since the quantity of work A is a
measure of the quantity of energy W or
a) d .d d ; A F r W · ·
r
r
b)
0 0
d d
. . ;
d d
A W
F r r
r r
· ·
r
r r
(6.22)
In this aspect, the notion of force, in a general, explicit form, has the meaning of energy
exchanged between interacting objects for a unit of pathway. In this sense, the notion of interaction
leads to the known interpretation that during interaction, energy and matter are exchanged, since every
quantity of energy has the respective quantity of matter as its carrier. Id est, this idea was implicitly
present even in classical physics, according to Newton, who used only the derivative of the momentum, viz. in
the sense that matter and the energy during interaction change in a quantitative way.
If (6.21) is written for the substantial and field form of electromagnetic matter – of matter in
general – using the respective notations for masses m
B
and m
C
, for energies W
B
and W
C
and for velocities
v
B
and v
C
, we arrive at the classical relationships:
a)
2
d .d .d ;
B B B B B
W v P v m · · b)
2
d .d .d ;
C C C C C
W v P v m · · (6.23)
where at substantial and field wave velocities
0 B
v v ·
,
C
v c ·
a)
2
0
d .d .d ;
B B B B
W v P v m · · b)
2
d .d .d ;
C C C C
W v P c m · · (6.24)
since in a most general case, at variable mass  const. m ≠
a)
d
d .d .d ;
B
B B B B B
B
W
P m v v m
v
· + ·
b)
d
d .d .d ;
C
C C C C C
C
W
P m v v m
v
· + ·
(6.25)
The classical description of the relationships of wave processes that they generate force, pressure,
should be specified by taking into consideration Lord Rayleigh’s law of 1902, which states: “All wave
processes generate force (pressure) upon the surface they fall:
a)
0
d d
. ;
d d
W P
F r
r t
· ·
r
r
r
b) d .d ; r c t · c) 0
;
r
r
r
·
r
r
r
(6.26)
Here W is the wave energy of n waves, which falls upon the surface for a given time t = n.T, it has
momentum:
a)
0
. . ;
W
P F t c
c
· ·
r r
r
b) 0 0
d . ; ;
dW c
P c c
c c
· ·
r
r
r r
r
(6.27)
and mass
a)
2
;
W
m
c
·
b)
2
d
d 0;
W
m
c
· ≠
c)
0
. . ;
W
P mc c
c
· ·
r
r r
(6.28)
Here it should be borne in mind that the wave energy
2
. W mc · does not collide with the surface
only at one moment, but during an interval of time 0 t ∆ > , since it is a sum of n waves, with length
108
and velocity c, i.e. there is length .
w
l n · λ
and the collision at velocity c lasts for time
.
.
w
l n
t nT
c c
λ
∆ · · ·
i.e. for time . t nT ∆ · , where T is the period of one wave. That is why
d
0
d
W
r
≠
. And
this fact also implies that
d
0
d
m
t
≠ .
Therefore, if we use the notation of the momentum of the electromagnetic waves (photons), it
follows that
d d
. 0
d d
P m
F c
t t
· · ≠
r
r
r
, (6.29)
since the energy, respectively the matter (the mass) of the wave, is not a point, but a length
.
w
l n · λ
..
If (6.25) is multiplied by
2
B
v and
2
C
v and respectively divided by
2
0
v and c
2
, we have
a)
2 2
2 2 2
0 0 0
d 1
.d d . d ;
2
B
B B B
W v v
m m m
v v v
 `  `
· + ·
. , . ,
b)
2 2
2 2
0 0
1
d .d 1 d .
2
B B B
v v
m m m
v v
 `  `
· − − +
. , . ,
and (6.210)
a)
2 2
2 2 2
d
.d d d ;
C
C C C
W v v
m m m
c c c
 `  `
· + ·
. , . ,
b)
2 2
2 2
1
d .d 1 d . ,
2
C C C
v v
m m m
c c
 `  `
· − − +
. , . ,
(6.211)
or if the differential equations (6.39) and (6.310) are processed, they obtain this form
a)
( )
2
2
2
0
0
2 2
0
2
0
d 1
1
d 1 1
. ;
2 2 1
1
B
B
v
d
v
m
v m
v
 `
−
−β
. ,
· − · −
−β
−
b)
( )
2
2
2
2 2
2
d 1
1
d 1 1
. .
2 2 1
1
c
C
C c
v
d
c m
v m
c
 `
−
−β
. ,
· − · −
−β
−
(6.212)
The solutions to equation (6.212) with boundary conditions
a)
0 0
0 ;
B
v m m m · → · ·
b)
0 0
0
B B
v m m m m ≠ → · ≠ ·
and (6.213)
a)
0
0 ;
C
v m m m · → · ·
b)
0 0
0 ,
C C
v m m m m ≠ → · ≠ ·
(6.214)
are respectively:
a)
1
2
2
0
2
0
. 1 ;
B B
v
m m
v
−
 `
· −
. ,
b)
1
2
2
0 2
. .
C C
v
m m a
c
−
 `
· −
. ,
(6.215)
If in (6.25) we take into account (6.214), then for the full energies we have
1 1
2 2
2 2
2 2
0 0 0 0 2 2
0 0
. . . 1 . 1
B B B B
v v
W m v m v W
v v
− −
 `  `
· · − · −
. , . ,
and (6.216)
1 1
2 2
2 2
2 2
0 0 2 2
. . . 1 . 1 ,
C C C C
v v
W m c m c W
c c
− −
 `  `
· · − · −
. , . ,
(6.317)
whence at 0 v · we derive the regularities of the internal energies, which bodies have at rest
a)
2
0 0 0
. ;
B B
W m v · b)
2
0 0
. ;
B C
W m c · c)
0
0
2
;
W
m
c
·
(6.218)
Since the substantial form of matter can be converted into a field form, in a most general case, the
indexes “B” and “C” can be dropped and (6.217) and (6.218) can be summarized in unitary regularities.
a)
1
2
2
0 2
. 1 ;
v
m m
c
−
 `
· −
. ,
b)
1
2
2
2
0 2
. . 1 ;
v
W m c
c
−
 `
· −
. ,
c)
2
. , W mc · (6.219)
these results are obtained only through Galileo’s transformations, i.e. without using Lorentz
transformations.
IN THIS WAY, WE HAVE SHOWN THAT (6.219) ARE CLASSICAL, NOT RELATIVISTIC LAWS, WHEREBY IT HAS ALSO
109
BEEN POINTED OUT THAT EVEN IN CLASSICAL PHYSICS (ELECTROMAGNETISM), THE NOTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER
INTRODUCED BY MAXWELL WAS APPARENT, BUT NOT YET SUMMARIZED, AND MAXWELL’S NOTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC
MATTER WAS USED FOR THE ESSENCE OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD.
6.3. ANALOGIES BETWEEN ELECTROMAGNETIC
AND MECHANICAL WAVE PROCESSES
6.3.1. Electromagnetic wave processes
The photon, as the most elementary, in the sense of the most primary, field particle, out of which
electromagnetic field is structured, which is the lowest level of structure of electromagnetic matter (field
form), is also a particle, which appears as a wave or as a body – (in a wave aspect and respectively, in an
aspect of a body) depending on the specific conditions. In general, the photon is a momentum of a series
of N electromagnetic waves with length C
C
c
λ ·
ν
and is emitted by an atom (molecule) for time
8
10 s
−
τ ≈ . Because of this, the series of waves (with a wave length of
C
, , such as the photon itself )
has a length of
8 8
. . 3.10 .10 3 m
f C
l N c
−
· λ · τ · ·
. And the transverse section of the photon is about
7
10 m D
−
≈ . In this sense, it (the photon) manifests itself depending on conditions, either as a body of
length l
f
or as a series of waves and therefore, it can be observed with an interferometer, and the
photon has the electromagnetic wave energy of one photon.
a)
. ;
v
W h · ν
b)
2
. ;
v v
W m c · (6.31)
The momentum of the photon is
a)
0 0
.
. . ;
v
v
W h
p c c
c c
ν
· ·
r r r
b)
0
. . ;
v
v v
W
p c m c
c
· ·
r r r
(6.32)
The mass (quantity of electromagnetic matter) of the photon is
a)
2
.
;
v
h
m
c
ν
·
b)
2
;
v
v
W
m
c
·
(6.33)
where: h – Planck’s constant;
ν
– frequency; c – the wave velocity of electromagnetic waves in vacuum
(velocity of light in vacuum).
THE VELOCITY OF THE EMITTED ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN VACUUM RELATIVE TO THE GENERATOR
(TRANSMITTER), ACCIRDING TO FRESNEL OF 1818, DOES NOT DEPEND ON THE VELOCITY OF MOVEMENT OF THE
TRANSMITTER (GENERATOR):
a)
const.; · c
b)
2 2
2
EH E H
2
EH E H
w w w J m
;
kg S
] ]
· · · → →
] ]
ρ ρ ρ
] ]
c (6.34)
where:
E
w
and
EH
w
are the densities of energies of electromagnetic waves and of electric and magnetic
fields;
E
ρ
,
EH
ρ
and
H
ρ
are the respective densities of their masses.
For the velocity of emission of electromagnetic waves (6.34) in vacuum, the same condition holds
true, as it already was mentioned, that velocity is always c and is constant relative to the generator
(transmitter ), i.e.
a)
const.; · c
b)
d
0;
dt
·
c
(6.35)
regardless of the state (the velocity g
v
r
) of the generator (transmitter ) of electromagnetic waves.
The energy density
EH
w
of electromagnetic waves is a sum of the respective densities
E
w
and
H
w
of the energies of its electric E and magnetic H fields:
;
EH E H
w w w · +
(6.36)
The analogous relationship for the density of the mass of electromagnetic waves is
110
2 2 2
;
EH E H
EH E H
w w w
c c c
ρ · · + · ρ +ρ (6.37)
The generator frequency of electromagnetic waves, and therefore of the photon is
;
g
g
c
v ·
λ
(6.38)
where: g
λ
is the generator length (at the moment of emission) and g
v
– the generator frequency of
electromagnetic waves during emission, at velocity of propagation, which is always constant, according
to (6.33), and equal to c.
6.3.2. Mechanical wave processes
The emission of mechanical waves takes place in elastic (mechanical) electromagnetic medium –
matter, of a great variety in its levels structure, above this of the electromagnetic field. The elastic
medium as electromagnetic matter is composed of structural elements, such as: electrons, protons,
neutrons and photons. This implies that the properties, respectively parameters of mechanical waves,
should be analogous to those of the waves of electromagnetic field.
The mechanical waves in electromagnetic matter are discussed on the following model.
Let there is a straight rod of firm elastic medium – electromagnetic matter, with crosssection S,
length l, density of mass
0
ρ
and modulus of elasticity E
0
, and let a sinusoidal in time force acts upon its
beginning, designated by A
a)
2
0 0 0 0
sin . . .sin . ;
F
F F t k v t · ω · ω b)
2
0 0
. ;
F
F k v · c)
0
2
0
const.;
F
F
k
v
· ·
(6.39)
As a result of the mechanical tension
;
F
S
σ ·
(6.310)
mechanical deformation æ
0
appears at the beginning A of the rod as well as compactness of the density of
the mass
0
∆ρ
with amplitude
a) æ
0
0 0
0 0
;
.
F
E S E
σ
· ·
b)
0
∆ρ ·
æ
0
0
. ; ρ
c)
0
0
;
F
S
σ · (6.311)
The compactness of the mass, of the matter of wave ∆ρ , moves in the elastic medium at wave
velocity
0
v
in direction to the end of the rod along its length l. At distance r from the beginning, the
sinusoidal relationship of ∆ρ is
∆ρ · æ
0
0 0 0 0
0 0
. .sin . .sin . ;
r r
t t
v v
 `  `
ρ ω − · ∆ρ ω −
. , . ,
(6.312)
where:
2
0 0
.
F
F k v · is the amplitude value of the force. It is proportional to the square of the circular
frequency ( )
0 0
2. .v ω · π
of the mechanical wave process. Therefore F
0
is proportional to the square of the
frequency v
0
by a constant physical coefficient k
F
of dimensionality: force upon the square of the
generator frequency
0
2
0
,
F
F
k
v
·
(6.313)
at wave frequency v
0
of the mechanical wave process and wave length
0
0
0
;
ν
ν
λ ·
(6.314)
The wave velocity relative to the elastic medium is determined by the regularity, given by Newton
111
a)
2
2 1
0 0 0
2
m
. const. ; v E
s
−
]
]
· ρ · →
]
]
b)
[ ] [ ]
0 0
2 3
N J
;
m m
E w → · ·
] ]
] ]
c)
[ ]
0
3
kg
;
m
ρ →
]
]
(6.315)
where:
0
E
is Young modulus of elasticity;
0
ρ
 mass density. And since
1
N J.m ] →
]
, and the Joule has a
dimensionality of
2
2
kg.m
J
s
·
density mass
density energy
] [ ] [
0
2
2
2
0
· · → →
ρ
w
s
m
kg
J
v ;
(6.316)
The compactness of the mass (matter) of the wave of the deformation momentum – of the mass of
the generator length g
λ
of the mechanical wave is
a)
2
0 0 0 0 0
æ 0 0
0 0 0
. . . .
. . . . . const;
. .
g
F F
g
S k v v k
m v v Dv
E v E
λ
∆ρ ρ ρ
· λ · · · ·
π π π
b)
0 0
0
. .
const.;
.
F
k v
D
E
ρ
· ·
π
(6.317)
The mass of the wave ae
g
m
λ moves relative to the elastic medium only at the wave velocity v
0
(6.315) or they are mechanical waves in the elastic medium of electromagnetic matter.
Analogously, as it is with the photon, this mass cannot exist at another velocity relative to the
electromagnetic elastic medium, since (6.317) a implies that these relationships hold true for the
velocity and momentum of a wave:
a) 0
const.; v ·
b)
0
d
0;
d
v
t
·
c) æ 0
. const.;
g
m
P v
λ
·
(6.318)
i.e. if
0
d
0,
d
v
t
·
the momentum
a a 0
.
e e
P m v
λ
·
of matter (mass) of the wave (respectively, the momentum of
the wave), exists only at the value of velocity, equal to the wave velocity v
0
relative to the elastic medium.
Therefore the force is
( )
a 0 a 0 a
0
d . d d
0 0;
d d d
e e e
m v P m
F v
t t t
λ λ
· · · + ≠ (6.319)
since
d
0
d
v
t
· ;
a 0
. const. 0
e
m Dv
λ
· · ≠
, i.e. the mass
ae
m
λ
exists only at
0
v v tW ·
. This is so because it
is about the whole energy of n waves for time
0
. const.
n
nT τ · ≠
, where
0
1
T ·
ν
is the period of one
wave.
Since the relationship (6.34) also holds true for the velocity of electromagnetic waves, the
equations (6.317) and (6.318) hold true, too, then
( ) d . d d
0 0;
d d d
v C v
m c P m
c
t t t
· · + ≠ (6.320)
because
d
0
d
c
t
·
, and
0
2
.
const. 0
v
h
m
c
ν
· · ≠
.
The inference from (6.320) is that for a stationary observer B relative to their generators, both the
mechanical and electromagnetic waves can exist only at wave velocities
0
const. v ·
and const. c · ,
respectively.
Since the mass of the mechanical wave a
0
g
e
m
λ
>
always moves relative to a stationary observer in
the elastic medium at velocity
const. v ·
, its momentum
a)
æ0 æ 0
. const. P m v
λ
· ≠
r
r
at b) æ
0 m ≠ →
and
0 0
0
2
d . . .
d d . ;
i
Gi i i
i
V m r
F m G
r
γ
· · −ρ
r
r r
(6.321)
and its full derivative relative to time, according to (6.318) b is
112
( )
æ 0 æ0 æ æ
0
d . d d d
0 ;
d d d d
m v P m m
F v v
t t t t
λ λ λ
· · · + ·
r
r
r
r r
(6.322)
and the force, which corresponds to this derivative is
æ æ
æ 0
d d
d d
P m
F v
t t
λ λ
λ
· ·
r
r
r
, since
0
d
0;
d
v
t
·
r
(6.323)
The energy, which corresponds to this force for one generator length
0,
g
λ >
of the wave
generated by this force
ae
F
λ
r
is equal to the work A by the pathway l · λ and is
æ
d ;
g
A dW F
λ λ λ
· · λ
r
(6.324)
and the differential of the energy ae
W
λ under the condition (6.336) b is
2
æ 0 æ
d .d ; W v m
λ λ
·
(6.325)
Then the mean density of the wave energy w
0
, expressed by the mean density of the compactness of
the mass
aeλ
∆ρ
ρ ·
π
, by using (6.325) is:
a)
2
0 æ 0
. , w v
λ
· ρ
or b)
2 0 0 æ
0
æ 0 æ
;
w E W
v
m
λ
λ λ
· · ·
ρ ρ
(6.326)
where:
æ
W
λ
is the energy of the wave;
0
w
– the energy of the wave in a unit of a volumedensity of the
energy of the wave,
ae
m
λ
– matter (mass) of the wave;
0
ρ
 mass density of the medium.
From the presented so far, by proceeding from the correspondence between the quantities of
electromagnetic waves and of the mechanical waves in electromagnetic matter (the elastic
electromagnetic medium), etc., we obtain the following analogies:
a)
2
. .
v v
W h m c · ν · →
b)
2
æG æ 0
. . ; W H m v · ν ·
(6.3271)
a)
.
.
v v
h
P m c
c
ν
· · →
b)
æ
æ æ 0
0
.
. . ;
W H
P m v
c v
λ
λ λ
ν
· ·
(6.3272)
a)
2 2
.
v
v
h W
m
c c
ν
· · →
b)
æ
æ
2 2
0 0
.
. . ;
H W
m Dv
v v
λ
λ
ν
· ·
(6.3273)
a)
2
.
v
v v
W h w
c
m m p
ν
· · · →
b)
2 æ æ 0
0
æ æ 0
.
;
v
W H W E
v
m m m
λ λ
λ λ
ν
· · · ·
ρ
(6.3274)
For solutions with more than one electron, for instance for n electrons, electrodynamics
demands that the energies from the interaction of one electron with other (n1) electrons should also
be taken into account. This problem, however, has no solution for the time being. In general, the
problem of interaction between three bodies has no complete solution in physics. That is why there is
no solution to Bohr’s model for more than one electron, either.
IN THIS ASPECT, BOHR’S MODEL IS ADEQUATE TO REALITY, BUT IT HAS A SOLUTION FOR ONLY ONE ELECTRON,
I.E FOR THE ATOM OF HYDROGEN.
6.3.2.1. Emission by atoms of substance at deformation
The electromagnetic forces of cohesion between atoms (molecules) of substance are given as
derivatives of LenardJones potential. A significantly simplified model is considered of the forces of
cohesion as forces between the electron in an atom and the nucleus of the atom, where in normal state of
r and r
0
, and at deformation
æ
the distance ( )
ε 0
1 r r · t ε
. At these distances, force
ε
F
and energy
W
ε
are
a)
( )
2
e
2
2
0 0
4 1 æ
q
F
r
ε
·
πε t
; b)
( )
2
e
0 0
4 1 æ
q
W
r
ε
·
πε t
; (6.328)
In the process of deformation the atom emits energy
( )
2
2 2
e
εf
3
1 æ .a q
W
c
ε
≈
m
; (6.329)
113
The thermal energy released during mechanical treatment of bodies in the form of photons,
according to literature is proportional to
εf
W
(6.329) inside and outside the substance and it heats the
substance, as it is in thermal emission according to Max Planck.
Energy losses and heating of rubbing surfaces should be treated similarly. Because the surfaces have
roughnesses of the order of the size of a few molecules, then at friction, part of these roughnesses get deformed
or cut off. For a process of a qualitative model like this one, it is possible to explain qualitatively energy losses
or heat released during friction.
Emphasis.
EVERY MECHANICAL FORCE INTERACTION ON A SUBSTANCE (PUSH, PULL, BENDING, TWISTING, AND LIQUIDS MOVING –
STIRRING OR FLOWING) RESULTS IN DEFORMATION OF THE ORBITALS OF ELECTRONS IN ITS ATOMS (MOLECULES) WHICH RESULTS
IN PHOTON EMISSION (THERMAL ENERGY).
Due to these mechanical processes inside or on the surface of a substance, inside or outside of it,
photons (electromagnetic waves) are emitted. Their quantity (the density) depends on:
• 1. the size of deformations of the orbitals;
• 2. the number of deformed atoms (molecules);
• 3. the kind of substance: a solid body or liquid;
• 4. the temperature of the substance.
6.3.2.2. Oscillating current frame of capacity 0
С
and inductivity L
0
The wave equation of an oscillating current frame of capacity 0
0 C t
, inductivity 0
0 L ≠
and
resistance R = 0 is
2 2
2
0 2 2
0 0
d 1 d
. . 0
d . d
Q Q
Q Q
t L C t
+ · + ω ·
; (6.330)
Where: the electric charge Q of C
0
and the angular frequency
0
ω
are
a)
( )
0 0 0
.sin . Q Q t y · ω +
; b)
2 2
0 0
0 0
1
4
. L C
ω · · π ν
; c) ( )
1
2 2
0 0 0
4 . L C
−
ν · π
; (6.331)
The current i and the voltage are
a)
2
0 0
0
d .
.
d 2
Q L i
i i
t
· · ω
; b) 0 0 0
. i Q · ω
; c) 0
0
d
.
dt
i Q
U L
C
· − ·
; (6.332)
The full energy circulating within the frame is
L E 0
W W W · ·
, i. e.
2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0
0
0
. .
2. 2 2
Q L i L Q
W
C
ω
· · ·
; (6.333)
On condition that the length of frame
0
l is much shorter than the length of wave
0
λ , i. e.
0 0
0
c
l << λ ·
ν
;
The energy of one wave of length
0
λ
is
a)
2 2
λ 0 0 0 0 0 λ 0
. .2. . . . . W W L Q H · λ π ν · ν ; b)
2
λ 0 0
2. . . . const. H L Q c · π · ; (6.334)
where: c is the velocity of propagation of the electromagnetic energy in the frame
0
l
.
For time
0
. nT τ ·
or distance
0
. r n · λ
the wave energy
a)
nλ n 0
. . W nW H · · ν
; b)
nλ
. H n H ·
; (6.335)
6.3.2.3. When electrons pass through very narrow channels
First, when electrons pass through very narrow channels of radius
3
10 m R
−
= they pass first
from an area of dielectric constant
0
ε
of the air, whose value is almost equal to that of vacuum, toward
the area of the very narrow channel, where the dielectric constant in channel is
0 k
ε > ε
a, because of the
strong influence of the atoms of the substance. Second, the electrons pass from an area, where there is a
114
chaotic density of photon gas, which is emitted by the walls of the channel into the volume of the channel,
where there are atoms on all sides of the channel, and these atoms emit photons toward the center of the
channel. And third, inside the channel, from its walls, there is force of cohesion
c
F
r
, which attracts the
electron to the channel walls, since this force attracts the molecules of the substance, and the electron is
a substantial form of electromagnetic energy. These three situations determine also three effects, as
follows:
A. In entering a channel for a very short time dt, or along a very small spatial interval
0
d .d r v t ·
r r
,
the dielectric constant changes from
0
ε
to
0
ε > ε
. Because of this fact the surrounding electric field
changes significantly as well, as follows
e
e 2 2 2
. .
4
dE q d A d
q
dt r dt dt
ε ε
· − · −
πε ε
;
( )
1
2
4 A r
−
· πε ; (6.336)
In this change of the electric field, according to Maxwell, its magnetic field
. H v E ] · ε
]
r r
r
changes
too, so that a system is formed which describes, say, a flat electromagnetic wave
a)
2 2
2
2 2
d E d E
c
dt dx
· ; b)
2 2
2
2 2
.
d H d H
c
dt dx
· ; ( )
1
2
c
−
· εµ ; (6.337)
This process with the electron is manifested in reverse direction as well, from
0
ε > ε
to
0
ε · ε
on exiting the channel and therefore, depending on the radius of the channel and the kind of
substance and velocity of the electron, it may not be an electron at velocity v
e
<< c that exits from
the channel, but a photon with energy and frequency
a)
2
f e0 0
. . W m c h · · ν ; b)
2
e0
0
. m c
h
ν · ; (6.338)
B. The walls of the channel emit photons, which exert force action upon the electrons, when
they are in the channel. These effects influence the state and the velocity of the electrons, which are in
the channel, in two directions:
a) upon the direction of the velocity of the electron on its exiting the channel;
b) very slightly, upon the possibility for the electron to be transformed into a photon at the exit of
the channel.
C. Because the channel in the substance has a very small radius R <<< 10
–3
m, and the electron
can rarely hit the center of the channel, but usually passes closer to one of the walls of the channel, and
that is why it is attracted more heavily toward the wall by the force of cohesion F
c
, so that this force
declines it on its exiting the channel toward the wall and it declines, and does not fall upon the
screen in a point opposite the channel, but aside. Naturally, this is a real fact, if the electron does not
convert into a photon after the channel.
Note
Regardless of the stationary or seemingly static state of the system of atoms (molecules) and the
environment, the atoms in gases, liquids or solid bodies always emit and absorb photons, which
explains why there is always a background of photon gas around atoms and molecules.
6.3.2.4. Commentary
The above theoretical inferences, with the exception of de Broglie’s waves, have been
experimentally validated. These facts, as a summary, should be interpreted as a logical physical
principle, which states:
THE ENERGIES OF ALL WAVE AND OSCILLATING PROCESSES FOR A CERTAIN FINITE INTERVCAL OF TIME ARE
EQUAL TO THE PRODUCT OF ONE CONSTANT AND THE FREQUENCY OF THE PROCESS.
This principle is a universal model, regardless of the consequences which it imposes on the
development of physics.
This interpretation was first given by Paul Ehrenfest
*
in 1914 as a proof that the formula of
*
In A. M. Khazen’s book. “Pole, volni, chastitsi ih modeli” (Field, waves, particles, their models”,
publ.“Prosveshtenie” Moscow, 1979, Chapter 5, paragraph 2 “Mayatnik Erenfesta” (Ehrenfest’s Pendulum)”, p. 78.
115
energy of a photon . W h · ν is not unique. But experts on quantum mechanics do not take into
consideration this fact which rejects the uniqueness of the formula of photon energy, as well as the
contention about Heisenberg inequality in quantum mechanics, which inequality is based on photon
energy, but it is in its structure a universal formula about the energies of all wave processes both
for substantial and field forms of electromagnetic matter and it has this form
. ; W H · ν (6.339)
where the constant H does not depend on the structure of the transmitter.
CHAPTER SEVEN
GRAVITATION OF OBJECTS WITH A VOLUME GREATER THAN
ZERO
7.1. GENERAL FORMULATIONS
When analyzing all substantial objects with volumes different from zero, when discussing the topic
of gravitation, it will be useful to cite the theorem of the gravitational field outside the volume of a
spherical body as proved by Isaac Newton in 1686 (a year before “Principles…”), which states: “A
spherical body of a homogenous density of the mass (matter)
const.
m
ρ ·
and radius 0 R > and
volume V > 0 generates in the space outside its volume, such a gravitational field as it would be if
the gravitational field were generated by its the mass m
0
, if it were concentrated in a point, which
were placed in the center of the sphere.” THIS CITATION OF NEWTON IS A PROOF THAT THE NOTION OF MASS
IS AN ABSTRACTED NOTION OF THE NOTION OF QUANTITY OF MATTER RATHER THAN A PROPERTY OF MATTER.
It follows as an inference from the above theorem that the radius in the nominator of the formulae
of the gravitational field (7.11) and force (7.28) is of power two 2 (r
 2
) only when the mass m
0
is with a
volume V = 0, i.e. it is a dimensionless point (the body has a volume equal to zero).
When computing the gravitational fields and forces of bodies with a volume larger than zero, what
all real bodies are, which are electromagnetic matter, we have to integrate for each point of the volume,
whereby the mass of this elementary volume of the body is
d .d
e i
m V · ρ
, the distance is r
i
; moreover, the
gravitational field G
i
relative to the attracting body, which is at distance r
i
, is also the force of attraction
F
i
of a body with a spherical mass m
a)
0
0 0 2
.
. ;
i
i
m
G r
r
γ
· −
r
r
b)
0 0
0 2
d . . .
d d . ;
i
Gi i i
i
V m r
F m G
r
γ
· · −ρ
r
r r
(7.11)
where: is the gravitational constant.
It follows that the gravitational force between two ideally spherical bodies A and B with homogenous
density of their masses are
const.
A B
ρ ·ρ ·ρ ·
, masses m
A
>0, m
B
> 0 spherical volumes V
A
> 0, V
B
> 0 and
radiuses r
A
>0, r
B
> 0 at a distance between their centers OO’= H (according to Fig. 7.3.2) and with a
coordinate system in the center of the body (the sphere) B, in order to derive the force of attraction between the
bodies A and B according to Newton’s theorem, it is assumes that the body A is reduced at point O (Fig. 7.3.2)
and the formula (7.11)b is applied for the force
d d
AB i
F F ·
between body A (point O) and the elementary
volumes
d d .d .d V x y z ·
of body B and is integrated for the volume of the body B with radius r
B
. Under these
conditions for the gravitational force between bodies A and B, where when integrating, the radius r
i
is a
variable quantity, we have the precise value of the gravitation force.
7.2. GRAVITATION OF BODIES WITH VOLUME V LARGER THAN
ZERO
Gravitational filed is a genetic product of electromagnetic matter (of primary electromagnetic
fields, which are electrostatic and magnetic) and because of this the nature of gravitational field is
electromagnetic – i.e. it is a secondary electromagnetic field and is carried by a specific structure of
116
electromagnetic matter, called gravitational. It is generated by electromagnetic matter both in a
substantial and in a field form in the form of the densities of the electric and magnetic fields, which
also generate gravitational fields.
THE PRESENTED ABOVE ABOUT ELECTROMAGNETIC AND GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS IMPLIES THAT THEY ARE
GENETICALLY UNITARY AS WELL AS INSEPARABLY BOUND TO EACH OTHER IN TIME AND SPACE, I.E. NEITHER OF THEM
CAN EXIST INDEPENDENTLY, WITHOUT BEING BOUND TO THE OTHER. This statementlaw is based on a sufficient
number of experimental facts.
7.2.1. Electromagnetic masses and energies of electrons
A) At rest ( ) 0; v v c ≈ =
the electron mass and energy are
a)
2
0
. ;
e e m
m q k · b)
2 2 2
0 0
. . . ;
e e e m
W m c q k c · ·
( )
1
2
0 0
4. . . ;
m e
k r c
−
· π.ε (7.21)
B) At velocity v < c they are
a)
1
2 2
0 2
1 ;
e e
v
m m
c
−
 `
· −
. ,
b)
1
2 2
0 2
1 1 ;
e e
v
W W
c
−
]
 `
]
· − −
]
. ,
]
(7.22)
7.2.2 Gravitation of electrons at velocity v<<c
A) The gravitational potential of an electron
0
.
;
e
G
m
U
r
γ
· (7.23)
B) Gravitational field: a secondary electromagnetic field
where: is the gravitational constant.
0 0
0
2
d .
. ;
d
G e
G
U r m
G r
r r
γ
· · −
r
r
r
(7.24)
C) Density of gravitational energy
2 2 2 4 2
0
4 4
. . .
0;
2
e m
G
G m q k
w
r r
γ γ
· · · >
γ
(7.25)
D) The gravitational energy and mass of the electron are
a)
0
2 4 2
0
0 0
. . .
.d ;
e
e e m
eG G
e e r
m q k
W w V
r r
∞
γ γ
· · ·
∫ b)
2
;
eG
eG
W
m
c
·
(7.26)
E) The gravitational charge is the mass of the electron: q
G
= m
e0
; (7.27)
F) Gravitational force is
2 4 2
0 0
0 0
2 2
. . . .
. . ;
e e m
eG e e
m r q k
F m G r
r r
γ γ
· · − · −
r
r r
r
(7.28)
G) The relationship between W
e0
and W
eG
or m
e0
and m
eG
is
42
0 0
4,17.10 ;
e e
eG
eG eG
W m
k
W m
· · ≈
(7.29)
H) The presented above motivates the unity between the Coulomb’s law and
Newton’ gravitation for two electrons with charges
1 e ei e
q q q · ·
a)
2 2 2
0 1 2 0
2 2
0
. . . . . .
;
4. .
ei ei e e m
e eq eG
q q r q q k r
F F F
r r
γ
· − · +
π.ε
r r
r r r
b)
;
eq eG
F F
r r
?
(7.210)
In the equations for the gravitation of the electrons, we should emphasize the
fact that the electrons have a very small radius,
15
0
2,81.10 m
e
r
−
≈ , and hence, a very
small volume. Therefore, they are practically almost without any volume relative to
the macro bodies whose dimensions (volumes) are much larger than them. In this
sense, the gravitational interactions between the electrons are practically between
117
pointlike (V = 0) objects. That is why the value of the power of the distance r in the
nominator of the formula of the gravitational field and force of bodies with volume V = 0 is r
2
. That
was Newton’s idea, since he used the notion of mass as a pointlike object, placed
in the center of gravity of the object to which the mass (the quantity of matter) belongs.
In this case it is assumed that the mass is only with its inertial and gravitational
property of the object whose mass it is.
I. e. the above general formulae are for pointlike objects a volume
0; V · (7.211)
For the purposes of the analysis, some notions should also be specified, such as:
7.3. GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS AND FORCES
7.3.1. Gravitational fields and forces
Here we should point out that about a century ago it was a wellknown scientific fact that electrons
generate also a gravitational field, i.e. that electric charge generates a gravitational field, too. But
physicists have not paid due attention to this scientific fact which has a crucial role for the theory of
gravitation. AND IT IS EXACTLY THIS FACT THAT IS THE EMBRYO FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEORY OF
GRAVITATION.
7.3.2. Gravitational fields, energies, masses and forces of electrons
Since it is generally accepted that electrons (electron e
−
and positron e
+
) are models for studying
the properties (manifestations) of objects of the unitary electromagnetic matter of nature; therefore, when
studying the gravitational property of electromagnetic matter, we also start from the electrons.
7.3.2.1. General formulations
According to Newton, all natural objects have the attributive property of attraction, i.e. they have
a gravitational property.
The force of attraction is proportional to the product of masses (quantities of matter) of objects 1
and 2 with masses m
1
and m
2
, and of the gravitational constant
γ
, and inversely proportional to the square
at the distance r
2
between objects (masses).
The sign is minus () since it is accepted in physics that the forces of attraction should be seen as
negative and designated by the minus sign.
The gravitational force of attraction, according to Isaac Newton, is between the masses of the
bodies, which attract each other and which have volume V = 0, i.e. they are in the form of a
dimensionless point, and the same is assumed for the quantities of matter of electrons m
01
and m
02
,
whereby the gravitational force between them at distance r between them is
01 02
0 2
. .
. ;
G
m m
F r
r
γ
· −
r
r
0
r
r
r
·
r
r
r
; (7.31)
Later, after Newton, with the introduction of the notion of physical fields, the notion of
gravitational field
G
r
was also introduced, and force
G
F
r
was also written by means of the notion of
gravitational field
G
r
.
a)
01 2
. ;
G
F m G ·
r r
b)
02 0
2 2
. .
;
m r
G
r
γ
· −
r
r
(7.32)
where:
2
G
r
is the gravitational field, generated by mass
02
m
.
In this definition, mass m
02
, which generates a gravitational field, is a gravitational charge q
G
,
analogously to the formula of electric field
E
r
, which is generated by electric charge q
e
0 0
2 2
0
. . .
,
4. .
e e e
q r q k r
E
r r
· ·
π.ε
r r
r
( )
1
0
4. ;
e
k
−
· π.ε (7.33)
118
Therefore, the mass in the formula of the gravitational field is (means) a gravitational charge.
Since electrons are a substantial form of the unitary electromagnetic matter of nature and they
also generate gravitational fields, energies and forces, i.e. the masses of electrons are also
gravitational charges. In this case, electrons are the carrier and generator of gravitational fields,
energies, masses and force, and electrons are elementary particles of electromagnetic matter. This fact
implies, according to the genetic principle, that gravitational phenomena (quantities) and as a product
(result) of the electromagnetic matter have also electromagnetic essence.
The gravitational fields of the mass m
e0
of the electron have densities of masses of electrostatic field
E
ρ
and magnetic field
H
ρ
, as follows
a)
0
2
0
. ;
e
m e e m
G m q k ≡ ·
b)
2
0
2
.
;
2.
E
E
E
G
c
ρ
ε
≡ ρ · c)
2
0
2
.
;
2.
H
H
H
G
c
ρ
µ
≡ ρ · (7.34)
i.e. they are proportional to the squares of a) electric charge
2
e
q ; b) to the squares of electric filed E
2
and
magnetic field H
2
.
This circumstance means that the gravitational fields are square electromagnetic fields. However,
on the other hand, since it has been assumed that the electrical E and the magnetic H fields are
electromagnetic fields in the aspect of primary electromagnetic fields whose densities of masses generate
gravitational fields, then it follows that gravitational fields are secondary electromagnetic fields, which
are a second product of the quantities, associated with electric charges, and this is the motivation to call
them secondary electromagnetic fields or unipolar electromagnetic fields. The assumption that they are
unipolar is motivated by the fact that they are proportional to the squares of their defining quantities
a) ( )
2
0;
e
q t > b) ( )
2
0; E t > c) ( )
2
0; H t > (7.35)
which are only positive, due to which they determine the unipolarity of gravitational fields. And since
the fields generate forces, then these forces are also unipolar (only of attraction).
I.e. the electromagnetic essence of the gravitational fields as a function of the squares of the
electromagnetic quantities
2
e
q , E
2
and H
2
, determines the unipolarity of gravitational fields and forces.
Moreover, electromagnetic energy W
EM
of objects generates gravitational fields and forces via its mass
a)
2
0;
EH
EH
W
m
c
· >
b)
0 2
. . 0;
EH
EH
m
G r
r
· − γ <
r
r
(7.36)
Emphasis
Here it should be pointed out that the notation
2
r
−
holds true only approximately, only when the
dimensions of the quantities of matter m
1
and m
2
, in a most general case (for instance) when their
dimensions
1
l
and
2
l
(equal to the radiuses of the respective bodies
1 1
R · l
and
2 2
R · l
) are much
smaller than the distance r between them
a)
1 1
; R r · <<< l
b)
2 2
; R r · <<< l
(7.37)
That is exactly the condition (requirement) that Newton sets in “Principles...” so that power 2 of
2
r r
−
→ should hold true.
