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THEME: Physiology of living things

Gamete Formation

No individual organism can live forever. Every living organism has only a certain lifespan. Therefore, living organisms have to reproduce to increase their numbers. 2 Organisms reproduce to ernsure the continuation of the species and to pass dowrr their genes to future generations.

Types of Reproduction

Reproduction is the production of new individuals from living organisms. There are two types of reproduction: asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is the production of new individuals by living organism without using gamete Sexual reproduction is the production of new individuals by living organisms using gamete

English Asexual reproduction Menstruation Fertilisation Pollination Sexual reproduction Puberty Sterility Germination Malay Pembiakan aseks

Pembiakan seks

The necessity for organisms to reproduce :


To generate offspring To pass down of an individuals genes To ensure the continuity of the species To produce new generation

The necessity for the formation of gametes :


Ensure the continuity of species Maintain the diploid chromosomal number Ensure genetic variation Provide better survival chance for the offspring to overcome an ever changing environment

In humans :
The male gametes sperms (spermatozoa) produced in male reproductive organs testes The female gametes ova are produced in female reproductive organs ovaries

Gametes must be produced with haploid numbers of chromosomes to ensure the zygotes formed are always diploid

Sexual & Asexual Reproduction Reproduction

Devide to

Such as


Binary fission Budding Spore formation Vegetative reproduction Regeneration

Binary Fission

A parent cell reproduce asexually by dividing itself into two new offspring Each two daughter cells in an exact copy of it parent and will divide again when fully grown Example: Amoebae

Binary Fission
1 2




A parent body reproduces asexually by forming which will eventually break off Each bud becomes a new individual Each bud becomes an adult & reproduces again Example: Hydra


Spore Formation

Fungi, mosses, liverworts & fern reproduce asexually by producing spores

Vegetative Reproduction

Through vegetative parts which can grow into new offspring Example:  Bryophyllum- reproduce by their leaves  Carrot- reproduce by tap root



Parent body breaks into pieces Each of the pieces can grow into a new individual Example: starfish

Broken part

Sexual Reproduction

Involves both a male & a female organism The male produce sperms or spermatozoa The female produce eggs or ova/ ovum Sperm & egg called gametes

Two gametes fuse to form a zygote



A sperm & an egg fuse to form zygote The zygote through to form an embryo 2 type of fertilisation:  External fertilisation  Internal fertilisation

External fertilisation

Fetilisation occurs outside the body of a male organism

Internal fertilisation

Fertilisation occurs inside the body of female organism

The male reproductive system

External genitalia :

Gonads - testes Scrotum Penis

Male system

Cross section of testes

Sperms from testes stored temporarily before they enter vas deferens

STRUCTURE Seminal vesicle

FUNCTIONS Secretes mucus into sperm duct Sperms temporarily stored before ejaculation Produces semen fluid (contains sperm and slippery fluid) Secretes a slippery fluid which mixes with the sperms - semen Transports sperm frm testes to the urethra Ejaculates sperm out of the body An erectile organ

Prostate gland

Cowpers gland

Sperm duct (vas deferens) Penis


FUNCTIONS Discharges urine and sperm out of the males body


Holds the testes outside the body Maintains the temp of testes 340C-370C


-Produces sperm -Produces male sex hormones (androgen & testosterone) -The male gonad

Structure of a sperm


Spermatozoa formation takes about 65-75 days occurs in the densely coiled seminiferous tubules

Consists of 2 types of cells :

o o

Germinal epithelial cell Sertoli cells


A pair of ovaries Fallopian tubes Uterus Cervix Vagina Vulva

Female Reproductive System


The ovaries are the female sex organs. They produce the gamete or ovum. They also make the female hormones oestrogen and progesteron (between 10 and 15 years).

Fallopian tube

An ovum is released about every 28 days. The ovum passes out of the ovary and moves into the Fallopian tube. This is called ovulation Place for fertilisation


The ovum slowly moves down towards the uterus (womb). Place for implantation (attachment of embryo) Houses the developing embryo and feotus If the ovum is not fertilised it will dies after about a day.


