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SBBI4103 Cell Biology & Cellular Biochemistry


Part A

Q.1: Similarities between Chloroplast & Mitochondria: I. They both posses their own DNA where it is single and circular chromosome and 70s type of Ribosomes. II.

They self-replicate by binary fission where 1 cell split into 2. They both have double membranes which are the Inner membrane and the Outer membrane.


Their electron transport chain can be found in the plasma membrane of both organelles.


Their ribosomes are capable of synthesizing proteins that are unique to the organelles.


Their sizes range between 1-10 m.

SBBI4103 Cell Biology & Cellular Biochemistry


Synapses DNA replication

Mitosis +

Meiosis I + -

Meiosis II + -

b) Two functions of Chiasma: I. II. It holds together the bivalent or the paired chromosomes. The contact point where 2 homologous non-sister chromatids exchange material during chromosomal crossover during meiosis. III. The point of contact between paired chromatids during meiosis, resulting in a cross-shaped configuration and representing the cytological manifestation of crossing over.

c) Two benefits of meiosis: I. It ensures fixed chromosomes number between generations through the formation of haploid gametes. II. It causes genetic variations in two ways, which are by random assortment and crossing over of genes between maternal and paternal chromosomes.

SBBI4103 Cell Biology & Cellular Biochemistry

Q.3: a) Identify: A-6 Molecules of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate. B-NADPH and ATP C-Ribulose Biphosphate (5C) [RuBP]. D-1 molecule of Glyceraldehyde Phosphate (3C). E-Glucose and other sugars.

b) Limiting Factors in photosynthesis are the factors that control the process of

photosynthesis, the term refers to light intensity, concentration of carbon dioxide and temperature.
c) Temperature is an important factor in photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is

dependent on temperature as it is a reaction catalyzed by enzymes. As the enzymes approach their optimum temperature, the overall rate increases. When above the optimum temperature, the rate will begin to decrease until it stops.

SBBI4103 Cell Biology & Cellular Biochemistry


a) Name the process: A-RNA Transcription. B-Translation. C-Constitutive secretory pathway.

b) Structures: D-Ribosome (Small subunit) E-Golgi Body (Golgi apparatus) F-RNA transcript (Pro-mRNA)

c) Functions of Smooth ER:

SBBI4103 Cell Biology & Cellular Biochemistry


Facilitation of protein folding and the transport of synthesized proteins in sacs called cisternae.


Insertions of proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Glycosylation where it involves the attachment of oligosaccharides. Disulfide bond formation and arrangement where it stabilizes the tertiary and quaternary structures of many proteins.


It is also important in drug metabolism where it is the site which many drugs are modified by microsomal enzymes includes Cytochrome P450 enzymes.

Q.5 a)How many amount of codons? There are four (4) amounts of codons.

b)Determine mRNA molecule? UCUCGUUGAACU

SBBI4103 Cell Biology & Cellular Biochemistry

c) Determine non-coding strand? UCUGAACGUUGAACU

PART B Q.1 a) Active transport in cells:

SBBI4103 Cell Biology & Cellular Biochemistry

Active transport is the movement of materials across a concentration gradient. This process obviously requires energy in order to be carried out. For example as figure shown below, the Na+-K+ Pump:

b) Diffusion is one of the four passive transports. Unlike active transport, this

process does not involve chemical energy. Diffusion is the movement of molecules follows a concentration gradient which is from high concentration to lower concentration. This process does not require energy to complete. The

SBBI4103 Cell Biology & Cellular Biochemistry

movement involves small uncharged molecules like CO2, O2, N2 and H2O. This process starts from the extracellular space where the molecules to be diffuse inside to the intracellular space will have to follow the concentration gradient and passing through the semipermeable cell membrane. There are no any chemical catalysts or energy required. Therefore, this process consumes time much longer than the process of active transport.