If the condition (7.37) is not met, then the exponent will not be 2, but 2 2 t α ≠
( ) 0 1 < α =
; (7.38)
Or the force
G
F
r
from (7.11 b) holds true only for the individual points with densities of masses
than the quantity of matter Q of a body with mass m
0
and a real volume 0 V > , which (the mass
density ) is an abstracted notion of a material object (material point) with quantity of matter Q and
volume V > 0.
7.3.2.2. When the electron is at rest (
0
e
v ·
)
The mass of the electron
2
0
.
e e m
m q k · generates gravitational field
2
0 0
0 0 2 2
. . . .
. ;
e e m
e
m q k r
G r
r r
γ γ
· − · −
r
r
r
(7.39)
119
where:
γ
is the gravitational constant; q
e
 electric charge
19
1, 6.10 C
e
q
−
· of the electron.
Since, in general, the electric charge is quantized (its value is
. ,
e e
Q n q ·
where n = 1, 2, 3... etc.,
and
e
q
is the minimal possible value (quantum) of the quantity of electric charge), in this aspect it can
be said that
0 e
G
r
is quantized, too.
The densities of the energy
0 Ge
w
and of the mass
0 Ge
ρ
of the gravitational fields are
a)
2
0
0
;
2.
e
Ge
G
w ·
γ
b)
0
0 2
;
Ge
Ge
w
c
ρ ·
(7.310)
The full gravitational energy of the electron at 0 v · is
a)
0
4
0 0 0
.d . ;
e
Ge Ge e G
r
W w V q k
∞
· ·
∫
b)
( )
1
2 2 4
0
. 24. . . ;
G e e
k r c
−
· γ π.ε (7.311)
The gravitational mass of the electron at 0 v · is
4
0
0 0 2 2
. ;
Ge e
Ge G
W q
m k
c c
· · (7.312)
It is evident from (7.311) and (7.312) that in its essence (nature) the gravitational field is
generated by electric charge q
e
raised to even power, which is always a positive quantity
2.
0
n
e
q > . That
is the explanation why the gravitational field is unipolar.
The relationship between the electrostatic energies W
e0
and masses m
e0
of the electron and its
gravitational energies W
Ge01
and masses m
Ge01
are
42 0 0
0 0
4,17.10 ;
e e
Ge Ge
W m
W m
· ≈
(7.313)
At velocity
v c =
, magnetic field
0
. . H v E ] · ε
]
r
r
, magnetic energy
2
0
.
2
e
H
m v
W · and mass
2
H
He
W
m
c
· , are generated around the electron, and to that mass corresponds gravitational field
0 2
.
;
He
He
m
G r
r
γ
· −
r
r
7.3.2.3. Gravitational field of electromagnetic waves
The energy W
EH
and the mass m
EH
of sinusoid electromagnetic waves are
pulsating in the time at a frequency twice as high as the frequency of
electromagnetic waves
a)
( )
2 2 0 0
0 0
1 cos 2
.sin . . .cos . 0;
2 2 2
EH EH
EH EH EH
t W W
W W t W t
− ω
· ω · · − ω ≥
b)
( )
2 0 0
0 0
1 cos 2 .
.sin . . .cos2 . 0;
2 2 2
EH EH
EH EH EH
t m m
m m t m t
− ω
· ω · · − ω ≥ (7.314)
where:
0 EH
W
and
0 EH
m
are amplitudes of the energy and the mass.
The density of the mass of the electromagnetic wave is sum of the densities of the masses
E
ρ
and
H
ρ
of the electric field
E
r
and of the magnetic field
H
r
2 2
0 0
2 2
. .
;
2. 2.
EH E H
E H
c c
ε µ
ρ · ρ + ρ · + (7.315)
to which correspond gravitational fields
0 0 0
2 2 2
. . . . . .
;
E H EH
EH E H
r r r
G G G
r r r
ρ ρ ρ
ρ γ ρ γ ρ γ
· + · − − ·
r r r
r r r
(7.316)
120
which are also pulsating ( )
2
1
sin . 1 cos 2 .
2
t t
]
ω · − ω
]
]
.
The mean mass of one wave for time
0
1
T
v
· or for the length of one wave
c
v
λ ·
is
2
;
.
EH
meн
W
c
τ ·
λ
(7.317)
It follows from (7.317) that the gravitational field of electromagnetic waves is the field of mass in
the form of a rod whose diameter D
v
of the crosssection S
v
of the wave is much smaller than the length
.
v
n λ · λ
of a flux of n waves, i. e.
v v
l D ?
, since according to paragraph 6.3.1. the length of a photon is
about
3 m
f
l ·
, and its crosssection has a diameter
7
10 m D
−
≈ is
0 0 0 0
.
. .cos2 . 0;
2.
meн
eн v v
G G r G G t
r
τ
τ γ
· · − · − ω ≥
r r r r
r
(7.318)
where:
0
.
;
2.
meн
v
G
r
τ γ
· − (7.319)
is the amplitudinal value of the gravitational field, which corresponds to the mean value of the mass of the
electromagnetic field of the wave, which is in the form of a filament.
It is evident from (7.318) that the gravitational field of the electromagnetic waves is unipolar
and pulsating.
IN THIS SENSE, IF IT IS DESCRIBED RELATIVE TO AN AXIS OF TIME, WHICH IS AT A POSITIVE DISTANCE FROM
0
2
E
E E → ∆ · AND FROM
0
2
H
H H → ∆ · , RESPECTIVELY ABOVE THE AXIS, IT CAN BE TREATED AS A SINUSOID
GRAVITATIONAL WAVE, WHICH IS INSEPARABLE FROM THE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE AND MOVES AT ITS VELOCITY.
IN THIS SENSE, THE CLAIM IN THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY THAT THERE ARE INDEPENDENT GRAVITATIONAL WAVES
LACKS MOTIVATION AND IS INCORRECT, MOREOVER, IT HAS NOT BEEN DIRECTLY VALIDATED EXPERIMENTALLY UP TO THIS
PRESENT DAY.
Because of their linear mass meн
τ
(7.317) of electromagnetic waves, they generate gravitational
fields (7.318) and enter into force interactions with other gravitational fields. This is the explanation why
a beam of light from a remote star is attracted by the sun; however, the gravitational mass of the wave is
not pointlike, as it was used several times by Soldermann (1801) and Einstein (1911) when calculating the
aberration of a sun beam by the sun, therefore, their calculations are incorrect, for the photon of the light
beam the mass has length
8 8
. 10 .3.10 3 m
C
c
−
· τ · · l
and diameter of its crosssection
7
10 m. D
−
≈
S. Poisson’s equations hold true for the gravitational field, GF:
a) rot 0; G ·
r
b) div .4. . ,
m
G · −ρ πγ
r
(7.320)
where:
( ) ( )
2 2
0 0
2 2
0;
2. 2.
m EH E H
E H
c c
ε t µ t
ρ · ρ · ρ + ρ · + > (7.321)
is density of the electromagnetic matter, of the electromagnetic waves, of the electromagnetic field.
(7.320) and (7.321) imply these inferences which result from scientific facts:
First. Gravitational field is created (generated) by electromagnetic matter in a substantial or
field form. It is a secondary electromagnetic field.
Second. Gravitational field is inextricably bound with (inseparable from) its carrier and
generator – electromagnetic matter in a field or substantial form.
Third. Gravitational field has no eddy component due to the circumstance that it is proportional
to the square of electromagnetic field, which is bipolar, but its square is always a positive quantity – a
unipolar quantity, owing to which fact gravitational field is also only unipolar:
121
a)
( )
2
0 0
2 2
.
. 0
2.
E
E r
G
c r
ε t γ
· − <
r
r
; b)
( )
2
0 0
2 2
.
. 0;
2.
H
H r
G
c r
µ t γ
· − <
r
r
c) 0.
E H
G G G · + <
r r r
(7.322)
If we just imagine that there are gravitational waves, then their wave equation should be written in
this form:
2 2
2
2 2
. ;
G
G G
v
t r
∂ ∂
·
∂ ∂
(7.323)
where:
G
v
is the velocity of the gravitational waves. Up to the present moment, this velocity is not known
as an independent velocity, except for what Einstein postulated, that it is equal to the velocity of light, OF
WHICH NO EXPERIMENTAL CONFIRMATION EXISTS, NOR IS THERE ANY EXPERIMENTAL CONFIRMATION THAT INDEPENDENT
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES EXIST, WHICH ARE SEPARABLE FROM THE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES THAT GENERATE THEM.
In a most general case, the solution to (7.323) has this form:
( ) ( ) ( )
01 01 02 02
, .cos . . .cos . . ; G r t G t k r G t k r · ω − −ϕ + ω + + ϕ
r r r r r
r r
(7.324)
where:
01
G
r
and
02
G
r
are amplitudes of the waves; 2. .v ω· π – angular frequency at wave frequency g
ν
of GF;
g
k
ω
·
ν
– wave vector; t – time; r – distance;
01
ϕ
and
02
ϕ
– the phase difference.
Let, for convenience of the analysis, only one of the waves in (7.324) is discussed by assuming
that there exists only the first wave, i.e.
01 02
0; 0 G G ≠ ·
r r
(7.325)
and at moment
a) 0; t · → b)
01 02
0 0 0. r · →ϕ · · ϕ ·
(7.326)
Then the amplitudes of GF for one semiperiod which is
1
4 4.
T
t
v
· ·
should be heteropolar
01
0 G >
r
and
01
0 G <
r
, and they are:
a) ;
4
T
t · b) . ;
4 4
T π
ω · → c) ( )
01
. 0; G r t G · − <
r r
(7.327)
a)
3
;
4
t T · b)
3 3
. . .
4 4
T ω · π → c) ( )
01
. 0; G r t G · − <
r r
(7.328)
It follows from (7.327) and (7.328) that during the first wave, GF should alter between amplitudes
01
0 G <
r
and
01
0 G <
r
. Id est GF could not realize these gravitational waves, which would be described by
( )
01
, G r t G ·
r r
.
( ) ( )
01
, .cos . . ; G r t G t k r · ω −
r r r
r
(7.329)
which in wave processes must obligatory be bipolar, according to
01
0 G >
r
;
01
0 G <
r
, and they are not
(7.327) and (7.328). As it is known, according to (7.314), GF is only unipolar. This real scientific
fact implies that in order to describe a reverse wave of amplitude
02
G
r
, a bipolar GF is required,
and it is not bipolar, because there is no independent GF without electromagnetic matter.
The real circumstances, expressed through (7.320) and (7.321) categorically show that GF is
indeed only unipolar and eddyfree. In GF, there are no alternative components, such as are
E
r
and
H
r
,
which are described by Maxwell’s equations. This is one of the reasons to reject the existence of
independent gravitational waves. All this proves that (7.325) cannot be written for GF – A FACT, WHICH
CLEARLY AND CATEGORICALLY CONFIRMS THAT THERE ARE NO GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND THAT GRAVITATIONAL
WAVES CANNOT EXIST, SINCE GF IS ONLY UNIPOLAR AND DOES NOT HAVE ANY EDDY COMPONENTS. MOREOVER, IT IS
ESSENTIAL TO POINT OUT THAT THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY (TO) HAS NEVER CLAIMED OR PROVED THAT A BIPOLAR
GF EXISTS, NOR THAT A GF EXISTS, WITHOUT A GENERATOR AND WITHOUT A MATERIAL CARRIER. On the contrary,
from equation (7.320) it directly follows that the carrier and generator is matter (mass) of a normal kind
122
(electromagnetic matter). This subsequence from (7.320) directly confirms that GF of the General
Theory of Relativity should only be unipolar and is always inseparable from matter (mass), A
CIRCUMSTANCE, WHICH CATEGORICALLY DISPROVES ANY POSSIBILITY TO GENERATE INDEPENDENT (WITHOUT
ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER) GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND WHICH AT PRESENT HAS NO EXPERIMENTAL CONFIRMATION.
Thus, it has been ascertained for the gravitational field that:
First. It cannot exist without being directly bound to the mass of substantial or field
electromagnetic matter which generates it.
Second. It is electromagnetic  a secondary electromagnetic field, which is only unipolar.
THIRD. SINCE THE INDEPENDENT FIELD WAVES REQUIRE BIPOLARITY OF THEIR AMPLITUDES, AND SINCE THE
GRAVITATIONAL FIELD IS ONLY UNIPOLAR, IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR INDEPENDENT GRAVITATIONAL WAVES TO EXIST
WITHOUT ELECTROMAGNETIC MASS (ENERGY) TO CARRY AND GENERATE THEM, I.E. THERE ARE NOT AND THERE CANNOT
BE INDEPENDENT GRAVITATIONAL WAVES.
Fourth. The dimensionality of gravitational field is a dimensionality of acceleration.
[ ]
[ ]
on; accelerati
squared time
distance
2
· · · → a
S
m
G
(7.330)
Fifth. The distance r in the nominator of the formula of gravitational field is in power 2 only in
cases when:
a) the quantity of matter m of the body is volumeless (V = 0), i.e. m can be reduced to a point;
b) when the dimensions r
1
and r
2
of the bodies interacting gravitationally are much smaller than
the distance R between the body and the generator of GF
1 1
r R =
and
2
r R =
, which attracts the body
7.3.2.4. How good is the motivation for the hypothesis that at small distance, below 10
 16
m,
gravitational forces prevail over electromagnetic forces
THE ANALYSIS MADE HERE IS BASED ON THE CIRCUMSTANCE THAT UP TO THIS MOMENT NO EXPERIMENTAL FACT HAS BEEN
PRESENTED TO PROVE THAT THERE IS INDEPENDENT GRAVITATIONAL FIELD, WHICH HAS NO CARRIER (GENERATOR) SUCH AS SOME
STRUCTURE OF MATTER (ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER).
Let us now take a look at the elementary particles in the form of substantial (fermion) particles, such as the
electron e

with mass
31
0
9,1.10
e
m
−
· , proton e
+
with mass
27
1, 672 10 kg
p
m
−
· ·
and neutron –
27
1, 674.10
n
m kg
−
· .
The electrostatic force between two electrons
1
e
and
2
e
with masses
31
1 2
9,1.10
e e
m m
−
· · and
electric charges
19
1 2
1, 6.10 C
e e
q q
−
· · is
( )
[ ]
2
19
38 40 12 28
1 2
2 12 2 12 2 2 2
1, 6.10
. 2,56.10 2,3.10 .10 2,3.10
;
4 . 4 .8,85.10 . 111,156.10 .
e
q q
F N
r r r r r
−
− − −
− −
0
· · · · · −
πε π
(7.331)
The gravitational force between the masses of two electrons is
[ ]
2 2 2 63 72
11 1 2 1 2
2 2 2 2
. . . . . 81,82.10 5, 46.10
.6, 673.10 ;
e e m e e
Ge
q q k m m
F N
r r r r
− −
−
γ γ
· · · · − (7.332)
The ratio of
Ge
F
to
e
F
times 10 . 402 , 2
10 . 3 , 2
10 . 46 , 5
43
28
72
−
−
−
· ·
e
Ge
F
F
(7.333)
I.e. the ratio of the gravitational forces to the electromagnetic forces of two electromagnetic objects
is 2,402.10
43
times.
The relationship between the density of the mass
m
ρ
and the effective square of electric charge of a body
with mass
T
m
is
2 T
Т
m
m
Q
k
·
.
Under these conditions the gravitational forces between two equal in value densities of masses
17 3
10 kg.m
Т
ρ · , such as the density of the mass of the nucleus of an atom , at distance r from each other
123
is
2 34
2 2
. 10 .
;
Т
G
F
r r
ρ
ρ γ γ
· · (7.334)
And the electric force between the effective densities of electric charges
2
Tm
Q of these masses is:
2
2 34
2 2 2 2 2
0
.
10
;
4 . .4 . .4 .
T
e
m m
Q Q
F
r k r k r
2
ρ ρ
ρ
0 0
ρ
· − · ·
πε πε πε
(7.335)
The ratio between these forces is
( )
2
2 11 12 7 6
.4 . 6, 673.10 .4. .8,85.10 . 3,55.10 9,34.10 ;
G
F m
e
F
K k
F
ρ − − −
0
ρ
· · γ πε · π ·
(7.336)
which does not depend on the distance between masses
m
ρ
, since it refers to forces between the same masses, i.e.
it also holds true for very small distances and for great and small densities of masses and their respective densities
squares of electric charges
2
T
T
m
Q
k
ρ
· .
In this sense, in great densities of masses ( )
17 3
10 kg.m
T
−
ρ ·
the ratio
F
K
between their
gravitational and electromagnetic forces is relatively small
6
10
F
K
−
≡ .
IN THIS SENSE, THERE IS NO REASON TO DISCUSS THE HYPOTHESIS AT GREAT DENSITIES OF MASSES 1 ρ ? AND
AT SMALL DISTANCES 1 r = , THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCES CAN BE PREVALENT, SINCE THE EXAMPLE CALCULATED
HERE REJECTS THIS HYPOTHESIS, SINCE K
F
DOES NOT INVOLVE EITHER
ρ
, OR R.
7.3.3. Examples of gravitational fields
What the expressions about gravitational forces and gravitational fields indicate for some specific
shapes of bodies, which are attracted by a pointlike source of a gravitational field.
First case. Attracting a body in the form of a rod
Case A. Rod B is perpendicular to the gravitational field of a pointlike body A.
Such a case is shown in Fig. 7.3.1 a.
The rod has a homogenous density of mass
ρ
, square crosssection with sides of a unit of length
and the length of the rod is 2l.
If we consider it relative to a system of coordinates xy, placed in its center, an elementary volume
of the rod at distance x from its beginning with volume
d 1.1.d
x
V x ·
and mass
. .
x
dm dv dx · ρ · ρ
the
rod, according to (7.31), is attracted by body A of mass m
A
by force
2 2
. .d .
d ;
A
xy
m x
F
H x
γ ρ
· −
+
(7.337)
This force has a projection upon axis y and x
a)
( )
3
2 2 2
.d
d . . . ;
y A
H x
F m
H x
· − ρ γ
+
b)
( )
3
2 2 2
.d
d . . . ;
х A
x x
F m
H x
· − ρ γ
+
(7.338)
from which, after integrating we have forces
( )
1 1
2 2 2
2.
d . . . ;
l
y AB y A
l
l
F F F m
H H
−
· · · − ρ γ
+
∫
l
(7.339)
( )
( )
1
2 2 2
0
2 2
d . . . ;
.
x ABX x A
l
H H
F F F m
H H
+ −
· · · ρ γ
+
∫
l
l
(7.340)
The integral of
x
F
is only for one side of the rod and gives the force in one arm, while for both
arms the forces are
x
F
and
x
F −
oppositely directed, i.e. it presses the rod toward shortening.
If the force of attraction of body B by body A is calculated under Newton’s condition
124
; H l = (7.341)
we have
1 0
2
.2
. . . ;
x AB A
F F m r
H
γ
· · − ρ
r r
l r
(7.342)
The ratio of force 1 y AB
F F ·
to force
10 AB
F
, calculated under condition (7.341), respectively under
(7.31), which is
10 0
2
2.
. . . ;
AB A
l
F m r
H
· − ρ
r
r
(7.343)
is
( )
( )
1
2 2 2
1
3 2 2
1;
F
H l H
K
H H l
− −
· <
+
(7.344)
Inferences
1. It follows from F
y
(7.339) and (7.342) that for the case in Fig. 7.3.1 a, the real gravitational force
F
y
is always smaller than the one calculated under conditions (7.341), respectively under (7.31) .
2. WHEN THE ATTRACTED BODY B HAS A DIMENSION PERPENDICULAR TO THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF BODY
A, WHICH ATTRACTS IT, THE BODY GENERATES TRANSVERSE GRAVITATIONAL FORCES, WHICH SEEK TO SHORTEN THE
BODY IN DIRECTION PERPENDICULAR TO THE FIELD OF BODY A.
3. The previous two inferences (1 and 2) indicate that it is necessary to further develop Newton’s
gravitation in order to clarify the effects, which are generated when a body has volume 0 V ≠ .
Case B. Rod B whose axis coincides with the direction of the gravitational field of body A.
The rod has a square crosssection, its sides measuring one and its length 2l , as fig. 7.3.1 b shows.
At distance y along the axis y is the elementary volume
d 1.1.d 1.d
y
V y y · ·
, in which there is mass
d d .
y
m y · ρ
, attracted by body A with force
( )
2 2
d .
d d . ;
y
AB y A
m
F F m
H y
γ
· · −
+
(7.345)
The resultant force F
AB2
, by which body A attracts body B is
2 2 2
. .
d ;
A B
AB y
m m
F F
H
+
−
γ
· · −
−
∫
l
l
l
(7.346)
For this case, the force calculated under condition (7.341) , respectively under (7.31) is
20 0
2
. .
. ;
A B
Y AB
m m
F F r
H
γ
· · −
r
r
(7.347)
The ration of
2 AB
F
to
20 AB
F
is
2
2 2 2
1;
F
H
K
H
· ≥
−l
(7.348)
125
Fig. 7.3.1.
Inferences
1. THERE IS NO TRANSVERSE FORCE IN CASE B
2. IN CASE B THE REAL FORCE IS ALWAYS GREATER THAN THE ONE CALCULATED UNDER CONDITION (7.341).
Emphasis І
In real bodies with volume 0 V > , there is always transverse gravitational force.
Emphasis ІІ
The two cases A and B described here make it apparent that when a body is approximated
into a point (mass with a volume zero V = 0) the influence of the shape of the body upon the force
cannot be taken into account, for instance in case A the force has a transverse component, which
may be of great significance in some cases, as it is in case A.
Emphasis ІІI
These two examples also confirm the claim that the notion of mass is an abstracted notion of the
notion of quantity of matter, since in both positions the two bodies have identical quantities of matter,
and under condition (7.341) the gravitational forces are identical in values, but when taking into
account their positions relative to the body that attracts them, i.e. with accounting for their real
volumes, their gravitational forces are different.
Second case. Attraction of two spherical bodies
The gravitational force between two bodies A and B with masses
0
A
m >
;
0
B
m >
;
0
A
V >
;
0
B
V >
,
even when both of them are perfect spheres, but body A is approximated into a point, Newton’s law (7.3
1) holds true only, for instance, for body A and one point on body B with density of mass . If we seek the
force between body A and the whole body B, then according to Fig. 7.3.2, we should integrate for the
126
whole volume of body B, while assuming that body A has volume 0 V · , and body B, that it has a radius
0 B
R r ·
.
Under these conditions, the gravitational force between the spherical homogenous bodies A and B
in Fig. 7.3.2 is
( ) ( )
( )
0
0
1
2 2 2
3
2 2
2 2
.d .d .d
. . ;
r
xyz A G
r
H z x y x y z
F m F
x y H z
−
+ +
· γ ρ ≠ −
]
+ + +
]
∫∫ ∫
r
(7.349)
where:
G
F
r
is the gravitational force under the conditions of (7.31).
Therefore, force
XYZ
F
from (7.349) is always different from
G
F
(7.31) or, in other words, the
force between two real planets even if they are perfect spheres (and they can never be perfect spheres)
does not correspond to Coulomb’s potential, but is always different from that with a pointlike volume
0 V · of both bodies, such is
.
G
F
As a result of (7.341), Newton assumed that when
a)
;
A
H R ?
b)
;
B
H R ?
(7.350)
the calculation of the gravitational forces between two objects (bodies) A and B should be done according
to (7.342), where H r · is the distances between the centers of their gravities, whereby in this case the
error can practically be ignored
This force
xyz
F
r
has projections:
a) upon axis z it is
( )
'
d d .cos . . d . ;
xyz xyz xyz
H z
F F H z r F
r
+
· α ·
(7.351)
b) upon an area, parallel to the plane, outlined by axis x and y, but at distance z from them (from
O’) and it is
( )
( )
( )
1
2 2 2
"
2
2 2 2 2
d d .sin . . d . ;
xyz xyz xyz
x y
F F H z r F
x y z
+
· α ·
+ +
(7.352)
This force exercises pressure upon the layer under it of body B.
The notations of the integrals
'
d
xyz
F
and
"
d
xyz
F
are
( )
( )
0
0
2 2
'
0 3
2 2
2 2
.d .d .d
d . ;
r
xyz
r
x y x y z
F m
H z x y
+
−
+
· − ρ.γ
]
+ + +
]
∫∫ ∫ (7.353)
( ) ( )
( )
0
0
1
2 2 2
"
0 3
2 2
2 2
. .d .d .d
d . ;
r
xyz
r
x y H z x y z
F m
H z x y
+
−
+ +
· − ρ.γ
]
+ + +
]
∫∫ ∫
(7.354)
127
Fig. 7.3.2.
Until present time, integrals for this case have not been notated or solved. But they show that:
1) AS A MATTER OF FACT, THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCES IN REAL BODIES WITH VOLUME V > 0 (THESE ARE ALL
BODIES) ARE SUBJECTED NOT ONLY TO ATTRACTION, BUT ALSO TO PRESSURE IN DIRECTION PERPENDICULAR TO THE AXIS,
WHICH CONNECTS THE CENTERS OF THE ATTRACTION AND THE ATTRACTING BODY.
2) THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCES OF ATTRACTION COMPUTED BY THE SIMPLIFIED METHOD BY IGNORING THEIR
VOLUME ( ) 0 V ·
, ARE ALWAYS MORE OR LESS DIFFERENT FROM THE REAL ONES. I.E. THE FORCE OF ATTRACTION OF THE
BODIES WHEN THEIR VOLUME DIFFERENT FROM ZERO ( ) 0 V >
IS, STRICTLY SPEAKING, NEVER PROPORTIONAL TO r
2
, BUT
ALWAYS IS
a)
2
; r
− tα
b) ( ) 0 1 ; < α =
(7.355)
3. AND THIS FACT, ACCORDING TO BERTAN’S THEOREM
2
MAKES IT CLEAR THAT THE ORBITS OF THE PLANETS ARE
NEVER CLOSED ELLIPSES, BUT ARE ALWAYS OPEN IN THE FORM OF A ROSETTE.
7.4. THERE IS NOT AND THERE CANNOT BE A PRINCIPLE OF
EQUIVALENCE
7.4.1. General formulations
The principle of equivalence states: when the gravitational field in an area of space, in which it
can be considered homogenous and constant in time, it is in its manifestation identical to an
accelerated reference system, i.e. inertial and gravitational force are equivalent, or identical.
Taking into consideration the presented above that inertial forces are an expression of the law of
conservation of mass and energy of bodies with a quantity of matter, or mass m, it follows that
2
N. I. Zhirovski. Klasicheskaya mehanika (Classical Mechanics). Publ. by Prosveshchenie. M. 1980. (p. 111)
128
gravitational fields even at a minimal distance dr between two points A and B from the equipotential
surface of the gravitational field of one body are not equal because they are not parallel and that the
gravitational field, apart from force of attraction between the centers of two bodies, generates a
transverse force of pressure upon the body, while the inertial force does not have such a component,
since it is always directed opposite to the acceleration. This leads to the categorical inference that:
1. IN REALITY, IN NATURE, IN A SMALL OR LARGE SPACE, THERE ARE NO UNIFORM GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS;
MOREOVER, THERE ARE TRANSVERSE GRAVITATIONAL FORCES, DUE TO WHICH FACTS THERE IS NOT AND THERE CANNOT BE
A PRINCIPLE OF EQUIVALENCE BETWEEN GRAVITATION AND INERTIAL FORCE.
2. OWING TO THE IMPOSSIBILITY OF THERE BEING UNIFORM GRAVITATIONAL FIELD, AND HENCE ALSO THE
IMPOSSIBILITY OF THERE REALLY BEING A PRINCIPLE OF EQUIVALENCE, ALL INFERENCES, WHICH ARE CONSEQUENCES OF
EINSTEIN’S THEORY OF GRAVITATION WHICH RESULT FROM THE UNREAL PRINCIPLE OF EQUIVALENCE SHOULD BE DROPPED
OFF .
7.4.2. There is no uniform gravitational field
First case
Pointlike source of GF.
Case A. Two points A and B are upon gravitational equipotential surface at distance r.
Under these conditions, on a spherical equipotential surface, the distances of r
A
and r
B
are equal in
absolute value
,
A B
r r ·
r r
(7.41)
whence it follows that GF in points A and B are also equal by absolute value
a)
0 0 0 0
2 2
. . . .
A B
A B
A B
m r m r
G G
r r
γ γ
· − · · − →
r r
r r
b)
.
A B
G G ·
r r
(7.42)
But angle AB
∆ϕ
between
A
G
r
and
B
G
r
is different from zero: the single vectors 0A
r
r
and 0B
r
r
are
equal in absolute values, but are not parallel, i.e.
0,
AB
∆ϕ ≠
(7.43)
since they lie on radiuses r
r
, which run respectively through the center of gravity and points A and B,
which are at distance
d 0;
AB AB
r r ∆ → >
(7.44)
Therefore, the vectors of intensities
A
G
r
and
B
G
r
of the gravitational fields are not identical to each
other, although they are equal in absolute values, since they are not parallel. I.e. GF is not uniform even
on equipotential gravitational surface and at a minimal distance r
r
d 0
AB AB
r r ∆ → >
.
Case B. The pairs of points A and A’, B and B’ lie respectively along the same gravitational force
lines, but each is at different distances from the center:
a)
1
d 0;
A A A
A
r r r r ∆ · − → >
b)
1
d 0.
B B B
B
r r r r ∆ · − → >
(7.45)
Because of this the values
0 0
2
. .
;
B
B
B
m r
G
r
γ
· −
r
r
0 0
' 2
. .
B
B
B
m r
G
r
γ
· −
r
r
of GF in each pair of points A
and A’, B and B’ are different, since 1
A
A
r r ∆ ≠ ∆
and 1
B
B
r r ∆ ≠ ∆
, i.e.
a)
0 0 0 0 '
' 2 2
'
. . . .
;
A A
A A
A A
m r m r
G G
r r
γ γ
· − ≠ · − →
r r
b) '
;
A A
G G ≠
(7.46)
a)
0 0 0 0 '
' 2 2
'
. . . .
;
B B
B B
B B
m r m r
G G
r r
γ γ
· − ≠ · − →
r r
b) '
.
B B
G G ≠
(7.47)
Because of the differences in the distances
a)
' '
; ;
A A B B
r r r r ≠ ≠
r r r r
b)
'
0 0 '
; ;
A A B B
r r r r ≠ ≠
r r r r
(7.48)
and the angles
129
a) 1
0;
AA
∆ϕ ≠
b) 1
0;
BB
∆ϕ ≠
(7.49)
it follows from (7.46), (7.47), (7.48) and (7.49) THAT IN THIS CASE, TOO, IN TWO ADJACENT POINTS ALONG
THE FORCE LINE THE VECTORS OF GF DO NOT HAVE EQUAL ABSOLUTE VALUES, AND THEREFORE GF IS NEVER
UNIFORM.
The analysis of the first and second cases, which comprise the whole possible diversity of adjacent
GF, leads to the inference that EVEN IN ELEMENTARY VOLUME 1
d d .d .1
AB
AA
V r r ·
, THERE IS NOT AND THERE
CANNOT BE A UNIFORM GRAVITATIONAL FIELD.
7.4.3. Conclusion
The presented above makes it evident that
a) in the physical sense, in spatial objects, there is not and cannot be a uniform gravitational
field;
b) from a physical viewpoint, there is nothing in common between inertial and gravitational
forces apart from the fact that they are forces.
BECAUSE OF THIS, AN INFERENCE FOLLOWS THAT THERE IS NOT AND THERE CANNOT BE A PRINCIPLE OF
EQUIVALENCE.
7.5. EXAMPLES IN SUPPORT OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC ESSENCE OF
THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS OF OBJECTS
7.5.1. Conversion of gravitational energy into kinetic (magnetic) and vice versa
The following situation is considered. Over the Earth, which has matter (mass) M
3
, along its radius
R
3
, there are two pointlike masses M
1
and M
2
at distances R
1
and R
2
relative to its center, which lie on the
same radius.
The gravitational potentials on the surface of the Earth (R
3
) and at points M
1
and M
2
are:
3
3
3
.
) ;
G
M
a U
R
γ
· −
3
1
1
.
) ;
G
M
b U
R
γ
· −
3
2
2
.
) ;
G
M
c U
R
γ
· −
2 1
) ; d R R >
(7.51)
The difference between the potentials of M
1
and M
2
is
21 3
2 1
1 1
. ;
G
U M
R R
 `
∆ · − − γ
. ,
(7.52)
Let us assume that the processes take place on the surface of the Earth, i.e. 1 3
R R ·
and that
3
.;
G
U A const · ·
(7.53)
Under these conditions, we also assume that
1 1 3
) 0; a r R R · · ·
2 2
) ; b r R ·
2 1 2
) ; c r r r r · − ·
(7.54)
I.e. the potential 3 G
U
, respectively R
3,
is assumed as the beginning of the coordinate system, i.e.
1
0 r ·
and 2
0; r ≠
(7.55)
Under these conditions 3
0
G
U ·
, and the potential 21 G
U ∆
from (7.52) is
21 3
2
G
U m
r
γ
∆ · −
; (7.56)
to which, for an object of matter m
0
in point M
2
, corresponds potential gravitational energy
2 G G
W W ·
and force F
G
a)
0
2 21 0 3
2
.
. ;
G G G
m
W U m M W
r
γ
· ∆ · − ·
b)
0
. ;
G
G
dW
F r
dr
·
r
r
(7.57)
If the object m
0
at velocity zero in point M
2
has zero magnetic energy 0
H K
W W · ·
and it falls
freely from point M
2
to the Earth, i.e. along pathway
2
r
, in point M
1
on the Earth it will obtain magnetic
(kinetic) energy
130
2
2
0
0
.
. ;
2
r
H K G
m v
W W F dr · · ·
∫
r
r
(7.58)
where:
v
is the velocity of the object during its fall at point M
1
(on the surface of the Earth).
According to the law of energy conservation
a) ;
G K
W W ·
b) 0;
G K
W W − ·
(7.59)
at point M
1
the object has potential energy
0
G
W ≠
and
0
K
W ·
, and at point ( ) 0 0
G
r W · ·
and
0
K
W ≠
.
In this way a wellknown fact is illustrated, that the potential gravitational energy converts into
magnetic (kinetic) energy.
A reverse conversion is possible, if the object, which is at point M
1
at r = 0 on the surface of the
Earth, is supplied with sufficient quantity of electromagnetic energy to reach point M
2
. In this case the
electromagnetic energy converts into gravitational potential energy at point M
2
.
The explanation of the above processes is in the fact that the two kinds of fields are genetically
homogenous, they are both generated by electromagnetic matter.
Example with a photon
Let a photon of energy
0
W
ν and matter (mass)
0
m
ν
0
0
) . ; a W h
ν
· ν
0
0 2
) ;
W
b m
c
ν
ν
· (7.510)
(where: h is Planck’s constant; and
0
ν
– frequency) is at point M
2
, then its potential gravitational energy
is
0
1
3
2
. .
;
G
M m
U
r
ν
ν
− γ
·
(7.511)
During the motion of the photon from M
2
to M
1
it experiences the gravitational force of the Earth
G
F
ν
r
and so it increases its velocity above the wave velocity c, as a result of the force of attraction
G
F
ν
by the
gravitational field of the Earth, and its velocity will increase by v
21
, and thence its frequency will increase,
too (according to Doppler effect), where the velocity v
21
, which the photon of mass
0
m
ν gains is caused by
the force of the gravitational field of the Earth, which is
0
3
) . ;
G
a F m G
ν
·
r r
3 0
3 3
. .
) ;
2
m r
b G a
γ
· · −
r
r
r
(7.512)
Due to the short distance ( )
21 2 1
r r r ∆ · −
along which
G
F
acts, we can assume that
.
G
F const ·
Under this condition, the kinetic energy, which the gravitational force
G
F
releases to the photon of mass
0
m
ν is
2
21
21
.
) . ;
2
G
m v
a W F r
ν
ν
∆ · ∆ · →
0 0
1 1
2 2
21 3 21
21
2. . . . .
) ;
G
F r m r
b v
m m
ν ν
 `  `
∆ ν γ ∆
· ·
. , . ,
(7.513)
As a result of this velocity v
21
, according to Doppler effect, the frequency of the photon and its
velocity v change to
21
21 0 0
) . . ;
c
c v u
a
c c
+
ν · ν · ν
21
) ;
c
b u c v · +
(7.514)
As a result, the energy and matter of the photon at point M
1
will increase to
2
1
21
0
0
) . . ;
r
G
c v
a W F dr h
c
ν ν
+ ]
· · ν
]
]
∫
r
r
1
1 2
) ;
W
b m
c
ν
ν
· (7.515)
As a result of the gravitational force, which acts upon the photon, its velocity will increase above
the velocity of light to
c
u c >
(7.514) – a fact which disproves the assertions in the Special Theory of
Relativity but is accepted by Einstein in his General Theory of Relativity .
131
The gain of energy and matter of the photon from M
2
to M
1
21
21 1 2 21
21 21
0 0 2
) . 1 . . ; ) ;
v
v v
W
c v v
a W W W h h b m
c c c
ν ν
∆
+ ]
∆ · − · ν − · ν ·
]
]
(7.516)
These changes under certain conditions are measurable.
Let an example be calculated at 21.5 m distance between the points M
2
and M
1
and be compared
with the measured values.
Here simplification is required, but the accuracy is sufficient for comparison with the measurement.
Since the gravitational fields G
2
and G
1
at points M
2
and M
1
are approximately equal, we can use
the resultant average value of GF, which is
2 2 1 0
21 3 3 2
3
.
9,8 . ;
2
G G r
G G M ms
R
−
+ γ
] · ≈ · − ·
]
r r
r
r r
(7.517)
The velocity v
21
at M
1
and the time t
21
at M
2
and M
1
are
21 3 21
a) . ; v G t ∆ ·
21
21
b) ;
r
t
c
∆
·
21
21
.
c) ;
З
G r
v
c
∆
·
(7.518)
The difference between the frequencies at
2
M
and M
1
is
15 3 2
21 21 0
16
. 9,81.21,5
2,3.10 ;
9.10
G r
v Hz
c
−
∆ · ν −ν · · ≈ (7.519)
With the above numerical data, frequency
15
21
2,3.10 v Hz
−
∆ · was measured by R.V. Pound (R. V
Pound. On the weight of photons in “Achievement of physics” vol. LXII issue 4. 1960, in Russian) by the
method of Moessbauer, whereby this result was obtained with an error of 1% t .
This experiment directly confirms Newton’s gravitational theory as well as the conversion of the
potential gravitational energy into electromagnetic( kinetic) energy because the formulae used in the
experiment are from Newton’s gravitation.