The lower end of the uterus has a ring of muscle called the cervix. It leads to a muscular tube called the vagina that opens to the outside of the body



Formation of oocytes Begins in the developing ovaries of a female foetus b4 birth


During fetal development females have oogonia which are diploid sex cells. While still in the womb the oogonia divide by mitosis to form -1 million primary oocytes. These primary oocytes will begin the first meiotic division but stall during prophase I. The female is born with these primary oocytes. By the time the female reaches puberty approximately 40,000 of the primary oocytes will remain.

Beginning during puberty, each month hormones from the anterior pituitary stimulate a primary oocyte to complete the first meiotic division generating two secondary oocytes of unequal size. The smaller secondary oocyte is called a polar body, containing one set of chromosomes. The larger secondary oocyte is the ovum (egg) that will be released from the ovary for fertilization by the spermatozoa.


Only if the ovum is fertilized will it continue the second meiotic division. If fertilized, the ovum divides again to produce a second polar body, with the fertilized ovum forming the diploid zygote. If the ovum is not fertilized within 24 hours after release it will be broken down.

ovum formation in humans


Oogenesis is the formation of ovum that starts in the2 ovaries of a female foetus before birth. The germinal epithelial cells near the surface of the ovary divide repeatedly by mitosis into diploid oogonia (singular,oogonium). The oogonia grow to form primary oocytes. Each oocyte is surrounded by a layer of follicle cells. The cells provide nutrients to the developing oocyte and secrete the sex hormone, oestrogen. The diploid primary oocyte and the follicle cells form a primary follicle

ovum formation in humans


At birth, the female baby has about 2 million primary oocytes but remain dormant until puberty. Less than 400 000 follicles mature while the rest degenerate and die. During foetal stage, all primary oocytes undergo meiosis but stop at prophase I of meiosis I. Every month from puberty onwards, many primary oorytes become active and grow but only one oocyte matures. This oocyte completes meiosis I to become a secondary oocyte and a tiny polar body. Both of them are haploid


The secondary oocyte begins meiosis II until metaphase II. It is lined by layers of follicle cells and together they are called a secondary follicle. The first polar body may complete meiosis II to form 2 haploid polar bodies. The secondary follicle increases in size and matures to form the Graafian follicle


At about 28 days intervals, the Graafian follicle and part of the ovary wall break up and release the secondary oocyte. The release of the secondary oocyte from the ovary is known as ovulation. The secondary oocyte enters rhe fallopian tube. If a sperm penetrates the secondary oocyte during fertilization, meiosis II is completed and 2 haploid cells of different sizes are formed


The larger cell is the ovum whereas the smaller cell is the second polar body. The nuclei of the ovum and the sperm fuse to form a diploid zygote (2n). Thus, a primary oocyte eventually becomes a haploid ovum (n) and 3 haploid polar bodies (n). All polar bodies degenerate and die. Once the Graafian follicle has released its oocyte, it develops into a yellowish mass of cells called corpus luteum. If pregnancy does not take place, the corpus luteum begins to degenerate afrer approximately 10 days. If pregnancy occurs, the corpus luteum does not degenerate but will continue to produce sex hormones (oestrogen and progesterone). The whole process of developmenr and formation of ova is regulated very sysrematically by hormones



o o o

Both processes takes place in reproductive organs Involve meiosis I and meiosis II Produce haploid gametes Ensure the success of fertilisation

Spertmatogenesis Sperms Gametes produced Testes Place of formation Small Size of gametes Has head, Shape of gametes midpiece and tail Continuous Four Meiotic division No. of gametes produced during meiosis

Oogenesis Ovum Ovaries Large Round

Not continuous One (3 polar bodies degenerated)

Spermatogenesis Divide by mitosis throughout the adult life of men after puberty

Germinal epithelial cells

Meiosis I and II are usually completed

Completion of meiotic division

Oogenesis Divide by mitosis during foetal stage. At birth, an ovary contains all the primary oocytes develop into ova Meiosis II completes ONLY IF the 20 oocyte is fertilised by a sperm

Cytoplasm are equally distributed in all four sperm cells produced Cytokinesis

Unequal distribution as almost all the cytoplasm contained in the 20 oocyte and ovum while all the small polar bodies finally degerate