The paper focuses on the development of the controller for altitude hold due to the change in pitch which occurs due to any disturbance say gust or air pocket in the flying regime. The first step is the development of the transfer function for the desire purpose which includes the altitude and pitch changes due to elevator deflection, then applying the two different controlling techniques to make the transient effect as stable as possible. The primary controller is the PID controller in which gain tuning is done to set the response and the other controller technique is compensation of response by adding pole and zeroes according to the desire result which is wanted. In the end both of the controllers are compared and proper recommendations are given.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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The paper focuses on the development of the controller for altitude hold due to the change in pitch which occurs due to any disturbance say gust or air pocket in the flying regime. The first step is the development of the transfer function for the desire purpose which includes the altitude and pitch changes due to elevator deflection, then applying the two different controlling techniques to make the transient effect as stable as possible. The primary controller is the PID controller in which gain tuning is done to set the response and the other controller technique is compensation of response by adding pole and zeroes according to the desire result which is wanted. In the end both of the controllers are compared and proper recommendations are given.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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You are on page 1of 6

Techniques

Ahmad Ali Ansari & Jazib Hassan

Aeronautics and Astronautics Department

Institute of Space Technology

Islamabad Expressway, Islamabad 44000

Abstract

The paper focuses on the development of the controller

for altitude hold due to the change in pitch which

occurs due to any disturbance say gust or air pocket in

the flying regime. The first step is the development of

the transfer function for the desire purpose which

includes the altitude and pitch changes due to elevator

deflection, then applying the two different controlling

techniques to make the transient effect as stable as

possible. The primary controller is the PID controller

in which gain tuning is done to set the response and the

other controller technique is compensation of response

by adding pole and zeroes according to the desire

result which is wanted. In the end both of the

controllers are compared and proper

recommendations are given.

Key Words: NT-33A, PID Controller, Lead

Compensator, Stability, MATLAB, Simulation

i. Introduction

The Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star is an American-built

jet trainer aircraft. It was produced by Lockheed and

made its first flight in 1948, piloted by Tony LeVier.

The T-33 was developed from the Lockheed P-80/F-80

starting as TP-80C/TF-80C in development, then

designated T-33A.

5

Figure 1. Lockheed NT-33A

(http://www.stevemarkmanworld.com)

A trainer is a class of aircraft designed specifically to

facilitate in-flight training of pilots and aircrews. The

use of a dedicated trainer aircraft with additional safety

featuressuch as tandem flight controls, forgiving

flight characteristics and a simplified cockpit

arrangementallows pilots-in-training to safely

advance their real-time piloting, navigation and/or war

fighting skills without the danger of overextending

their abilities alone in a fully featured aircraft.

Lockheed is a famous industry in aircraft making and

their main aim is to satisfy the customer about the

quality of the product. The altitude holding is an

important issue in the controlling of an aircraft. It is

commonly used during the cruise operation. In Altitude

hold mode the aircraft is made to fly at a constant

Altitude by automatically controlling the flight path

angle through elevators. For this mode of operation the

aircraft is first trimmed to fly straight and level and the

power is adjusted to yield the desired Altitudes.

For the purpose of controlling two different controlling

techniques are applied more specifically PID controller

and a compensator is designed to get the desire results.

For this purpose MATLAB and Simulink is used and

the responses are then plotted.

ii. Use of control surface (Elevator)

Control of modern aircraft is a complicated process and

requires many considerations. Maneuverability and

stability being one of the basic aircraft requirements, is

extensively achieved through the use if control surfaces

like elevators, rudders and ailerons. For the required

purpose primary controlling surface is elevator.

As the aircraft cruises, fuel is consumed, the weight of

the aircraft decreases, and the altitude tends to increase

(in case of jet aircraft).

1

The increase in altitude is

sensed by the control system and corrected for by an

down-elevator signal causing the aircraft to descend.

So keeping in view the application and usage of control

surface in controlling the altitude, main importance

will be given to the response of aircraft for a deflection

of control surface.

iii. Evaluation of uncontrolled response

The evaluation of uncontrolled response is necessary

for the purpose of control designing.

Initially the stability derivatives are evaluated from the

given flight data and structural dimensions, and they

are given in Table I.