MOREOVER, POUND’S EXPERIMENT PROVES PRACTICALLY THAT THE VELOCITY OF LIGHT IS NOT CONSTANT.
DEPENDING ON THE DIRECTION OF ITS VELOCITY IN RELATION TO THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD G, IT CAN BE
21
;
c
u c v c · t ≠
(7.520)
7.5.2. Deviation of a ray of light from a star by the gravitational field of the Sun
7.5.2.1. Gravitational field of a photon (electromagnetic waves)
For a better visualization, without violating the general character of the conclusions, flat
electromagnetic waves are considered along with the gravitational field generated by them and
inseparable from them.
It is assumed that waves are so oriented relative to the coordinate system so that
) 0; ; 0;
x y z
a E E E E · · ·
) 0; 0; ;
x y z
b H H H H · · ·
(7.521)
The intensities of fields E and H are synchronized in phase and perpendicular to each other, their
amplitudes are E
m
and H
m
, and the angular frequency is ω· 2.π.ν (ν – frequency in Hz). The fields are
sinusoidal.
) .sin . ;
m
a E E t · ω
) .sin . ;
m
b H H t · ω
(7.522)
The density of their matter (mass) is
2 2
0 0
2 2
. .
a) ; b) ;
2 2
E H
E H
c c
ε µ
ρ · ρ ·
2 2
0 0
2 2
. .
c) ;
m EH E H
E H
c c
ε µ
ρ · ρ · ρ + ρ · · (7.523)
The sum of the moment values of the powers P of fields
E
r
and
H
r
is
( )
1
2
0 0 0 0
0
. . . .sin . ;
E H m m
P P P E H t P P
−
· + · ε µ ω · +
%
(7.524)
where:
( )
1
0 0 0
.
. . ;
2
m m
E H
P
−
· ε µ (7.525)
132
is a constant component of P
0
for the whole wave, and
( )
1
0 0
0
.
. . .cos 2 . ;
2
m m
E H
P t
−
· ε µ ω
%
(7.526)
is a variable component of P
0
, where their sum for two halfperiods, for two halfwaves / 2 λ , is zero, due to
which its resultant force in interaction with another gravitational field is zero.
Since power is energy per unit of time / P W t · , then power P
0
divided by the length of one half
wave / 2 λ gives the average linear density of energy of electromagnetic waves per unit of length
0
0
2.
;
w
P
τ ·
λ
(7.527)
And
0
w
τ
divided by c
2
gives the average linear density of matter (mass) of electromagnetic waves
in the form of a filament
0
0
0
2 2
2.
;
.
w
m
P
c c
τ
τ · ·
λ
(7.528)
This linear density of electromagnetic matter of the photon with length 3 m
f
l ·
and diameter of
its crosssection
7
10 m D
−
≈
is also a linear gravitational charge, which, analogously to the linear
electric charge, generates gravitational field of cylindrical radial symmetry.
0
0 0
0
0
0
2. . .
.cos2 . ;
m
r
G G G t G G
r
τ τ τ
− τ γ
· · − + ω · +
%
r
r r r r r
(7.529)
where:
0
0
2
. . .
;
.
m m
E H r
G
c r
− γ
·
r
r
(7.530)
is a constant component of the cylindrical gravitational field of electromagnetic waves. And
0
0 2
. . .
.cos 2 . ;
.
m m
E H r
G t
c r
γ
· ω
%
r
r
(7.531)
is the variable component of the gravitational field, which has double frequency 2.ν relative to the one of
0
of electromagnetic waves, whose sum along one wave λ (for one period T) is zero.
Such a radially cylindrical gravitational field can be obtained with sufficient accuracy, if the cross
section
2.
v v
D r ·
is much smaller than the length
v
l of the gravitational charge (mass of one wave). In
fact, since electromagnetic waves have photons as their carriers, the above condition should be met in
compliance with the sizes of the photons.
According to V. Golovanov
3
, the minimum surface, lighted by a laser ray is
13 2
5.10
m
S m
−
≈
or its
diameter is
6
10
v
D m
−
≈
, upon which fall, for instance, about 10
2
photons and the diameter (the cross
section) of the photon is
7
10
v
D m
−
≈
. According to D. I. Penner
**
, the emission time of a photon is
8
10
v
s
−
τ ≈
, hence it follows that the length of a photon from the frequency of the light range is
8 8
. 10 310 3
v v
c m
−
· τ · · l
.
It is apparent that the ratio of the photon length
v
l to diameter
v
D
is
7
7
3
3.10пъти;
10
v
v
N
D
−
· ≈ ·
l
(7.532)
At frequency of the visible light of
15
10 Hz : , the length of the wave is
8
7
15
3.10
3.10
10
c
m
v
−
λ · · · ,
and one photon has
3
Golovanov V. Sopernitsi reztsa (Russian). Publ. by Mashiz. M. 1977 (Ch. V).
** Penner, D. I., V. Ugarov. Electrodynamics Special Theory of Relativity (in Russian). “Prosveshchenie”.
M., 1980. (§ 44).
133
7
v
7
3
n 3.10 waves;
10
−
· ≈ ·
λ
l
(7.533)
With these data it is obvious that it holds true for the photon that:
First: The gravitational field of the photon is really only radially cylindrical (7.529).
Second. In no case can the photon be abstracted to a dimensionless point – a fact, which was also
confirmed by Einstein
4
, who wrote: “The idea of the photon as a pointlike structure does not permit
explanation of interference phenomena, which arise with two rays.” Nonetheless, he calculated the
deviation of light by approximating the photon into a point.
THEREFORE, THE CALCULATIONS, MADE BY SOLDERMAN IN 1801 AND BY EINSTEIN IN 1911, FOR THE
DEVIATION OF THE RAY OF LIGHT FROM A DISTANT STAR BY THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF THE SUN, WHERE THE
PHOTON IS ABSTRACTED TO A POINT, AND ITS GRAVITATIONAL FIELD IS PROPORTIONAL TO
2
r
−
YIELD UNRELIABLE RESULTS.
Third. The gravitational field generated by the light (electromagnetic) waves is radially cylindrical,
pulsating and unidirectional, so that this condition is always fulfilled.
0;
v
G G
τ
· ≤
r r
(7.534)
7.5.3. Value of the light ray deviation
According to (7.528) the linear density of matter of the electromagnetic waves in the light range of
14
10 Hz ν · is
34 14
34
2 16
. 6, 6.10 .10
2, 4.10 kg/m;
. 3.9.10
m
v
h
c
−
−
ν
τ · · ·
l
(7.535)
The gravitational field of the photon is radially cylindrical
0
2. .
. ;
m
G r
r
τ
τ γ
· −
r
r
(7.536)
not spherical.
The gravitational force F
v
between the gravitational field of photon G
τ
r
and the gravitational field
of the mass M
c
of the Sun is
.2. .
. ;
c m
v c
M
F M G
r
τ
τ γ
· · − (7.537)
The calculation of the angle of deviation of angle ∆ϕ of the rays of the star is made as per Ch.
Kittel
*
*
relative to a normally oriented reference system in the center of the Sun, so that axis x coincides
with the radius toward the nearest point M to the ray of the Sun. The component of the force of the
photon
v
F
upon axis x is
.cos ;
vx v
F F · α
(7.538)
where:
α
is the angle between the radius r
c
of the Sun and the radius r in the point under consideration
M.
) cos ;
c
r
a
r
α ·
2 2 2
) ;
c
b r r y · + (7.539)
where: y is the coordinate point M of the ray, for which point force
vx
F
is calculated.
The component of the momentum of the linear density of the photon matter upon axis x is
4
A. Einstein. Physics, Philosophy and Scientific Progress (in Russian). Collected Scientific Works, vol. ІV, p. 316,
translated from Physics, Philosophy and Scientific Progress. 1950.
*
**
Berkley Physics Course (in Russian), vol. І. Mechanics. Ch. Kittel, W. Knight, M. Ruderman. Science. M. 1983.
(p. 417, p § 14. 2) (translated from Ch. Kittel. Berkeley Physics Course. v. I McGraw. Hill Book Company).
134
0 0 0
2
. 2 . . . ;
vx m x vx vx vx
y
dy
P v F dt F F dy
v c
∞ ∞ ∞
· τ · · ≈
∫ ∫ ∫
(7.540)
where:
x
v
is the component of the photon velocity upon axis x, where
) . . ;
y
a dy v dt c dt · ≈
) ;
y
b v c ≈
(7.541)
After replacing
vx
F
with the relationship (7.538) and (7.539) a and cancelling
m
τ
we have
2 2
0
2. . 4. . 2.
.2 ;
0 . .
c c c
x
c c c c
M dy M y M
v arctg
c r y c r r c r
∞
∞
γ γ γ.π.
· · · −
+
∫
(7.542)
The tangent of the angle of its deviation is
2. .
2, 73";
.
x c
v M
tg rad
c c r
γ.π
∆ϕ · · ∆ϕ · · (7.544)
Therefore, when the ray of light passes by the Sun at distance equal to the radius r
c
of the Sun
and the linear density
m
τ
of its matter is considered, the obtained gravitational force is greater, and
thence the angle of deviation 2, 73" ∆ϕ · is also greater than if the photon is approximated into a
point.
In [2] (p. 353) it is written that according to Dikke, from the processing of the measured
experimental results in solar eclipse, the angular deviation is 1, 43" ∆ϕ · to 2, 73" . If the measurement is
free of systematic errors, but it may have error up to 20%, i.e. with an error of 20% – Δφ = 1.71” to 3.24”:
Therefore 2, 73" is within the range of probable deviation with errors from the measurement.
The above calculations once again confirms the homogeneity of electromagnetic and
gravitational fields.
7.5.4. Graviphoton: a quantized gravitational field
The interaction between electron
0
e
−
and positron
0
e
+
at rest generates photons with energies W
f
and mass m
f
, as follows
a)
0 0
2 ; e e
− +
+ → γ b)
2
0
2. . 2. . 2. ;
e f
m c h W · ν ·
c)
0 2
.
;
f e
h
m m
c
ν
· · (7.545)
I.e. the mass m
f
of the generated photons is equal to the mass at rest of electrons
2
0
. ;
f e e m
m m q k · ·
(7.546)
Here it should be pointed out that as it was noted in paragraph 7.5.2.1., the photon’s length is
8 8
. 10 .3.10 3 m
f
c
−
· τ · · l
(7.547)
where: is time of emission of the photon at velocity
8
3.10 m/s c · .
The energy W
f
and the mass m
f
of the photon at frequency 10
14
Hz are
18
34 14 18 34
2 16
6, 62.10
a) . 6, 62.10 .10 6, 62.10 J; b) 2.2,10 kg;
3.10
f
f f
W
W h m
c
−
− − −
· ν · · · · · (7.548)
Under these conditions the gravitational field of the photon is cylindrical
a)
0
.
. ;
f
f
m
G r
r
γ
· −
r
r
b)
2
.
f
me
f
W
c
τ ·
l
(7.549)
where: l
f
is length of the photon.
The gravitational energy of the photon W
Gf
in the reaction (7.545)a is equal to the gravitational
energy of the electron W
eG
(7.545)c, and therefore
a)
4
0
0 0
. . .
;
e e m
Gf eG
e e
m q k
W W
r r
γ γ
· · ·
b)
2
;
fG
fG
W
m
c
· (7.550)
135
The ratio between the electromagnetic and the gravitational energies and respectively between the
masses, according to equation (7.29) is
42 0 0
4,17.10 const.;
f f
e e
eG
eG eG fG fG
W m
W m
K
W m W m
· · · · · ·
(7.551)
Taking into consideration the law of conservation of energy and mass, we can make the inference that this
ratio K
eG
(7.551) is constant and holds true for all bodies (objects).
From the formula of the electromagnetic energy of the photon
. ;
f
W h · ν
(7.552)
to which, according to K
eG
(7.551), corresponds gravitational energy
.
. ;
2.
fG G
eG
h
W h
K
ν
· ν ·
(7.553)
here, as the frequency
G
of the gravitational field of the photon is twice as high as the frequency of
its electromagnetic field [see after equation (7.531)], in equation (7.553) in the nominator, there is a
digit two, and the frequency is that of electromagnetic field. Under these conditions h
G
is
[ ]
34
77
42 42
6, 65.10
7,9.10 J.s ;
2.4,17.10 8.34.10
G
h
h
−
−
· · ·
(7.554)
Hence it follows that the formula of the gravitational energy of the photon, or the energy of the
graviphoton (the gravitational energy of the photon) is
. ;
fG G
W h · ν
(7.555)
In this way the gravitational energy of the photon is quantized.
The gravitational mass of the photon or the mass of the graviphoton is
43
.2, 3.10 kg;
f
fG f
eG
m
m m
K
−
· ·
(7.556)
The momentum of the graviphoton is
0
. . ;
fG
fG fG
W
P m c c
c
· ·
r
r r
(7.557)
In the above sense, it follows that in force gravitational interaction by gravitational force
G
F
r
between two bodies A and B with masses m
A
and m
B
0 2
. .
. ;
A B
G
m m
F r
r
γ
· −
r
r
(7.558)
Apart from electromagnetic energy, which is transferred from one (A) body to the other (B), which
for distance dr
r
is
[ ]
d .d ; J ;
G
W F r ·
r
r
(7.559)
there is a transfer of gravitational energy as well
[ ]
43
d
d d .2, 3.10 J ;
G
eG
W
W W
K
−
· ·
(7.560)
I.e. here, too, the mechanism of interaction is the same, as in electromagnetic interaction.
7.5.5. General inferences
1. The essence of gravitational field is electromagnetic, but it is a secondary electromagnetic
field.
2. The gravitational potentials of bodies (planets) in Universe are always different from
Coulomb’s potential
2
r
α  `
−
. ,
.
3. APART FROM FORCES OF ATTRACTION ACTING BETWEEN BODIES, GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS ALSO GENERATE FORCES
OF PRESSURE (STRESS) UPON BODIES FROM THEIR SURFACE TOWARD THEIR AXIS, WHICH RUN THROUGH THE CENTERS OF
THE INTERACTING BODIES. THIS FORCE INFLUENCES THE TIDES (HIGH AND LOW WATERS) AND TECTONIC PROCESSES.
136
4. The motion of planets is only along open orbits (rosettes).
5. Strictly speaking, Kepler’s laws about planets are approximate with certain errors. A fact,
which explains the open orbit of the planet Mercury.
7.5.6. Conclusion
The essence of gravitational field as a secondary electromagnetic field has these
subsequences:
 it brings unity into the picture of the world as an electromagnetic continuum;
 deepens the knowledge of unitary electromagnetic matter of the world.
Literature
1. Ch. Kittel, V. Nayt, M. Ruderman. Barkleevsky kurs fiziki. Vol. I. Mekhanika. Nauka. Moscow,
1983. (Translated from: Ch. Kittel, V. Knight, M. Ruderman. Barkeley Physics Course, Vol. 1,
Mechanics. McGrawHill Book Co., 1965).
2. Ch. Misner, K. Torn. Gravitatsiya, vol. 3, Publ. Mir, Moscow, 1977. Translated from Ch. Misner,
Gravitation vol. 3, San Francisco. 1973.
7.6. FLAWS IN KEPLER’S SECOND LAW AND THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM
OF PLANETS
7.6.1. Introduction
The first two Kepler’s laws according to D. Giancoli [1] (Paragraph 5, 7) are:
First. The trajectory of motion (the orbit) of each planet around the Sun is an ellipse, in one center
of which is the Sun.
Second. Each planet moves so that its distance to the Sun describes equal surfaces for equal
intervals of time (the sector velocity is constant – P. P.’s note).
In respect to the quantities connected with the above laws, the parameters of the ellipses of the
Earth in relation to the Sun are:
1. the semiaxes
a
r
and
b
r
of the ellipse of the Earth orbit are:
a)
11
1, 49.10
a
r m · ; b)
11
2, 253.10
b
r m · ;
2. the velocities of the Earth at the perihelion p
v
and at the aphelion
a
v
are:
a) max
33, 3 /
p
v v km s · ·
; b)
min
29,3 /
A
v v km s · ·
;
3. The equation of the orbit (the ellipse) of the earth around the Sun is:
2 2
2 2
1
a b
x y
r r
+ ·
; (7.61)
7.6.2. The distance from the Earth to the Sun at the perihelion changes for time of half
a year
time of one year
t
2
∆ · ·
7
7
3,155.10
1, 57.10 s
2
·
; (7.62)
( )
11
2, 257 1, 49 .10
ab b a
r r r ∆ · − · − ·
11
0, 767.10 ; m (7.63)
or at a mean velocity of
11
3
0 7
0, 767.10
0, 488.10 / ;
1,57.10
ab
r
v m s
t
∆
· · ·
∆
(7.64)
i.e. the distance from the Earth to the Sun at perihelion
a
r
increases toward aphelion by
11
0
. 0, 767.10
ab
r v t m ∆ · ∆ · for time t and becomes
11
2, 257.10
b
r m · at aphelion , i.e.
137
11 3 7 11 11
0
11
. 1, 49.10 4,88.10 .1,57.10 1, 49.10 0, 767.10
2, 259.10 ;
b a
r r v t
m
· + ∆ · + · + ·
·
(7.65)
and vice versa, the distance at aphelion
b
r decreases for time
t ∆
(i.e. mean velocity v
0
of the distance
a
r
at perihelion
) to distance
a
r
at perihelion, i.e.
11 3 7
0
. 2, 257.10 4,88.10 .1,57.10
a b
r r v t · − · − ·
11 11 11
2, 257.10 0, 767.10 1, 49.10 ; m − ·
(7.66)
These facts imply that the distance r from the Earth to the Sun along perihelion
a
r
increases for time t
toward aphelion and vice versa
b
r decreases
a
r
, i.e.
a)
0
. .
a
r r v t const · + ≠
; b)
0
. .
b
r r v t const · − ≠
; c) ( ) .; r r t const · ·
(7.67)
4.2. The velocity of the Earth relative to the Sun decreases from v
p
at perihelion for time t ∆ to
A
v
at
aphelion and vice versa – during its motion from aphelion
A
v
increases to p
v
at perihelion.
The difference between the velocity v
0
at perihelion and v
A
at aphelion is:
3
33,3 29,3 4 / 4.10 / ;
PA P A
v v v km s m s ∆ · − · − · · (7.68)
for time
7
1,57.10 t s ∆ ·
Or the mean acceleration along the distance between perihelion and aphelion, and vice versa
3
4 2
7
4.10
2,54.10 / ;
1,57.10
P
v
a m s
t
−
∆
· · ·
∆
(7.69)
i.e. the change of the velocity
P
v
at perihelion toward the velocity decreases
A
v
for time
7
1,57.10 t s ∆ ·
4 7 3
. 2,54.10 .1, 57.10 4.10 / ;
PA
v a t m s
−
∆ · ∆ · · (7.610)
or
a)
3 3 3
33, 3.10 4.10 29,3.10 /
A P PA
v v v m s · − ∆ · − · b)
3 3
2,93.10 4.10
P A PA
v v v · + ∆ · + ·
3
33,3.10 / ; m s
(7.611)
Therefore, the velocity of the change of the distance from the Earth to the Sun is function of the
time, i.e.
a)
. .
P A
v v a t const · + ≠
; b)
. .
A P
v v a t const · − ≠
; c) ( ) . v v t const · ≠
; (7.612)
7.6.3. Value of the sector velocity
τ
Surface dS of the sector of the ellipse (Fig. 7.6.3.1), which is dimmed, which is between the
distance from the Earth to the Sun r
r
at the moment of time t and after time dt, at distance ( ) . dl v t dt ·
r
r
along the orbit, at angle Θ between r
r
and
dl
r
, which is also function of time t, since ( ) r r t ·
r r
and
( ) v v t ·
r r
, i.e. ( ) t Θ · Θ
according to [1] (paragraph 10,) is:
a) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
. . sin . . .
2 2
dS r t v t t dt t dt H t dt · Θ · ψ · ; b) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
. .sin
2
H t r t v t t · Θ ; (7.613)
138
a) b)
Fig. 7.6.3.1.
Whence it follows that the sector velocity
τ
is:
a) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
. . .sin .
2
dS
H t r t v t t const
dt
τ · · · Θ ≠
;b) ( ) .; t const τ · τ ≠
(7.614)
i.e. since the distance from the Earth to the Sun depends on time t, the velocity of the Earth along its
orbit depends on time v(t) and the angle between ( ) r t
r
and ( ) v t
. Θ depends on time ( ) t Θ · Θ
, i.e.
the sector velocity
τ
is a product of three terms, each of which is function of the time, and this fact
unconditionally entails that
τ
is also function of time ( ) t τ · τ
.
Example
If the sector velocity
τ
is described for a moment of time t, when the Earth moves from perihelion
to aphelion at the described above values of the distance ( ) r t
, the velocity ( ) v t
and ( ) sin f t Θ ·
, i.e. at
a) ( )
0
.
A
r t r v t · +
; b) ( ) .
P
v t v a t · −
; c) ( ) sin f t Θ·
(7.615)
for
τ
we have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
0
1
. . . . . . .
2
a P
r v t v a t f t A Bt c t t τ · + − + + · τ (7.616)
where
a)
. .
a p
A r v const · ·
; b) ( )
0
. .
a p
B r a v v const · − ·
; c)
0
. .; C v a const · ·
(7.617)
I.e.
τ
is function of the time of first and second power, and is not a constant quantity.
But if assumed as in [1] (paragraph 5, 7), which states: “here m is the mass of the planet, r its
average distance from the Sun,
1
v
– its average velocity along its orbit,
1
T
– the time for which the planet
accomplishes a full circle around the Sun (i.e. covers the length of the circumference
1
2 r π
), the velocity
is
1
1
1
2 r
v
T
π
·
”; (7.618)
Or this citation shows that in [1] (paragraph 5, 7) it is assumed that a)
1
. v const ·
and b)
1
. r const ·
, since there is a text "(i.e. covers the length of the circumference
1
2 r π
)", but in spite of
these constant values, which hold true only for a circumference, Kepler applied this formula for an
ellipse, which was incorrect to do (was a flaw).
139
θ
7.6.4. Another proof that sector velocity is not constant – inaccuracy of Kepler’s
second law
The sector velocity
τ
is equal to the alteration of the area, which the radiusvector of a moving
pointlike object M describes for time dt , relative to a reference system with its beginning 0 (fig.
7.6.4.1). The material point M moves from point A with radiusvector r
r
for time dt (angle dθ ) to point
C with radiusvector
`
r r dr · +
r r r
.
The area, which the radiusvector describes
for time dt is
` ``
0 ; dS dS dS AB ABC · + · +
(7.619)
or
1 1
. . . . . ;
2 2
dS r rd r d dr · θ + θ
(7.620)
Only the area between trajectory l and gain
dr
of the radiusvector remains not included.
Taking into consideration that:
a) ( )
`
.
dr
f r t
dt
· ; b) ( )
`
. dr f r t dt ·
;
(7.621)
it follows that the sector velocity is
( ) ( )
2 ` `
1 1 1
. . . . . . . .
2 2 2
dS
r d f r t d r d r f r t dt
dt
] τ · · θ+ θ · θ +
]
; (7.622)
Only with a trajectory in the shape of a circle
( )
`
. 0;
dr
f r t
dt
· · (7.623)
therefore, only with a circle, the sector velocity is
2
1
. . .
2
dS
r d const
dt
τ · · θ ·
; (7.624)
In all other cases of orbits, the sector velocity
τ
is variable (7.622); therefore, (7.624) can only be
used as a first approximation.
THIS INCORRECT FACT IS ONE OF THE REASONS WHY THE ORBITS OF PLANETS ARE INTERPRETED AS CLOSED
CURVES WHILE THEY ARE IN FACT OPEN ROSETTES.
THIS IS ACTUALLY ALL THE NECESSARY CORRECTION TO KEPLER'S SECOND LAW.
7.6.5. Value of the angular momentum of planets with elliptic orbits
7.6.5.1. General formulations
In [1] paragraph 10, 8 (example 10.4) it is written: "The value of the angular momentum L of the
planets relative to the Sun is
. . . .sin L r mv mr v · × · Θ
r
r r
; (7.625)
Substituting this in the previous expression (the expression for
dS
dt
τ · , P.P.’s note), we have
1 1
. . . .sin
2 2
dS
L r v
dt m
τ · · · Θ
; (7.626)
Further on, it is written, since L=const. it follows that .
dS
const
dt
τ · · , which had to be proved.
But here an incorrect assertion is made, through (7.625) that
1
. v const ·
although the motion of
the Earth (the planet) around the Sun is along an ellipse, despite the real situation (7.626), i.e. that
Fig. 7.6.4.1.
140
( ) r r t ·
, ( ) v v t ·
and ( ) sin f t Θ ·
, and at the end of paragraph 10,8 from [1] it is written:
"But the value of the angular momentum remains the same: L=const., since the gravitation force
F
r
has a direction toward the Sun (the attraction by the other planets is ignored), therefore
0 r F τ · × ·
r
r
(
dL
dt
τ · – this is given in [1] (paragraph 10,8 – P. P.’s note). Therefore,
dS
const
dt
· , which had to be
proved."
But taking into consideration that Kepler wrote about the angular momentum7.625)
. . . .sin L r mv mr v · × · Θ
r r
, and that the actual values of r ,
v
and sinΘ are variable quantities, during
the motion of the planets along elliptic trajectories, where r ,
v
and sinΘ have variable values
according to (7.626), it follows that the accurate expression for the absolute value of the angular
momentum during the motion of the planet from perihelion to aphelion, with taking into consideration
(7.625), is
( ) ( ) ( )
0
. . .
a p
L m r v t v a t f t · + − ·
( )
2
. . .; m A Bt C t const + + ≠ (7.617)
i.e. the angular momentum of the planets which move along elliptic orbit is not constant, but variable
in value.
7.6.5.2. Emphasis
This incorrectness can be found in many scientific works, and most often in [1]. For example in [2]
(paragraph 6,2 (Fig. 6.1) is given Fig. 7.6.3.1. From this figure, although it is apparent that it is for time
dt or distance along the orbit . r v dt ∆ · , the radiuses are
1
r r ·
r r
and ( )
2
r r r · + ∆
r r r
, i.e. that
1 2
r r ≠
, then,
when calculating dS, they are moment ones
1 2
r r r · ·
and it is written [2] in paragraph 9,9 (p. 84)
a) ( )
1
2
dS r dr · ×
r
r r
; b)
1
. . .;
2
dS
r v const
dt
· ·
7.6.6. Conclusion
The angular momentums of the elliptic orbits of the planets relative to the Sun are not constants,
but are functions of the time.
7.6.7. Literature
1. D. C. Giancoli General Physics. Prentice – Hall. Inc.1284. Translation into Russian: D. C. Giancoli.
Physics. Vol. І. "Mir". Moscow. 1989.
2. Ch. Kittel. Mechanik. Berkeley Physics. Course.vol.1.Mc GrawHill Book Co 1965.
7.7. INTERPRETATION OF ALLAIS’S EFFECT
On 30 June 1954, during a solar eclipse, the French scientist Maurice Allais
5
discovered that the period
of oscillation of a pendulum increased. This fact was later confirmed by other teams on other places on the
Earth and was called Allais’s effect.
There has not been given a satisfactory explanation to this effect until present day. Here is
suggested an explanation of Allais’s effect, by proceeding from Newton’s gravitation, as follows:
1. Every body of mass m
i
generates gravitational field, which in a given point i is the vector
5
Maurice Allaise is a Nobel prize laureate in economics.
141
0
2
. .
;
i
j
i
m r
G
r
γ
· −
r
r
(7.71)
2. In a given point A between several bodies, the resultant gravitational field is
;
AR iA
G G ·
∑
r r
(7.72)
3. In a given point A on the surface of the Earth, significant for the resultant gravitational field
AR
G
r
in this point are the gravitational fields of:
a) the Earth – const.
AЗ
G ·
r
in direction and in value for a determined potential surface of radius R
3
;
b) the Sun – ( )
AS AS
G G t ·
r r
– variable in direction and in value;
c) the Moon – ( )
AL AL
G G t ·
r r
– variable in direction and in value.
Then the resultant gravitational field in point A is
( ) ( ) ( ) const.;
ARАЗ AS AL AR
G G G t G t G t · + + · ≠
r r r r r
(7.73)
During solar eclipse the gravitational fields of the Sun –
AS
G
r
and of the Moon
AL
G
r
are opposite
relative to that of the Earth
АЗ
G
r
, due to which the resultant field in point A of the Earth is minimal
min
;
ARАЗ AS AL AR АЗ
G G G G G G · − − · <
r r r r r r
(7.74)
In this case, the period of the pendulum increases
max
ARmin
= ;
G
T T ·
l
(7.75)
where: l is length of the pendulum.
In this sense, the oscillations of the pendulum depend on the time and on the gravitational fields of
the masses, which are proportional to
AR
G
r
.
Here, the interesting moment is when the Earth, the Sun and the Moon lie on a straight line, i.e.
during solar or lunar eclipse. Such is the case in Allais’s effect.
In solar eclipse, the Sun and the Moon are at the side of the studied point, the resultant gravitational
field in the point is minimal, and at the point in the diametrical position on the other side of the Earth is
maximal. During lunar eclipse, since the Sun and the Moon are on both sides of the Earth, their fields are
opposite and only their difference acts upon the field of the Earth.
These alterations of the resultant gravitational field of the Earth can be ascertained experimentally
through a system of laser rays, falling upon flat surface at sufficient distance between the lasers and the
surfaces. It should be expected that for a period of 24 hours a laser ray would describe an almost closed
curve, and analogously, the same would hold true for one year. In order to better establish this effect,
three mutually perpendicular systems would be needed.
Inferences
1. The gravitational forces which exert pressure (force) on various points of the Earth and on
the bodies (objects) upon it are variable in time.
2. THE VARIABLE GRAVITATIONAL FORCES ACTIVATE TECTONIC PROCESSES IN THE EARTH LAYERS.
3. The variable gravitational forces can disturb the weak balances of mechanical systems.
7.8. ON ACCELERATION OF FALLING BODIES
First
Galileo’s experiments at the Pizza Tower showed that regardless of their masses, bodies fall in
equal times.
The explanation for this is as follows:
142
1. With regard to the gravitational field
G
r
, mass m is a gravitational charge, since its gravitational
field has a dimensionality of acceleration
a)
0 2
.
. ;
G
m
G r a
r
γ
· − ·
r
r r
b) ;
G
G
F
G a
m
· ·
r
r
r
c)
2
m.s ;
G
a
−
] →
]
r
(7.81)
is the acceleration, which depends on distance r
2
.
In the experiment with the Pizza Tower, the distance from the Earth is equal, and therefore, the
gravitational fields of the Earth
З G
G G ·
r r
are identical relative to all masses, which are on the tower,
due to which the acceleration is also equal for all masses (gravitational charges). This fact entails that
the forces, which act upon the various masses m
1
, m
2
,..., m
n
are proportional to the masses
a)
1 1
. ;
G G
F m a ·
r
r
b)
2 2
. ; ... . ;
G G n n G
F m a F m a · ·
r r
r r
(7.82)
due to which the pathways and times t
i
, for which they travel along them, are also equal
a)
1 1 1
2 2 2
2.
2. 2.
; b) ... const.;
j
n ni
n ni
G G G
r
r r
r t
a a a
 `  `  `
· · · ·
. , . , . ,
(7.83)
Second
The accelerations of the masses of the electric charges of electromagnetic forces do not depend on
their masses, but they depend only on their distances to the charge, as is also the case with gravitational
forces.
Let two values of electric charges are assigned
a) ( )
1
;
e
Q q · m
b) ( )
2
. ;
e
Q N q · m
(7.86)
to which correspond masses
a) ( )
2
2
1
1 2
0 0
. ;
4. . .
e m
e
Q
m q k
r c
· ·
π.ε
m
b)
2 1
. ; m N m ·
c)
( )
1
2
0 0
4. . .
m e
k r c
−
· π.ε ; (7.87)
where:
e
q m
is the electric charge of the electron or positron;
0
ε
– dielectric constant of vacuum; r
e0
–
computational radius of electrons (electron and positron); c – velocity of electromagnetic waves (light) in
vacuum.
In an external electric field
i
E
r
forces
1
F
r
, which act upon the electric charges Q
1
and Q
2
are
a) ( )
1 1 1 1
. . . ;
i e i
F Q E q E m a · · ·
r r r
r
m b) ( )
2 2 2 2
. . . ;
i e i
F Q E N q E m a · · ·
r r r
r
m (7.88)
whence it follows that the accelerations
1
a
r
and
2
a
r
are obtained in this form
a)
( )
( )
( )
1
1 2
1
.
;
.
.
e i i
e m
e m
q E F E
a
m q k
q k
· · ·
r r r
m r
m
m
b)
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
2
. .
;
. . .
e i i
e m e m
N q E F E
a
m
N q k q k
· · ·
r r r
m r
m m
(7.89)
I.e. the accelerations of the two masses m
1
and m
2
= N.m, are identical in values and directions
( )
1 2
;
.
i
e m
E
a a
q k
· ·
r
r r
m
(7.810)
Or, similarly to the gravitational forces in the electric field, the accelerations of masses do not
depend on their values.
143
7.9. TRANSVERSE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE AND THE SUN
The transverse gravitational force F
⊥
r
, which is perpendicular to the straight line passing through
the centers of gravity of the two bodies, which attract each other by force
F
r
, exists for all bodies, which
have volumes V > 0.
This transverse force
F
⊥
exerts transverse pressure directed perpendicularly to the Sun.
For instance, the seven planets and their moons (satellites) generate transverse pressures upon the
Sun and these pressures move according to the motion of the planets along their orbits.
The transverse pressures p generate deformations on the Sun.
It is possible that in a certain moment of time the pressures of the planets overlap resulting in
moments when there is synchronization of deformations, the resulting sum of which is maximal and
causes eruptions on the Sun (magnetic storms on the Earth). This period of time may be eleven years, as it
the period of maximal solar eruptions.
CHAPTER EIGHT
THERMODYNAMICS – THERMOELECTRODYNAMICS
8.1. INTRODUCTORY THOUGHTS
*
The beginning of the studies of thermal manifestations, i.e. the manifestations of
electromagnetic energy, was laid in times long before electromagnetic energy was discovered and used
in practice.
This circumstance justifies the development of a science dedicated to thermal processes and named
thermodynamics. More specifically, the term „thermodynamics” was introduced in 1854 by W. Thomson,
who changed the original name of this section of physics, which had been called „mechanical theory of
the heat”. In general, the development of modern equilibrium thermodynamics is erroneously believed to
have started in 1824 with the article “Reflections on the moving force of fire” by S. Carnot, where he
proposed Carnot’s cycle, instead of starting in 1822, when Fourier postulated his law of thermal energy.
On the development and the archaisms in thermodynamics, Prof. N. A. Kvasnikov
*
*
wrote in
2002: “For historical reasons thermodynamics was created not by one generation of scientists, but by
several generations, so there are a lot of viewpoints in it, various approaches, different formulations of
the same questions, variety of designations, etc. This accounts for certain heterogeneity of material”
and further (on p. 35) he wrote: “Thermodynamics is not a unitary and universal theory. Its sphere of
application and its capacities are limited.” On p. 192 he also wrote: “The problems of
thermodynamics can be solved without the notion of entropy… by using only immediately
measurable quantities.” And further on, he also wrote:
In § 1 (p. 17) he wrote: "As it was noted in the foreword, thermodynamics and statistical physics
are not universal theory. Their sphere of application is strictly limited to the study of socalled
thermodynamic systems. "
In § 3 (p. 36) he wrote: "Thermodynamics discusses only quasistatic processes. They are defined
as infinitely slow processes, which consist of inexhaustible number of successive equilibrium states which
hardly differ from one another; clearly, these processes are not real processes, but a special unreal
*
The author here uses popular terminology rather than scientific one.
*
*
N. A. Kvasnikov. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics. v. 1. Theory of Equilibrium Systems.
Thermodynamics. (in Russian) Publ. Editorial URSS. Moscow. 2002.
144
boundary case, the main advantage of which is that they are reversible, i.e. that there are no losses. "
IN § 9 (P. 192) HE WROTE: "... WE HAVE SHOWN THAT THE PROBLEMS OF THERMODYNAMICS CAN BE SOLVED
WITHOUT USING THE NOTION OF ENTROPY, OR CHEMICAL POTENTIAL AND SO ON, BUT BY OPERATING ONLY WITH
IMMEDIATELY VARIABLE QUANTITIES. THE LATTER CIRCUMSTANCES MAKE THESE VERSIONS OF SOLUTIONS VERY
ILLUSTRATIVE, AND THUS TO SOME EXTENT IS COMPENSATED THEIR ARTIFICIALITY, WHICH AT FIRST IS ASSOCIATED WITH
THE NEED TO SEEK APPROPRIATE CARNOT'S CYCLE, ETC., AND ALSO WITH THE FEELING OF "ODDITY" IN THE SENSE OF
STYLE OF PRESENTATION .”
This citation of Prof. Kvasnikov shows that:
 the solution of thermodynamic problems without entropy is much simpler and more illustrative;
 for Prof. Kvasnikov the simpler solution is without entropy, but since he (Kvasnikov) is
accustomed to entropy, it seems to him that the treatment of thermal phenomena without entropy is
artificial, instead of realizing just the opposite: that the solution with entropy is artificial, because it is
in contradiction with the principle of scientific reliability and excellence and besides, entropy is
questionable as to whether it is a physical quantity, for it is not measurable, and according to the
principles of scientific reliability when something is not measurable, it lacks the property of scientific
reliability. What is more, however, this unscientific value is treated as the second fundamental law of
thermodynamics  a fact, which is a gross violation of the scientific character of thermodynamics,
which cango without entropy or Carnot's cycle. In addition, with entropy, directly measurable
quantities are also used. For example, Einstein wrote: "Of two theories, which explain a phenomenon
equally well, the more perfect is the one that uses less initial formulations." Academician M. Markov
*
wrote: "Einstein summed up the issue of evolution of science with the words: "Evolution develops in
the direction of ever increasing simplicity of its logical foundations." And Heisenberg in one of his
works ("What does ‘ understanding’ mean in theoretical physics") wrote: "It can still be deemed that
the best criterion of the correctness of new ideas is the old Latin proverb "Simplex sigillum veri"
(simplicity is a sign of truth), which was written in large letters in the lecture rooms at
GöttingenUniversity.
 entropy is a gross violation of the scientific principles (scientific requirements) as presented
above .
