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History of Architecture 1 Neolithic Age

Introduction to History of Architecture: A Semiological Approach


I) The Human Condition is a given cultural situation. II) The Architectural Form is :
I) II) The experienced aspect of the architectural reality The conveyor or expressor of meanings

III) The Architectural Reality can be interpreted as:


I) Work and Labour; Expressive (Frampton) II) Interior and Exterior Spaces; (Zevi) III) Nature, Shells and Networks (Doxiadis)

IV) The Architectural Meanings are the spiritual values and aspirations inherent in the Human Condition
Form-Composition-Visual Efficiency=Venustas Function-Planning-Operational Efficency=Utilitas Technic-Construction-Structural Efficiency=Firmitas

Architectural Design is the integration of solutions to formal, functional, and technical problems with regard to the man made environment.

Architecture in Neolithic Period The New Stone Age


Lasted roughly from 8000 to 3000 BC Man often used caves for shelter Used temporary shelter from perishable materials since he was a hunter and gatherer Groups of hunting peoples roamed Eastern Europe used animal bones such as tusks for tent frames and animal skins as cover

Architecture in Neolithic Period


Pertinent samples of Neolithic Period Megalithic Architecture
Dolmen- consists of several large stones set on end with a large covering slab

Architecture in Neolithic Period


Megalithic Architecture
Tumuli (Tumulus) the dominant megalithic tomb type Exist in France and England Is a mound of earth or stone protecting antomb chamber or simple grave

Gyoeung-Ju, Korea

Oslo, Norway

Architecture in Neolithic Period


Megalithic Architecture
Menhir (long stone) Are single great stones set on end and arranged in parallel rows May run for several kilometers Religious in Nature Most well known is Stonehenge in England

Scandinavia

Colombia

Architecture in Neolithic Period


Megalithic Architecture
Stonehenge
+/-2000 BC Considered as a cromlech Consists of a complex of sarsen stones and smaller blue stones. Outer ring was capped wiith lintel Inner rings consists which encircled a horseshoe of trilithons facing east and west

History of Architecture 1 Summeria & Akkadian

Historical Architecture Mesopotamian Architecture


Lasted roughly from the 23rd to 6th century BC Land comprised of modern day Iraq, southeastern Turkey, northeastern Iraq, and southwestern Iran Covered the Bronze age (Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian architecture) and the Iron age (Neo-Assyrian and NeoBabylonian architecture) Dominant along the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers

Historical Architecture Mesopotamian Architecture


Sumerians (4000-2350 BCE) Akkadians (2350-2150 BCE) Neo-Sumerians (2150-2000 BCE) Babylonions (1800 1600 BCE) Hittities (1200-900 BCE) Assyrians (900-612 BCE) Neo-Babylonions (612-539 BCE) Persians (525-331 BCE)

Historical Architecture Sumerian Architecture


Lasted roughly from 3600 to 2300 BC indicated by the brick styles they used Patzen (3600- 3200 BC) 80 by 40 by 15 cm Riemchen (3600-3200 BC) 16 by 16 cm Plano-Convex (3100-2300 BC) 10 by 19 by 34 cm Developed a type of bond lay-out to stabilize the brick layout (perpendicular-parallel layout) Sun-baked bricks thereby creating a type of architecture which easily deteriorates Prized special materials like lapis-lazuli from India, cedar from Lebanon, and diorite from Arabia

First developed urban planning and the built city as know it Planning was dictated by spatial limits and commercial forces thereby resulting in an irregularly shaped cities There was no architectural profession existed in Sumer; however, scribes drafted and managed construction for the government, nobility, or royalty.

Historical Architecture Sumerian Architecture


The city always included a belt of irrigated rural land including small hamlets. A network of roads and canals connected the city to this territory. The transportation network was planned in three tiers: wide processional streets, public through streets, and private blind alleys. The public streets that defined a block varied little over time while the blind-alleys were much more fluid. The current estimate is 10% of the city area was streets and 90% buildings. The canals; however, were more important than roads for transportation. Residential design was a direct development from Ubaid houses. Although Sumerian cylinder seals represent reed houses, the courtyard house was the predominant typology, which has been used in Mesopotamia to the present day. This type of house faced inward toward an open courtyard which provided a cooling effect by creating convection currents. Temples often predated the creation of the urban settlement and grew from small one room structures to elaborate multi-acre complexes through the 2,500 years of Sumerian history. Sumerian temples, fortifications, and palaces made use of more highly developed materials and techniques, such as buttresses, recesses, and half columns.

