REFERENCES INTRODUCTION THE FOUR SCHOOLS OF FIQH THE DEFINITION OF SALAH THE RULING OF SALAH THE EXCELLENCE OF SALAH THE BENEFITS OF SALAH THE ACCOUNTABILITY OF SALAH Praying after the expiration of time (Qada) THE RULING ON ABANDONING THE SALAH THE HISTORY OF SALAH The Characteristics of the Prayer Before Islam The History of Salah in Islam THE TIMES OF SALAH The Time for Fajr The Time for Zuhr The Time for Asr The Time for Maghrib The Time for Isha Time for Witr The Preferred Salah Times for the Madhab The Prohibited/Disliked Times ADHAN The Definition of Adhan The History of the Adhan The Virtue of the Adhan The Ruling of the Adhan Ruling of the Adhan for a Women’s Congregation
5 5 7 11 11 12 13 13 14 14 16 16 17 18 18 19 19 19 19 20 20 21 23 23 23 23 24 24
Ruling of the Adhan for an Indivdual Summary The Shurut of the Adhan The Etiquettes of the Adhan SHURUT OF SALAH Shurut of Salah Pre-requisites (Shurut) for obligating Salah Conditions (Shurut) for validating Salah ARKAN (INTEGRALS) OF SALAH Arkan of Salah Issues on the Fatihah The Virtues of Surah Al-Fatihah WAJJIBAT (OBLIGATORY ACTS) OF SALAH SUNAN (RECOMMENDED ACTS) OF SALAH MAKRUH (ABONIMABLE) ACTS IN SALAH MUBAH (PERMISSIBLE) ACTS IN SALAH THE ETIQUETTE OF SALAH The Difference between Men and Women in Regard To Salah HOW TO ACHIEVE KHUSHU IN SALAH THE POST SALAH DHIKR SALAT’L-MUSAFIR (THE PRAYER OF THE TRAVELLER) Al Qasr – Shortening the prayer The Rulings of praying Al-Qasr The Minimum distance to allow Qasr What is the time-period that constitutes residency? COMBINING PRAYERS The forms of combining prayer The rulings on combining prayer Combining between Fard Salah ACTS THAT NULLIFY THE SALAH Acts that allows the departure from Salah
Sujud’l-Sahw (Prostration due to forgetfulness) CONGREGATIONAL SALAH Benefits of Congregational Salah The Ruling of Congregation Salah The Prayer Line Rules of the Imam Abominable acts in leading Salah Rules of the Ma’mum Etiquette of the latecomer for Salah (al-Masbuq) Rules of the Masjid Etiquette of going to the Masjid SALAT’L NAFILAH (SUPEREROGATORY PRAYERS) Forms of Nafl Salah Obligatory Prayer Rakats Sunnah Prayer Rakats OTHER CONGRAGATIONAL PRAYERS Salat’l-Jum’ah Salat’l-Eedayn Salat’l-Taraweeh Salat’l-Khusuf (Lunar) & Kusuf (Solar) – The Eclipse Prayer Salat’l-Istiqa – Prayer for the request of rain Salat’l-Khawf
The text in the binder is based on Ummahatul Kutub. Also based on following books: Al Fiqh-ul-islam-wa-iddalatihu – this has evidences for all schools, for all actions concerning the Prayer. Al Fiqh-Al-Islami – Hanafi book on Fiqh of Salah. Al-Hidayah – statements/positions in each school.
Prophet (SAW) said the greatest trial from time of Adam to the Hour, is Ad-Dajjal. There has not come a Prophet that did not warn about the Ad-Dajjal. The people will be starving, poor and destitute and the Dajjal will appear. He will produce food and give money. People will be confused and stressed. He will tell people if he is able to bring back his parents, if they believe in him. Dajjal will be with us for 40 days, 1 day will be like a year, 1 day will be like a month, 1 day will be like a week and the rest of the days will be like our days. Prophet (SAW) said if he was amongst his people at the time Ad-Dajjal comes, he will protect them. The companions asked about the day when it would be like a year, if they would be able to perform their five daily prayers – this was their number one concern – their link with Allah. This needs to be understood – this is our most important link with Allah. It has been recommended to memorize either the first ten or the last ten verses of Surah Al-Kahf – as this will be a protection from the Dajjal. In Islam, there is no easier way to Paradise than the kind treatment of parents. The happiness of your Lord, is in the happiness of your parents. We should not base our arguments on tajroobah (benefits/wisdoms) in defending Islam – these should come at the end, e.g. the issue of Niqab. When a ruling is given by the scholars, the basis of these rulings start bottom up, i.e. first and foremost, they are the commandments of Allah or the Sunnah of the Prophet (SAW). SubhanAllah – Supreme and transcendent (above and beyond everything)
a seventh.Subhan – You are addressing the supreme. a quarter. intention. moved to Hadith.