ON THIS ISSUE, THE LAST WORD BELONGS TO ISAAC NEWTON, WHO IN "PRINCIPLES ..." ON P. 96 WROTE: "WE
ARE TO ADMIT NO MORE CAUSES OF NATURAL THINGS THAN SUCH AS ARE BOTH TRUE AND SUFFICIENT TO EXPLAIN THEIR
APPEARANCES.". I.E. WE MUST USE THE PRINCIPLE OF SIMPLICITY  WITHOUT ENTROPY.
HERE WE MUST EMPHASIZE ONE OF THE REQUIREMENT ON SCIENTIFIC RELIABILITY, WHICH STATES: FOR A CERTAIN
QUANTITY TO BE RECOGNIZED AS A SCIENTIFIC ONE, FIRST OF ALL IT MUST BE MEASURABLE, I.E. WITHOUT BEING ABLE TO
MEASURE QUANTITATIVE VALUES OF A CONCEPT (NOTION), AS IS WITH THE NOTION OF ENTROPY, THERE IS NO SCIENTIFIC
TRUTH IN IT. This requirement is necessary so that we can compare the quantitative values estimated for
entropy with the ones measured in experiments (practice). Since this is the procedure for proving the
reality of the laws of entropy. And as it is known, the quantitative values of entropy cannot be measured,
nor is there a full algorithm for calculation of its quantitative values, according to Boltzmann’s formula,
respectively, the thermodynamic probability.
Another feature (essential weakness  flaw) of presentday thermodynamics is that it ignores the
experimental fact, which has been known to humanity for centuries, that the electromagnetic waves  the
photons
**
(light from the sun) are the expression of heat (thermal energy) i.e. that photons are heat
energy, which is something material according to the modern idea that photons are a field form of
electromagnetic matter (electromagnetic elementary particles), and which can be converted into a
substantial form of electromagnetic matter.
It is a wellknown experimental fact that atoms and molecules absorb and emit photons, but the
photons absorbed by atoms (substantial form of electromagnetic matter) are absorbed by the electrons of the
atoms, which move along orbits around the nuclei of the atoms. Subsequently, the electromagnetic energy of
the photons
.
f
W h · ν
(h  Planck’s constant,  frequency of the photon) of the photon converts into
*
M. Markov. Unity and diverse forms of matter in the pysical picture of the world. (in Russian) Magazine
“Nauka i zhizn”, Publ. “Pravda” Moscow, issue 7, 1982.
*
**
The notion of electron was introduced in 1926
145
magnetic (kinetic) energy He Ke
W W ∆ · ∆
of the electron, which is in the atom, i.e. the magnetic (kinetic)
energy of the electron increases from He
W
, before the absorption of the photon by
.
He f
W W h ∆ · · ν
after
the absorption of the photon and becomes
0 0
;
He He He He
W W W W · + ∆ >
(8.11)
Since the sum of the magnetic (kinetic) He
W
and the potential P
W
energies, i.e. the full energy W
of the electron is constant
0
const .;
H P
W W W · + ·
(8.12)
its potential W
P
energy decreases, as follows
0 0 0
;
P He He He
W W W W W W · − · − − ∆
(8.13)
and the electron moves to a higher orbit.
During a photon emission by the atom, the electron that emitted a photon moves to a lower orbit.
The presented above shows that according presented presentday ideas, the mechanism of
absorption of heat energy (photon energy, energy of the photon gas) by the atom, which is
electromagnetic energy, the heat transforms into magnetic energy of the electron of the atom (molecule).
And during emission of a photon by the atom, part of the magnetic (kinetic) energy of the atom
(molecule) turns into a photon (a photon energy).
Here arises the question, what is the explanation of the availability of a photon gas.
The explanation is given by two experimental facts, with a meaning of experimental (empirical)
laws, as follows:
First. Isaac Newton
*
in his book “Opticks...” of 1717 in a synthesized form presented the following
experimental facts, which he observed:
“All bodies emit and absorb light.”
“ Bodies turn into light, and light into bodies.”
“These are normal natural phenomena.”
Here it should be pointed out that now it is known that light is a field form of electromagnetic
matter in the form of electromagnetic waves (photons), while bodies are substantial form of
electromagnetic matter  substance.
The above experimental laws proved by Newton in modern terminology would state:
First. “All substantial electromagnetic objects emit and absorb photons.”
Second. “Substantial electromagnetic objects convert into photons (field electromagnetic matter),
and the field objects from electromagnetic matter (electromagnetic waves – photons) convert into objects
of substantial form of electromagnetic matter.”
Third. “These are normal natural processes (phenomena)”.
Indeed, there are such laws in presentday physics, but the most important conclusion from them
has not been yet fully realized, namely, that all matter in nature (the unitary matter) is only
electromagnetic. It is this idea that results in a most apparent and clear way from the above empirical
laws, described by Isaac Newton in 1704.
Second. There is also a second experimental law analogous of the laws of Newton, this is the law
of Gustav Kirchhoff from 1860, which states: "All bodies emit and absorb radiant (now electromagnetic
– P.P.’s note) energy, whereby the ratio of the emitted i
W
to the absorbed P
W
energies is constant and
does not depend on the kind of the bodies at equal temperature.”
Here follow the conclusions from Newton’s experimental facts, only that they were not in such an
obvious form.
Making allowances, however, for what Newton and Kirchhoff meant in their times, we can
conclude that radiant energy is electromagnetic energy and that bodies emit and absorb electromagnetic
energy, i.e. it follows that they should be homogenous in essence, because only objects of homogenous
essence can interact. And here the homogenous essence is an expression of electromagnetic essence.
Newton’s and Kirchhoff’s experimental facts entail these laws:
First. Matter in nature is solely and only of electromagnetic essence, i.e. matter is only
electromagnetic in field (photons) and substantial forms (states).
Second. In the environment outside the bodies there are always (without interruption in space
*
Newton I. Opticks or a treatise of the reflections, refractions, inflections and colours of light (in Russian).
“Gostehizdat”. M. 1954.
146
and the time) electromagnetic waves (photons), which according to modern terminology in physics
form the notion of a photon gas, which is essentially in the form of the respective density of photons.
And since the photons are the an expression of the carriers of thermal (electromagnetic) energy, it
follows that in the environment there is a density of thermal energy, which essentially is
electromagnetic energy of the electromagnetic waves (the photons).
This essential fact about thermal energy is generally ignored in modern thermodynamics without
any reason.
8.2. INCORRECT AND CORRECT APPROACHES IN THERMODYNAMICS OF
THE GAS
With the application of statistical physics in thermodynamics, in the kinetic theory of gases it is
assumed that only molecules are carriers of heat in the gas, i.e. thermal energy is synonymous only to the
kinetic energy of molecules. At mass M
m
and mean statistical velocity
v
of molecules, the thermal energy
of one degree of freedom is
2
'
. 1
. . ;
2 2
M
KM B
m v
W k T · · (8.24)
And for the three degrees of freedom it is
2
'
3 .
3. . . ;
2 2
M
KM KM B
m v
W W k T · · · (8.25)
where:
B
k
is Boltzmann constant; T  temperature in degrees by Kelvin – K.
At a volume of the gas
Г
V
with N molecules, to one molecule on average corresponds volume
N
V
of the gas, to which volume corresponds density
0
n
of the molecules of the gas, i.e.
a)
0
1 1
;
/
Г
N
Г
V
V
N N V n
· · ·
b)
; ) (
0
molecules of ion concentrat density
V
N
n · ·
Γ
(8.26)
The mean statistical velocity of the molecules is
2
3. .
;
B
M
k T
v
m
·
(8.27)
And the velocity alters from zero to maximum, according to the probabilistic law of Maxwell.
a) ; ] [ ] [ 10 38 , 1
1 1 23 − − −
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · K J grad J k
B
b)
1
2
0
3. . .
;
B
M
k T r
v
m
 `
·
. ,
r
r
(8.28)
Here B
k
has an experimentally established value.
But here it is not explained in what kind actually heat exists and in what way the molecule
accumulates thermal energy KM
W
(8.25). Since to obtain this mean statistical velocity, a molecule of mass
M
m
must experience an acting force
T
F
r
, which should give it acceleration a
r
and velocity v
r
.
a)
;
T
M
M
F dv
a
m dt
· ·
r
r
r
b)
. ; dv a dt ·
r r
c)
1
2
3. .
. . ;
B T
M
M M
k T F
v a t t
m m
 `
· · ·
. ,
r
r r
(8.29)
whence it follows that the force is
( )
1
2
0
3. . . .
;
M B
T
m k T r dP
F
t dt
· ·
r
r
r
(8.210)
a)
( )
( )
1
2
1
0
2
0
3. . . .
. . 3. . . . ; b) . ;
t
M B
M B
m k T r
W F dr r m k T v r v t
t
· · · ·
∫
r
r
r r r r r
c)
. ; dr v dt ·
r r
(8.211)
Therefore, some notes should be made:
147
First. So far, thermodynamics has not given a specific answer as to how this velocity
v
is
generated, so this fact is a good reason to reject this model where molecules are assumed to be the carrier
of thermal energy because it is unknown how and why their motion becomes fluctuating.
Second. It is known that thermal energy is transferred in a vacuum as well and that without any
molecules (e.g. from the Sun to Earth), according to StefanBoltzmann’s law
a)
4
. . ;
T f
W T w c · σ ·
b)
4
.
;
T T
f
Г
W T W
w
c c V
σ
· · ·
(8.212)
where:
σ
is StefanBoltzmann coefficient; f
w
 density of energy of the photon gas, which is emitted
from the surface of a body with surface temperature T, which is thermal (photon) energy in a unit of
volume.
THIS REAL WAY OF TRANSFER (MOTION) OF THERMAL ENERGY DOES NOT NEED MOLECULES AS CARRIERS. AND THIS IMPLIES
THAT MODERN THERMODYNAMICS IS NOT AN ACCOMPLISHED SCIENCE OF THERMAL PHENOMENA.
The density of thermal energy in a unit of volume of the gas expressed by the idea that the thermal energy in
the molecule (the atom) is equal to the magnetic (kinetic) energy
TM
W
of N molecules in volume
ГM
V
of the gas,
i.e.
2
. 3
. . . . . ;
2 2
m
M
Г k B TM HT
m v
W NW N N k T W W · · · · ·
r
(8.213)
It was shown in Chapter one, paragraph 4, that kinetic energy of bodies is magnetic energy as it
was defined by Maxwell in “Treatise on electricity and magnetism” of 1873 in paragraph 638.
Obviously, the density of energy
ГM
w
is equal to the density of the photon energy
2
0 0
. 3
. . . . ;
2 2
ГM M
fГM B
ГМ
W m v
w w n n k T
V
· · · ·
(8.214)
This is not explicit in thermodynamics, although it is known that radiant thermal energy is
electromagnetic (photon) energy of electromagnetic waves, but in the kinetic energy of molecules no such
energy is discussed.
I.e. StefanBoltzmann’s law does not comply with the idea of thermal energy as described in
(8.213) and (8.214), or respectively, the availability of thermal energy from the Sun rejects the model
in which only molecules are carriers of thermal energy.
Third. With regard to the transfer of thermal energy through a solid body, there is the 1822
Fourier’s law
. . . ;
T
dT
dQ dW dS dt
dr
· · −λ
(8.215)
where: dQ is the quantity of thermal energy, which passes through surface dS of substance with
coefficient of thermoconductivity for time dt.
Or we define as a thermal flow j
r
per a unit of time through a unit of crosssection
( ) ( ) ( )
2
0 0
.
. . . . . ; ;
.
T T ro
T r dr T r
T T T r
j w v T r r
dr dr r r
+ − ]
−λ − ∂
]
· · · −λ · −λ ·
∂
r
r
r r r
r
(8.216)
where:
T
w
is density of thermal energy;
T
v
r
 the velocity of the density of thermal energy through
substance of coefficient .
Here the density of the thermal energy in the substance is
[ ]
2
J
. ;
m
T
T T
j T
w
v v r
λ ∂
· · − →
∂ ]
]
(8.217)
where: v
T
is the velocity of motion of the density w
T
of the thermal energy.
This law proves that:
Thermal energy moves from places of higher density of energy (temperature) to places of lower
density of energy (temperature), i.e. essentially, here Maxwellian pressure holds true.
Thermal energy is electromagnetic energy – a fact, which follows from StefanBoltzmann’s law,
too.
148
Fourth. Newton, in the second edition of his book “Opticks…”, whose faximile of its front cover
is given in Fig. 8.2.1.
Fig. 8.2.1.
149
On p. 323 and 324 in this book it is written, and the text is given in Fig. 8.2.2 in the English of
those times (1818)
150
Fig. 8.2.2.
And in the next Fig. 8.2.3 is given the from Fig. 8.2.2, but in modern English
Fig. 8.3.3
The Bulgarian translation of the text in Fig. 8.3.3 is given in Fig. 8.3.4.
151
Fig. 8.3.4.
This experiment, conducted by Newton in 1818, entails the inference that not only gas molecules
are carriers of thermal energy, according to equation (8.24), but carriers of thermal energy is also the
photon gas, both in the solid substantial form of electromagnetic matter, as described by Fourier’s law
(8.215) of 1822, and in gases, and the photon has density of electromagnetic (photon) energy
20
. 10 Hz
1; 0
. ;
i n j
f fij
i j
w W h
· <
· ≠
· · ν
∑ ∑
(8.218)
where: h is Planck’s constant; ij
ν
 frequency of the photons, whereby
i
ν
is number of photons in
general, and j
ν
 is number of the photons with different frequencies j.
The pressure P
f
, which is exerted by w
f
is
1
. ;
3
f f
P w · (8.219)
And the thermal energy W
fГ
and the pressure
fГ
P
r
of the photon gas in volume V
fГ
are
a)
. ;
fГ f fГ
W w V ·
b) 0
. ; ;
fГ
fГ
w
c
P c c
c c
· ·
r
r
r r
r (8.220)
The experimental facts presented above reject in a most categorical way the assumption that only
molecules are carriers of thermal energy and reinforce by experimental facts the law that thermal
energy is also transferred by the photon gas, which has a density of thermal energy w
f
and generates
pressure
f
P
r
, which is generated when the energy of the photon
.
f
W h · ν
is absorbed for time and
momentum
0
.
f
f
W
p c
c
·
r
and force
a) ;
f
f
P
F ·
τ
r
r
b)
0
. ;
fT f
fT
P w
F c
t r
· ·
∆ ∆
r
r
r
(8.221)
This force from the photon gas sets molecules of the gas in motion to velocity v, which is the
same in the photon gas as the one in the probability of Maxwell for the gas molecules
1
2
3. .
;
B
M
k T
v
m
 `
·
. ,
(8.222)
Here is should be specified that all atoms (molecules) continuously, but periodically emit and
absorb photons with energy
.
f
W h · ν
, time
τ
whereby during the emission forces of recoil occur,
and during the absorption of a photon a force of pressure occurs. These forces provide the motion
of molecules. and they are proportional to the temperature (the density of the photon gas) between
the molecules.
I.e. it is proved that not only molecules are carriers of thermal energy, since they are driven by
the energy of the photon gas, whose photons move at velocity c
r
and have a momentum
0 0
.
. . ;
f
f
W
h
P c c
c c
ν
· ·
r
r r
(8.223)
The experiment of Newton, described in Bulgarian language in Fig. 8.3.4 poses the question, why
both thermometers get heated almost simultaneously although a photon density of the energy acts in the
vacuumed vessel as well as a density f
w
of the energy of molecules, which have concentration n
0
, see
equation (8.214).
A probable explanation that in the vacuumed vessel the photon energy is distributed in the entire
volume of mercury or alcohol, both in the reservoir and in the column that shows the degrees, while in the
nonvacuumed vessel molecules act only on the reservoir of the expanding fluid (mercury or alcohol).
The characteristic features of the photon gas relative to the molecular gas are given in the following
table
152
Table 8.2.1
Features of the molecules of an ideal gas and of a photon gas
Molecules Photons
1.
const.;
M
m ·
a)
const.; c ·
b)
2
const.;
F
f
W
m
c
· ≠
2.
2 2
;
2 2
KM M
p mv
W
m
· ε · ·
r
a)
. . ;
f f
W h p c · ε · ν ·
b)
2
. ;
f
m c
3.
0
.exp ;
.
f
B
N
N
z k T
ε  `
· −
. ,
1
;
exp 1
f
f
B
N
k
·
ε  `
−
. ,
4.
0
const.; N ·
var.;
f
N ·
( )
const. ;
f
N ≠
5. . ; p mv ·
r r
0
. . ;
f
f
W
p m c c
c
· ·
r r r
The table shows the particularities of the photon gas relative to an ideal gas of N molecules. They
are:
1) there is no distribution of the photons by momentum and velocity, since here their velocity is v
= c = const.;
2) the number of the photons N
f
is not constant, whereas the number of the gaseous particles (the
molecules) N
0
is constant;
3) the mass of the photons is not constant
2
const.
f
f
W
m
c
· ≠ ;
4) the energy of the individual photons is different
const.
f
W ≠
, but the energy in the volume with
ensemble of photons in a closed system is constant
. const.
fГ fi f fГ fГ
W W w V V · · ·
∑
is the volume of
the photon gas;
The energy of photons in a unit of volume  density of the energy of photons f
w
is equal to part of
the energy of the gas in volume
Г
V
, i.e.
fГ
f
fГ
W
w
V
·
. And the energy which belongs to one molecule
km
W
is equal to
;
2
2
molecules of number
molecules gas of energy
N
V
k
v m
W
N
km
· ⋅ ·
⋅
·
Γ
Γ
(8.224)
where:
1.
Г
k <
In conclusion, the characteristic features of thermal energy are:
1. it is electromagnetic energy in the form of a photon gas – electromagnetic waves (of electric and
magnetic fields);
2. it generates force when photons hit upon atoms and molecules;
3. it generates pressure when hitting upon atoms and the molecules;
4. it performs work via the force or pressure which it generates;
5. it moves from places of higher density of energy of photons (thermal energy) to places of
lower density of the energy of photons or from places of higher pressure to places of lower pressure, or
from places of higher temperature to places of lower temperature, since temperature is proportional to
the density of photon energy, which is thermal energy.
6. there is no place in nature, where there is no photon gas – electromagnetic matter and
electromagnetic energy – thermal energy, as well as gravitational field. I.e. in each point of space
between bodies as well as between molecules, as well as between planets, there is photon gas (thermal
energy – electromagnetic energy) of respective density of the energy of the photon gas w
f
, which is
153
electromagnetic energy, like the energy which the Earth receives through the sun rays.
Under these conditions analogous dependencies for the photon gas and the molecular gas are given
in Table 8.2.2
Table 8.2.2.
Molecular gas Photon gas
1. Energy of the molecular gas
. ;
ГM M M
W w V ·
1. Energy of the photon gas
. .
f fГf
W w V ·
2. Volume of molecular gas
;
ГМ
ГМ
M
W
V
V
·
2. Volume of a photon gas
.
Гf
V
3. Density of the energy of the molecular gas
1
0
. ;
m
ГМ
M k
ГМ
W
w W n
V
−
· ·
r
3. Density of the energy of the photon gas
1
0
. .
m
f
f k
f
W
w W n
V
−
· ·
r
4. Number of molecules N in V
ГM
, with masses m
M
0
.
ГМ
N n Vм ·
4. Number of the photons in V
Гf
1
1
const .; . ;
exp
f f
f
B
N W h
W
k
−
· ≠ · ν
 `
. ,
5. Concentration of molecules is 0
;
ГМ
N
n
V
·
5. Concentration of photons
const .
f
f
Гf
N
n
V
· ≠
6. Mean statistical energy of one molecule
2
0
. 2. .
. ;
2 2
m
M BГM
k M
m v k T W
W w n
N
· · · ·
r
r
where:
B
k
is Boltzmann constant.
6. Photon energy, which corresponds to volume V
N
of the molecular gas on condition that:
a)
;
ГM Гf
W W ·
b)
;
ГМ rf
V V ·
is
0
.
M
Nf N M
w
W V w
n
· ·
7. The volume, which belongs to one molecule
0
1 1
;
ГМ
N
ГМ
V
V
N
N n
V
· · ·
8. Mean statistical velocity of one molecule
2
3. .
.
2.
B
M
k T
v
m
·
Brief summary of paragraph 8.2
The considerations stem from two significant laws in thermodynamics.
First. Fourier’s law of 1822
The thermal flow through the substance for a unit of area per second
2 1
. ; J.m .s ;
B j
dT
j w v
dr
−
] · −λ · − →
]
(8.225)
where: is co efficient of thermoconductivity of substance (the substantial form) of electromagnetic matter;
w
f
– the substantial density of thermal (electromagnetic density) energy; v
j
 the velocity of thermal energy
in substance 0 0
rad . ;
dT r
g T r r
dr r
· ·
r
r r
r .
Second. The law of StefanBoltzmann (1880 – 1884)
The emitted thermal flow of photon energy from a unit of area for a unit of time according to (8.2
154
18)
20
; 10 Hz
4 2 1
0 0
1; 0
. . . . ; J.m .s ; ;
i n j
ij f
i j
c
П T c E H h v w c c
c
· <
−
· ≠
] ] · σ · · · ·
] ]
∑
r
r r r
r r r
r (8.226)
where: П is Poynting vector;
E
r
and
H
r
are electric and magnetic fields; f
w
 density of photon
(electromagnetic) energy; c – velocity of electromagnetic waves (light) in vacuum.
It follows that , jП· because they are for a unit of area and a unit time, and it follows
a)
. . ;
B j f
jП w v w c · · ·
b)
. ;
B f
j
c
w w
v
·
c)
.
.
;
B j
f
w v
T
w
c c
τ
· · d)
4
.
.
;
f
j
B B
w c
T
v
w w
σ
· ·
(8.227)
The presented above makes it evident and clear that:
1. Thermal energy is electromagnetic energy, i.e. electromagnetic laws of electrodynamics hold
true for it under the specific conditions of thermal processes (photon gas) and the magnetic (kinetic)
energy of molecules.
2. The ascertainment in the above item 1 entails that thermodynamics, as a specific
electrodynamics, doe not need the three principles, because sufficient are the general physical laws of
Newtonian electrodynamics:
a) unitary matter in the world is only electromagnetic matter in field and substantial forms;
b)there is a law of matter and energy conservation;
c) electromagnetic (photon) energy moves from places of higher density (higher temperature) to
places of lower density, and
d) the lowest, threshold limit of the density of kinetic energy of physical objects tends to zero, i.e.
the lowest temperature, to which thermal phenomena tend, is zero degrees Kelvin(0K).
3. The assumption that thermal energy is electromagnetic, on the hand, simplifies the principles
of thermodynamics, on the other hand, makes it clearer and its regularities more general in terms of
electromagnetic phenomena and, moreover, this is really important since it would alleviate its
presentation with regard to the unity of science as is the evolutionary trend in the development of
knowledge. The problems of thermodynamics of gases, liquid medium and substance could be
reduced to a single, unitary science  thermoelectrodynamic theory of electromagnetic matter, i.e.
thermoelectrodynamics.
8.3. WHAT IS THERMAL ENERGY
“A crucial prerequisite for the power of knowledge is
not the belief in a reputedly infallible authority, but
the irresistible power of experimental facts which
irrefutably reveal the most reliable authority, Nature
itself. The main criterion for this assertion is apparent
– theory must not contradict to experimental facts –
results.”
8.3.1. Introductory thoughts
We should bear in mind that a scientific fact – logic in general, is a summary (interpretation) of
experimental data, and therefore experiments are milestones on the road of logical constructions, in
the sense of theoretical formulations in the form of laws and principles.
In this aspect, through interpretation of a wide range of natural manifestations (phenomena,
processes, objects, etc.) the thesis of natural occurrences homogenous in their essence has arisen. I.e. that
nature is one homogenous whole and that it is synonymous with unitary (homogenous) matter, called a
material continuum as well. I.e. there is a material unity of natural phenomena – natural occurrences.
This fact of material unity is the objective basis predetermining the availability of unitary science
of nature, as a whole called Newtonian electrodynamics (as presented in Chapter One herein) as one
whole. This science studies the nature of manifestations as expressions of unitary electromagnetic
matter which is synonymous to the notion of nature and which manifestations together make up one
whole. In this way, the manifestations of its parts (fragments), the parts of matter, which have a
relative independence, are also parts of one whole  nature In this sense, the science of
155
thermodynamics is a specific case of the science of thermal manifestations of electromagnetic matter.
In this sense, the unity of the knowledge about nature, which also includes thermodynamics, as
a whole, is predetermined by the facts that:
a) matter of nature is homogenous in essence and is called electromagnetic matter, i.e. it is
formed of unknown homogenous initial resource (substance);
b) knowledge of matter is generated by reflections of manifestations (properties) of
homogenous matter in the human mind.
c) the system of knowledge about all natural facts, incl. thermal phenomena, which are
knowledge of the manifestations of electromagnetic matter, forms a unitary science of nature,
whose basis (root) is Newtonian electrodynamics. The motivation of this assertion is the
circumstance that there is no natural phenomenon in the root of which there is no movement of
electromagnetic matter in a field or substantial form at micro or macro levels.
The facts set forth here entail the apparent natural law, which states:
ALL NATURAL OCCURRENCES ARE MATERIAL SINCE THEY ARE FORMED ONLY OUT OF ONE SOLE HOMOGENOUS
INITIAL RESOURCE OF UNKNOWN ESSENCE, OCCURRING IN DIVERSE STRUCTURES, IN THE FORM OF A SUBSTANTIAL OR
FIELD FORM AND IN DIFFERENT STATES OF REST AND DEVELOPMENT.
IN THIS SENSE IS ALSO THE WELLGROUNDED INFERENCE (ASSERTION) THAT THE ESSENCE OF THE NOTION OF
THERMAL ENERGY IS ALSO AN EXPRESSION OF SOMETHING MATERIAL, I.E. IT S ENERGY FORMED OUT OF HOMOGENOUS MATTER
– OUT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER.
8.3.2. Essence of the answer to “What is thermal energy?”
The laureate of Nobel Prize in physics, Richard Feynman in his book “Feynman’s Lectures” writes,
“even today it is not known what energy represents.”
However, proceeding from the thesis that a scientific fact (law, principle) is in essence an
interpretation of summarized experimental results and therefore serves as a milestone of logical
constructions, i.e. of theoretical formulations: definitions, laws and principles.
Then, with regard to this definition, interpretations and logical conclusions can be made in view
of defining the meaning of the notion of energy and pointing out some essential circumstances, which
bear relevance to the notion of thermal energy ,and energy in general, as follows:
1. There is a law of conservation of energy and mass which are inseparable tandem
w m
T
−
.
2. There is a law of the relationship between energy W and mass (quantity of matter) m, i.e.:
2
. W mc · (8.31)
where: c is the velocity of electromagnetic waves (light) in vacuum
3. There is a thesis (law) that matter (mass) is of homogenous essence, which is of
electromagnetic essence – electromagnetic matter.
4. Matter is in permanent motion.
The above facts entail the following conclusions:
First
ENERGY IN GENERAL, INCLUDING THERMAL ENERGY, IS INSEPARABLE FROM MATTER AND IN ESSENCE IS MATTER
IN A STATE OF MOTION, BECAUSE WERE IT NOT IN THE FORM OF MATTER THERE WOULD NOT BE POSSIBLE TO STATE
THAT IT COULD BE CONSERVED SINCE ONLY OF SOMETHING MATERIAL CAN WE STATE (ARGUE) THAT IT IS CONSERVED.
Second
Energy in general, including thermal (electromagnetic) energy, is essentially is a typical state of
matter, which is in a real or potential (explicit or implicit) state of motion.
Third
Energies W, including thermal energy, are homogenous in essence, as well as matter is  a fact,
which is a direct result from the law
2
. W mc · .
AND SINCE ON THE ONE HAND MATTER, WHICH IS A CARRIERGENERATOR OF THERMAL PHENOMENA, IS
HOMOGENOUS, AND ON THE OTHER HAND THERE IS ONLY ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER, THEN IT FOLLOWS THAT THERE IS NO
OTHER KIND OF MATTER, WHICH IS A CARRIER AND GENERATOR OF THERMAL PHENOMENA, BUT ELECTROMAGNETIC, HENCE
THEREFORE, THERMAL PHENOMENA ARE ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
The reason for this assertion is the circumstance that if there were another kind of matter beside
electromagnetic, then matter in nature would not be homogenous, i.e. nature would not be one
156
homogenous in essence whole. THE CONDITION THAT MATTER IS HOMOGENOUS AND THE LAW
2
. W mc · REFERS TO
IT, ENTAILS THE UNCONDITIONAL INFERENCE THAT ENERGY AS WELL, INCLUDING THERMAL ENERGY, IS ALSO SOLELY
HOMOGENOUS IN ESSENCE, BUT IT CAN APPEAR IN DIFFERENT STRUCTURAL STATES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER. For
instance, these correspond to different structural states of electromagnetic matter a) independent electric
charges (electrons and positrons); b) electric field; c) magnetic field and d) gravitational field; e)
electromagnetic waves of various frequency which are generated by electrons and positrons in explicit or
implicit form as electrons and positrons. To these fields correspond respective kinds (structural states) of
energy. I.e. to the different structural states of electromagnetic matter correspond respective energies. OR
ENERGY IS AN EXPRESSION OF THE RESPECTIVE STATE OF MATTER, I.E. THERE IS NOT ANY INDEPENDENT ENERGY WITHOUT A
RESPECTIVE QUANTITY AND STATE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER, JUST AS THERE IS NOT ANY MATTER WITHOUT A RESPECTIVE
QUANTITY OF ENERGY.
By the beginning of 20
th
c. it had become clear that thermal energy is electromagnetic wave
(radiation) energy in the form of an ensemble of electromagnetic radiation, which were later called photons,
and their ensemble is called photon gas. This fact is evident in the publications of G. Kirchhoff in 1860, L.
Boltzmann in 1884, Max Planck in 1900, J. C. Maxwell in 1873 and in the experimental results of P. Lebedev
in 1900, who proved Maxwell’s thesis that to the energy of photons W
f
which are carried by light rays
corresponds (generates) momentum
f
p
, respectively pressure
1
3
p w · (where w is the density of wave
electromagnetic energy) and that is why photons can perform work, i. e. for the electromagnetic energy,
Maxwell’s pressures hold true.
THERE IS A THESIS IN PHYSICS THAT THE DYNAMIC FORM OF THERMAL ENERGY
T
W
OR THE THERMAL MASS
2
/
T T
m W c · ARE EXPRESSION OF THE ENERGY (MASS) OF THE PHOTON GAS, AT LOWER FREQUENCIES (ABOUND AND BELOW
1012 HZ). BUT ESSENTIALLY THE PHOTON ENERGY (ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY) FOR ALL FREQUENCIES OF THE PHOTONS,
UNDER RESPECTIVE CONDITIONS MAY OCCUR AT RESPECTIVE CONDITIONS AS THERMAL ENERGY. IN THIS SENSE, THERMAL
ENERGY IS A FIELD FORM OF ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER, IN THE FORM OF PORTIONS (PHOTONS) OF ELECTROMAGNETIC
WAVES .AND IT IS EXACTLY THE ENERGY OF THESE WAVES, WHICH IS ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY AT A RESPECTIVE
FREQUENCY, IS ALSO THERMAL ENERGY. IN THIS ASPECT, IN THE PHYSICAL SENSE, I.E. IN ESSENCE, THERMAL ENERGY IS
EQUAL TO ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, AND THE MAGNETIC ENERGY OF ATOMS (MOLECULES)IS A
POTENTIAL FORM OF THERMAL ENERGY.
However, electromagnetic energy of electromagnetic waves, depending on frequency
ν
of the
waves, has various characteristic features (properties), which result mainly from the energy and the
mass of one quantum of electromagnetic waves. Here, a quantum is assumed to be a sum of a series of
n waves, bound in one impulse of duration
τ
seconds with a dominant frequency
ν
, which are
emitted by an electron or the nucleus of an atom.
It should be pointed out here that there is also emission of a quantum of energy by atom nuclei, but
they are very rare and at very high frequency, far above the thermal one (10
12
Hz) and only their
secondary manifestations may have a direct thermal effect, although as a whole they can manifest under
respective condition as thermal energy as well.
The energy of a quantum of electromagnetic waves, called a photon, is determined by this formula
.
f
W h · ν;
(8.32)
where: h is Planck’s constant;
ν
– frequency of waves.
Depending on the frequency
ν
of the rays, electromagnetic waves are classified in groups, for
instance
a)
21
10 Hz ν ≥ – gamma rays;
b)
19
10 Hz ν ≈ – Xrays;
c) ν ≈ 10
15
and ν ≈ 10
14
Hz – ultraviolet rays;
d)
15
10 Hz ν ≈ – visible rays;
e)
14
10 Hz ν ≈ – infrared rays;
f)
12
10 Hz ν < – thermal rays.
In general, every quantum of electromagnetic energy can turn into thermal energy; therefore,
157
all electromagnetic waves are carriers of thermal energy, but due to the properties of the structures of
material objects, which react with photons in a variety of ways depending on the frequency of the
absorbed electromagnetic energy, which has influence upon them, or they react in a variety of ways to
the thermal components of electromagnetic energies of photons.
Moreover, there are electromagnetic energies of such frequency that none of the structures of
objects can absorb and these energies pass freely through them  for instance, just as light through glass
objects.
These circumstances explain the rule that when an object experiences electromagnetic energies
(waves), it reacts to them in a different way depending on its structure and the frequencies of the
waves that influence it.
Therefore, the same electromagnetic waves (photons) can manifest in some structures of
electromagnetic matter as explicitly thermal, and in others – as explicitly light (in transparent
structures).
In general however, the mechanism of emission (generation) and absorption of photons by
particles of substance is one and the same. Subsequently, the mechanism of absorption and
emission of thermal energy (heat) is also one and the same, i.e. the mechanisms of interaction of
electromagnetic energies are governed by the same principles.
Emphasis
An irresistible proof that the essence and carrier of thermal energy
T
Q W ·
are
electromagnetic waves, described in the form of a photon gas, is the following experimental fact:
It is known that thermal energy Q for heating of premises (rooms) is hot water (in liquid and
evaporated state), which passes through the heating radiators. However, the thermal energy, which heats
the premises is not in the form of water, but in the form of electromagnetic waves (photon gas), which, as
a result of Maxwell’s pressure, accelerate the molecules of air – they heat the air in the room.
The mechanism of transfer of thermal energy Q from the hot water in the radiator is not via transfer
of water molecules from inside the radiator to outside the room, but via:
First. Transfer of radiant electromagnetic energy, emitted by the molecules of water to the walls
of the radiator, and they attain temperature T
P
, but they do not absorb water molecules, i.e. the
molecules do not leave the water.
Second. Thermal energy Q, obtained within the radiator by the water in the form of a photon gas
and, according to Fourier’s law (8.215), it is transferred to the external surface of the radiator at
temperature T
P
, as a result of its temperature T
P
, according to StefanBoltzmann law, and is emitted in
the room at temperature
0 Р
T T <
, without transferring a single water molecule, but only of photons in
the form of a photon gas.
This thermal energy Q
P
emitted in the room by a unit of area on the radiator at temperature T
P
,
according to StefanBoltzmann law is
( )
4 4
0
. .
P P
Q k T T
σ
· σ − ;
(8.33)
Therefore, it is the photon gas that manifests in the room , at density of photon energy w
f
, which is
in direct contact with the objects in the room and with the molecules, which get accelerated to a higher
velocity and at the same time absorb photon energy converting it into magnetic (kinetic) energy of
molecules. Under these conditions, the objects constantly emit photons and absorb photons, according to
the laws of Newton (1704) and Kirchhoff (1860), until temperature T
f
, which corresponds to the photon
gas becomes equal to temperature T
0
(the temperature of the objects in the room)
. The experimental fact
thus described makes it evident that thermal energy Q is not carried by the molecules of the substance,
but the molecules only emit photons, i.e. portions of thermal energy are emitted in the form of photons
or photons are the essence and the carriers of thermal energy.
In this sense thermodynamics, as a science studying thermal energy, should study the
manifestations of photons and of the photon gas, i.e. thermodynamics is electrodynamics of photons
– the photon gas.
In this sense all sections of physics study the manifestations of electromagnetic matter, i.e. they
are sections of the science of electrodynamics under various conditions (situations).
158
The experiments of Seebeck and Peltier show direct interconvertibility of thermal energy in
electromagnetic energy and vice versa.
The presented above proves the fact that thermal processes are electromagnetic phenomena,
and this fact leads to the inferences that
 IN GENERAL, THERMODYNAMICS IS ELECTRODYNAMICS UNDER RESPECTIVE SPECIFIC CONDITIONS;
 THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES DESCRIBE THE CONVERSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY FROM ONE FORM INTO
ANOTHER (ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES INTO MAGNETIC ENERGY AND VICE VERSA);
 SO THAT PHYSICS IS UNIFIED, IT IS REQUIRED THAT THERMODYNAMICS SHOULD BE RATIONALIZED, IN ASPECT
THAT IT IS A SPECIFIC PART OF ELECTRODYNAMICS, WHICH CIRCUMSTANCE WOULD PERFECT IT IN THE SENSE OF THE
PRINCIPLE OF SIMPLICITY, SINCE:
FIRST , PHYSICS WOULD USE THE ALREADY KNOWN LAWS OF ELECTRODYNAMICS, AND
SECOND , PHYSIC WOULD USE A FEWER NUMBER OF SPECIFIC THERMAL QUANTITIES AND LAWS, I.E. IT WOULD BE
SIMPLIFIED, AND THUS MORE PERFECT.
General formulations on thermal energy
It has been known since Antiquity that the Sun emits a flow of heat upon the Earth via light rays
without atoms or molecules, i.e. neither atoms, nor molecules are carriers of thermal energy in a
dynamic (real) state.
In modern terms, the flow of light rays is a flow of elementary field electromagnetic particles,
which are called photons. They are carriers of electromagnetic energy W
f
, electromagnetic mass (matter)
m
f
and electromagnetic momentum
f
P
r
, i.e.
a)
.
f
W h · ν
; b)
2
/
f f
m W c ·
; c) 0 0
. . ;
f
f f
W
c
P m c c c
c c
· · ·
r
r
r r r
r ; (8.34)
This photon energy W
fm
being a sum of photons, in a certain aspect is thermal energy W
ft
, thermal
mass m
fT
and thermal momentum
fт
P
r
, i.e.
a) fт f
W W ·
; b) fт f
m m ·
; c)
fт f
P P ·
r r
; (8.35)
The presented clearly shows that a given quantity of thermal energy from the Sun W
fc
is a sum of
photon energy
1
n
fс fт
W W ·
∑
; (8.36)
while not containing a single atom or molecule, i.e. the transfer of thermal energy from one object, the
Sun, to the other object, the Earth, is not achieved via atoms or molecules, but only via elementary
particles, photons. I.e. the essence of thermal energy in the form of portions (quanta),apart from atoms
(molecules) which are carriers of magnetic energy, which is a carrier of potential photons (potential
thermal energy), are the photons, which are carriers of real (kinetic) thermal energy in the form of a
flow of photons, a typical example of which is a laser ray, as well as in the form of a photon gas, which
occupies all the world space – there is no space in the world without a photon gas.
