APD 505

Session 16

Emerging aspects in car design
Session speaker C. Gopinath
© M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


APD 505

Session objective
At the end of the module, the delegate would have understood -Sustainable consumption of car through service S t i bl ti f th h i -Recycling of car materials

© M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


y commuting. share taxis or taxicabs. Carpooling arrangements and schemes involve varying degrees of formality and regularity. usually for g . The vehicle is not used in a general public transport capacity such as in car sharing. but might involve single occupancy.APD 505 Sustainable use of car through service sector Car pooling Carpooling (also known as car-sharing. such as in a military motor pool. for economic or other reasons. lift-sharing). is the shared use of a car by the driver and one or more p y passengers. for private shared journeys. Formal carpool projects have been around in a structured form since the mid-1970s. ride-sharing. Carpooling is also distinct from the use of a company/government or private vehicle by several pool members but at different times. or a jointly hired vehicle. 3 © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies . Carpoolers use pool member's private cars.

defined pick-up points. Shared driving carpooling can also reduce driving stress. reduces greenhouse gas emissions. to combat rising traffic congestion. In wartime. and in a global perspective. carpooling was encouraged to save oil. © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 4 . sharing rental charges. but a mutual benefit still exists between the driver and passenger(s) making the practice worthwhile. Some countries have introduced high occupancy vehicle lanes to encourage high-occupancy carpooling and use of public transport. p g g g of cars on the road. preferential parking and general advice. No money changes hands. In some cases. carpooling decreases pollution and the need for parking space. mobile phones and other software support systems. In reducing the number . This has increased through use of the Internet. or paying the main car owner. A form of ad-hoc carpooling between strangers is called Slugging. These can include central listing facilities. often as part of wider transport programs. companies or local authorities will introduce facilities to encourage private carpooling.APD 505 Carpooling reduces the costs involved in repetitive or long distance driving by sharing cars.

concept a separate system performs a carpool match automatically for approval by the travelers. A further backup can also be a 'guaranteed ride home' arrangement with a local taxi company. Some larger carpools offer 'sweeper services' with later running options. In the “dynamic ridesharing" concept. © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 5 .APD 505 A third party rideshare agency may also provide services to enable one off hi d id h l id i bl ff or regular carpooling in defined areas. Inflexibility in carpooling can arise in accommodating en-route stops or changes to working times/patterns.

APD 505 © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 6 .

APD 505 © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 7 .

APD 505 Car Sharing Carsharing is a model of car rental where people rent cars for short p g p p periods of time. car and only a handful of sharers. o cyc g. h As is f A i often the case with innovations that spring up more or less h ihi i h i l spontaneously in different parts of the world.w g. A small informal start-up may have only one shared car. walking. In the larger services that are increasingly sharers coming into existence. public agency. often by the hour. or cycling. ad hoc grouping. The organization renting the cars may be a commercial business or the users may be organized as a democraticallycontrolled company. © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 8 . transportation needs are largely met by public transit. operations are organized in many different ways in different places. according to the objectives of the places organizers and users. participants are typically city-dwellers whose spo o eeds e ge y e pub c s . cooperative. Today there are more than six hundred cities in the world where people can carshare.

it is seen as a complement to scheduled transport service. containing channeling and limiting private car traffic in cities. including bicycles and walking. with support cities of a “bouquet” of alternative transportation arrangements. which combines db h N bili A d hi h bi transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategies and measures for containing. It does an entirely different job. and in most of the 600+ cities where it has become established job thus far. y g © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 9 .APD 505 Carsharing i C h i is supported by the New mobility Agenda. Many studies show that carshare users are also relatively heavy users of both conventional public transport and of human powered transport. Carsharing is not a substitute for public transport.