Historical Architecture Sumerian Architecture


The Sumerians were aware of 'the craft of building' as a divine gift taught to men by the gods as listed in me. me is one of the decrees of the gods foundational to the Sumerian understanding of the relationship between humanity and the gods. Sumerian Architecture is the groundwork of later Hebrew, Phoenician, Anatolian, Hittite, Hurrian, Ugaritic, Babylonian, Assyrian, Persian, Islamic, and to a certain extent Greco-Roman and therefore Western Architectures.

Pertinent samples
Houses Dominant house form was the courtyard house Faced inward with flowing cross ventilation Typical size was about 90 sq.m.

Historical Architecture Sumerian Architecture


Pertinent samples
Temples
The most prominent building found in Sumerian cities is the temple, dedicated to the chief god or goddess of the city and built on top of a massive stepped tower, or ziggurat. The Sumerians believed the gods owned the temples, and so wealth and riches were used to construct luxurious homes for the priestly officials who served the gods Was influenced by cosmology which placed the earth as a disc at the center of universe; believed in axis mundi Often pre-dated settlements and grew from a one-room affair into a larger structure when the population grew The blessedness of 'high places' as a meeting point between realms is a preUbaid belief well attested in the Near East back the Neolithic age.

Historical Architecture Sumerian Architecture


Pertinent samples
Temples
Temples had rectangular plans with corners pointing to the four cardinal directions to symbolize the four rivers which flow from the world mountain going to the four earthly regions Doors along the major axis were for gods and those laong the minor axis was for men (Bent-axis approach) Was used for time keeping Temples of the Uruk Period separated the temple rectangle into tripartite, Tshaped, or combined plans. The tripartite plan inherited from the Ubaid, which had a big central hall with two smaller flanking halls on either side. The entrance was along the short axis and the shrine was at the end of the long axis.

Historical Architecture
Sumerian Architecture
Palaces Were large scale complexes Since the palaces became large scale socio-economic instutions, they also housed residential and private functions, housed craftsmen, workshops, food storehouses, ceremonial courtyards, and shrines The palace came into existence during the Early Dynastic I period. From a rather modest beginning the palace grows in size and complexity as power is increasingly centralized. The palace is called a 'Big House' where the lugal or ensi, Sumerian term for a king in general, lived and worked.

Historical Architecture Sumerian Architecture


Pertinent samples
Ziggurats
Were huge pyramidal temple towers having the form of step pyramid There are 32 surviving ziggurats (28 in Iraq and 4 in Iran) Great Ziggurat of Ur Ziggurat of Aqar quf
White Temple and Ziggurat, Uruk (Warka), 3200 -3000 B.C.

Historical Architecture Sumerian Architecture


In the Early Dynastic period, high temples began to include a ziggurat, which is a series of platforms creating a stepped pyramid. Such ziggurats may have been the inspiration for the Biblical Tower of Babel.

Tower of Babel

Historical Architecture Akkadian Architecture


Sargon of Akkad's (reigned c. 2334-c. 2279 BC) unification of the Sumerian city-states and creation of a first Mesopotamian empire profoundly affected the art of his people, as well as their language and political thought. The increasingly large proportion of Semitic elements in the population was in the ascendancy, and their personal loyalty to Sargon and his successors replaced the regional patriotism of the old cities. The new conception of kingship thus engendered is reflected in artworks of secular grandeur, unprecedented in the god-fearing world of the Sumerians.
One would indeed expect a similar change to be apparent in the character of contemporary architecture, and the fact that this is not so may be due to the rareness of excavated examples.

Historical Architecture

Influences
Materials
This planned structural life cycle gradually raised the level of cities, so that they came to be elevated above the surrounding plain. The resulting hills are known as tells, and are found throughout the ancient Near East Civic buildings slowed decay by using cones of tinted stone, terracotta panels, and clay nails driven into the adobe-brick to create a protective sheath that decorated the front wall.

The story of Sumerian architecture is tremendously one of clay masonry and of increasingly complex forms of stacked bricks. However, because these bricks were sun baked, Sumerian buildings eventually deteriorated. They were periodically demolished, levelled, and rebuilt on the same spot.

Sumer lacking in both forests and quarries, used adobebrick, also called mud-brick, as the primary material. Adobe-brick was preferred over vitreous brick because of its superior thermal properties and lower manufacturing costs

Historical Architecture
Red brick was used in small applications concerning water, decoration, and enormous construction. Bitumen is used as statuary, mortaring brick walls, waterproofing baths and drains, in stair treads, and for shipbuilding.

Historical Architecture

The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) used for ceiling lintels

Influences
Materials
Building materials other than brick were used for sheathing, flooring, roofing, doors, and special applications. These materials include:
The giant reed (Fragmites communis) used for roofing and rammed earth foundations

Historical Architecture

Civic Architecture

USE OF HALF COLUMNS

USE OF RECESSES