Thermal energy in the form of a photon flow is described by StefanBoltzmann law
4
. П k Т
σ
· σ ; (8.37)
where: П is the flow of thermal energy for a unit of time – power of the energy of the photon, emitted
from a unit of area of the substance; T – temperature of the emitting substance in degrees by Kelvin – K;
k
σ
and
σ
– physical constants.
The fact that all bodies (objects) emit and absorb light (light photons) was first experimentally
discovered and described by Isaac Newton in his book “Opticks...” in 1704. Newton’s discovery in a
synthesized form states:
“All bodies emit and absorb light.”
“Bodies turn into light, and light into bodies.”
“This is a normal natural process.”
159
“Light is a flow of small bodies, which move at velocity c (the velocity of light in vacuum).”
These facts, without quoting Newton, are described as Kirchhoff law in 1860 in the following
sense:
All bodies emit and absorb radiant energy, whereby the ratio of the emitted to the absorbed
energy depends on frequency
ν
and temperature T, but it does not depend on kind of the body, i.e.
) . (
energy absorbed
energy emitted
T f K
W
ν · ·
; (8.38)
This law, as well as the law of Newton, means that matter (mass) of all natural objects is homogenous and is
only of electromagnetic essence – it is electromagnetic matter.
The motivation of this inference, which has the rank of a fundamental principle in the
theoretical basis of physics is the genetic principle, which states “The cause is the genetic basis of
the effect” or “The generator and the generated are genetically homogenous”. This natural
(intrinsic) principle is often ignored in physics, especially in the section of elementary particles.
IN THIS ASPECT, THE CARRIER AND THE ESSENCE OF THERMAL ENERGY, ACCORDING TO NEWTON AND KIRCHHOFF,
ARE ELECTROMAGNETIC RAYS (WAVES), I.E. THERMAL ENERGY IS ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER OR ELECTROMAGNETIC
ENERGY IN A FIELD FORM.
Evidently, electromagnetic waves (rays) nowadays play the role of the “thermal fluid” of the
earlier stages of development of the science about heat.
In reality, in nature, without photons no transfer of thermal energy may ever occur, and
thermal energy is a field electromagnetic matter (mass) which is in peramnent motion.
Here some questions arise as to how substance (atoms and molecules) emits and absorbs
photons.
The answer is given by the modern law: the law of conservation and conversion of energy from
one state into another.
When a photon of energy f
W
and momentum f P
ur
hits upon an electron, which is in an atom
orbital and has magnetic energy
0 H
W
and velocity v
e0
, it is absorbed by the electron (its velocity v
increases) and so increases its magnetic (kinetic) energy from
0 H
W
to
a) 0 0 HR H f H
W W W W · + >
; b)
2
0
;
H
W v ≡ (8.39)
and releases a respective momentum of motion to it.
In conformity with the conservation of the thermal balance of the atom relative to the photon gas in
the environment (the surrounding temperature T), atoms emit photons (thermal energy).
The photon gas (or more precisely, the density of the photon energy) is what can be felt when
approaching an object, and not the energy of the atom, which absorbed or emitted the photon.
Here it should be pointed out that photons, as wave processes, have momentum f P
ur
, which is
absorbed by the electron of the atom for time
τ
, the result of which is a force, which acts upon their atom
and has a value
1
.
f f f
f
P W W
F F
c r
τ
′
· · · ·
τ τ ∆
r
r r
; . r c ∆ · τ ; (8.310)
This force sets the electron, respectively the atom into motion in direction of the momentum f P
ur
.
The many photons, which hit upon the atom set it into oscillation around a middle point. An analogous,
but opposite effect, called recoil effect is obtained during emission of photon.
Since atoms on the surface emit photons (generate forces, respectively, pressure, which is a force
per a unit of area) toward the inside of the object, their oscillating movements are transmitted to the
inside, as there exist photons between atoms as well.
The particles (molecules) of the gas are always in a gas of photons, i.e. the particles of the gas are
always molecules and photons.
The energy density f
w
of the photon gas, to which is proportional temperature T
f
Т w ≡
; (8.311)
In a gas of substantial particles (molecules), their velocity is proportional to the energy, which they obtain from
160
the photons – Maxwell’s pressure of photons, respectively from the density of photons.
In this sense, the atom itself is not a direct carrier of the photon, but it is a carrier of potential
form of thermal energy and concurrently it emits photons, i.e. it is a source (generator) of photons, of
explicit form of thermal energy, because it emits a photon as well as absorbs phonons from the outside,
and – through the phonons which are thermal energy –the latter interacts with the substantial form of
electromagnetic matter..
In this sense, a quantity of matter (mass)
2
/
T T
m W c · , which interacts with the substance,
corresponds to thermal energy
T
W
The maximal dimension of the crosssection of the photon and the length l
f
of the photon, according
to some researchers, are about
7
a) 10 m; b) 3 m;
f
D l
−
≈ ·
; (8.312)
These data are for their effective values, which are used in the computations. In reality, the lengths
are longer, but with heavily decreasing power at the end of the photon.
The action of the photons is illustrated by the following examples:
The power of electromagnetic waves – a flow of photons according to StefanBoltzmann law is
4
i
. . .
Т fi
П k T w c h c w
σ
· σ · · ν ·
∑ ∑
;
.
fi i
w h · ν
∑
; (8.313)
where:
k
σ
– StefanBoltzmann constant;
1 k
σ
<
 accounting for the influence of the surface which, with
a black body, emits
1 k
σ
·
T – temperature in K;
i f
w h · ν
∑
– density of the energy of photons with
various ferquencies; h – Planck’s constant;
i
ν
– frequency
Photons are characterized by energy W
f
, mass m
f
, momentum
f
P
r
and force
f
F
r
, as follows
a)
f
. W h · ν
; b)
f
2 f
c
W
m · ; c)
f
f 0
.
c
W
P c ·
r
r
; d)
f f
f 0
:
c.
P W c
F c
c
≈ · ·
τ τ
r
r
r
r
; (8.314)
upon a unit of surface, which, when reduced for surface S, are
a)
S n f
. . P P S S P · ·
∑
r r r
; b)
S
S n
d .
. d
dt
n
P p S
F F S
dt
 `
· · ·
. ,
r
r r
; (8.315)
That is why when the electromagnetic waves (photons) hit upon an object (body) with mass m
0
they
impart to it acceleration
i
a
r
, velocity
i
v
r
and kinetic energy.
Significant features of electromagnetic waves are:
a) They are carriers of energy, which, according to Maxwell, is absorbed and converted into
kinetic (magnetic) energy of the object (body) that has absorbed it. As a result of this, the dynamic state
and the structure of the object may be changed.
b) They have momentum, which generates pressure and force upon the object that has absorbed
them with the respective consequences: they impart to it acceleration and velocity during the time of
their action t .
It is known from StefanBoltzmann law that the carrier of thermal energy are photons of
frequencies from 1 v · to
v → ∞
, whereby thermal (electromagnetic) energy, emitted by a unit of
surface in vacuum, which is in the density of photon energy, is:
,
4
0
1, 0
.
.d . . ;
i n j
T v ij
i j
E H
П
w Q w V T h v
c c
· ·∞
∞
· ·
]
]
· · · σ · · ·
∑
∫
r
(8.316)
where:
4
. . . ;
T
П k T E H w c
σ
] · σ · ·
]
r r
(8.317)
is Poynting vector. To the density of thermal energy corresponds the density of the mass of the quantity of
electromagnetic (thermal) energy.
4
2 3 3 3
.
. .
;
T
T
E H
wП k T
c c c c
σ
]
σ
]
ρ · · · ·
r r
(8.318)
161
8.4. TEMPERATURE IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE DENSITY OF THERMAL
ENERGY
1. Gaseous particles (molecules) moving at velocity v
r
with mass m
constantly emit and absorb photons and are in a medium of photon gas.
Let in a unit of volume of the gas there are n
0
molecules (the concentration of the molecules is n
0
),
and the densities of the energy and mass of the photon gas are
f
w and
f
ρ
(
2
f f
. w c · ρ ). As a result of
the forces (momentums) pressure and of recoil, which atoms (molecules) receive from the momentums
f
f 0
.
c
W
P c ·
r
r
of the photons during emission and during absorption they are set into motion at velocity v
i
and receive kinetic energies
kMi
W
at a mean statistical square of velocity
2
v . The mean statistical square
of velocity
2
v determines the mean kinetic energies of the molecule
kM
W
and of the density of the
energy of the gas
kT
w
, as follows, at mass m of the molecules
a)
2
kM
. 3
.
2 2
M
B
m v
W k T · ·
; b)
kT 0 kM 0 B f
3
. . . .
2
w n W n k T w · · ·
; (8.41)
The pressure of the gas is
r kT 0 B
1 1
. .
3 3
p w n k T · ·
; (8.42)
An elastic collision of the molecule generates pressure
r KT 0Б
2 2
. .
3 3
p w n k T · ·
; (8.43)
2. because of the high velocity “c” of the photons, their distribution in a finite volume is always
uniform, since their time of relaxation is practically about
6
10 s
−
τ < .
3. The collisions between the molecules are believed to be about 10
9
per second and it is accepted
that they are fully elastic.
4. From (8.41) we determine the temperature
a)
KM
B
2
.
3 k
W
T ·
; b) KT
0 B
3
.
.
T w
n k
·
; (8.44)
From (8.44) it is evident that the temperature is proportional to the density of the thermal energy
KT
w
. And in electrodynamics, according to Maxwell’s law on pressure, the thermal energy (which is
electromagnetic energy) W
T
and its mass m
T
( )
2
T T
. W m c ·
(the molecules) move from places of a higher
density of energy  w and of the mass
m
w
c
2
ρ ·
to places of lower w and
m
ρ
. From here, according
to the laws of electrodynamics, the thermal energies W
T
and mass m
T
also move from places of higher
temperatures to places of lower temperatures. THAT IS ESSENTIALLY THE SECOND PRINCIPLE OF THE THEORY OF
THERMAL PHENOMENA, NOT ENTROPY. I.E. THE SECOND PRINCIPLE OF THERMODYNAMICS IS ALSO AN ELECTROMAGNETIC
LAW.
8.5. GENERATION OF THERMAL ENERGY
8.5.1. General formulations
In 1900, Max Planck proved by laws, described by formulae, the subsequences of Isaac Newton’s
experiments, described in paragraph one of Chapter One, that the atoms (molecules) constantly at short
intervals of time, emit and absorb electromagnetic energy in the form of shortlasting impulses (for a time
of the order of
8
10 t S
−
∆ ≈ τ ≡ ) of electromagnetic energy in the form of packets of electromagnetic
waves, called photons. Photons have energy W
fi
, mass m
fi
, momentum
fi
P
and force
f
F
, i. e.
162
a)
fi i
. W h · ν
; b)
fi
2 fi
r
W
m · ; c)
fi
fi fi 0
. .
c
W
P m c c · ·
r
r r
; d)
fi fi
fi 0
.
dt dr
dP dW
F c · ·
r
r
r
; 0
c
c
c
·
r
r
r
; (8.51)
A surface of a substance (body) with an area S = 1 for a unit of time t = 1 according to Stefan
Boltzmann law (18791984) emits power N of electromagnetic energy of an ensemble (gas) of photons
which generate pressure
п
p
r
, density of energy W
П
, force
П
F
r
and power N
П
, as follows
a)
4
0 0п
d
. . . . .
d
П
П
W
N cП T c w c E H
t
] · · · σ · ·
]
r r r r
r r r
; b)
п
П
p
c
·
r
r
;
c)
п
п 0
.
dr c.dt dr
dW dП dП
F c · · ·
r r
r
r
; d) . dr c dt ·
r r
;
(8.52)
This relationship
. П E H ] ·
]
r r r
is called Poynting vector in electrodynamics, and
E
and
H
respectively, are the intensities of the electric and the magnetic fields.
If this force (or pressure
П
F
p
S
·
r
r
) lands:
A. Upon a surface of a body of mass m and area 1 S ≠ , force
Sп
. F F S ·
r r
acts upon the body
generating its acceleration
T
a
r
, and setting it into motion for time dt at velocity
T
d .d
T
v a t ·
r r
thus
performing work
S
. dA F dr ·
r
r
a)
T S T
/m a F ·
r
r
; b)
Sп T
. . . . . dA F dr F S a t dt · ·
r r
r r
; c)
T
d .d . . ;
T
r v t a t dt · ·
r r r
d)
. ;
s
T
T
F
v t
m
·
r
r
(8.53)
B. Upon a piston of a cylinder of a steam engine with surface S, force
SП
. .
П
F F S p S · ·
r r
r
acts upon
the piston for time dt setting it in motion along distance
T
d .d r v t ·
r
thus performing work
a)
S
. . . . dA F dr p S dr p dV · · ·
r
r r r
; b) . dV S dr · ; (8.54)
From the presented above, the following characteristic features of the electromagnetic (thermal)
radiant energy can be outlined:
1. It is described by deterministic (dynamic) laws;
2. It generates force (pressure) and can perform work.
8.5.2. Photons are generated in the following processes
8.5.2.1. In interaction between a particle and an antiparticle and in particular in annihilation of
an electron e

and a positron e
+
are generated photons with energy w
f
= h. :
A) At velocities 0 v ≈
a)

0 0
e e
+
+ → 2.γ ; b)
2
e0 0
2. . 2. . m c h · ν ; c)
2
f 0е0
. . W h m c · ν · ; (8.55)
B) At velocities v < c
a) ( ) 2. e e p p
− +
+ → γ + +
; b)
2 2
e 0 n
2. . 2. . 2. . m c h m c · ν + ; (8.56)
a) ( ) 2. e e n n
− +
+ → γ + +
; b)
2 2
e 0 n
2. . 2. . 2. . m c h m c · ν + ; (8.57)
where:
γ
is photon;
, , p pи n n
– proton and antiproton and neutron and antineutron.
8.5.2.2. In case an electron collides against a wall at velocity 0 v ≠ ,since the velocity of the
electron for time 1 t ∆ << drops from 0 v ≠ to
1
0 v ·
, the result is a mean acceleration
e
t
v
a ·
∆
r
r
and according to classical electrodynamics, at
0
e
a ≠
, the electron emits power which is
2 2
e e
e 3
d .
d 6.
W q a
N
t c
· · ; (8.58)
At velocity of the electron
6
10
e
m s ν ≈ the emitted energy is
18
. 9.98.10 J; W N t
−
∆ · ∆ ·
163
And at velocity
2 3
e
10 10 v m s · − the emitted energy is
a) ( )
26 24
9.98 10 10 W
− −
∆ · ÷
– J; →b) ( )
8 10
1,5 10 10 Hz; ν · ÷ −
(8.59)
8.2.5.3. When certain effort (pressure or extension) is exerted upon substance, the orbitals of the
electrons change their normal state and they emit photons (inside or outside the substance). This is
the reason why, in mechanical treatment (cutting or plastic treatment), the substance gets hot.
In principle, at the level of substantial manifestations of thermal energy, it always occurs in the
form of a photon gas (ensemble of photons), which is generated or absorbed by the substance. However,
depending on the structure [construction of the system of material objects in which photons are
manifested (generated or absorbed)], as a result of the changes in the energy, relevant forces (of
pressure or extension) of Maxwell’s pressures appear and different effects are generated. For example:
a) when exerting pressure (in mechanical treatment of materials), since the pressure is stress
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
· · · · · ·
−
w
m
J
m
m J
surface
force
S
F
p
3 2
1
.
density of the energy; (8.510)
a flux of photon gas is generated with density of the energy
. w p ≡
.
This energy interacts (presses on) with the molecules, which leads to weakening of the force bonds
between the molecules, which are bound through the force of cohesion F
c
(which is derivative of
LennardJones potential and is described here in Chapter Eight, paragraph 8.7) and when it weakens
sufficiently, the bond between the molecules disintegrates. This is the electromagnetic (physical) essence
of the mechanical treatment of materials. But in ancient times this essence was not clear and this
electromagnetic process was called a mechanical process without clarifying the essence of the
mechanism of cutting or the essence of the forces.
8.5.2.4. In friction between smooth surfaces of the bodies, since they are not perfectly smooth, the
structural bonds of part of the molecules with the bodies tear apart, which are generated by the forces
of cohesion  the derivative of LennardJones potential. And in another part of the molecules
deformations are generated in a relatively thin layer of the bodies.
These two processes result in generation of photons and heating of the surfaces of the bodies.
8.5.3. Why cosmic bodies are heated to high temperatures
In cosmology, there is a formulation that cosmic bodies were formed from cosmic dust, which
consisted of molecules (mainly hydrogen molecules and atoms). Great gravitational forces occurred under
the action of the gravitational field and they generated high pressures between molecules, which
compacted them and thus formed a cosmic body, which was then heated to high temperatures. However,
the mechanism of heating the bodies to high temperatures has never been discussed.
For this increase of temperatures, herein is given the following hypothesis. At increased pressure
between molecules (atoms) the orbits of their electrons are deformed in the same way as when materials
are processed mechanically, and the substance gets heated. So it is with cosmic bodies as a consequence
of the pressure of the gravitational forces, the orbits of the electrons in the molecules of the space (air)
dust are deformed and their electrons emit photons, i.e. thermal energy is released and the bodies are
heated. When heated to high temperatures, the atoms (molecules) disintegrate and the process of heat
(photons) release is intensified, since the temperature T is proportional to the density w
f
of the photons.
I.e. with the increase of the density of the thermal energy, w
f
and T also increase as a result of which
nuclear reactions occur in which hydrogen atoms emit heat and helium atoms are formed from them.
In this sense, nuclear reactions, which take place between the electromagnetic atoms of
hydrogen, emit electromagnetic energy in the form of photons and helium atoms, which are also
electromagnetic matter, i.e. nuclear reactions are electromagnetic reactions.
8.5.4. On Brownian motion
Since all atoms and molecules in liquid form, periodically emit and absorb photons, during which
process forces are generated (of recoil and of pressure) upon them, therefore, they are always in
fluctuating condition. This is the factor, which also generates Brownian motion.
164
8.6. MECHANISM OF TRANSFER OF THERMAL ENERGY FROM A GAS
THROUGH A SOLID MEDIUM
8.6.1. General formulation
Let us consider a plane wall with surface S = 1, temperature T
0
and concentration of molecules n
S
on the surface S
1
as well as in each crosssection of the wall on a plane parallel to S along the thickness
∆
of the wall perpendicular to S.
In a balanced state of the wall relative to the environment, their temperatures are T
0
.
According to statistical physics, it has been wrongly assumed that under the above conditions, each
molecule contains the quantity of thermal energy
m
k
W
, the truth, however, is that according to M. Planck,
this electromagnetic energy corresponds to the energy of the photon ensemble (gas) with energy W
v
, as
follows
20
2 ; 10
KM B 0 ij
1; 0
.
2
i n j
v
i j
mv
W k T W h
· <
· ≠
· · · · ν
∑
; (8.61)
where: h is Planck’s constant;
тата
j
j
−
ν −
the frequency of the photon (with number j), and i is the number
of the photons with identical frequency
i
ν
; the frequency here is limited to that of the gamma photons.
Let upon the external layer of molecules n
S
at S = 1 falls a thermal flux of photons according to
StefanBoltzmann law
a)
4
0
d
. . .
dt 4
П П
W w
k T c
σ
· Π · σ ·
; b)
П
4П
w
c
· ; (8.62)
where:
п
w
is the density of the thermal energy carried by the photons, emitted from the surface of an
object with temperature T
0
; c  velocity of the photons (electromagnetic waves  the light).
To
П
w
corresponds the density of the mass of thermal (electromagnetic) energy 
П
ρ
and density
of the thermal momentum
П
P
r
a)
П
2
c
П
w
ρ · ; b)
П
П П 0
. .
c
w
P c c · ρ ·
r
r r
; 0
c
c
c
·
r
r
r ; (8.63)
To the derivative of
П
P
r
, relative to time, corresponds a thermal force
П
F
r
upon a unit of surface (S
= 1), which is also pressure p
r
a)
П П П 0
0
d d d . d
. .
dt dt c.dt d
П
П
P w c w
F c c p
r
ρ
· · · · ·
r
r
r
r r r
; . dr c dt · ; (8.64)
Under these conditions, when the molecules have on their surface energy
KM V
W W ·
and
temperature T
0
and the energy of radiation
П
r
(8.62) falls upon them, which is, for one molecule,
ПM
0
П
W
n
∆ ·
, where n
0
is the molecule concentration, it follows that the quantity of the thermal energy of
the molecule at temperature T
0
increases to
a)
'
KM KMПM B B 0
. ' . W W W k T k T · + ∆ · > ; b)
0
' ; T T T · + ∆
c)
' ПM
0
B
k
W
T T T
∆
∆ · − ·
; (8.65)
and
'
KM
W continues (with the time) to increase, so
'
T
becomes higher than the temperature T
0
of the
molecules in the contiguous layer, which is within the thickness of the wall at distance r ∆ ∆ = , due to
which according to Maxwell’s pressure or the law (8.66) the first layer with surface S = 1 (on the
surface) emits energy
П12
W ∆
toward the second layer at temperature
0
' T T <
( )
' 4 4 '
П12 0 T
. . W k T T W
σ
∆ · σ − · ∆
; (8.66)
until the temperatures become equal or this state sets in:
' '
0 0
T T T · · .
165
Or the same relationship, obtained for the layer with surface S = 1 through Fourier’s law, is
a)
( )
'
0
П12
.
r
T T
W
−
∆ · −λ
∆
; →b)
12
d
.
d
П
T
W
r
∆ · −λ ; (8.67)
Evidently, this deterministic process of motion of the density of photon energy in a solid medium
continues in the wall until it passes through its whole thickness
∆
and is emitted out on the other
side, on condition that the temperature of the surface (at the end of
∆
) is ср
T T
∆
>
where T
cp
is the
temperature of the environment at the end of .
According to I. Newton’s law for convection and radiation, thermal energy
TЛ
W
is released from
the wall at S = 1, which is
( )
TЛ ср
. W T T
∆
· α − · α τ
; ср
T T
∆
τ · −
; (8.68)
where:
α
is a coefficient of thermal release in radiation and convection.
Evidently, after the photon flux has generated force and pressure, it creates pressure
P
r
upon the
molecules of the gas, which are located at the external side of the medium on surface
M
S
, and accelerates
them to velocity 0 v > , and then the density of this layer of molecules becomes smaller compared to the
rest, which pushes it upward and that layer of molecules moves upward .
M M
F p S ·
r
, which releases
energy to it and performs work which at 0 S ≠ is
a)
.d . .d .d ;
П M ТЛ
W F r p S r p V W · · · ·
∫ ∫ ∫
r
r r r
(8.69)
The density of the thermal energy, which is transmitted through the solid body, is determined
according to the law of J. Fourier of 1822, and is:
. . . ;
dT
dQ dS dt
dr
· −λ (8.610)
where: dQ is the thermal energy, which passed through surface dS for time dt at temperature gradient
dT
dr
and coefficient of thermoconductivity of the body.
Or the thermal flow through a unit of area for a unit of time
[ ]
[ ]
2
J
1
. ; . ;
. s m
dQ dT
j
dS dt dr
· · −λ →
]
]
(8.611)
is the density of the thermal flow (thermal flow through a unit of area for a unit of time).
By introducing the density of the thermal energy
[ ]
3
3 3
J
; J.m ;
m
T Q
Q Q
w w
V l
−
] · · · → ·
]
]
]
(8.612)
The density of the thermal flow j is
a)
. . ;
Q T T T
j w v w v · ·
b)
;
T
T
j
v
w
·
(8.613)
where:
T
v
is the velocity of w
Q
= w
T
when it passed through the body.
In a stationary mode, it follows
. const .;
dT
j A
dr
· −λ · ·
(8.614)
whence it follows that at const . j A · ·
a)
const . ;
.
T
T dT A
B
r v dt
∂
· · · ·
∂ λ
b) const .;
A
B · ·
λ
(8.615)
a)
.
. const . ;
T
T
dT v A
v B H
dt
· · · ·
λ
b)
.
const .;
T
H H
v
B A
λ
· · · (8.616)
166
I.e. the velocity v
T
of the density of the thermal energy is const. Under these conditions for the
stationary process, the emitted thermal flow, according to the law of StefanBoltzmann, which is also
Poynting vector (the density of the flow of electromagnetic energy)
a)
4
. . . . const .;
f
П k T E H w c
σ
] · σ · · ·
]
r r
b)
4.
const .;
f fi
T
П
w W
v
· · ·
∑ (8.617)
which falls upon and is absorbed by the surface of the body, i.e.
a)
. ; П E H j ] · ·
]
r r
b)
4
. . . . const .;
f j T
k T w c w v
σ
σ · · ·
c)
4
.
.
const .;
j
j
E H
T
w
v c
]
σ
]
· · ·
r r
(8.618)
I.e. the thermal energy, which passes through the body is electromagnetic energy, the same energy
as the one that bodies emit and absorb according to the laws of StefanBoltzmann (1879  1884) and
Kirchhoff (1860).
THIS IS THE ANSWER TO THE QUESTION, WHAT IS THE ESSENCE OF THERMAL ENERGY AS REAL DYNAMIC
ENERGY, WHICH PROPAGATES THROUGH THE PHOTON GAS IN NATURE. IT IS ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY IN THE FORM
OF PHOTONS, AND IS NOT CARRIED BY MOLECULES, AND SCIENCE OF IT IS A SPECIFIC CASE OF THE SCIENCE OF
ELECTRODYNAMICS, SUCHA AS THE THEORY OF THE PHOTON GAS IN SOLID BODIES (SUBSTANCES AND LIQUIDS) AS WELL
AS PARTIALLY IN GAS ENVIRONMENT .
And therefore, thermodynamics should be called thermoelectrodynamics, which does not need
Carnot's cycle, or Clausius entropy, but only needs electrodynamics of Newton, Planck, Kirchhoff and
others. Thus it is proved that thermodynamics (thermoelectrodynamicsta) is unified with the other
parts of physics, which is a science of the manifestations of electromagnetic matter.
Emphasis
It is evident from the description of the mechanism of transfer of thermal energy released
by a substance in a volume
Г
V
that not a single molecule of the substance is carried through the
wall. This fact proves that molecules are not carriers of dynamic (explicit) thermal energy, since it
is only in the form of a photon gas, but they solely emit and absorb photons, although presentday
thermodynamics leaves a wrong impressions that thermal energy in volume
Г
V
of the gas is carried by
the molecules. This wrongly alleged idea of thermal phenomena, which is deeply rooted in the minds
of not a small number of researchers, has been established by the circumstance that statistical
calculations do not make it sufficiently clear that the statistical method is a computing method but it is
not quite proper as regards the expression of the physical essence of thermal process. In fact, most
researchers are fully aware of the apparent fact that molecules are not carried through the wall,
but heat is carried by the photons of the photon gas. It is only that the coefficient of thermal
conductivity λ in the law of Fourier (8.610) that depends on the kind and concentration n
0
of the
molecules of the medium whose λ is discussed.
In this case, an old idea is brought forth again, the idea of a thermal fluid, which is the photon
gas and which determines pressure
3
f
Г
W
Р · in volume
Г
V
of the gas of the molecules, whereby here too
the statistical method of calculation has led to a misinterpretation that there is no photon gas or
photon pressure, although in electrodynamics it is clearly indicated that to energy
.
f
W h · ν
corresponds momentum
0
. ;
f
W
P c
c
·
r
r
0
c
c
c
·
r
r
r and this fact proves the photon pressure.
According to the law, proved by Lord Rayleigh in 1902, all wave processes, which move at wave
velocity, exert pressure (force) upon the surface of objects which they encounter at a wave velocity.
The analysis of the mechanism of passing of thermal energy
.
T i
W h · ν
∑
through a solid body
shows that the beginning of the thermal flow
T
W
has a temperature
1
T
and the end of the surface of the
body has
2 1
T T <
.
If the temperature of the external medium, when the heat is leaving the body, is
0 2
T T <
, then it
167
releases upon the surface of the body
2
1 S ·
surface temperature T
2
via thermal flow through area
2
1 S ·
,
which is
( )
2 0
;
T
Q T T · α −
(8.619)
This law was formulated by Is. Newton.
In this case, it is evident that the quantity of thermal energy Q is not carried by any molecules,
nor by atoms . I.e. the quantity of heat is the heat, which the photon gas carries and it is
. ;
T fT fi i
Q W W h · · · ν
∑ ∑ (8.620)
which is a sum of the energies of the photons, which have passed through the wall.
Therefore, the molecules (atoms) of a solid body, and of any substance in general (gas, liquid
or solid) are only absorbents and emitters of photons of the photon gas. And only the photons
themselves are carriers of real (dynamic) thermal energy which is in the form of electromagnetic
waves, i.e. thermal energy is only carried by electromagnetic waves. But the electromagnetic waves
themselves, photons, are emitted and absorbed by molecules (atoms). The mechanism of absorption
of photons of the atom (molecule) consists in the following. When the photon hits the electron,
which is in a respective orbit, it is absorbed by the electron, which is of respective magnetic (called
kinetic) energy, at respective velocity v
2
0
.
;
2
e
He
m v
W · (8.621)
where:
0 e
m
is mass of the electron at rest, since
v c =
.
As a result of this absorption, the energy of the photon is transformed (restructured) and is localized
upon the electron in the form of magnetic energy
He
W ∆
, as a result of which it is absorbed by the electron
and its velocity increases to ' v v > , by v ∆ , due to which its magnetic energy increases.
a)
2
' 0
. '
;
2
e
He
m v
W ·
b)
' ; v v v · + ∆
(8.622)
Due to this fact, the electron moves to a higher orbit. After a short interval of time, the electron in
the atom emits a photon of energy f
W
and momentum
0
.
f
f
W
P c
c
·
r
r
and returns to its original orbit.
In this sense, atoms and molecules are not carriers of photons, and hence it follows that they are
not carriers of dynamic thermal energy as well, but are only carriers of potential thermal energy, such
as the magnetic energy of the electrons, which is called kinetic and part of which is transformed
into a photon (thermal) energy. Moreover, the potential thermal energy of the nucleus of the atom is the
oscillating energy of the nucleus and its parts (protons and neutrons), since the nucleus, too, under
respective conditions, emits highenergy photons.
In this sense, the molecules of the gas are also carriers only of potential thermal energy, which
is inside the molecules in the form of magnetic (kinetic) energy of the electrons, which are in orbits
around the nuclei of the atoms and molecules, which are enveloped by the electrons, connecting the
atom molecules. And this potential thermal (magnetic) energy, in suitable conditions is transformed into
radiant (photon) kinetic (thermal) energy.
If in a given volume
Г
V
there is gas with a concentration n
0
of its molecules, the total number of
the molecules is
0
.
Г
N V n ·
. Modern thermodynamics wrongly assumes that each molecule is a
carrier of mean statistical thermal energy. In such case, the total thermal energy
T
W
in volume
Г
V
of the gas is
2
. 3. .
. . ;
2 2
B
T k
mv k T
W W N N · · · (8.623 a)
where: m
is mass of one molecule;
2
v
r
 the square of the mean statistical velocity of the molecule.
It follows from (8.623a) that the mean statistical thermal energy of one molecule is
2
. 3. .
;
2 2
B
TM
mv k T
W · · (8.623 b)
168
Expressions (8.623a) and (8.623b) are a result of formal assumptions, without an actual
physical sense, since molecules are carriers only of potential thermal energy, and in appropriate
conditions, for instance, a collision into a hard medium or between molecules or decreased density of
the surrounding photon gas, they emit photons and decrease their magnetic energy to a density equal
to the density of the photon gas. The motivation of this contention is the fact that in (8.623a) and (8.6
23b) no photons or photon gas have ever been taken into consideration, and it is exactly they that are
the real carriers of thermal energy.
For if each molecule in general is a carrier of such thermal energy, when thermal energy
passes through a solid body, some molecules should pass as well, but no such molecules are
available.
In this case, the molecules of the molecular gas are only emitters and absorbents of photons. As
a result of the forces of pressure and recoil, generated by the photons upon the molecules, they move
and hit one another and have the respective oscillating movements, to which corresponds a respective
magnetic energy, which depend on the density of photon energy w
f
of the photon gas, which
corresponds to temperature T in volume
Г
V
of the gas and is between its molecules.
a)
0
3
. . . ;
2
f B
w n k T ·
b)
0
.
2
. ;
3
f
B
w n
T
k
·
(8.624)
It is known from Pound’s experiment (1960) that masses m
f
of the photons are attracted by
gravitational field G
З
of the Earth by force
a)
2
.
. . . ;
З
f f fЗ
m
F m r m G
r
γ
· − · −
r r
r
b)
2 2
.
;
f
f
w
h
m
c c
ν
· ·
c)
0 2
.
. ;
З
З
m
G r
c
γ
· −
r
(8.625)
where: m
З
is mass of the Earth;
γ
– gravitational constant.
The relationship between density of mass f
ρ
and density of energy w
f
of the photon gas is
2
;
f
f
w
c
ρ · (8.626)
And the pressure exerted by the gravitational filed upon the density of the mass of the photon gas f
ρ
at
altitude dh is
1
2 2
1
d . .d . . .d . .d ;
3
f
w
G
P G h G h P h
c c
· ρ · · (8.627)
Since
4
2 3 3 3
.
.
;
3. 3. 3.
f
f
E H
w
П T
c c c c
]
σ
]
ρ · · · ·
r r
(8.628)
a)
2
d
.d ;
P G
h
P c
·
b) 2
1
. .d
d
2
.d ;
1
.
2
B
B
k T
G T
h
c T
k T
· ·
c) 0 2
.
.exp ;
G h
T T
c
 `
· −
. ,
(8.629)
i.e. the temperature decreases with the increase of the altitude h above ground.
The relationship is analogous for the molecule of the gas.
8.7. HOW A SOLID BODY TURNS INTO GAS
First, it should be pointed out that atoms and molecules emit and absorb photons permanently, in
gases as well as in solid bodies, which fact motivates the law of StefanBoltzmann
4
. . . ;
из f
W k T w c
σ
· σ ·
(8.71)
where: T is the temperature on the surface of the solid body, respectively the temperature of the molecules
on the surface of the body.
And Fourier’s law for the density of the thermal flow (through a unit of area for a unit of time)
0
. . . . ;
T T f T
dT
j r w v w v
dr
· −λ · ·
r
r r r
(8.72)
169
where: T f
w w ·
is the density of the thermal energy through the volume of the solid body; v  the velocity
of w
T
through the solid body.
Namely, j
r
is explained as a consequence of the emission of photons by the atoms (molecules) of
the solid body and forming of the density of the photon energy w
f
in the volumes between the molecules
(atoms) of the solid body, where also act electromagnetic forces of cohesion
c
F
.
This force is equal to the derivative of LennardJones potential and is
' "
13 7
4. ;
c c c
F F F
r r
α β  `
· ε − · −
. ,
(8.73)
where: and are respective constants for the corresponding structure of substance (substantial form) of
electromagnetic matter.
As a result of the law of StefanBoltzmann, force and pressure are exerted upon the molecules by
w
f
, which is
a)
0 0
. . ;
.
из из
p
dW dW
F c c
dr c dt
· ·
r
r r
b)
0 0
. . ;
из
f
W
P c w c
c
· ·
r
r r
(8.74)
when
0;
p c
F F + ≤
r r
(8.75)
free state of molecules occurs, i.e. the body turns into a gas.
8.8. WHY ARE THE SOLUTIONS IN PRESENTDAY THERMODYNAMICS
RELIABLE DESPITE THE INCORRECT FORMULATION THAT
MOLECULES ARE CARRIERS OF THERMAL ENERGY
Let’s have a gas of temperature T, concentration of molecules n, in volume of the gas
Г
V
, number
of molecules N and thermal energy of the gas
Г
W
.
Under these conditions, the volume of the gas, where as a mean statistical quantity there is one
molecule is
1
;
Г
N
V
V
N n
· ·
(8.81)
The gas has densities of the energy
Г
w
and of mass
Г
ρ
, as follows
a)
;
Г
Г
Г
W
w
V
·
b)
2
;
Г
Г
w
c
ρ · (8.82)
and the mean statistical magnetic (kinetic) energy of one molecule is
2
3
. . ; ;
2 2
MГ
HM km B
m v w
w W k T T
n
· · · · (8.83)
where: m
M
is the mass of one molecule;
2
v – the square of the mean statistical velocity of the molecule;
B
k
– Boltzmann constant.
Under these conditions the thermal density of the energy of the gas is
3
. . . . ;
2
Г HM B
w W N k T n · · (8.84)
And the density of the mass
Г
ρ
is
2
;
Г
Г
w
c
ρ · (8.85)
However, when taking into account that there is also a photon gas of density of thermal energy f
w
,
170
then
a)
'
3 3
. . . . . . ;
2 2
Г B B f
w n k T n k T w · · − →
b)
'
;
B B
k k < (8.86)
i.e. since part of the thermal energy is carried by the density of the photon gas – f
w
.
Since the temperature T is proportional to f
w
. ;
f f
T k w ·
(8.87)
In the volume, in which there is one molecule V
N
(8.81), there is also a photon gas of density of
energy w
f
, in this volume there is also thermal energy of the photon gas, which is
. ;
f
fN N f
w
W V w
n
· · (8.88)
by this W
fN
energy should be decreased the energy, which is assumed to be
HM km
W W · as a mean statistical
energy of one molecule on condition that the density of the energy w
f
of the photon gas is not accounted for.
Since the availability of w
f
under this condition should bring a decrease of k
B
into
'
B
k .
We should note the fact that so far, when measuring k
B
, it has been proceeded from (5), while when
determining
'
B
k it should be proceeded from (8.86). For
'
B
k , from (8.86) it follows that it is
'
3 3
. . . . . ;
2 2
BГ f B f
n k T w w k T n w · − · − (8.86)
it follows that
'
. .
3 . 2 2
. ;
2 . . . 3 . 3 .
Г f B f f f
B B B
w w k T n w w w
T n
k k k
nT nT T n nT nT
− −
· · · − · − (8.89)
Here a question arises, what the value of f
w
is.