Table 1. Values of Stability Derivatives

Symbol Value Symbol Value

C

x

u

-0.27 C

z

o

-5.355

C

x

o

0.273 C

z

q

-3.6

C

w

-0.813 C

m

o

-5.0

C

z

u

-1.626 C

m

o

-0.401

C

z

o

-1.05 C

m

q

-10.0

Major effects in the Altitude hold are of the pitch rate

due to the elevator deflection and due to change in the

pitch rate. How the altitude is settled to its initial or

desired position is of primary interest. Using equation

of motion for longitudinal mode which is given below:

Following transfer functions are obtained for pitch

response keeping elevator deflection as an input

(s)

oe

=

-1u.S7 s

2

- 16.7 s - 1.649

u.u62S s

4

+ u.98S s

S

+ S.677 s

2

+ u.497S s + u.SSu1

And altitude variation with respect to pitch angle is

evaluated by using the given set of equations

Where gamma is flight path angle and, alpha and theta

have usual meanings.

For simplification, we can use short period

approximation in determination of transfer function for

altitude hold mode. All the relevant transfer functions

are evaluated using short period approximation (Details

can be seen in appendix I). Thus the required transfer

function is

h(s)

(s)

=

-u.uuuS4S9 s

4

- u.uu947Ss

S

+u.89SSs

2

+1S.11s

2

+88.S

u.uSSS9 s

4

+ u.9S22 s

S

+ 6.29 s

2

+ 7.6uS s

The above transfer function depicts the effect of

change of pitch angle on altitude, whereas direct effect

of elevator on altitude can also be determined by

simple calculation. The result is

h(s)

oe

=

u.uu1u42s

S

+ u.uSuS1s

4

-2.66Ss

S

-49.9Ss

2

-SS8.4s -411.1

u.uu1u12 s

S

+ u.uSS2S s

4

+ u.4781 s

S

+ S.497s

2

+12.47s +12.44

To find the fact that is the system which is going to

controlled is naturally stable or not. For this reason root

locus study is done and the root locus for altitude with

respect to elevator deflection is given by Figure 2

Figure 2: Root Locus for

h(s)

6

And its response to impulse elevator deflection is given

as an open loop response by Figure 3

Figure 3: Impulse response

The root locus for altitude with respect pitch angle is

given by Figure 4.

Figure 4: Root Locus for

h(s)

6(s)

And its response to impulse elevator deflection is given

as an open loop response by Figure 5

Figure 5: Impulse response

In a similar manner MATLAB Simulink module is

used for simulating the uncontrolled response for the

altitude and is illustrated in Figure 6

Figure 6: Simulink Model for uncontrolled response

And the obtained result is demonstrated in Figure 7

below

Figure 7: Scope Results

iv. PID Controlling

After having complete results for altitude variation

with pitch angle and elevator, the next step is the

controller designing according to the nature of the

system i.e. how much instability it has inherently. So

by studying the root locus for the altitude (variation

with pitch angle) it comes to know that the system is

conditionally stable and the impulse response is also

getting stable after taking some time but having a

certain value of steady state. So there is proposed the

simplest controlling technique which is PID

controlling.

2

By simply adjusting the gains the system

will be brought to the desire condition. Again Simulink

is used to draw the model of the system; it is shown in

Figure 8.

Figure 8: Simulink model for PID controller of

Altitude hold

Table 2: Gains for PID

PID Controller Gains

K

p

0.8

K

i

0.0

K

d

2.0

It means a PD controller is used and the gain value for

integral term is zero.

The resulting response is given in Figure 9

Figure 9: System response for PID controller of

Altitude hold

Altitude response w.r.t. elevator

Pulse Input

Altitude

Pulse Input

Altitude response w.r.t. pitch

There is a overshoot of about 15% and the settling

time is less than 25 seconds which is desired and the

undershoot value is negligible (approx 5). So a PD

controller is working quite efficiently.

v. Lead compensator controlling

Lead compensation is used when there is need to

control the transient of the response. So in this case the

value of damping ratio and natural frequency is some

bit out of the box so a need of lead compensator arises

along with PD controller to settle the response

according to the desire.

The following block diagram is made in the Simulink,

to have the pictorial representation of the system the

Figure 10 is given

Figure 10: Simulink model for Lead compensation

along with PD controller

And the resulting response from this model after

incorporating the controller is shown in Figure 11

Figure 11: System response for the designed

controller

From the above response it is clear that the percent

overshoot is increased by 2% but on the other hand the

settling time and the undershoot values are decreased.

vi. Comparison of two controllers

After the completion of the step of making the

controllers for Altitudes hold, here comes the next step

of comparing the performance of two controllers and

the some of the facts about the results of the controller

are given in the table below

sTable 3: Comparative Study

PD Controller Lead Compensator

%

Overshoot

%

under

shoot

Settling

time

%

Overshoot

%

under

shoot

Settling

time

15% -5% <25 sec 17% -4% <22 sec

From this comparative study, it is crystal clear that

both the controllers are behaving almost the same

(having close values). That is both have almost the

same performance with little deviation. The close

observation depicts that PD controller will have a bit

superiority to Lead compensator along with PD

controller. The reasons being that PD has

comparatively less overshoot and also it is simple to

implement on the physical hardware.