Some carshare operations (CSOs) cooperate with local car rental firms to offer best value to their customers (and in particular in situations where classic rental may be the cheaper option. and often located for access by Public transport.Vehicles can be rented by the hour.Insurance and fuel costs are included in the rates. .Users are members and have been pre-approved to drive (background g performed and a payment mechanism has been p y driving checks have been p established) . and return .) © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 10 . pickup.APD 505 Carsharing diff f C h i differs from traditional car rentals in the following ways: di i l l i h f ll i Carsharing is an “always-on” personal mobility service (with certain technical and economic constraints at any time) . as well as by the day hour .Self-service reservation.Vehicle locations are distributed throughout the service area.

technology and target markets. usually over the Internet or telephone (and increasingly by mobile phones. plus a fee per mile/km driven. b t points but more advanced systems ha e a decentralized network of parking ad anced s stems have decentrali ed net ork locations (“pods”) stationed in different areas and located for access by Public transport. from simple manual systems using key boxes and log books to increasingly complex computer-based systems with supporting software packages that handle a growing array of ih i f k h h dl i f back office functions. size. business models. © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 11 . member The vehicle is reserved in advance. The simplest CSOs have only one or two pick-up points. these programs do share many biti t h l dt t k t th d h features. The more established operations usually require a check of past driving records and a monthly or annual fee in order to become a member. Most companies charge an hourly fee for the time that the car is in use. including by SMS). transport While differing markedly in their objectives.APD 505 How it works The technology of CSOs varies enormously. levels of ambition.

a high penalty is charged.) Sharing vehicles amongst several users provides more context ) alternatives to people that cannot afford car ownership. © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 12 . in the agreed parking area. leaving the vehicles on time. x2 variations up t ff ti th hi (I i t ff t 2 i ti and down on this figure are reported by operators and others depending on local context. clean and in good condition for the next user. (In point of fact. Goals. advantages.000 kilometers (about 6. since it may interfere with other drivers reservations Members are responsible for drivers' reservations. operators and cooperating public agencies believe that those who do not drive daily or who drive less than 10.APD 505 Some CSOs offer a discounted all day rate for their cars. and achievements g Carsharing is a highly decentralized phenomenon which varies in its goals and implementations widely from place to place. place Most carsharing advocates. If a vehicle is not all-day cars returned at the scheduled time.200 statute miles) annually may find carsharing to be more cost-effective than car ownership.

including some rural areas. for p g going y p providing services in lower density. Among these possibly premature alternative conclusions: © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 13 . But now that the concept has started to catch on (with operations working today in more than six hundred cities world wide) and the technologies and organizational details are beginning to be mastered.APD 505 It can also help ease congestion on busy city streets and parking lots. Based on past experience alone. carsharing reduces the dependence on automobiles and g y y p increases usage of more environmentally friendly forms of transportation. there are programs g g on. Disadvantages and limitations g Until now. successful carsharing development has tended to be associated mainly with densely populated areas such as city centers and more recently university and other campuses. mainly in Europe to date. a certain number of arguments are alone advanced from time to time concerning the limitations of carsharing as a viable daily transport alternative. For some users.

mega cities face © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 14 . .Carsharing works best as a complement to an adequate public transport system. Carsharing is less successful in places where there is no suitable public transport system and significant numbers of people need a car to get to work or for other every day transport needs. y central pickup location if there is insufficient public transit. there are several main currents of resistance to this t thi transportation concept. By many observers.It is important that there be adequate density of these potential users so that a vehicle can be well used. including experts. Such areas have generally been built for those who own a vehicle. . and a resident would not be able to conveniently reach a . .The concept does not work well in heavily suburbanized areas (those suffering from urban sprawl).APD 505 .In the developing world. it is felt t ti t B b i l di t i f lt to be irrelevant given the scope of the problems that especially the larger and more traffic strangled mega-cities face.

APD 505 Since carsharing competes with an idea and mode of life which is largely g p g y supported by the media (not necessarily consciously). and someone else moment deals with all the "dirty" work of car maintenance and repair. they fi bl b i A d f h l h h will buy correspondingly fewer of them. And of course when people start to share cars. On the other hand. as incomes rise in cities and demand for cars follows suit. That said. the industry continues to keep carsharing in its sights and there may well come a day when they will ma ell da hen the ill get more actively involved. major involvement are far from clear. (Honda and Toyota are certainly the prudent. and broadly shared aspirations of many people in many places (that is owning and driving your own car). in part because it is not clear to them how they can turn them into a profitable business. it is not an easy idea to gain support for. entrenched habits and beliefs. carsharing can be marketed as the highest status car ownership: unlike i h i b k d h hi h hi lik car owners that can only own one car.) © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 15 . carsharing members have access to different cars to suit the particular need of the moment. The automotive industry has consistently steered clear of carsharing programs. experimental path-breakers in the sector but there too the signs of any sector.