We proceed, as reference point, from the written by Dettlaff and Yavorski in their book (student
book) “Course of Physics”, “Vysshaya shkola”, M., 1989 on p. 93, in paragraph 8.4.
“3. In normal conditions, i.e. at pressure
0
101325 Pa p ·
and temperature
0
273,15 K T ·
, many
gasses (such as: hydrogen, helium, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, air and other) can be considered, with a good
approximation, as ideal gasses. Essentially, under these conditions, the concentration of molecules of the
gas in the order of their values is
25 3
10 m n
−
: , and the average distance between the molecules is
8
10 m r
−
: , sufficiently long for their forces of attraction to be ignored. The total volume of all the
n
molecules
25
10 n : , which are contained in
3
1 m is
3
5 3
1
. . 10 m 1
6
M
S
− −
· π π : = . Therefore, the volume of
molecules relative to the volume of 1 m
3
of the gas can be ignored. The total surface area of all
25
10 n ≈
molecules in 1 m
3
is about
2 5 6 2 2
. . 10 10 m 1 m
M
V n d · π ≈ − ? , i.e. much greater than the surface of the
walls of the vessel, where is 1 m
3
of the gas. This means that the collisions between the molecules of the
gas are much greater than the collisions in the walls of the vessel, where the gas is.”
According to other publications, the frequency of collisions between the molecules is 10
35
, and
upon the walls is 10
29
, at free motion of molecules long
8
6, 2.10 m
−
· l .
If we assume that
1
500 K T ·
is the maximum working temperature of the gas, which after performing
work drops to
2
300 K T ·
, the respective densities of the photon gas during emission from the surfaces of the
walls of a vessel with volume
3 2
1 m 6 m
c c
V S · · · and surfaces of molecules 10
25
is by number
5 6 2
10 10 m
M
S · − , according to StefanBoltzmann law, the emitted density of energy per second at
temperature 500 K, with coefficient for the surface which emits
0,5
T
k ·
, is
171
; 1 8 , 5 10 25 , 6
10 3
10 6 , 5 5 , 0 10
3 10
8
8 6 4
−
−
· ⋅ ⋅
⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
·
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
· m in J
c
T k S
w
f
σ
σ
(8.810)
This density of energy is of the photon gas f
w
.
The presentday assumption is that the thermal energy
Г
W
of the gas is carried only by the
molecules of the gas (with concentration n molecules in a unit of volume), whose mean statistical value is
2
.
. ;
2
Г
KM B
mv w
W k T
n
· · · (8.811)
Here a certain error is made, because the molecules, in addition to their forward motion at mean
statistical velocity v can also have a rotating motion, i.e. their kinetic energy is greater than
KM
W
(8.8
3).
However, with the availability of the density of the photon energy f
w
(8.88), the thermal energy
of the gas is
. ;
Г KM f
w nW w · +
(8.812)
i.e. the energy carried by the molecules is
.
ГM KM Г f
W nW w w · · −
(8.813)
i.e.
'
;
Г f
KM KM
w w
W W
n
−
· < (8.814)
or analogously to (8.811), it follows
a)
' '
0
. . ;
Г f f
KM B B
w w w
W k T k T
n n
−
· · − ·
b)
'
0
;
.
f
B B B
w
k k k
n T
· − <
(8.815)
Here since
4
f
w T ≡
, it follows
3
;
.
f
w
T
nT
≡ (8.816)
I.e.
'
B
k is obtained as a variable, which decreases when the temperature increases.
At temperature of the gas
500 K T ·
the density of the energy of the photon gas f
w
, which is emitted
from the surface of the walls of the vessel and the surface of molecules with a total area
6 2
10 m ; S ≈ is
; 1 71 , 4
10 3
10 5 10 66 , 5 5 , 0 10
3
8
10 8 6 4
−
−
·
⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
·
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
· m of volume in J
c
T k S
w
c
f
σ
(8.817)
Under these conditions, from the full density of energy w
Г
of the gas in 1 m
3
with concentration n at
normal pressure
5
1, 05.10 Pa p · , the mean statistical energy, which is due to one molecule is
23 21
. 1,38.10 .500 6,9.10 J/n;
Г
KM B
w
W k T
n
− −
· · · · (8.818)
And by accounting for the availability of density of the photon energy at 500 K T ·
' 21 25 25 1
6,9.10 4,71.10 =6,89953.10 J/n ;
Г f
KM
w w
W
n
−
−
· · (8.819)
i.e.
172
a)
' 21
6,89953.10 ;
KM
W
−
·
b)
' 21 21 25 1
6,9.10 6,89953.10 4, 71.10 Jn ;

KM KM KM
W W W
− − −
∆ · − · − ·
(8.820)
And at 300 K T ·
; 1 83 , 2 10 3
10 3
66 , 5 5 , 0
10
3 10
8
6 −
· ⋅ ⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅ · m of volume in J w
f
(8.821)
'
" 23 21 25 21 1
2,83
1,38.10 .300 4,14.10 2,83.10 4,1396.3.10 J.n ;
Г f 
KM
w w
W
n n
− − −
−
· · − · − · (8.822)
21
23
6,9.10
1,38.10 ;
500
KM
B
W
k
T
−
−
· · · (8.823)
' 21
' 23
6,9.10
1,3799.10 ;
500
KM
B
W
k
T
−
−
· · · (8.824)
" 21
" 23
4,1396.10
1,3798.10 ;
300
KM
B
W
k
T
−
−
· · · (8.825)
I.e. when taking into account the energy of the photon gas,
B
k
changes depending on the
temperature
( )
3
;
KM
B
W
k f T
T
· − (8.826)
For practical calculations, since the error is of the order of 0.01%, it is neglectfully small. But
from a physical point of view, it is necessary to take into account that there is a photon gas,
respectively a free photon energy with density
0
f
w >
.
However, in vacuum, and with the temperature staying constant, say, at
300 K T ·
and the density of
the thermal energy
0
. . const.
Г B
w m k T · ·
, since the density of the molecules decreases, as follows:
At normal pressure
5 25
01 01
4, 01.10 Pa 10 P n · → · molecules in 1 m
3
.
At low vacuum – pressure
2 22
02 02
1,33.10 Pa 3,3.10 P n · → · molecules in 1 m
3
.
At average vacuum – pressure
1 19
03 03
1,33.10 Pa 3,3.10 P n
−
· → · molecules in 1 m
3
.
At deep vacuum – pressure
5 15
04 04
1,33.10 Pa 3,3.10 P n
−
· → · molecules in 1 m
3
.
Without the photon energy, only wit the energy of the molecules, the density of the energy of gas
ГM
w
with its volume
Г
V
and concentration of molecules n at 300 K T · , the energy of the gas at
P
01
= 1,01·10
5
Pa and n = 10
2
is
' 25 23 4
3 3
. . . 10 . .1, 38.10 .300 6, 21.10 J;
2 2
ГM B
W n k T · · · (8.827)
hence
4 2
6, 21.10 1,38.10 138
;
1,5.300.
B
k
n n n
· · · (8.828)
This makes it clear that Boltzmann coefficient
B
k
depends on the pressure of the gas, respectively
on the concentration n of the molecules of the gas.
Since the average diameter of the molecule above was assumed by Dettlaff and Yavorski
10
1, 78.10 m d
−
· , it follows that the surface area of the molecule is
2 19
. 10 n d
−
· . Then at concentration n
of the molecules in the gas the area of n
molecules is
19 2
10 m .
n
S n
−
· ·
173
With accounting for the density of the photon energy f
w
, whose value depends on the temperature,
it follows
4 8
19 4 8 3
8
. . 0,5.5, 6.10
. .10 . .3 .10 0, 756 J.m ;
3.10
f M
k T
w S n
c
−
− σ
σ
· · · (8.829)
For a vessel with transparent walls (glass), the density of the photon energy
const.
f
w ·
, because
from the outside of the glass photon energy penetrates and inside it has value
D
w
, the same as it is
outside at outside temperature T
0
. But if the walls are not transparent and there is vacuum, at
concentration n of the molecules, which have area
19 2
.10 m
M
S n
−
· .
For a glass vessel and vacuum
1
7,5.10 J;
f B
w w
−
· ·
(8.830)
1. Under these conditions Boltzmann coefficient in the glass vessel at T = 300 is
2 1
1,38.10 7,5.10 138 0, 005 137,995 138
;
. .
f
Bf B
w
k k
nT n nT n n n
−
−
· − · − · · ≈ (8.831)
2. At normal pressure
5 25
01 01
1, 01.10 Pa 10 P n · → · molecules in 1 m
3
25 23
1
138.10 1,38.10 ;
B
k
− −
· · (8.832)
3. At low vacuum
2 22
02 02
1,33.10 Pa 3,3.10 P n · → · molecules in 1 m
3
22
21
2
138.10
4,18.10 ;
3,3
B
k
−
−
· · (8.833)
4. At average vacuum
1 19
03 03
1,33.10 Pa 3,3.10 P n
−
· → ·
19
18
3
138.10
4,18.10 ;
3,3
B
k
−
· · (8.834)
5. At deep vacuum
5 15
04 04
1,33.10 Pa 3,3.10 P n
−
· → ·
15
14
4
138.10
4,18.10 ;
3,3
B
k
−
−
· · (8.835)
But for a glass vessel, in which vacuum is created, the concentration (number) of the molecules n
and their energy inside decrease
3
. . . ;
2
ГM B
W n k T ·
(8.836)
From the outside, however, enters photon gas, whose density of energy and temperature are the
same as the density of energy of the gas and the temperature of the glass vessel, i.e.
25 23 4 3
0 0
. . 10 .1,38.10 .300 4,14.10 J.m ;
f B
w n k T
−
· · ·
(8.837)
Because the densities of energies become equal.
Under normal conditions it is evident that the impact of the photon energy upon k
B
is neglectfully
small and therefore, although from a physical point of view, k
B
should be smaller, the error is neglectful,
so the solutions are reliable.
8.9. PHOTON PRESSURE AND COSMIC OBJECTS
According to the written by Newton that all bodies emit and absorb photons, it follows that in the
space between the substantial forms of electromagnetic matter (bodies, cosmic objects) there is a photon
gas, which has density of electromagnetic energy f
w
and mass f
ρ
.
To this w
f
corresponds pressure
1
;
3
f f
P w · (8.91)
174
This pressure generates two effects.
First
For area
K
S
of the cosmic objects (as a whole) with radius
K
R
, the area upon which acts pressure
P, there occurs force of resistance relative to the velocity of motion of cosmic bodies
2
1
. . . . ;
3
K f K f K
F P S w R · · π (8.92)
and it decelerates their velocity. As a result of the deceleration of the velocity of cosmic bodies, they
move away from the central body, around which they move. For example, the Moon moves away from
the Earth, and the Earth – from the Sun.
Second
The photon gas expands in all directions and, by means of the pressure which it exerts upon the
cosmic objects, it drags and shifts them apart from one another. In this sense, stars with their planets are
separate objects, galaxies are separate objects, clusters of galaxies are separate objects. And all these
objects shift apart from one another owing only to the pressures of the photon gas and the impact of the
gravitational forces. And owing to the nonuniform density of the density of the energy of the photon gas
and the values of the gravitational fields, the velocities of cosmic objects are variables, both in values and
in directions.
8.10. CONCLUSIVE INFERENCES
First. Thermal energy is electromagnetic energy and the laws of the electromagnetic theories
of Maxwell and Planck hold true for it, with accounting for their specific features that their
primary dynamic manifestation is in the form of a photon gas, and in a localized potential state,
thermal energy is carried by the electrons in the atoms in the form of magnetic energy of electrons,
since they move at velocity
6 1
10 m.s
e
v ≡ .
Second. Thermal energy, as well as all other structural states of energy, which is only
electromagnetic, can convert (get restructured) from one into another state, while retaining its quantities.
During this conversion, the initial state is called energy, and the converted (restructured) state is called
work. This is the reason why Newton defined that energy dW is measured by the performed work dA as a
product of force
F
r
and distance dr, i.e.
a)
. dW dA F dr · ·
r
r
; b)
0
0
.
.
dr
dAr dW dP
F r
dr dt
· · ·
r
r
r
r
; (8.101)
i. e. the work is the new state of the respective quantity of restructured energy.
Third. Inside the substance, the dynamic state of thermal energy, which moves according to
Fourier’s law, is in the form of energy of photons – a denser photon gas, between the small
distances between atoms and molecules, which according to Maxwell is electromagnetic (kinetic)
energy, which should be called internal wave electromagnetic energy, which manifests and is
described by the force or momentum or pressure. And what is more, molecules have oscillating
movements, due to which they accumulate photons in the form of magnetic energy, which, through
the emission of photons, they render to their neighboring molecules, which are of smaller thermal
energy. That is why gasses (vapors) perform work – they transform part of their internal wave energy
into external by setting an object into motion.
Fourth. The description of the thermal processes is in a determinist form, in the form of
dynamic laws or through statistical physics by means of statistical laws.
1. In general, due to the practically unlimited number of thermally interacting objects at micro level, their
analysis as deterministic processes is impossible. The main reason for this is that there is no solution in
physics to the issue of the description of energy interactions between more than two objects, and at micro
level they are practically unlimited in number.
2. Therefore, we use the facts (laws) that:
2.1. For a limited interval of time the probabilistic processes at micro level have determinist
value.
175
2.2. The effective result of the sum of micro processes of a given macro object for a finite interval of
time has a determinist value. Therefore, thermal processes are determinist macro manifestations with very
slight fluctuations, of the order of
9
10 T K
−
∆ ≈ of the temperature in degrees by K.
I.e. generally speaking, thermal processes change and are described as continuous in time,
although they are known to be quantized.
For example. The description of velocities of gas particles is probabilistic in the sense that there
is constant mean statistical value
2
const. v · , but the effective work, which the gas performs is
described by deterministic laws.
Fifth. Thermal processes can be illustrated as follows:
1. Gas molecules have mass m
M
and concentration n at temperature T
0
.
2. Photons, which are emitted and absorbed by the molecules, have energy W
f
, momentum
f
P
r
,
mass m
f
and move at velocity c.
a)
. ;
f
W h · ν
b)
0
. ;
f
f
W
P c
c
·
r
r
c)
2
;
f
f
W
m
c
· d) 0
;
c
c
c
·
r
r
r
(8.102)
The emission of a photon by the electron (atom, molecule) is for time of about
8
10 s
−
τ · . Whence
at velocity
8
3.10 m/s c · , the length of the photon in vacuum is
8 8
. 10 .3.10 3 m;
f
l c
−
· τ · ≈
(8.103)
The average force of recoil F
0
during emission or of pressure F
0
during absorption of the photon is
a)
0
;
.
f f
p
f
W W
F F
c l
· ≈ ·
τ
r r
b)
. ;
f
l c · τ
(8.104)
This force generates acceleration a
r
of the molecule with mass m
M
and imparts energy to it.
Apparently, since the mass of the molecule M f
m m ?
, the kinetic energy, which the molecule
receives from one photon is much less than the sum of the energy of the photons which act upon the
molecule for a unit of time. In addition, since the next force, which will act upon the molecule, as a result
of the absorption or emission of the photon, will be at angle 0 α >
o
relative to the preceding one, the sum
of the two forces and the approximately 10
10
collisions (force) that follow for a unit of time (second) is
much greater than zero.
Modern physics (thermodynamics) has accepted Boltzmann idea, without any experimental
confirmation, that the oscillating energy of the molecule, at concentration of the gas particles n, has only
discrete values, which form arithmetic progression
0, , 2 , 3 ... ε ε ε
, by minimal energy
ε
. I.e. Boltzmann,
although he stated in other articles that photons are something independent relative to molecules and that
they obey the law that their energy is in discrete portions
0, , 2 , 3 ... ε ε ε
For instance, the article, in which
Boltzmann proved Stefan’s law was titled “Deduction of Stefan’s law, on the grounds of electromagnetic
theory of light, concerning the relationship between thermal emission and temperature” dated 1884 I.e.
although Boltzmann himself proved, in this article on StefanBoltzmann law on radiation, that thermal
energy has independent existence and is carried by photons, and that in the molecules there are no
photons (there is no thermal energy in the form of photons, but it is in the form of magnetic energy of
the electrons), but they can emit photons via transforming part of the kinetic energy of the electrons of
atoms (the molecules) into shortlasting parts (momentums) of electromagnetic waves, despite this fact,
he did not mention any photon energy.
However, in this case, although the explicit and conspicuous experimental facts, which prove
that thermal energy is in the form of a field electromagnetic matter, and there is no place in nature, as
well as in space, without thermal energy in a field form of electromagnetic matter, he himself, in the
theory of thermal energy, postulated and asserted the unreliable claim that only molecules are
carriers of thermal energy.
Substance, taken as a separate part of substantial matter, is a carrier of thermal energy, which it
releases only in the form of photons, which are emitted by its electrons, which are in the atoms of the
substantial form of electromagnetic matter. But these emitted photons as a field form of electromagnetic
176
matter are not any longer part of the atoms (molecules), but they have independent existence outside the
substantial form of electromagnetic matter, which can then absorb and emit them once again.
Photons, which are in the space between atoms (molecules) of the respective medium (matter),
since atoms constantly, at short intervals, emit and absorb photons, in this space between atoms
(molecules) the photons form a layer of photons of a higher density of the photon gas (of thermal
energy), through which they exert pressure upon atoms (molecules) inside substance. I.e. in substance,
there are photons (photon gas), which are not bound to the atoms and molecules, but are in the
space between them and, moreover, with a high density of photons (photon gas).
In the above sense, it is considered that matter (in substantial medium, including gas
medium) is the carrier (it contains) photons, i.e. photons are in layers between atoms (molecules),
and are not inside in the volume of the atoms (the molecules).
Due to this, coefficient of thermal content is defined for the respective medium (substance or gas),
depending on the weight or volume quantity of the substance (gas). For the radiant thermal energy in
vacuum, only the quantity of thermal energy is defined via the notion of density of thermal energy in a
unit of volume.
Therefore, the mean statistical thermal energy of the molecules of the gas is equal to its magnetic
(kinetic) energy, and the molecules of the gas are not a carriers of photon energy, but the processes of
emission and absorption of photons in the intermolecular space are incessant in its periodicity for each
molecule. In this sense, since the values of the energies of photons are discrete, the energies, which the
molecules emit and absorb, are also discrete, whereby at const. T · the sum of the emitted and absorbed
photon energy per a unit of time is zero. And when this energy is absorbed by the molecules it is
transformed into magnetic energy (called kinetic) of the electrons, altering their velocity and the radius of
their orbits. During photon emission, parts of the magnetic energy of the electrons of the molecules are
transformed into momentum of electromagnetic waves – called photons.
Here comes the question, if thermal energy, heat, is carried by photons, which are a field form of
electromagnetic matter, different from the substantial form of electromagnetic matter, why the theory of
thermal phenomena in presentday thermodynamics yields reliable results by using molecules (atoms).
Here first it should be pointed out that presentday thermodynamics by accepting Stefan
Boltzmann law shows that first, it does not reject directly (explicitly) the fact that heat is
electromagnetic energy in the form of electromagnetic waves; and second, it makes a connection
between thermal energy in the form of photons and molecules (atoms) by assuming that these
electromagnetic waves, in the form of short impulses (parts) of electromagnetic waves, called photons,
and the fact that molecules (atoms) emit and absorb photons. And that is why it assumes that thermal
energy of molecules exists in the form of discrete portions (values) of energies
, 2 , 3 ... ε ε ε
, such are the
energies of photons.
By accepting this fact, molecules are seen as a discrete form of thermal energy, what photons
actually are, with the only difference that the number of the molecules N in a closed volume is constant
const.; N ·
(8.105)
while with photons, their number n in a closed volume
const.; n ≠
(8.106)
but in both cases the respective sums of their energies W are constants.
a)
. const.;
T T i
Q W N w · · ·
∑
b)
const.;
T KM i
Q W w · · ·
∑
(8.107)
However, when they refer to a wall of substance (substantial form of electromagnetic matter),
molecules cannot pass through it, but only the thermal energy
T T
Q W ·
carried by them passes in the
form of photons.
I.e. the molecules of the gas are carriers of potential thermal energy in the form of magnetic energy
of atoms and molecules, and the molecules of the substance are also carriers of thermal energy, such as
the potential thermal energy. Whereas in the notion that thermal energy is carried only by the photon, it
is such in vacuum, gas and substance, but in various structural states. In vacuum, the photons emitted
from one material area, as it is in StefanBoltzmann law, are only in one direction, while in the gas
and the substance, they are outside he molecules – photons are in all directions. Moreover, most often,
in the gas, the density of photons n
0Г
is lower than the density n
0e
of the photon between the molecules of
177
the substance.
In his book “History and Methodology of Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics” Publ. by
“Visshaya shkola” Moscow, 1981, Y. Gelfer wrote: “By the beginning of the 80s, physicists had no doubt
about the electromagnetic nature of thermal radiation. And that is why the main properties, which are
inherent of light, should be observable in thermal radiation as well. In particular, this refers to the
pressure, which generates electromagnetic waves of light. This fact, that the light wave presses upon the
surface that is absorbing it by force equal to the volume density of electromagnetic energy, follows
immediately from the theory of Maxwell, who wrote, “In a medium, where waves propagate, there exists
pressure in direction, normal to the waves, numerically equal to the energy in a unit of volume” described
the great physicist in his “Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism” of 1873. And the Italian physicist
Bartoli wrote that were it not for that pressure, thermal energy would move from a colder place to a
hotter.”
Essentially, the first who proved most convincingly that heat moves from a hotter to a colder
place was Fourier in his law of 1822, but this fact is ignored by researchers and is ascribed to
Clausius, while Fourier’s law is
d
d . . .d ;
d
T
Q S t
r
· −λ
(8.108)
where: the sign is minus, since thermal energy dQ moves from a hotter to a colder place, proportional to
the coefficient of thermal conductivity λ and gradient
d
d
T
l
of temperature on surface S for time dt.
In addition to this, Boltzmann wrote an article titled “Deduction of Stefan’s law, on the grounds of
electromagnetic theory of light, concerning the relationship between thermal emission and temperature.”
This article makes it clear that Boltzmann was aware of the fact that thermal energy is
electromagnetic energy of electromagnetic waves, photons. And that this energy is emitted by atoms
(molecules), but the atoms (the molecules) are not electromagnetic waves, photons. Nonetheless, in his
capital works, Boltzmann discussed the theory of heat using probabilistic laws about the heat of
molecules. This not entirely correct theoretical idea was accepted by modern orthodox
thermodynamics, which essentially rejects the previous theory, resulting from the work of Fourier,
Maxwell and Planck, and in this way practically rejects the material essence of heat (thermal energy)
via the introduction of the notion of entropy, despite the evident facts that:
a) entropy is a limited notion, which does not have real sense in clarifying thermal phenomena if
Fourier’s law of 1822 is used;
b) entropy does not say almost anything about the essence of thermal energy;
c) thermal theory and practice can develop without entropy as well and, moreover, through a
simpler mathematical apparatus;
d) Carnot’s cycle is not necessary; it cannot be realized in piston machines whose operation it
allegedly explains.
8.11. SOMETHING ON ENTROPY
Entropy dS was defined by Clausius with the formula
;
Q
dS
T
∂
·
(8.101)
where the thermal energy Q ∂ for a medium with mass m and thermal capacity k
T
;
T
Q
k
dT
∂
· (8.112)
is
. . ;
T
Q mk dT ∂ ·
(8.113)
And the entropy is
. . ;
T
Q dT
dS mk
T T
∂
· · (8.114)
178
after integrating from S
1
to S
2
we have
2
1
1
1 2
2
. . . , . ;
T
T T n
T
dT T
S S S mk mk l
T T
∆ · − · ·
∫
(8.115)
where: S ∆ is a determinist value; l
n
is a natural logarithm.
But for the entropy is used the formula of Boltzmann about entropy, as processed by Max Planck,
which is
a)
12
. . ;
B n T
S k l P ·
b)
1;
T
P >
(8.116)
where: P
T
is a value, called thermodynamic probability, for whose calculation in various situations there is no
algorithm. Therefore, entropy is only designated and discussed that it increases or decreases, without giving or
measuring (there is no measuring device for it) any numerical value for it.
AND THIS FACT, THAT ENTROPY IS A NONMEASURABLE AND PRACTICALLY NONCALCULABLE BY NUMBERS VALUE,
ACCORDING TO THE PRINCIPLE OF SCIENTIFIC RELIABILITY, WHICH STATES THAT ONLY WHEN ONE VALUE IS MEASURABLE,
ONLY THEN IT IS A SCIENTIFICALLY RELIABLE VALUE, REJECTS ENTROPY AS A SCIENTIFICALLY RELIABLE VALUE, AND ALONG
WITH THIS REJECTS IT ALSO AS A SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS, WHICH IN ESSENCE IS THERMOELECTRODYNAMICS.
Emphasis
There arises the question:
“What would modern thermodynamics win or lose if the theories of Carnot’s cycle and entropy are
dropped off it, i.e. if thermodynamics were discussed without Carnot’s cycle and without entropy?”
Answers:
The answers are given by taking into account the written by Prof. Kvasnikov in paragraph 8.1. of
this chapter, which states:
In § 1 (p. 17) he wrote: "As it was noted in the foreword, thermodynamics and statistical physics
are not universal theory. Their sphere of application is strictly limited to the study of socalled
thermodynamic systems. "
In § 3 (p. 36) he wrote: "Thermodynamics discusses only quasistatic processes. They are defined
as infinitely slow processes, which consist of inexhaustible number of successive equilibrium states which
hardly differ from one another; clearly, these processes are not real processes, but a special unreal
boundary case, the main advantage of which is that they are reversible, i.e. that there are no losses. "
In § 9 (p. 192) he wrote: "... We have shown that the problems of thermodynamics can be solved
without using the notion of entropy, or chemical potential and so on, but by operating only with
immediately variable quantities. The latter circumstances make these versions of solutions very
illustrative, and thus to some extent is compensated their artificiality, which at first is associated with
the need to seek appropriate Carnot's cycle, etc., and also with the feeling of "oddity" in the sense of
style of presentation.”
First answer. About the need to seek appropriate Carnot’s cycle
It is known that Carnot’s cycle is not a real cycle, but is an idealization, which cannot be realized as
a really acting cycle, whereby:
1. Even without Carnot’s cycle, which uses the idea of thermal fluid, it is possible to describe and
study theoretically these modes: a) adiabatic; b) isothermal; c) isochoric and d) isobaric.
2. As for the socalled Carnot’s law
a)
1 2
1 2
...;
Q Q
T T
·
or b)
1 2
1 2
0;
Q Q
T T
· ·
it can be derived by proceeding from the coefficient of thermal contents for determined limits of the temperature.
;
T
dQ
C
dT
· → after integrating
1 2
1 2
b) const.;
T
Q Q Q
C
T T T
→ · · · ·
and we have Carnot’s law.
Or from Boltzmann’s constant k
B
d)
2
1
1
. 3
. . ;
2 2
B
k B
mv
Q k T · · → b)
1 2
1 2
... const.
B
Q Q
k
T T
· · · ·
I.e. thermodynamics can develop even without Carnot’s cycle.
179
Second answer. On entropy
First, entropy can also be described as a determinist value according to (8.115).
If entropy is dropped out, since it is not measurable by any devices, so it is not a physical
quantity because it its value is nonmeasurable, thermodynamics does not lose anything, but only wins
by handling only explicit quantities.
Third answer. Thermal phenomena (processes), according to Prof. Kvasnikov, should be
described and studied only by immediately measurable thermal quantities. Such an approach (without
entropy) would simplify and illustrate the descriptions of the real application of thermal phenomena,
which circumstance, according to the requirement for scientific reliability and Newton’s definition for
application of the principle of simplicity (Occam’s razor) would bring thermodynamics closer to scientific
requirements.
Y. M. Gelfer, in his book “History and methodology of thermodynamics and statistical physics” in
paragraph 22, p. 237 wrote: “The second principle of thermodynamics (entropy – P.P.’s note) is described
mathematically as inequality, from which in a purely mathematical way are obtained other inequalities as
well. But these inequalities are of little use for the calculation of specific processes, since: first, because
they are inequalities and second, because they do not contain any instructions as the velocity of thermal
processes, and third, there is no method for their measuring ” “... entropy cannot help in studying
processes in open systems, where there is exchange between mass and energy and the surrounding
medium”.
Conclusion
From a scientific point of view, modern thermodynamics must get rid of Carnot’s cycle and
entropy as soon as possible, so that it could meet the requirements for scientific reliability, i.e. to be in
conformity with the principle of simplicity.
It is necessary that thermodynamics should interpret the photon thermal energy, such as thermal
energy, which the Sun sends to the Earth, and without which life would be impossible on the Earth.
However, despite the fact that this thermal energy is crucial for life, it is neglected in modern
thermodynamics, while much attention is given to a needlessly complicated treatment of non
measurable and practically unusable notion, called entropy, although without it the theory of thermal
phenomena, which are electromagnetic phenomena, could be developed much more successfully
CHAPTER NINE
CONCLUSION ABOUT PHYSICS
The presented in the previous eight chapters shows that:
Provided that matter in the world and its manifestations in the form of natural facts, such as
relatively independent electromagnetic objects, phenomena, processes etc. represent the ancient and
modern ideas of physical images and the unitary theory of the world (nature).
Experimental facts (empirical laws), given by Isaac Newton in his books of 1687 and 1704 are a
sufficiently reliable grounds of the electromagnetic physical picture and theory of physics of nature,
which has established some flawed assumptions in modern physics.
In the above sense, the physical ideas of Isaac Newton are not historical relics, but they are still
relevant in presentday and future science of nature.
The flaws available in modern physics are basically due to incomplete reflection of the ideas in the
writings of Newton and Maxwell and reposing too much trust in the writings (words) of some scientists.
In order to achieve a unitary and uniform physics, based on one single, unitary theoretical basis, it is
necessary that it be rationalized according to Newton’s legacy, most of which is presented in this book.
180
SUPPLEMENT
1. WHY PHYSICS FOUNDATIONS NEED TO BE RATIONALIZED
It is a fact that the science physics at the present time has major scientific and practical
achievements. But in the theoretical aspect there remain some key issues unresolved, there are
incorrect formulations and some significant errors, such as:
1. The point is that the nature of science since ancient times and today has been and is considered to
be a comprehensive system of relatively independent components (parts) with a homogeneous nature. I.e.,
that it is genetically homogeneous whole, which is the only reason for its own existence and it has one
initial deductive principle  theoretical foundations. Unfortunately, at this level of development of the
theory of science of nature, its foundations do not yet have a single initial principle.
2. But if we proceed from the circumstance that all the physics (and all sciences in general)
survey (study) manifestations (states) of something called matter, which is the carrier and the
generator of these manifestations, we should conclude that the reason for the genetic homogeneity of
the parts (elements) of the whole, the nature, must be in the homogeneity of matter, which is the
generator of manifestations that science studies. This fact requires that a unitary science be created,
i.e. essentially that its unitary theoretical basis be discovered in the form of a single initial principle –
the Principal.
As to the question of the essence (of type) of matter, the situation is as follows:
a) on the one hand, in Newton's classical mechanics the dominant idea is that matter is
homogeneous, the manifestations of which are the laws of mechanics, as there is not a word about
transition from one type of matter to another, nor about any particular type of matter in nature;
b) on the other hand, while it is accepted that there is matter of electromagnetic (electric) nature,
which generate electric, magnetic and gravitational fields, energies and masses, etc., whereby, for that
electromagnetic matter, the laws of mechanics hold true, plus other laws that are considered only
electromagnetic, we should point out that: a) material objects, which are found to display (carry) only the
mechanical laws, move at velocities v much lower than the speed of light (electromagnetic waves) c, i.e.
a)
; v c =
b) 0;
v
c
→
(11)
and b) that the mechanical laws can be obtained through reduction of the laws of electromagnetic
matter (relativistic laws, which are called here laws of Newton’s electrodynamics) which hold true at
velocities
a)
; v c <
b) 0;
v
c
>
(12)
I.e. the mechanical laws are a particular case of the electromagnetic laws. This is the reason to
assume that the matter of the objects in mechanics is electromagnetic matter whose laws of their motion
are specific cases of electromagnetic matter under condition (11). Or in other words, all matter in nature
is only electromagnetic but the laws of motion of its objects are described at two extreme velocities: a)
v c =
and b)
v c <
; i.e. their laws are identical, but different traits dominate because of their substantially
different in values velocities described in formally different formulae since matter is only
electromagnetic.
Such was the opinion of Isaac Newton too in his book "Principles ..." of 1704, where he described
in a synthesized form the experimental facts (regularities), as follows:
„All bodies emit and absorb light.”
„The changing of Bodies into Light, and Light into Bodies ...”
"... is very conformable to the Course of Nature ...”
And in 1860 G. Kirchhoff proved the law: The ratio of emitted energy W
i
to the absorbed radiation
energy W
k
is constant for all natural objects and depends on the frequency of the radiation and the
181
temperature T of the bodies
( ) . . const;
i
k
W
f T
W
· ν ·
” (13)
I.e. via the experimental fact Kirchhoff supported the experimental facts which were Newton’s
position. But these experimental facts were never taken into account when formulating the laws of
physics, or rather, it was not taken into consideration in physics that the natural matter has
electromagnetic essence – it is electromagnetic matter. Thence, that there exists a genetic unity
(homogeneity) in all natural facts (phenomena).
THIS CIRCUMSTANCE IMPLIES THAT UNITY IN NATURE IS DETERMINED BY THE FACT THAT ITS MATTER IS
HOMOGENOUS AND IS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ESSENCE. HENCE IT FOLLOWS THAT ALL TYPES OF FIELDS, ENERGIES AND
MASSES AND NATURAL PHENOMENA ARE HOMOGENOUS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC.
The above fact (law) entails that the deductive principle in the science of nature consists of
electromagnetic principles (laws), which principle, because of its highest comprehensiveness of
regularities is termed Principal.
By assuming and proving that unitary matter of nature is electromagnetic matter in a field and
substantial forms, the question of unity and homogeneity of nature (the world) and the unity and
homogeneity of the sciences about it is solved without any alternative and unequivocally.
2. FLAWS IN INTERPRETATION OF MICHELSONMORLEY’S EXPERIMENT
(MME) AND SOME IMPLICATIONS FOR LORENTZ TRANSFPRMATIONS (LT)
AND THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY
In the second half of the 20
th
c., Maxwell and Hertz established the concept (idea) that light is
electromagnetic wave. O. Fresnel in 1818 proved that, with respect to its transmitter (source), the velocity of
light is constant and equal to c, regardless of the state of motion or rest of its source. And in 1842, Doppler
theoretically grounded the relationship between the velocity of sound and light waves and the velocity of the
observer, whereby for light this relationship was confirmed experimentally in 1867 and was called Doppler
effect –DE.
In those times, it was believed that the carrier of light is a medium called ether. In 1881 Michelson
conducted his first experiment in Helmholtz’s laboratory, but he did not obtain a satisfactory result.
Afterwards, together with the chemist Morley they make experiments in Potsdam, Germany, until 1887,
which experiment of MichelsonMorley is here designated as MME, and MMEs were conducted under
altered conditions in the 20
th
c. by other researchers with results similar to the ones of 1887.
These MMEs are conducted with Michelson’s interferometer. Its arrangement is a source of light,
which emits a ray towards a semitransparent prism, which divides the ray into two rays to mutually
perpendicular arms
OA
and
OB
, which are fitted with mirrors at one end O and in the other ends A and
B, whereby mirrors reflect the rays from O to A and respectively from O to B. And mirrors A and B reflect
the rays to the respectively end O. The distances between the mirrors on the two arms are equal to
0
l
.
The rays along both arms (since they result from the division of the initial ray, coming from the
source fixed relative the arms) are homogenous and are sent simultaneously to the arms and therefore,
they arrive back at the initial point at the same time. One ray moves, say, along OA in direction of the
velocity of Earth
З
v
r
, and the other,
OB
, perpendicularly to it
З
OB v ⊥
r
. According to H. Lorentz’s idea,
ether is immovable in space, so Earth moves relative to the ether at velocity
3
v v ·
r
. Therefore the times
A
t
and
B
t
, for which light rays will travel the distances OA and OB and back should be
a)
0
2
2
2.
;
1
v v
A
t
c v c v v
c
c
· + ·
− +  `
−
. ,
l l l
b)
( )
( )
( )
0
1 1 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2.
;
.
v v
B
t
c c v
c v c c v
· + ·
−
− −
l l l
(21)
After we add the velocities, as per Galileo’s transformations, GT, i.e. on condition that the times do not
depend on the velocities of motion of the observers, the ratio of t
A
and t
B
is
182
a)
( )
1
2 2
1
2 2
2
1
1 ;
1
A
B
t
t
v
c
−
· · −β
 `
−
. ,
b)
( )
( )
( )
0 0 0
1 1 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
;
B
t
c c v
c v c c v
· + ·
−
− −
l l l
(22)
This is the reason why there should be interference between the rays in MME. But MME shows
that there is no interference, i.e.
;
A B
t t ·
(23)
This result (23) embarrasses physicists, since this result is in complete contradiction to the ideas of
that time.
However, the above arrangement and interpretation of MME up to and including 1887 does not
take into consideration Fresnel’s law of 1818, which states: the velocity of light relative to its source is
always
.
g g
c · λ ν
, where: g
λ
is wave length, and g
ν
 wave frequency of the emitted light and does not
depend on the velocity of its source. And MME uses Michelson’s interferometer where the source of
light and the interferometer are one whole, or the interferometer and the source of light are fixed to
each other, i.e. the interferometer is one whole with the source. Under this condition, for the rays
along OA and OB Fresnel’s law holds true, i.e. the times t
A
and t
B
are equal
0
2. 2.
;
v
A B
t t
c c
· · ·
l l
(24)
and therefore, there is no interference between the two rays along OA and OB . But physicists have not
realized this significant error in MME. And H. Lorentz, who was convinced in the existence of
motionless ether, introduced the principle of constancy of the velocity of light relative to the source and
the observer so that he could explain the MME result. This principle, in its part about the source, is
consistent with Fresnel’s law of 1818 , while in its part about the observer, it goes contrary to the Doppler
effect and to Einstein, who in [1] in paragraph 7 deduced the Doppler effect with regard to frequency
through the expression
1
2 2
2
.
. 1
G
c v
v
c
c
ν · ν
 `
−
. ,
m
by using Lorentz transformations, LT, and in [1] paragraph 4,
by LT is determined the wave length
1
2 2
2
. 1
g
v
c
 `
λ · λ −
. ,
, which entails that the velocity of light according
to Einstein himself in [1] is
a)
( )
. ;
c G G
c v
u c v c
c
· ν.λ · ν .λ · ≠
m
m b)
. ;
G G
c ν λ ·
(25)
different from constant.