v||. Conc|us|on:

Different type of controllers can be used for aircraft

Altitude hold control. For example transient response

can be improved by using lead compensator, steady

state response by lag compensator or both can be

achieved by simply utilizing concept of lead lag

compensator. These are classical approaches of

controls. Modern control theory can also be applied for

deigning controller. But the flaw is, system becomes

more complicate and difficult to understand. On the

other hand PID is simple to design as well as feasible

to implement on the aircraft. Because of its simplicity

PID controller is easy to design and good results can be

achieved.

In the text of Blacklock controller for the same

purpose is made but a different technique is employed

in which lead compensator and PD controller mixture

is used to get the desire response. So hereby it can be

concluded controller may be of several type it is just

the technique used by designer. In the near future more

work will be done on the mach holding which is an

important feature in cruise flight. The advantages of

doing these researches make us keener to learn new

things and will encourage the undergraduate students to

do it on regular basis.

Acknowledgement:

Firstly, we would like to thanks Almighty Allah for

giving us the strength of completing the research, then

our most sincere thanks to our instructor Mr. Waheed

for his continued support and guidance. Also we would

like to express my thanks to our dear friends Mr.

Ahmad Abdullah Fayyazi and Mr. Usman Manzoor for

their continued support. And most of all our deepest

love and servitude to our parents without whom

Altitude

Pulse Input

prayers and support we would have never reached this

point.

References:

[1] Jhon H. Blacklock, Automatic Control of

Aircraft and Missiles, second edition (New York:

A Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1991)

[2] Katsuhiko Ogata, Modern Control Engineering,

fourth edition (University of Minnesota)

[3] John D. Anderson,Jr., Fundamentals of

Aerodynamics, fourth edition (New Delhi:

McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited,

2007)

[4] James D. Lang, Aircraft Performance, Stability

and Control, Vol I (United States Air Force

Academy, Department of Aeronautics)

[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lockheed_T-

33_Shooting_Star

Appendix I

M File (MATLAB Coding) for evaluating different transfer Functions

%Writing Main Matrix [A B C; D E F; 0 G h]

A = [0 3.42 0.27];

B = [0 0 -.273];

C = [0 0 .813];

D = [0 0 1.626];

E = [0 3.414 5.355];

F = [0 -3.41 0];

G = [0 0.02515 .401];

H = [.005353 .0503 0];

%Control part i.e. RHS

I = [0 0 0];

J = [0 0 -.302];

K = [0 0 -.89];

%Finding characteristic equation DET = 0

a = conv(A, conv(E,H));

b = conv(C, conv(D,G));

c = conv(A, conv(F,G));

d = conv(B, conv(D,H));

DET = (a+b)-(c+d);

solve('(0.0625*s^4)+(0.9836*s^3)+(5.6774*s^2)+(.4975*s)+.5301');

%Evaluting numerators

a1 = conv(J, conv(G,C));

b1 = conv(K, conv(B,F));

c1 = conv(J, conv(B,H));

d1 = conv(K, conv(C,E));

num_velocity = (a1+b1)-(c1+d1);

velocity = tf(num_velocity,DET);

a2 = conv(A, conv(J,H));

b2 = conv(D, conv(K,C));

c2 = conv(A, conv(K,F));

d2 = conv(0, conv(0,0));

num_aoa = (a2+b2)-(c2+d2);

aoa = tf(num_aoa,DET);

a3 = conv(A, conv(E,K));

b3 = conv(0, conv(0,0));

c3 = conv(A, conv(G,J));

d3 = conv(D, conv(B,K));

num_pitch = (a3+b3)-(c3+d3);

pitch = tf(num_pitch,DET);

%short period approximation transfer funtions

determinant_short = (conv(E,H))-(conv(F,G));

num_short1_alpha= (conv(J,H))-(conv(F,K));

num_short2_theta= (conv(E,K))-(conv(J,G));

short_alpha = tf(num_short1_alpha,determinant_short)

short_theta = tf(num_short2_theta,determinant_short)

%finding gamma by theta

alpha_theta_glide = (short_alpha)/ (short_theta);

gamma_theta = 1 - (alpha_theta_glide)

h_theta = (667/57.3)*(series(gamma_theta,tf([1],[1 0])))

h_deltae = series(h_theta,short_theta)

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