ith fe a tomobile man fact rers forefront of implementing activities that reduce waste. has been at the Renault. is aimed at speeding up the development of end-of-life vehicle treatment in France. SITA and INDRA – are trying to ensure the success from both the economical and environmental viewpoints. y field of recycling materials recovered from end of life vehicles • The current trends towards higher raw materials prices has encouraged these players to make further commitments in this domain • Rena lt with a few other automobile manufacturers. In 1995. it introduced an ambitious international environmental policy taking into account the full lifecycle of vehicles.APD 505 Recycling materials in car y g • Renault. notably in the g p y g g . viewpoints • The joint venture. This has been active in the dismantling of France vehicles parts for last 20 years and targets 95 percent recovery by 2015 as ecologically and economically as possible • All these companies share the same will to improve rates of re-use using existing methods and processes currently being investigated. © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 16 . from their design to the end of their useful life.

t d t lt t t D i th d ti h Renault seeks to reduce metal offcuts from body panels by optimising the cutting process. In case of the Laguna III.APD 505 • The eco2 strategy for Renault is to take both ecological and economical considerations into account to ensure that the progress made benefits as many people as possible. This means that 95% of the weight of the materials used to make Renault % g vehicles will be re-used. improve the application of paint to process waste limit paint sludge. and phase out the use of high-risk substances in industrial processes • The most recent Renault models are designed to be 95% recyclable. © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 17 . the rate is a record 17% (35kg) and concerns more than 100 plastic components on every vehicle • For Renault. the main priorities are to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and control treatment processes. The same approach now needs to be applied to the recycling and recoverability of end of life products end-of-life • A minimum of 5% of the plastics that make up the models which benefit from the Renault eco2 appellation are sourced from recycling. During the production phase. reduce packaging waste. which is the most recent vehicle to come off the line and which has been on sale since Oct 2007.

and non-ferrous metals are not recycled in the same way as glass. for example. selective sorting of certain components of the vehicle is carried out so that each part can be treated according to the needs of the appropriate stream. © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 18 .e. Out of the observation. The same plastics could be used in a few years to produce the Renault vehicles of the future. ‘monomaterial’ parts.APD 505 • The company has set an even more ambitious objective: to promote economically viable plastic technologies • Renault has target to use 50kg of recycled plastics per vehicle by 2015 and it has already started to practice in existing design. Every element made from a given material has to f th i t t E l t d f i t i lh t be easily distinguishable from other parts made from different materials • To simplify and optimise each step of the selective sorting process. • During this operation. i. is made from recycled plastic. • Steel. once they have been dismantled. The dashboard of the y p g g Modus. process Renault uses a marking system for all the plastic or elastomer components in its vehicles so that the nature of the material to be recycled can be identified. elements which. are only constituted of a single material or of materials which are compatible with regard to the appropriate recycling t i l hi h tibl ith d t th i t li stream.

Next the remains of the car are shredded and the materials from which they are made are separated. This first phase consists of removing from the end-of-life phase vehicle any components th t are hazardous or polluting. • The final phase involves waste remaining after this selection process. etc. the car is made safe. Mixtures of organic materials that cannot be sorted and therefore l d i f i i l h b d d h f cannot be recycled directly are generally incinerated. glass. which is again gone through to remove any final elements that can be salvaged. • The second phase concerns dismantling. plastics. Some parts that can be directly reused as replacement parts are recovered. First of all. and are thereby used as an alternative source of energy. while others are sorted into recovered categories – metals. © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies APD 505 19 . aluminium and other ferrous and nonferrous metals. The battery. End waste of which no further use can be alternati e so rce energ aste hich f rther se made is sent to technical landfill centres. prepared and purged. oil.How it works • Recycling an end-of-life vehicle is a highly structured operation which is performed in four stages. hi l t that h d ll ti Th b tt il hydraulic circuit fluids and any remaining fuel are recovered and transferred to an appropriate recycling stream stream. This mostly involves separating out steel.

APD 505 © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 20 .

APD 505 © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 21 .

APD 505 Summary In this session following emerging aspects in car design were explained -Consumption of car in service sector p -Recycling of car materials © M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies 22 .