H. Lorentz presented the LT formation in 1904 , which are in the form
a)
( )
1 1
2 1
2 2
.
;
1
x v t
x
−
·
·
−β
b)
2 1
; y y ·
c)
2 1
; z z ·
( )
2
1
1 2
2 1 0 1
2 2
.
. ; ;
1
v
t x
v
c
t t x
c c
−
−
β  `
· · γ − β ·
. ,
−β
(26)
The deduction of LT (26) by Lorentz, according to [2] paragraph 4.2, and in [1] were used by
Einstein, who deduced them in 1920 in [3], Supplement І, through the following approach:
183
It is assumed that there exist two inertial systems, K
1
and K
2
, which move towards each other at
velocity const. v · and that according to the results from MME (23), the velocities of light in both
systems K
1
and K
2
are equal
1 2
const.; c c c · · ·
(27)
which implies that since at moment
1 2
0; t t · ·
(28)
they are synchronized, i.e. at distance between them
1 2
0; r r · ·
(29)
after an interval of time t
1
and t
2
, the distances of K
1
and K
2
to an object in point M, which the observer
ascertains, are
a)
1 1
. ; r c t ·
b)
2 2
. ; r c t ·
(210)
although this is in contradiction to classical ideas and to GT, i.e. it contradicts the experiment, i.e. according
to (210), r
1
and r
2
are notated in a form, where the times t
1
and t
2
are determined through LT, as follows
a)
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
. ; x y z c t + + · b)
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
. ; x y z c t + + · (211)
By taking into account the symmetry
1 2 1 2
; y y z z · ·
(211), then it follows that
a)
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 1 2 2
. . ; x c t x c t − · − or b)
1 1 2 2
. . ; r c t r c t − · −
(212)
Lorentz assumes that the formulae for the transition from one inertial system to another, i.e. the
formulae of LT transformation from one inertial system to another, are linear, because of the uniformity
and isotropy of space and uniformity of time and they have this form
a) ( )
2 1 1
. ; x x v t · γ −
b)
2 1
; y y ·
c)
2 1
; z z ·
d) ( )
2 1
. ; t a t b x · −
(213)
where: , a and b are constants, which can be determined as follows from (213) and (212), by
assuming the limitation that at
0,
v
c
β · →
the formulae of the transformations (213) should turn into
Galileo’s transformations – GT, i.e. when
1
0 t ·
and
1
0 x ·
it follows that
2
0 t ·
and
2
0 x ·
and after
placing the formulae from (213) into (211), we have
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
. 1 . 2 . 2. . . . . 0; x a b c x t v a b c t v a c c γ − − + − γ + + γ − + ·
(214)
Since
a)
2 2 2 2
. . 1 0; a b c γ − − · b) ( )
2 2 2
2 . .2. . . 0; v a b c − γ ·
c)
2 2 2 2 2
. . 0; v a c c γ − + · (215)
After these equations are solved with regard to
γ
, a and b, we have
a)
( )
1
2 2
1 ; a
−
γ · · −β b) ; b
c
β
· c) ;
v
c
β ·
(216)
And after we apply 216) in (213), we have LT, described through (26). But the deduction of LT in
(26), through the formulae (210) and (211) is done not by applying the principle of constancy of the
velocity of light –PCVL, and with respect to the observer, whose mathematical notation for an observer at
velocity v, according to Einstein in [1] paragraph 5, should be
;
c
u c v c · t ·
(217)
and indeed, when using (217) about the actual notation of r
2
and r
1
relative to the two reference systems
K
1
and K
2
from (210) with taking into account the Doppler effect, this result is obtained
a) ( )
2 2 2 2 2
. . . ; r c v t c t c t · t · ·
b) ( )
1 1 1 1
. ; r c v t c t · t ·
(218)
which is a notation with taking into account the PCVL, by which Doppler effect is incorrectly (without a
good reason) rejected.
Einstein in [3] in Supplement І wrote about the deduction of LT that he proceeded from PCVL in
the form of the following notation
a)
1 1
. ; r c t ·
b)
1 1
. 0; r c t − ·
and c)
2
; r c ·
d)
2 2
. 0; r c t − ·
(219)
Out of this notation of PCVL, Einstein in [3] in Supplement І, deduced LT, described by (26).
However, for the ratio of x
2
over t
2
, from LT (26), we obtain
184
a)
( )
( )
( )
1 1 1 1 2
2 1 1
1 1
. . .
;
.
.
x v t c x v t x
c
t x v t
t x
c
γ − −
· · ·
β
−
γ −
b)
2 2
. ; x c t ·
c)
2
2
;
x
t
c
· (220)
Or by applying the notation of PCVL in (217) for time t
2
we have
( ) ( )
( )
1 2 1 1 1 2
2 1 1 1 1
2 2 2
2 2
. . .
;
1
t c v x x v t c t v t c
t t t
c c c
c v c v v
c c
c c
− − −
· · · · · ·
 ` − + ]
−
]
. , ]
(221)
or LT are reduced to
a)
2 1
. ; x c t ·
b)
2 1
; y y ·
c)
2 1
; z z ·
d)
2 1
; t t ·
(222)
Einstein in [4] wrote „that even in infinitely small spatialtemporal areas Lorentz transformations
cannot be justified, if the strict principle of constancy of the velocity of light c is rejected”.
In [1] paragraph 5, Einstein deduced through LT the formula for addition of the velocities v
1
and v
2
in the
form
1 2
12
1 2
2
;
.
1
v v
v
v v
c
+
·
+
(223)
he assigned
1
v c ·
in (223) and obtained
a)
( )
( )
2
12
2
2
;
.
1
1
c c v c v
v c
c v
v
c
+ +
· · ·
+
+
or b)
12
; v c v c · + ·
(224)
which deduction is according to (217), and then he wrote: „therefore, the velocity of light c cannot be
altered when it is added to a velocity
v c <
.”
But here he made a mistake, because when using LT, he did not have the right to assign
v c ·
,
because at
v c ·
LT get annulled, for example:
( )
( )
acy; indetermin
0
0
1 1
1
2
1
1 1
2
1
2
1 1
2
· ·
−
⋅ − ⋅
·
−
⋅ −
·
− −
t c t c t v x
x
β
(225)
Therefore (224) is also a flawed proof of PCVL.
Emphasis
Einstein, proceeding from [1], where it was written on page one: „Examples of this kind, such as the
unsuccessful experiment (MME – P.P.’s note), attempting to determine the motion of Earth relative to
“luminiferous ether” lead us to the assumption that the laws of mechanics hold true for all coordinate systems –
the laws of electrodynamics and the laws of optics. This assumption (which herein we shall refer to as
„Principle of relativity”), we intend to turn it into a prerequisite and to make an additional assumption, which at
first sight is seemingly in contradiction, namely, that in vacuum light always propagates at a certain velocity c,
which does not depend on the state of motion of the emitting body. These two prerequisites are sufficient, so
that, by laying them into the basis of Maxwell’s theory of bodies at rest, we can build a simple electrodynamics
of moving bodies, free of contradictions.”
This citation entails the conclusions that:
 Einstein intended to use Fresnel’s law of 1818, of which he did not know it existed. For, if he
knew, then he should have corrected the error in MME.
 in the process of work on this article, H. Lorentz’s idea arouse, that the velocity of light relative
to a moving observer is constant (does not depend on his velocity), which Einstein developed in [1] in
paragraph 5, but for which idea he did not adduce any experimental facts, on the contrary, in
paragraph 7, named „Theory of aberration and Doppler effect” he disproved his own claim that the
velocity of light relative to a moving is constant and equal to c, because he himself deduced the
Doppler effect.
185
 Since he did not know of Fresnel’s law, Einstein incorrectly interpreted in [1] paragraph 2, the
relativity of the length and the intervals of time, because the rod emitted light, in the thought
experiments, which he analyzed in paragraph 2.
Literature
A. Einstein. Zur Elektrodynamik der bewegter Körper. Ann. Phys. 1905. 17, 891 – 921.
V. Acosta. G. Cowan. B. Graham. Essentials of Modern Physics. Harper Publishers. New Jork.
London. 1978.
A. Einstein. Über die spezielle und die allgemeine Relativitätstheorie (Gemeinsamverständlich).
Druck und Verlag von Frieder, 1920.
A. Einstein. Lichtheschwindigkeit und Statik der Gravitationsfeldes. Ann. Phys. 1912. 38, 355 –
369.
3. FLAWS IN THE DEFINITION OF SIMULTANEOUSNESS
In the cited above item 2, Einstein’s article [1] of 1905 in “First Kinematic Part”, paragraph 2 “On
relativity of the length and time interval”, he wrote:
“Let us imagine that at both ends A and in of a rod are fastened clocks which are synchronized with
the clocks in the system at rest, i.e. their indications correspond to “the times in the system at rest” in
those locations, where they are placed: therefore these clocks are synchronized with the system at rest.
Further, let us imagine that next to each clock there is an observer who moves along with it and that
these observers apply to both clocks the criteria of simultaneousness of the motion of both the clocks as
established in paragraph 1. Let a light beam is emitted from A at the moment of t
A
, and is reflected from in
at the moment of t
B
and returns back to A at the moment of
'
A
t . Bearing in mind the principle of constancy
of velocity of light, this principle at the beginning of paragraph 2, subitem 2 of the above cited article,
states: “2. Every light beam moves in a system of coordinates at rest at certain velocity c, regardless of
whether this beam is emitted by a body at rest or in motion.”, we have
a) ;
AB
B A
r
t t
c v
· ·
−
b)
'
;
AB
A B
r
t t
c v
− ·
+
(31)
where: r
AB
is length of the rod moving at velocity v, measured in the system at rest.
The observers, who move together with the rod at velocities v, find out that the clocks at points A
and in do no run in a synchronous way, and at the same time the observers who are in the system at rest
would claim that these clocks run in a synchronous way.
Therefore, we can see that we shouldn’t impart absolute meaning to the concept of
simultaneousness. Two events which are simultaneous when observed from one system of coordinates are
no longer perceived as simultaneous when observed from another system, moving relative to the given
one”.
Here, when recording the regularities (31), Einstein did not respect Fresnel’s law of 1818, which
states: The velocity of light towards the emitter is always constant and is equal to its wave velocity,
regardless of the state of motion or rest of the source (the body that emits it).
According to this law of Fresnel’s, however, since the source of light, the clocks and the points A
and in are fastened to the rod, which moves at velocity v, the velocity of light relative to the rod is always
(regardless of whether it moves at velocity v or is at rest) c, then because of Fresnel’s law, equations (3
1) should be written in this form
a) ;
AB
A B
r
t t
c
− · b)
'
;
AB
A B
r
t t
c
− · (32)
I.e. the condition of synchrony is fulfilled
'
;
A B A B
t t t t − · − (33)
as cited by Einstein in paragraph 1 in the same article.
Therefore, the clocks are synchronized both for the observers next to
the clocks and in a system at rest.
186
Therefore, the concept of simultaneousness (31), which is offered in
the special theory of relativity (STR) drops off as a reliable physical idea
and the idea that follows from Galileo’s transformations (GT) and
Fresnel’s law remains.
4. NATURE OF GRAVITATIONAL FIELD
It is known that electromagnetic matter in field and substantial forms, as electromagnetic waves
(light photons) and electrons (electron е
−
and positron е
+
), are carriers and generators of
gravitational fields, energies and masses which essentially are homogenous to the generated
gravitational fields, energies and masses of external electromagnetically neutral material objects
(bodies).
Moreover, for mass m of objects of electromagnetic matter or of external
(seemingly) electromagnetically neutral matter, gravitational field is generated,
described by the formula
0 0 2
.
. ; ;
m r
G r r
c r
γ
· − ·
r
r
r r
r
(41)
where: is gravitational constant; r – distance from the body.
Since the mass of electron (electron е
−
and positron е
+
) at rest is
a) ( )
2
0
. ;
e e m
m q k · m b)
( )
1
2
0 0
4. . . . ;
m e
k r c
−
· πε c) ( )
2
0;
e
q > m (42)
where:
e
q m
is electric charge of electrons;
0
– dielectric constant of vacuum;
0 e
r
– computational
(classical) radius of electron; c – velocity of light
const.
m
k ·
In motion at velocity
v c <
, the electron generates a magnetic field around itself
[ ]
0 0
0 0 0 2
. . .
. . ; ; ;
4. .
e
e
q v v r
v r
H v E v r
c v r
] · ε · · ·
]
π
r r
r r
r r
r r r
r r (43)
The electric E and magnetic H fields have densities of their masses
a)
2
0
2
.
;
2.
E
E
c
ε
ρ · b)
2
0
2
.
;
2.
H
H
c
µ
ρ · (44)
which generate gravitational fields
a)
0 2
.
. ;
E
E
G r
r
ρ γ
· −
r
r
b)
0 2
.
. ;
H
H
G r
r
ρ γ
· −
r
r
(45)
where:
0
is magnetic constant of vacuum.
THESE GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS (45) ARE COMPONENTS OF THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC
WAVES (PHOTONS) TO WHICH CORRESPOND GRAVITATIONAL ENERGIES AND MASSES. THESE ARE THE GRAVITATIONAL
FIELDS, BECAUSE OF WHICH LIGHT BEAMS ARE ATTRACTED AND DISTORTED, WHICH FACT IS WRONGLY INTERPRETED AS
DISTORTION OF SPACE.
It follows from (41) and (42) that
( )
2
0
0 0
2 2
. . .
. . ;
e m e
q k m
G r r
r r
γ γ
· − · −
r
m
r r
(46)
This fact is unshakable evidence that the gravitational field is electromagnetic  secondary
electromagnetic field, because it is generated by the electric E (45)a and magnetic H (45)b fields.
On the other hand, the fact that electromagnetic matter in field and substantial forms generates
gravitational fields as well and generates gravitational forces, for example between electrons with masses
1 e
m
and
2 e
m
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2 1 2 0 1 2
0 2 2
. . . . .
. . .
e e e e
G m
q q r m m
F r k
c r
γ γ
· − · −
r
r
m m r
(47)
187
confirms the thesis that the unitary matter of Nature is electromagnetic matter.
Moreover, Newton’s gravitation, described by equations in a form, analogous to Maxwell’s
equations for the electromagnetic matter, given by S. Poisson in 1813 are
a) 0; rotG ·
r
b) .4. . ;
m
divG · −ρ π γ
r
(48)
where:
m
is density of electromagnetic matter (mass) of the object which generates gravitational field G;
is gravitational constant.
Moreover, by treating the gravitational field as a secondary electromagnetic field, its unipolarity
is motivated, for it is proportional to the square of the electric charge ( )
2
e
q m , which is always positive.
( )
2
0;
e
G q ≡ >
r
m (49)
And up to this present day, a reliable proof for the gravitational field unipolarity is not yet
known.
Moreover, Einstein wrote in his article “The meaning of relativity”, Princeton Unic. Press.
Princeton. N. Y. 1921: “Now we shall try to define the laws of gravitational field. For this purpose, we
shall use for a model Poisson’s equation in the theory of Newton div .4. . G · −ρ π γ ” (P.P.’s note: her G is
gravitational field;  gravitational constant).
“In the basis of this equation is the idea that the source of gravitational field is the density of
substance . So it is in the general theory of relativity, but the special theory of relativity shows that instead
of scalar density of substance, we must operate with the tensor of energy related to a unit of volume. The
latter, however, does not include only the tensor of energy of substance, but also the electromagnetic field. In
reality, substance consists of electrically charged particles and it must be considered as a part, as a major part, of
electromagnetic field... from this viewpoint, we must introduce the tensor of second rank T
ik
..., which includes
in itself the densities of energies of electromagnetic field and of substance. Further, we shall refer to it as “tensor
of energy and matter”.
And in A. Einstein’s article “Spielen die Gravitatins felder im Alfbau der materiellen
Elementarteilchen eine wesentliche Rolle? Sitzungberpreuss. Akad. Wiss. 1919. T.I. (349 – 356), he
wrote: “the equation of the field is
1
. .
2
ik ik ik
R g R T − · −χ , (410)
where: ik
R
is Riemann’s tensor of the curve, R – scalar of the curve; T
ik
– tensor of the energy of matter”.
Einstein in his article “Autobiograrisches (Autobiographical Notes)” in his book “Albert Einstein –
Philosophers – Scientist” ed. by P.A. Schilpp. Evanston (Illinois) 1945, 1 – 95, after the notation (410)
wrote: “The second term of the left part of the equation is added for formal considerations, namely: the left
part is notated so, that its divergence, in the sense of absolute differential calculus is equal to zero. The right
part includes everything that cannot be united in the unitary theory of field. Of course, I have never doubted
even for a minute that this formulation (410) is only a temporary solution to the situation, which is
made in order to […] of the general principle of relativity of such a closedform expression. This
formulation is essentially nothing else but a theory of gravitational field, which is artificially presented
without the uniform field of a structure yet unknown” “..therefore we shall speak now only about the
equations of pure gravitational field” (emphasis added by P.P.).
Further on he wrote: “In it (410) T
ik
is a tensor of energy of electromagnetic field, which is
generated by electrically charged particles, which form matter”.
In his article “Aeher und Rellativitätstheorie”. Verlang von Julius Springer. Berlin. 1920, A.
Einstein wrote, “According to our presentday view, in their nature, elementary particles of matter are
nothing else but a thickened electromagnetic field”.
In his article “Grundgedanken und Probleme der Relativitätstheorie” in the book “Nobellstiftelsen,
les Prix Nobelen 1921 – 1922” Imperemerie Royale. Stocholm. 1923, Einstein wrote: “IN ORDER TO COMPLETE
THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY IT IS NECESSARY THAT WE INCLUDE IN IT ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD,
WHICH IS, ACCORDING TO OUR CONVICTION, THIS MATERIAL, OUT OF WHICH WE MUST BUILD THE ELEMENTARY FORMATIONS OF
MATTER”.
WHENCE IT IS EVIDENT THAT EINSTEIN’S IDEA OF CREATION OF GRAVITATIONAL FIELD IS THAT
ELECTROMAGNETIC MATTER GENERATES GRAVITATIONAL FIELD. AND ACCORDING TO THE GENETIC PRINCIPLE, THE
GENERATING AND THE GENERATED ARE GENETICALLY HOMOGENOUS, I.E. GRAVITATIONAL FIELD IS A SECONDARY
188
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD.
5. FLAWS IN
THE PRINCIPLE OF CONSTANCY
OF THE VELOCITY OF LIGHT – PCVL
The most accomplished definition of PCVL was given by Einstein in [1] (p. 677) where he stated: “The
other principle on which the special theory of relativity is based, is the principle of constancy of the velocity
of light in vacuum (further herein, this principle will be referred to as PCVL – P. P.’s note). According to
this principle, light always propagates at the same velocity in vacuum regardless of the state of motion of the
observer and the source of light.”
In confirmation of the above definition, Einstein in [2] (p. 76), wrote: “When adding to the
velocity of light another velocity smaller than c, we obtain again the velocity of light c”.
And in [4] (p. 474), he wrote: “We remember that the velocity of light is the same towards all
inertial frames of reference. This fact is incompatible with the classical transformations.” Here, by
classical transformations are meant Galileo’s transformations  GT.
Or, this verbal definition of PCVL, described by a mathematical equation, on condition that the
velocity smaller than c is designated by v
H
(velocity of the observer) – v
H
< c, the resultant velocity and
according to PCVL, with the same directions of c
r
and
H
v
r
a)
const.;
H
u c v c · t · · →
b)
0;
H
v ·
(51)
Besides, in [3] (p. 13, paragraph 3) in the formula for addition of velocities, derived through
Lorentz transformations (LT), it is assumed that one velocity,
1
v c ·
and this it is obtained
a)
1 2
1 2
2
;
.
1
c
v v
u
v v
c
+
·
+
b)
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2
2
. .
;
.
. .
1
c
c v c c v c c v
u c
c v
c c v c v c
c
+ + +
· · · ·
+ +
+
(52)
and after this formula it was written: “Further on it follows that when we add the velocity of light to a
velocity, which is smaller than the velocity of light ( ) v c <
, it cannot be measured”. I.e. the
mathematical notation of PCVL by equation (51) holds true, but here the assumption of
1 1
v c <
in the
formula obtained by LT is not correct because formula (52)a is deduced through LT which are not valid
at v = c, since they get annulled, as it is seen from the following formulae of LT when
v c ·
is assigned
a)
( )
1 1
2 2 2 2
2 2
. . .
' ;
1 1
1 1
x v t x c t x c t
x
v c
c c
− − −
· · · →∞
−
 `  `
− −
. , . ,
or b)
( )
2 2
1 2 2
2 2
2
. . . . .
' ;
1 1 .0
1
t v t c t c t c t c t
t
c c
v
c
− − −
· · · →∞
−
 `
−
. ,
(53)
Despite the above arguments for PCVL, Einstein himself in the same article [3] in paragraph 7
“Aberration and Doppler’s effect theory” which are calculated through Lorentz transformations, at angle 0 υ ·
between the straight, which connects the source of light and the velocity v of the observer, for the frequency ’
in Doppler’s effect depending on the generator frequency
0
of light by this law
( )
0
1
2 2
2
' ;
. 1
c v
v
c
c
ν
ν ·
 `
−
. ,
m
(54)
Here the term
1
2 2
2
1
c
ν  `
−
. ,
in the nominator is consequence of LT. And the value of the length ’ of
189
the light wave was not given in paragraph 7. As it is known, however, according to LT, lengths are
shortened, and from paragraph 4 of [3] it also follows that ’ is
1
2 2
2
' . 1 ;
v
c
 `
λ · λ −
. ,
(55)
It follows from (54) and (55) that the velocity of light changes from the Doppler’s effect
'. ' ;
c
u c v c · ν λ · ≠ m
(56)
i.e. Einstein proved through the Doppler effect that the velocity of light relative to a moving
observer is not equal to c, but can be higher or lower than c, i.e. PCVL does not exist, and the fact
that PCVL does not exist, given in writing by Einstein himself, entails that all other claims which result
from PCVL drop off.
IN OTHER WORDS, IT WAS EINSTEIN HIMSELF WHO PROVED, IN THE SAME ARTICLE [3], IN WHICH HE FIRST ARGUED THAT
PCVL EXISTED (51) AND (52), THAT SUCH A PRINCIPLE DOES NOT EXIST.
Interestingly enough, for over a hundreds years now, it has been argued in physics that PCVL exists
and no one has ever noticed that the article, in which the special theory of relativity was first published, turns
out to disprove this same argument – there is no STR, because it is validated through PCVL, and PCVL is
not a reality, it is a chimera.
Literature
1. A. Einstein. Shto takoe teoriya otnositelnosti? SNT, Vol. І, p. 677. 1966. Translated from: What is the
theory of relativity? from the collection of Einstein’s articles “Ideas and Opinions” N.J. Grown Publishers Inc
1954.
2. A. Einstein. O principe otnositel’nosti.(On principle of relativity) SNT. Vol. І (p. 65), Translated.
3. A. Einstein. K elektrodinamike dvizhushchihsya tel. (On electrodynamics of moving bodies) SNT. Publ.
Nauka. M. 1965 – 1967. Vol. І (p. 7).Translated from “Zur Elektrodynamik der bewegtes Körper” Ann. Phys.
1905, 17 899 – 921.
4. A. Einstein and L. Ifeld. Evoluciya fiziki. (Evolution of physics) SNT. Vol. ІV (p. 357). Publ.
“Nauka”. M. 1967.
6. FLAWS IN LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS (LT)
6.1. Initial formulations
Lorentz transformations in motion of inertial reference system, IRS, in parallel to axis x are
a)
1
2 2
2
.
' ;
1
x v t
x
v
c
−
·
 `
−
. ,
b) ' ; y y · c) ' ; z z · d)
2
2
1
2 2
2
' ;
1
v
t
c
t
v
c
−
·
 `
−
. ,
(61)
In [1] (p. 201) Einstein wrote: “... It turns out that even in infinitely small spacetime areas,
Lorentz transformations do not hold true, if we reject the idea of the constancy of the velocity of light.”
The previous item 5, equation (51) describes the principle of constancy of velocity of light, PCVL,
relative to the observer
const.;
c H
u c v c · t · ·
(51)
which, applied to LT (61) gives the following results:
a) only for the nominators of (61)a and (61)d, reduction is obtained into
1 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
1 1;
v c v c
c c c
 `  `  ` −
− · · ·
. , . , . ,
(62)
b) for this purpose (61)a and (61)d of LT are reduced into
190
a)
( )
1
2 2
2
. ' . ' . ' . '
' . ';
1 1
1
c v t x v t c t v t
x c t
v
c
− − −
· · · ·
 `
−
. ,
b)
'
;
'
x
c
t
·
c)
( )
2 2 2
1 2 2 2
2 2
2
2
. . . . . .
' . ;
.1
1
c c v t c t v t c t v c t c
t t t
c c c
v
c
c
− − −
· · · · ·
 `
−
. ,
d) ' ; t t ·
(63)
Or, when PCVL is assumed, LT, out of which they are deduced, are essentially obtained in
another form of notation of PCVL, in this form
a) ' . '; x c t · b) ' ; t t · c) ' ; y y · d) ' ; z z · e) ' ; t t · (64)
Here it is characteristic of LT that they are only another kind of notation of PCVL
a)
'
... ;
'
n
n
x x x
c
t t t
· · · · b)
. ; x c t ·
c) ' . '; x c t · (65)
I.e. the velocity, which was determined in [4] (paragraph 2) by the expression
;
time
distance
speed c
t
x
t
x
·
′
′
· · · (66)
This was confirmed by Einstein in [2] (p. 548), where for (65) he wrote: “This equation describes the
propagation of light, when it refers to system K’. In this way, the velocity of light is equal to c relative to the
referential system K as well. This is evident, as the equations of the Lorentz transformations are
deduced exactly in supposition of this result” (emphasis added by P.P.) This was shown in supplement 2
by formulae (219) .
But this situation for LT contradicts Doppler’s effect – DE, as laid down in the previous item 5;
what is more, DE was confirmed experimentally long before article [4] and based on that experiment,
a number of measuring devices have been made, whereas there is no experiment to confirm the PCVL,
as described by LT; on the contrary, DE rejects it.
It is apparent from the presented here that LT are not transformations for describing how a
phenomenon occurring in system K would look in system K’ moving at uniform velocity . v const ·
relative to K, but are only another kind of notation of PCVL.
6.2. Experiment which rejects LT
According to LT, moving bodies, watched by external observers, i.e. observers in an external IRS –
K’, relative to IRS – K of these where the bodies are, which system moves at velocity const. v · their
lengths L
0
in IRS – K get shortened for the observers in IRS – K’ to L
1
, and the times of motion T
0
in IRS
– K get lengthened to T for the observers in IRS – K’, i.e.
a)
1
2 2
0 2
. 1 ;
v
L L
c
 `
· −
. ,
b)
1
2 2
0 2
. 1 ;
v
T T
c
−
 `
· −
. ,
(67)
Whereby Einstein wrote:
a) In [3] (p. 177): “The shortening does not exist for the observer, who moves along with the
body, but it is real for the observer, who does not move with the body and can be proved by physical
means for an observer, who does not move together with the body”.
b) In [1] (p. 201) he wrote: “... It turns out that even in infinitely small spacetime areas, Lorentz
transformations do not hold true, if we reject the idea of the constancy of the velocity of light c”.
But to this present moment there are none of experimental facts which prove formulae (67), and
yet they are available in all books of physics.
The scheme of the experiment for disproval of Lorentz transformations is given in fig. 6.1. It
consists of:
a) Michelson’s interferometer, fixed to a source G of light momentums p
i
of durations T
0i
and
191
intervals between them T
0j
;
b) Transmitter H
k
of the returned and reflected by the mirrors A and B momentums at the ends of
the arms
ОА
and
ОВ
of the interferometer with center O to the system K’;
c) Reference system K’ with coordinates X’ and Y’, which are parallel to the coordinates x and y of
the system K, which coincides with the interferometer. The systems K and K’ move towards each other at
velocity v t . In the system K’ there is receiver
'
k
H which is a fixator (observer) of the times of the
arriving light momentums of H
k
.
Fig. 6.1.
The procedure of the experiment is as follows. From the beginning O of the interferometer in the
system are emitted light momentums of frequency
0
along the two arms
0
OA r · and
0
OB r · of the
interferometer. The momentums
ai
p
,
bi
p
are reflected by the mirrors A and B and return to the
beginning O, and regardless of whether K moves or not, the times of the momentums, needed for
covering the distances
OAO
and
OBO
are equal to:
0 0
2 2 2 2
;
A B
OA r OB r
t t t
c c c c
∆ · ∆ · · · · · ∆ (68)
and this is known from MichelsonMorley’s experiment – MME. Moreover, according to Fresnel 1828,
since the velocity of light, relative to a transmitter is always c = const. and does not depend on its state of
motion, and here the whole system of the interferometer is a transmitter, including points O, A and B,
fixed to one another. Therefore the velocity of light relative to these points is c = const. and therefore
MME indicates that the velocity of light relative to OA and in is c = const.
After that the momentums (beams) p
ai
, p
bi
hit the transmitter H
k
and are transmitted by the system K
to the system K’ and hit the receiver
'
k
H after equal times:
.
' ;
v
A B
x v t
t t t
c c
∆ · ∆ · · · ∆
(69)
Since the velocity of the transmitted waves does not depend on the velocity of motion of the
transmitter, such as is the whole Michelson’s interferometer, and the lengths of the pathways of the
two beams are equal to r
0
, depending on the relative velocity v between K and K’ for a random time
t
v
.
It follows from (69) and (610) that although the systems K and K’ are in relative motion, the
beams p
ai
and p
bi
, transmitted from O along the two arms of the interferometer reach K’ for equal times,
frequencies, lengths of waves and velocities of light along both arms
OA
and
ОВ
, i.e. these equations
hold true:
a) 0
; L L ·
b) 0
; T T ·
(610)
I.e. the inference (68) of LT is rejected, and only Galileo's transformations, GT, remain in
physics.
Literature
1. A. Einstein. Scorost sveta i staticheskoe gravitationnoe pole. (Velocity of Light and Static
Gravitational Field). SNT. Vol. I, p.189. (Translated from: A. Einstein, Lichtgeschwindigkeit und Statik
192
des Gravitationsfeldes. Ann. der Phys., 1902, 38, 335369).
2. A. Einstein. O specialnoy i obshchey teorii otnositelnosti. SNT. Vol. І, p. 530. Translated from:
“Über die spezielle und die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie”. Braknschweig. 1920.
3. A. Einstein. K paradoksu Erenfesta. SNT. Vol. І, p. 187. Translated from: Zum Eherenfestshen
Paradoxon. Phys. z. 1911 XII, 509, 510.
4. A. Einstein. Zur Elektrodynamik der bewegter Körper. Ann. Phys. 1905. 17, 891 – 921.
7. FLAWS IN THE QUANTUM MECHANICS STATEMENT THAT IN CLASSICAL
PHYSICS ENERGY PROPAGATES CONTINUOUSLY
In 1900, M. Planck introduced the formula of the energy of the photon
. ;
f
W h · ν
(71)
where: h is Planck’s constant;  frequency of the waves of the photon.
About this formula, H. Wichmann in his book “Quantum Physics. Berkeley Physics course”,
chapter 1, paragraph 46, wrote:
“It will further become clear that formula (46)a
W
h
ν
 `
·
. ,
expresses the fundamental principle
of quantum physics, namely, the universal character of this relation between the energy and the
frequency . W hν · . This relationship is absolutely alien to classical physics. And the mysterious
constant h is a manifestation of the secrets of nature yet to be revealed.” (emphasis added by P.P.)
In 1914, P. Ehrenfest published an article
*
in which he proved that the structure of formula (7
1) for the energy of the photon, which is for a certain interval of time
0
. t nT ∆ ·
, (72)
(where: n = integer; T
0
– period of one wave
1
T ν
−
· ) was not unique, but universal and holds true for
all wave processes in macrophysics, too.
He studied the energy of the oscillating process of a pendulum for a given (finite) interval of time
t ∆ and found that the value of the energy is
const. ; . ;
M M
W W H · ν → · ν
(73)
where: const. = H is the constant, which depends on constructive parameters of the pendulum.
The calculations (see Chapter Six, paragraph 6) made by the author (P. Penchev) of the wave
energies for a given (finite) interval of time
0
. t nT ∆ ·
on:
a) oscillating mechanical motion;
b) mechanical waves in elastic environment;
c) ordinary electromagnetic waves;
d) oscillating mesh of capacity c
0
and inductivity n
0
.
showed that for the energies, formula (73) holds true, i.e.
. ; W H · ν
(74)
where: H is a constant that depends on the constructive parameters of the transmitter of waves
(oscillations).
I.e. the statement in quantum mechanics that the structure of the formula (71), or respectively,
that the emitted wave energy is in portions (quanta)
*
*
only in quantum mechanics [in emission of
atoms (molecules)], is flawed.
*
According to A. M. Hazem’s book “Field, waves, particles and their models”, publ. “Prosveshtenie”. M.
1979. (chapter 5, paragraph 2, p. 78)
193
Under these conditions, a question arises as to how we should interpret Heisenberg’s
inequality for macro processes, where an equation analogous to that (71) of M. Planck holds true,
but it refers to physics in general.
The cited fact makes negative impression because for almost 90 years the specialists in the
area of quantum mechanics have applied a selective approach toward experimental facts, and have
suppressed those which are not in favor of quantum mechanics.
And what actually are the dimensions of the photon.
It is known about the photon that:
a) approximate time of emission is
8
10 s τ
−
≈ ;
b) the velocity of emission of the photon is equal to its velocity of motion, equal to the velocity of
light
8 1
3.10 m/s . c ·
c) the diameter of the photon cross section is
7
10 m; D
−
≈
d) the length of the photon is
8 8
. 10 .3.10 3 m;
v
c
−
· τ · · l (75)
With frequency of light waves
15
10 Hz ν · , the photon is carrier of N waves of length
8
7
15
3.10
3.10 m;
10
c
v
−
λ · · · (76)
and
7
7
10
10 . 3
3
· · ·
−
λ
v
N
number of waves (77)
This fact makes it apparent that the length of the photon is 3 m, i.e. the photon is far from a
quantity of microscopic dimensions, which fact poses questions before quantum mechanics. And hence
the question, why has this fact been suppressed and the photon has been treated as a microquantity
with dimensions below those of the atom.
8. THE STATEMENT THAT THERE ARE DE BROGLIE’S WAVES IS
FLAWED
1. In § 1. he writes: “The material particles have wave properties. This simple experimental fact is
widely known.”
2. In § 35. he writes: “De Broglie’s waves are not waves, which move along with the classical particle
and lead it. De Broglie’s waves and the particle  this is the same object. And there is nothing else. The reality
is that the particles are a natural fact and have the properties of waves.”
3. In § 29. he writes: “The electrons have wave properties, but they are not waves in the classical
sense, because the electronic wave packet cannot be split, in contrast to the classical wave packet.”
4. In § 4. he writes: “It is sensible that the velocity of the particle with mass m be identified with
the group velocity.”
5. In § 5. he writes: “We assume that the dependence
0
. W ω · h
, which holds true for the photon,
holds true for the material particles as well. Then
2
0
0 1
2 2
2
.
. = ;
1
T
m c
W W
v
c
ω· ·
]  `
−
]
. , ]
h
(81)
*
*
The notion of quant means (denotes) a limited quantity (quantity – a portion of energy), quantity of mass –
portion of mass. In physics all formulae are only with quantized (limited in their value quantities) quantities (limited
quantities). Physics does not use unlimited (nonquantized) quantities. I.e., the whole physics is quantized – it is a
quantum physics.
194
where:
2.
h
·
π
h is Planck constant; – angular frequency; v – velocity of a body with mass m
0
at rest; c –
velocity of light;
T
W
is the full energy of a body with mass
0
m
at rest and at velocity v.
6. In a systemized form, the quantities of de Broglie’s waves, according to E. H. Wichmann are:
a) ;
.
B
h
mv
λ · b)
2
.
;
B
mv
v
h
· c)
2. . .
;
B
B
mv
k
v h
ω π
· · d)
2
0
. . ;
B
W h v mv · · (82)
The emphasis is on the text: “De Broglie’s waves and the particle  this is the same object” i.e.
“de Broglie’s waves are not emitted waves moving outside the body, but they coincide with the body
itself”
According to the above definitions, the energy of de Broglie’s waves
0
W
(82)d and the full energy
of the body
1
2 2
2
0
2
. 1 . ;
T
v
W m c
c
−
 `
· −
. ,
(83)
are not equal. And since the value W
T
is experimentally confirmed, and
1
2 2
2
0 0 2
1 . ;
T
v
W m v W
c
−
 `
· −
. ,
=
(84)
since
2
0
2
1;
W
T
W v
k
W c
· · =
(85)
At a velocity of the electron in the atom, say,
6
5.10 m/s v · , k
w
, it is
12
4
16
25.10
2, 77.10 ;
9.10
W
k
−
· · (86)
The length of de Broglie’s waves for this electron is
34
8
31 6
0
6, 62.10
4, 27.10 m;
. 9,1.10 .5.10
B
h
m v
−
−
−
λ · · ·
(87)
and its frequency is
6
14
8
5.10
1,17.10 Hz;
4, 27.10
B
B
v
−
ν · · ·
λ
(88)
therefore, the energy of de Broglie’s waves of the electron is
34 14 20
. 6, 62.10 .1,17.10 7, 75.10 J;
Be B
W h
− −
· ν · · (89)
That electron, with energy
20
7, 75.10 J
Be
W
−
· , in case of collision into a solid body, according to
chapter 5, paragraph 13 of Wichmann’s book, should emit a photon with energy
15
1, 2.10 J
f
W
−
·
. Quite
naturally, it cannot do that. This fact is the proof that the electrons in the atom cannot be considered as
de Broglie’s waves. Besides, according to the definition of Wichmann “de Broglie’s waves and particles –
this is one and the same object”, i.e. de Broglie’s waves are not emitted waves, but in reality, the particles
are a natural fact and they have the properties de Broglie’s waves. Therefore, since de Broglie’s waves
are not emitted waves, but coincide with the body, a method should be found to measure them, which
method should be radically different from the method of the emitted and independently existing waves;
such a method has not been given in quantum mechanics.
In the book G. L. Trigg “Crucial Experiments in Modern Physics. Van Nostrand Reinhold
Company. New York. London. 1971, in the article by Davisson C. J. Germer L. The Physical Review. 30
(1922) there is text that states: “Of course, these results lead us to the thought of ideas which are in the
basis of the theory of wave mechanics and we are trying to clarify whether really the length of a beam of
Xrays, which we associate with a beam of electrons, are a de Broglie’s quantity / . h mv . It turns out that
such a comparison is possible to make.” In Trigg’s book, below Fig. 10.7 it is written: “Davisson and
195
Germer write in Nature magazine: If the falling electron beam were replaced by a monochromatic beam
of Xrays, we would observe very similar phenomena... That is why they (Davisson and Germer – P.P.;s
note) sought correspondence between the lengths of the Xrays and ten electron beams.”
Davisson and Germer’s analys is made of Xrays with a length wave according to de Broglie:
/ . . h mv λ · They, however, did not take into consideration that the velocity of the electron is
6 1
10 m/s ,

e
v · while the velocity of Xrays is
8
3.10 m/s
R
v c · · and also that the electron can never
have a velocity
8 1
3.10 m/s
e
v
−
· . But the fact is that electrons have a velocity about
6 1
10 m/s
e
v
−
≈ and X
rays have a velocity
8
3.10 m/s c · , at the same wave length
/
B v
h m λ ·
or frequency
2
.
c e
B
B
v mv
h
ν · ·
λ
, and
for Xrays the frequency is
. .
.
e
R
B
c mc v
h
ν · ·
λ
Thence their energies are
a)
2
. . ;
B B e
W n mv · ν · b)
. . . ;
R R e
W h mc v · ν ·
(810)
or
;
B R
W W =
(811)
Therefore, there is no reason to make analogy between the hypothetical de Broglie’s waves and X
rays. I.e. the fact of incongruity of their energies rejects any possibility for de Broglie’s waves to exist.
This is a serious lapse in Davisson and Germer’s method, and therefore, it does not prove that electrons
and and bodies in general are with de Broglie’s waves, i.e. there are not and there cannot be de Broglie’s
waves. Here the most decisive fact against de Broglie’d waves is their noncompliance with the law of
energy conservation, described by equation (85).
In this sense, DavissonGermer method, which is considered to have proved de Broglie’s waves,
because it proves the presence of emitted electromagnetic waves (Xrays), does not prove de Broglie’s
waves of electrons that move along with the electrons. I.E. UNTIL PRESENT DAY, NO METHOD HAS BEEN FOUND
WHICH ALLOWS DE BROGLIE’S WAVES TO BE MEASURED, NOR IS THERE ANY EVIDENCE THAT THESE WAVES DO EXIST. AND
THIS FACT (DAVISSONGERMER EXPERIMENT) ALSO PROVES THAT DE BROGLIE’S WAVES AND SCHRÖDINGER’S EQUATION
HAVE NOTHING IN COMMON, BECAUSE THERE IS NO PROOF OF THE EXISTENCE OF DE BROGLIE’S WAVES.
THE IDEAS SET FORTH ABOVE PROVE THAT THE ELECTRONS IN THE ATOM, EVEN AS INDEPENDENT ENTITIES,
CANNOT BE CONSIDERED AS DE BROGLIE’S WAVES, AND THIS FACT ENTAILS THAT SCHRÖDINGER’S EQUATION DOES NOT
REFLECT ANY PHYSICAL REALITY.
The use of Schrödinger’s equation to obtain the above “reliable” results in inverted commas is a
result of ascribing unreal properties to de Broglie’s waves. For example, W. Pauli in his article “Die
allgemeinen Prinzipen – der Wellenmechanik”In& Handbuch der Physik. Bd.24. Teil 1.1933 , in §1.
writes:
“The final crucial turn in quantum theory occurred thanks to the discovery of the waves of de
Broglie’s matter, advancement of matrix mechanics of Heisenberg and the appearance of the general
wavemechanic differential equation of Schrödinger, which made it possible to connect these two circles
of ideas...”
“The notion of light quanta was introduced to enable the computation of the exchange of the energy
of momentum between light and substance.” …“The laws for conservation of energy and momentum
are strictly observed.” … “If momentum
.
p
c
ω
·
h
is determined to the light quantum, and the energy is
2
h
ω
π
 `
·
. ,
h h . Proceeding from the vector k
c
ω
·
r
, we can write:
p k ·
r
r
h ; . W · ω h ; (I) (812)
… “that normal matter has wave properties, too, moreover, here the wave vector and the frequency
of the waves are determined by the relations (І) as well, which are now considered to be universal (P. P.’s
italics). Existence of the wavesparticles dualism and the reliable veracity of the correlation (І) for matter
as well  this is the actual content of de Broglie’ s hypothesis about the waves of matter.”
196
However, there is a discrepancy here (in Pauli) between science and reality, since for
electromagnetic waves the energy is
2
. .
c
W h mc · ν · ; (813)
while for de Broglie’s waves the energy is
2
2
B B k
. . 2 2
2
c
mv
W h mv W W
 `
· ν · · · <<
. ,
; (814)
I. E. THE CORRELATION (І) DOES NOT HOLD TRUE FOR DE BROGLIE’S WAVES. IT WOULD BE VALID, IF THE VELOCITY V = C.
AND WHEN ONLY THE LENGTH OF THE WAVE IS USED FOR COMPARISON, THE UNREALITY IS CONSPICUOUS.
Moreover, it has not been proved that de Broglie’s waves can be attracted by the atomic
nucleus so as to move around it and within the atom.
Schrödinger, in his first publication in Amn. Physic. 1926. 79.361. as well as later in the article “The
wave theory of the mechanics of the atoms and the molecules” in Phys. Rev.1926.28.1049. l §1, wrote: “The
theory, which is set fourth on the following pages is based on the very interesting and profound research of L.
de Broglie on the so called „phase waves” and is applicable to the motion of the material particles, in
particular to the electron and the proton.”
E. H. Wichmann
∗
in Ch. 7 “The wave mechanics of Schrödinger”, § 7, wrote: “The theory of
Schrödinger is based on the wave equation, which is known under the name of Schrödinger’s
equation. His solution is de Broglie’s wave „bound” with the particle”.
Wichmann in Ch. 9. „Elementary particles and their interactions” under the title „Basic ideas of the
quantum theory of field”, in §32, wrote: “The classical idea of two particles interacting with forces corresponds
to the quantum mechanical idea of interaction between de Broglie’s waves. This means that de Broglie’s waves
of one particle exert influence on the propagation of de Broglie’s waves of the other particle.” In §40, he wrote:
“If the interaction between the particles is implemented through a field, this field must be in the form of freely
propagating and energycarrying waves”. And in §41, he wrote: “In quantum physics, we formulate a
theory of the field which in essence is de Broglie’s waves of the particles.”
Conclusion to item 8
Since the essence of the theory of the wave, quantum mechanics, depends on de Broglie’s waves,
and their existence is questionable, this theory should be given a second thought in the spirit of actual
facts, the most fundamental of which are the theories of Max Planck and Niels Bohr, which result from
the classical electrodynamics
P.S. The rejection of the theory of de Broglie’s waves is another fragment on the road of history of
physics.
9. FLAWS IN HEISENBERG’S INEQUALITY
This inequality states: The impreciseness in the definition of the coordinate in x ∆ microphysics is
connected with the impreciseness in the definition of the momentum p ∆ of the particle, or the
impreciseness in the definition of its energies W ∆ is function of the impreciseness of the time t ∆ , and
two variants are given a) and b) of Heisenberg’s inequality.
a)
. p x h ∆ ∆ ≥
; b) . W t h ∆ ∆ ≥ ; c)
. / ;
f
W h h t · ν · ∆
(91)
But when we take into the account the fact that in the wave processes, the frequency ν ∆ is equal
to
1
1
t
T
 `
ν ·
∆
. ,
, i. e.
. 1 t ν ∆ ∆ ·
then, applying it in (91)a, we have
a)
. . . p x p v t h ∆ ∆ · ∆ ∆ ∆ ≥
; b)
. .
h
p v W h
t
∆ ∆ · ∆ · ≥ ∆ν
∆
;
) c W t h →∆ ∆ >
; (92)
but the expression (92)b when using only of the equation (=) is equal to
E. H. Wichmann Quantum Physics. Berkeley Physics course. Vol. IV. McGrawHill Book
company.
197
a) . W h ∆ · ∆ν ; →b) f
. W h · ν
; (93)
i. e. this is a notation, according to quantum mechanics, of the law of the energy of the photon  W
f
and at
the same time is a notation of the conservation of the energy of the photon.
In this sense, so that energy of the electron W
f
can increase, according to (92)b, additional
energy
f
W ∆
is needed, a fact which is rejected by the law of energy conservation. That is why if
such data are obtained in measurement, they are considered invalid.
Here arises the question, since it was proved in item 7 by P. Ehrenfest as far back as in 1914 that
energies according to classical physics also propagate in portions (quanta)
. ; W H · ν (94)
analogous to the photon (93)b, does Heisenberg’s inequality hold also true for macro processes, for their
portions of energy are described by a formula of the same structure, or if not, why. This reasonable
question is generally connected with physics on micro and macro level, but there is no answer.
But since Heisenberg’s inequality (91) has been disproved
a) by the law of energy conservation;
b) due to the fact that if we measure p or W equation (91), then we always know in which
place x or at what time t the measurement was made, and
c) that the law of energy conservation is always true, it follows that the law of Heisenberg’s
inequality should drop out of physics.
MOREOVER, SINCE SO FAR THERE HAS NOT BEEN A SINGLE EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF THIS LAW,
THEREFORE, ACCORDING TO THE PRINCIPLE OF PHYSICS, THERE IS NO REASON TO ACCEPT IT AS A REAL TRUTH.
P.S. Heisenberg’s inequality is another fragment on the road of history of physics, because it is a
conventional, not an experimental truth.
10. FLAWS IN
SCHRÖDINGER’S EQUATION
Since this equation, in accordance with the ideas set forth in item 8 concerning the flaws in de
Broglie’s waves, according to Schrödinger and Wichmann, is based on the existence of de Broglie’s
waves, which are not a reality, it follows that Schrödinger’s equation is also flawed.
Some general reasons which determine the fact that it cannot give a solution with specific
numerical values for probabilities in specific unequivocal boundary conditions, for example about the
state of electrons in the atom, are:
1. In principle, it is impossible to give real boundary conditions for the quantities associated with
the states of the electrons, such as: a) the radius; b) the potential and c) the kinetic energy. And they
are components of Schrödinger’s equation without which no specific, real solution can be obtained.
2. In principle, there is no real method for measuring the specific real numerical values of the
probabilities.
3. There are no known experimental data, validating that this equation describes real phenomena,
referring to the electrons in the atom or a specific comparison of obtained specific experimental
numerical values for specific boundary conditions with experimental data on the same conditions, as it
is done for all real physical laws and theories.
4. There is no experimental validation of the formulations, which are used in this equation,
such as:
1. that the electrons in the atom are in the form of de Broglie’s waves and that they, being waves,
move in the closed space of the atom around its nucleus and that the electrons do not have a trajectory
198
because they are waves.
*
2. How could it be explained why, in Schrödinger’s equation, there is a radius with the nucleus
as its center since the claim is that the electrons do not have trajectories; the availability of this radius
speaks exactly of the opposite.
3. That, for a short time, the energy of the electrons as waves can have values greater than
those determined by the law of energy conservation. And there are no experimental data that for
the electrons, as de Broglie’s waves, the law of energy conservation does not hold true.
Inferences
1. There are no numerical experimental data proving that Schrödinger’s equation describes real
physical phenomena (facts) in the atom as numerical values of probabilities, i.e. there are not and
there cannot be any specific experimental data validating it; therefore, it should be rejected.
2. IT IS A SERIOUS PHYSICAL ERROR TO CLAIM THAT HEISENBERG’S INEQUALITY MOTIVATES THAT THE LAW OF
ENERGY CONSERVATION IS NOT OBLIGATORY FOR A SHORT TIME, FOR SCHRÖDINGER’S EQUATION, THAT IS WHY THERE ARE
NO EXPERIMENTAL DATA VALIDATING THIS EQUATION.
CONCLUSION
With the present situation of interpretation of Schrödinger’s equation, there is no reason to
assume that this equation reflects real physical facts (phenomena) in the atom except the reasoning of
a number of scientists without any facts, i.e. it is a conventional (conformist) truth rather than an
experimental one. That is why it should not be used as a physical law, there is no place for it in
physics, and alongside with that, for quantum mechanics, either.
P.S. Schrödinger’s equation is another fragment on the road of history of physics because it is
conformist) truth rather than an experimental one.
11. FLAWS IN N. BOHR’S STATEMENT
THAT THE STATIONARY ORBITS OF ELECTRONS
IN ATOMS CONTRADICT CLASSICAL PHYSICS AND THAT THEY ARE ONLY A
QUANTUM EFFECT
11.1. Initial conditions
11.1.1. The simplest atomic structure of the hydrogen atom is used as a model in the
analysis. The hydrogen atom has the main features of emission of electromagnetic
waves, in the form of photons; such are in all atoms, where, however, the number of
other electrons exerts influence.
Here the electric charges of the nucleus q
я
and of the electron q
e
have equal values and opposite
signs ( )
0, 0
я e e e
q q q q · − > < .
*
In his book General Physics, D. C. Giancoli, 1894, in paragraph 40.5 is calculated the length of the de
Broglie's wave of an electron in the atom as
10
1, 2.10 m
B
−
λ · and frequency
16
4,9.10 Hz
B
ν · .. But nothing is
given about their measured real values, although these values are measurable since photons have length
3 m
f
· l
,
moreover, the frequency ν = 4,910
16
Hz is measurable, and yet it has not been measured. Furthermore, no method
(algorithm) has been given in physics about how to measure the values, frequency, length of the wave and energy of de
Broglie's waves. Since in Wichmann’s Berkeley Physics course, Quantum Physics, volume IV. Mc. Graw, Hill Rock
company. 1967, paragraph 35 states: “De Broglie's waves and the particle – this is the same object.” I.e. these waves
are indistinguishable in an object.
199
We proceed from the electromagnetic laws of classical electrodynamics, such as.
First. When an electric charge (q
e
) moves, a magnetic field (H) in induced around it proportional to
its velocity (v), and the magnetic energy (W
H
) is proportional to the square of H and the square of v (
2 2
H
W H v ≡ ≡ ).
Second. When an electric charge moves at acceleration ( a
r
), it emits electromagnetic energy (wave)
with power N, which is proportional to the square of the acceleration ( )
2
a N a ≡
r
and the square of the
electric charge
2
e
Q .
The electron moves in a circular orbit with radius r and n revolutions per second at velocity
a) 2. . . v n r · π ; b)
2. .
r
n
ν
·
π
; (11.11)
11.1.2. In this model, the electron is characterized by:
1. The electric field
e
E
r
with density of the electrostatic energy w
e
, the electrostatic energy W
E
and
mass m
e0
at rest of the electron, which are respectively:
a)
e 0
е 2
0
.
4
q r
Е
r
·
πε
r
r
; b)
( )
2 2
0 e e
E 2
2
0
.
2
2. 4
E q
w
r
ε
· ·
ε π
; (11.12)
a)
e0 e0
2
2 2 e
E e e e e
0 e0
. .4 .
4 .
r r
q
W w dV w r dr q k
r
∞ ∞
· · π · ·
πε
∫ ∫
; b) ( )
1
e 0 e0
4 . k r
−
· πε
; (11.13)
a)
2 E
e0 e m 2
.
c
W
m q k · ·
; b) ( )
1
2
m 0 e0
4 . . k r c
−
· πε
; (11.14)
2. The magnetic field
H
r
, the density of the magnetic energy w
H
and the magnetic energy of the
electron W
He
respectively at
v c =
are
a)
e
e 2
.
.
4
q vi
H v E
r
] · ε ·
]
π
r
r r
r
; b)
[ ]
0 0
. i v r ·
r
r r
; c) 0
.
v
v
v
r
r
r
; (11.15)
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2
0 0 e e
H 2 2
2 2 2
0
. .
2
2 4 2 4 . .
H q v q v
w
r r c
µ µ
· · ·
π π ε
; b) 0 2
0
1
.c
µ ·
ε
;
(11.16)
e0 e0
2 2 2 2 2
e e e0
HE H 2 2 2
0 0 e0
. . .
. .
8 . 4 . . .2 2
r r
q v dr q v m v
W w dV
c r r c
∞ ∞
· · · ·
πε πε
∫ ∫ ;
(11.17)
These laws (1115), (1116) and (1117) are also experimentally validated for the electrons in the
atoms of conductors through which runs electric current, which is a flux of electric charges (electrons)
from the atoms of the electric conductor or electronic flux, regardless of their flawed treatment as de
Broglie’s waves in quantum mechanics.
where:
0
µ
is the magnetic constant of vacuum;
e0
r
 computational radius of the electron.
3. The electric field of the nucleus
n
E
, which generates attractive force of the electrons toward
the nucleus, which is a centripetal force with numerical value
;
4 4
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
0
2
2
0
0
2
ion accelerat mass a m
c r
c r
r
r q
r
r q
E q F
c e
e
e e e
n e c
× · ⋅ ·
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
⋅
·
⋅
⋅
· ⋅ ·
π ε π ε
0
r
r
r
·
r
r
r
;
(11.18)
2
E e
e0 2 2
0 e0
c 4 . .
W q
m
r c
· ·
πε
; b)
( )
2 2
2
e0 0 c
c 2
e0
. .
2 .
r m
v r c r F
a n r
r
· · π · ·
r
r
r r
; →
2
. ms
−
]
]
; (11.19)
where: m
e0
is the mass of the electron at rest (v = 0); c
a
r
 centripetal acceleration of the mass of the
200
electron, which moves at velocity v along circular orbital; r
e0
 the classical radius of the electron; c  the
velocity of electromagnetic waves (light) in vacuum; 0
ε
 the dielectric constant of vacuum.
11.2. Emission of a photon by electron in atoms
11.2.1. General formulations in emission and absorption of photons
1. The electron has electric charge
19
1, 6.10 .
e
q C
−
· −
2. The mass of the electron at the velocity in the orbital of the atom is
a)
6 1
10 . ;
e
v ms c
−
≈ =
b) ( )
4 2
0 0
1,11.10 . ;
e e e e m
m m m q k
−
· ≈ ·
( )
4 2
0 0
1,11.10 . ;
e e e e
m m q k
−
− ≈ ·
c) ( )
1
2
0 0
4 . .
m e
k r c
−
· πε ;
(11.21)
3. In the atom of hydrogen, its nucleus has charge
9
1, 6.10 .
я e
q q C · − · +
4. The electric potential e
V
and the potential energy ep
W
of the electron, which is in the orbital at
distance
2
0
.
e
r n r ·
a)
2
0
. ;
e
r n r · b) 1, 2,3... n · integer; (11.22)
where:
0
r
is the lowest value of the radius of the electron in the atom, and then:
a)
0
;
4
e
e
e
q
V
r
·
πε
b)
0
.
;
4
eя
e
e
q q
W
r
·
πε
(11.23)
which are quantized, because they are functions of
e
q
and
я
q
, which are quantized electric charges,
because
e
q
is the smallest quantum (quantity) of electric charge, the result is:
a)
0
.4. . . ;
e eе
q V r · πε
b) 0
4 . ;
eя ep е
q q W r · πε
c)
2
0
. ;
e
r n r · (11.24)
From (11.24), it is evident that the distances
e
r
according to classical physics should also be
quantized because the charges
e
q
are quantized.
5. The force, Coulomb’s law, is a derivative of cp
W
relative to
e
r
a)
0
0 0 2
0
d
. ;
d 4 .
e eя e
k e
е e
W q q r r
F F r r
r r r
· · ·
πε
r r
r r
r
; (11.25)
6. It follows from (11.24) that the energy
a) d .d ;
e k
W F r ·
r
r
b)
0
2 2
0 0 0 0
d
;
4 4 4
e
r
eя e e я e я
e
e e
q q r r q q q q
W
r r n r
∞
· − · ·
πε πε πε
∫
r r
(11.26)
therefore, the force
k
F
is quantized as well.
7. The full energy
n
W
of the electron in the atom at velocity
e
vс=
is a sum of the potential energy ep
W
and the kinetic (magnetic) energies
2
0
2
e e
k
m v
W ·
2
2
0
0
; ;
8
e
n ep k n
n
q
W W W r n r
e r
· + · − ·
π
(11.27)
It is evident from (11.27) that the full energy of the electron in the atom according to classical
physics is quantized, too.
8. Forces and energies during absorption and emission of a photon with energy f
W
and mass
2
/
f f
m W c ·
of the photon.
A hydrogen atom is interpreted; whose full energy in stationary mode is
n
W
(11.27).
In a stationary mode, the electron moves along a stationary orbital with
.
n
r r const · ·
owing to
which the centripetal
i
F
r
and centrifugal
j
F
r
are numerically equal, but with opposite directions, i. e.
201
a) 0
i j
F F + ·
r r
;
→
b)
i j n
F F F · ·
r r r
; (11.28)
Forces
i
F
r
and
j
F
r
are derivatives of their energies
n
W
and
k
W
; therefore, their energies are equal
as well and are
e k
W W · ·
2 2
0
0
;
8 2
e e
n
q m v
e r
·
π
(11.29)
Therefore, the radius is
2
2
0 2
0 0
. ;
8
e
n
e e
q
r n r
e m v
· ·
π
(11.210)
And the values of forces
i
F
r
and
j
F
r
or
n
F
r
are equal to
0 0 0
d d d
.
d d d
n e e e
n i j e e n
W v P v
F F F r m m a
r t t
· · · · · ·
r
r r
r r r
r r
; (11.211)
To these forces correspond equal in values centripetal
i
a
r
and centrifugal j
a
r
accelerations, which
have opposite directions
a)
2
0
;
n
i j n n
n
v
a a a r r
r
· · · · −ω
r r r r
b)
0;
i j
a a + ·
r r
c) 2 ; v ω· π d)
;
n r
v r · ω
e) 0
n
n
r
r
r
·
r
r
r
(11.212)
where:
ω
is the angular frequency of the electron at radius of the orbital
n
r
;
v
 frequency of the
revolutions of the electron along the orbital with radius
n
r
.
9. In a stationary mode, i.e. when the atom moves along a stationary orbit, the accelerations
i
a
r
and
j
a
r
are perpendicular to the velocity
n
v
of the electron upon the orbital with radius
n
r
, i. e.
a)
;
i n
a v ⊥
r r
b)
;
j n
a v ⊥
r r
(11.213)
Therefore, the forces
i
F
r
and
j
F
r
are perpendicular to the velocity
n
v
r
as well, i. e.
a) ;
i n
F v ⊥
r
r
b) ;
j n
F v ⊥
r
r
(11.214)
since
a)
0
;
i e i
F m a ·
r
r
b)
0
;
j e j
F m a ·
r
r
(11.215)
Because of this (11.215) and since
d d
n n
r v t ·
r r
, the work, which they do or the energy needed to
change the energy of the electron, is zero, i. e.
a) ( ) d d d d cos / 2 0;
i i i n i n
A W F r Fv t · · · π ·
r r r
r r
b) ( ) d d d d cos / 2 0;
j j j n j n
A W F v t F v t · · · π ·
r r r
r r
(11.216)
Because of this (11.216), according to classical electrodynamics, the energy of the electron
does not change in stationary mode and it constantly moves along the same orbit and does not fall
down onto the nucleus. The reason for this (11.216) is that the sum of the attractive (centripetal)
force
i
F
r
and the centrifugal force
j
F
r
in stationary mode mutually neutralize – their sum is zero
(11.28)a.
THIS CONCLUSION, WHICH HAS ALSO AN EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION, DISPROVES N. BOHR’S CLAIMS THAT IT DOES
NOT RESULT FROM CLASSICAL PHYSICS, THAT SUCH MOVEMENT OF THE ELECTRON IS POSSIBLE, BUT IS SOMETHING NEW, A
FACT FROM THE QUANTUM MECHANICS. BUT AS IT IS SEEN, IT IS A DIRECT CLASSICAL EFFECT FROM THE CLASSICAL
ELECTRODYNAMICS.
10. Therefore, in order to change the energy of an electron, which is in an atom orbital and moves
202
at velocity
e
v
r
under the action of a force, it is necessary that the angle θ between the force
i
F
r
, which
acts upon it and its velocity v should be under an angle different from / 2 π , i. e.
/ 2; θ ≠ π (11.217)
or the acceleration
i
a
r
which is imparted to it should be under an angle θ different from / 2 π relative to
its velocity
e
v
r
, so that the shift
d d
n n
r v t ·
r r
should not be perpendicular to force
i
F
r
and the product of
i
F
r
by
d
n
r
r
, which is equal to the work
d
i
A
and the energy
d
i
W
should be different from zero, i. e.
d d d d cos .d 0;
i i i n i n i n
A W F r Fv t Fv t · · · · θ ≠
r r
r r
(11.218)
In (11.218) two radically different solutions are possible depending on the value of the angleθ .
10.1. When the angle θ is less than / 2 π .
Then the force
i
F
r
(the acceleration
i
a
r
) has a component (projection)
i
F
r
(
i
a
r
)upon the direction of
the velocity
e
v
r
, owing to which it increases to
'
e e
v v >
, and along with it also increases the kinetic energy
of the electron from
k
W
to
'
k k
W W >
. Since the sum of the kinetic
k
W
and the potential ep
W
energies of
the electron must remain constant, the potential energy, therefore, must decrease to
'
ep ep
W W <
, with a
gain
k
W V
of the kinetic energy, and this means that the radius
n
r
of the orbital increases to
'
n n
r r >
or,
proceeding from (8.28) and (8.211), the result is
a)
2 2
0
0
. '
'
4 ' 2
e e e
e
n
q m v
W
r
· ·
πε
; b)
2
2
0 0
2
'
4 '
e
n n
e e
q
r r
m v
· >
πε
; (11.219)
i.e. at / 2 θ π < the electron moves to a higher orbital with
'
n n
r r >
and its potential energy is lower.
Such is the case when the electron absorbs, from outside, a photon with energy
'
f k k
W W W · −
; (11.220)
10.2. When the angle θ is larger than / 2 π .
Then the projection of the force
i
F
r
(the acceleration
i
a
r
) is upon the opposite direction of the
velocity
e
v
r
of the electron, because of which the velocity decreases to
''
e e
v v <
, and hence its kinetic
energy decreases as well to
''
k k
W W ·
, and its potential energy
''
ep ep
W W <
increases, because of which the
radius of its orbital decreases to
''
n n
r r <
; by analogy to (8.215) and (8.218), for
''
n
r
we have
2
2
0 0
2
''
4 ''
e
n n
e e
q
r r
m v
· <
πε
; (11.221)
and it has a kinetic energy
''
k
W
' '
k
W and a potential energy
''
ep
W
a)
2
0
''
''
2
e e
k k f
m v
W W W · − · ; b)
2
0
''
4 ''
e
ep
n
q
W
r
·
πε
(11.222)
The decrease of
k
W
to
''
k
W
is by the energy of the photon f
W
, which is emitted at / 2 θ π > .
These are the mechanisms of absorption and emission of photons.
Conclusion.
The analyses in items 10.1 and 10.2 are made only through the laws of classical physics
(mechanics and electrodynamics). And they show that the processes of electrons in atoms
(molecules) are subject to the laws of classical physics.
THIS FACT IMPLIES THESE CATEGORICAL CLAIMS: A) THE MOVEMENT OF ELECTRONS AT
i e
F v ⊥
r
r
IS ONLY
ALONG STATIONARY ORBITS; AND B) THE EMISSION AND ABSORPTION OF PHOTONS BY ATOMS (MOLECULES) ARE
CLASSICAL PHENOMENA.
It is another question that when electrons in atoms are more than one, they interact with each
other and then there occurs interaction between more than two bodies (the nucleus and two or more
203
electrons). This problem presently has no complete solution in physics. That is why N. Bohr’s model
cannot solve problems about atoms with two or more electrons
11.2.2. An illustrative solution to the case of photon emission, according to classical
electrodynamics
In case of radial motion of an electron with acceleration
c
a
r
from orbit of radius
i
r
to a lower orbit
of radius r
k
along distance dr
r
, under the action of resistance force
c
F
r
, its magnetic energy decreases by
d .d
r c
W F r ·
r
r
; (11.223)
Or since its advancement by dr
r
toward an orbit of a shorter radius ' d r r r · − , and a lower
velocity ( ) ( )
2 2
' 2 . 2 . v n r v n r π π · < · , therefore
r
dW
can be notated in this form
a)
2
0 0
d .d . . . ;
r c eя e c e
v
W F r q E m a m
r
· · · ·
r r
r r
b)
2
;
c
v
a
c
·
r
(11.224)
This decrease of the magnetic energy of the electron is a result of the law of the classical
electromagnetic theory, according to which in accelerated motion the electric charge emits
electromagnetic energy in the form of electromagnetic waves (photons).
The electromagnetic energy emitted by the electron during its motion along orbit with radius
i
r
to
orbital with radius
i k
r r >
is:
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2 0 0
d 2
2 2
k
i
r
e e
rik r i k i k ri rk f
r
m m
W W n r r v v W W W · · − π − · − − · − ·
∫
; (11.225)
Here the specific case is under the firm condition of Bohr’s model for the hydrogenous atom. In it,
an electron of charge
e
q
moves in the electric field of the nucleus
я
E
, whose charge is equal in value and
opposite by sign to the charge of the electron. The moment value, according to classical electrodynamics,
of force
e
F
, which acts upon the electron and of its energy
e
W
at distance r of the electron from the
nucleus, and by assigning
2
0
. r n r · (n = integer 1, 2, 3, …,
0
r is the minimal radius), these formulae
are obtained:
a)
2
e
e eя 2
0
.
4
q
F q E
r
· ·
πε
; b)
2 2
e e
en 2
0 0 0
d .
4 4
r e
q q
W W F dr
r r n
· · · ·
πε πε
∫ ∫
; (11.226)
When moving from an orbital of radius
n1
r
to an orbit of radius
n2 1
2 r n <
since the electron moves
with acceleration according to Maxwell’s classical electromagnetic theory, it emits energy (photon) equal
to
2 2
e e
e en1 en2 2 2
0 n1 n2 0 0 1 2
1 1 1 1
.
4 4
q q
W W W h
r r r n n
 `  `
· − · − · − · ν
πε πε
. , . ,
; (11.227)
This electromagnetic energy is a pulse of electric energy, called photon with energies f rik
W W ·
,
mass f
m
and momentum f
p
r
.
a) f rik
W W hv · ·
; b)
2
f
f
W
m
c
· ; c)
0
f
f f
W
p m c c
c
· ·
r r r
; 0
c
c
c
·
r
r
r
; (11.228)
or by assigning
a)
2
0 i i
r r n · ; b)
2
0 k k
r r n · ; c)
1, 2,...., .1, 2,3...
k i
n n n · ≠
; (11.229)
from the above classical electrodynamics law we obtain
2 2
2 2
0 0 0
1 1 1 1
d
4 4
k
ik
i
r
e e
r r
r
k i k i
q q
W W hv
r r r n n
 `  `
· · − · − ·
πε πε
. , . ,
∫
; (11.230)
By taking into consideration the experimental law, known before 1880, about the frequency of the
photon through Rydberg constant (R) is
204
a)
2 2
0
1 1
;
k i
R
v
r n n
 `
· −
. ,
b)
2 2
0
1 1 1
;
k i
v
hv
R r n n
 `
· − ·
. ,
(11.231)
it follows that Planck constant is
( )
1
2
0 0
4 const .
e
h q r R
−
· πε · (11.232)
12. QUANTUM MECHANICS HAS NO PLACE
IN PHYSICS
These are the reasons to reject quantum mechanics as a science altogether and in particular as a
science summarizing physics are:
First
The reliable part of presentday quantum mechanics is a further development upon classical
electrodynamics concerning nuclear phenomena. This reliable, actual part cannot involve de Broglie’s
waves, Schrödinger’s equation or Heisenberg’s inequality.
This means that if we consider the fact that M. Planck’s theory is a continuation (further
development) of Maxwell’s and Faraday’s theories and that energy quantizing in the form of photon
energies is a consequence of classical electrodynamics, where the electron has a quantum
*
of energy
and all bodies are quanta of masses, the logical inference is that the real theory of quantum
electromagnetic processes, which has been experimentally confirmed, is rooted in classical physics
only, or in classical electrodynamics, respectively, and is none of a reason to found a new kind of
science, “quantum mechanics”, or to formulate new principles. Suffice are the principles and laws
of the extended (universal) electrodynamics.
Second
There is no reason to argue that quantum mechanics is a general science (theory) of natural
phenomena, since:
a) It interprets only micro phenomena of single objects, but not a whole ensemble of objects, what are the
macro objects (macro phenomena) and it describes most often and almost virtually only, almost without any
real, specific facts, their onemoment manifestations using probabilistic laws; their laws of a lasting interval of
time, however, are not given, when the laws, according to experiment, are determined for a photon
ensemble, what is for instance the case of Stefan Boltzmann law.
b) It does not interpret the integral laws of the ensembles of phenomena of micro objects,
where the micro objects are structural elements of the structure of the ensembles, whose laws are
determined and are a result (function) of manifesting micro objects.
c) Moreover, the laws of the ensembles, as a whole structure, are determined with ignorable
(insignificant) fluctuations and therefore they are considered to be determinist laws.
d) Furthermore, it cannot provide an algorithm for transition from micro objects (phenomena) to
macroobjects (phenomena) which is a sure sign of lack of any connection to reality.
Third
Quantum mechanics essentially attempts to interprets micro phenomena, but essentially, it does
not give any specific numerical values for micro electromagnetic manifestations of electromagnetic
matter, nor does it give anything for macro manifestations.
Here a question arises, what would happen if quantum physic dropped off physics. The answer is,
physics would not lose anything, and something more, it would win, because so far quantum physic has not
contributed anything but some ideas. There is not a single numerical value, derived from quantum physics,
which is used in the practical implementation of physics.
*
The notion of quantum means (denotes) a limited quantity (quantity: a portion of energy), a quantity of
mass: a portion of mass. All formulae in physics are only of quantized (limited in value quantities) quantities (limited
quantities). No unlimited (nonquantized) quantities are used. I.e. the whole physics is quantized – it is quantum
physics.
205
13. FLAWS IN THE TREATMENT OF
THE NATURE OF THERMAL ENERGY AND ITS CARRIER
Isaac Newton, in the second edition of his book “Opticks...” (p. 324) of 1718, wrote:
“In Query 18 he explained that ‘[i]f in two large tall cylindrical Vessels of Glass two little
Thermometers be suspended so as not to touch the Vessels, and the Air be drawn out of one of these
Vessels, and these Vessels thus prepared be carried out of a cold place into a warm one; the Thermometer
in vacuo will grow warm as much, and almost as soon as the Thermometer which is not in vacuo. And
when the Vessels are carried back into the cold place, the Thermometer in vacuo will grow cold almost as
soon as the other Thermometer. Is not the Heat of the warm Room convey'd through the Vacuum by the
Vibrations of a much subtiler Medium (he meant the ether, P.P.’s note) than Air which after the Air was
drawn out remained in the Vacuum?’”
I.e. regardless of the fact that during this experiment there are no air molecules in one vessel, but
only vacuum, the rise of the temperature, which the thermometer in vacuum shows, occurs
simultaneously with that in the air (the vessel with air). This fact gives us reason to conclude that
molecules are not the only carriers of thermal energy, but so is the photon gas as well, which was
called by Newton ‘medium.’
Apart from this experiment conducted by Newton, others can also be adduced to demonstrate that
molecules are not carriers, but only media for propagation of thermal energy, as they only emit and
absorb radiant thermal energy. Such is Stefan Boltzmann law, the sun rays toward the earth, and others.
The theory established in presentday physics that molecules are the only carrier of thermal
energy cannot explain the fact described by Newton either by Clausius’, or Carnot’s, or Boltzmann’s,
or Gibs’ or others’ theories, nor can presentday theory give the laws of propagation and carrying out
of work by thermal energy.
The answer to this experiment, in an implicit form, was given by Newton himself, in the written in
“Opticks...” as far back as in 1704, which in a synthesized form, states:
“All bodies emit and absorb light.”
“The changing of Bodies into Light, and Light into Bodies ...”
“... is very conformable to the Course of Nature ...”
Apparently, photons in the photon gas are also carriers of thermal energy, as they can go
through the walls of glass vessels and heat a thermometer in vacuum, whereas molecules cannot.
And there is no place in nature without a photon gas (electromagnetic fields) and gravitational fields.
But it is impossible for a photon gas to exist without molecules because they emit and absorb
photons. In the process of photon emission, the kinetic (magnetic) energy of electrons in molecules
(atoms) converts into energy of electromagnetic waves in the form of photons. When photons are
absorbed by atoms, electrons convert the photon energy into kinetic (magnetic) energy and thus they use
the thermal energy of photons in the form of kinetic energy of electrons in atoms, which is no longer
thermal energy. But there is photon gas among the atoms in the molecule, which is generated all the time
by the atoms and molecules and it enters and is emitted outside.
In this sense, the dynamic form of thermal energy is carried by the photon gas (photons of the
photon gas), and the carrier of the potential form of thermal energy and generator of thermal energy
are atoms and molecules, which constantly, at short intervals of time emit and absorb photons;
therefore, a rational thermal theory should be developed – thermodynamics – which should essentially
be updated electrodynamics.
14. CONCLUSION TO THE SUPPLEMENT
The facts presented above reveal that a number of formulations in presentday orthodox physics
are incongruent with experimental facts, run counter Newton’s legacy, expressed by him in explicit
and implicit (indirect) form.
The science of physics should be developed and perfected only in strict conformity with
experimental facts, such as Newton’s legacy and the scientific assumptions about the nature of
206
reality. I.e. the decisive prerequisite of the power of knowledge is not the belief in infallibility of
certain authoritative names, but the irresistible power of experimental facts through which the
most reliable authority speaks to us, Nature herself.
And Einstein wrote: “Our ideas of reality cannot be final, so we should always be ready to
change our point of view, i. e. to change the axiomatic basis of physics so as to substantiate the new
experimental data observed by us into a logically most perfect way”, 1931.
THE FLAWS IN MODERN PHYSICS, AS EXPOSED ABOVE, SHOULD BE ELIMINATED BY RATIONALIZING THE SCIENCE OF
PHYSICS SO THAT SUCH FLAWS SHOULD BE ELIMINATED.
This book is such an attempt, aimed at helping and accelerating an update of physics, although
many physicists of presentday generation would hardly abandon these flaws rooted deeply in their
minds and would find it even harder to recognize the novelty presented to their attention.
207
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