The five times prayer was given to the Prophet (SAW) in the heavens directly by Allah during the night of Isra wa’l Mi’raj – which is understood to be three years before Hijrah or just after. Allah continues to look at his slave when he is praying until the slave turns away. Internal dimension of worship – hearts. where as Insan has the freedom of choice. The following three things have been abrogated in Islam. a eighth. a sixth. not to try and define it. We are better than the angels as they only do what they are commanded to do.
. The more correct opinion is that it took place between 8-18 months before the Hijrah. Tajrubah – personal experience Shirk in our time is the worship of rationalism – in which it is believed that the intellect is greater than the books and Sunnah. is an example where the verse remains but the act has been taken away. “We are human beings having a spiritual experience” but the Muslims said “We are spiritual beings having a human experience”. Tafsir-e-quran-bil-hadith –Understanding a verse of the Quran using Hadith. a ninth. This is a statement of distance. External action.
The people of religion of the past said.
i. that in reference to the act of Salah. Tafsir-e-quran-bil-quran – Understanding a verse of the Quran using another verse of the Quran. humbleness. Achieving success in Prayer by focusing on:
i. The Aql (intellect) needs to be used to understand the text. Praying whilst drunk – It was permissible according to Surah Al-Nisa. where he can accept or not accept Islam. a third and a half of their prayer – authentic hadith. O Allah you are truly exalted and transcendent from what they say. This is mentioned in a number of hadith. over a period of time: Breastfeeding in relation to establish a mahram relationship – this was originally specified as 10 times. Prophet (SAW) said a person will pray and will only take a tenth. ii. which was then later abrogated. Prophet (SAW) said pray as you see me pray. Stoning to death for an adulterer – The Ayah was taken out of the Quran (abrogated) and the ruling has ii. This iii. the evidences. The prayer has to be done according to the Sunnah. a fifth. This is an example where the verse has been taken away but the act remains. maximum distance between what people say of Allah and His true reality. Allah turns to us at this time. but later abrogated by a Hadith which stated this to be 5 times.
He also has high regard for Imam Shafi’i and Abu Hanifah also). Abu Dawud. Popular in parts of Egypt. Ibn Qurtubi. Ibn Hajjah. Yahya Ibn Zakariyya. Al Tirmidhi. Abdullah Ibn Mubarak. Hanbalis – predominantly in Saudi Arabia. Shafi + Ahmed – were considered as Ahl-e-Hadith. Position of the School
Shafi – predominantly in Egypt. i. Al-Muttamat – the authoritative book in the school of Fiqh. Malik + Abu Hanifah – were considered as Ahl-e-Raii’ – People who use opinion. has:
i. he reformed Islam and Politics. Qudama. Yahya Ibn Ma’in (great scholar). Imam Ghazali. When these four Fuqaha unanimously state that an action will have severe consequences. Suyuti. Ibn Hajar Al-Askalani (one of the greatest scholars to have ever lived in Islam). The key authorities in this school. An-Nissae. Muhammad ibn Hamza Shaybani was his main teacher. Shafi’i – Founded by Imam Shafi – Teacher was Imam Malik. this needs to be treated very seriously. Hanbali – Founded by Imam Ahmad Ibn Habal – Student of Shafi’i. those do the checking and are the masters of the school are Imam Zufur. Ibn Qardun. Very hadith oriented and orthodox in their creed. as these verdicts are based on a detailed study of the Quran and Sunnah. In Hanafi school. The four greatest Fuqaha (jurists) ever known in the Sunni school (Ahlus-sunna-wal-jammah) were the four Imams – who always tried to find a solution from Quran and Sunnah to make things easy for the masses. Muhammad ibn Hamza Shaybani (main student). Al Jawziy. School of Ahlul Hadith – Based upon the narrations of the Prophet. Ibn Taymiyyah (he reformed Fiqh. These books in essence are the established facts. Imam Al Bukhari. Hanafi – predominantly in the Indian sub-continent. Ibn Kathir. Imam Nawawi. Majd Ibn Taymiyyah.e. Abdul Qadir al-Jilani. The four schools of thought: Hanafi – Founded by Abu Hanifah – he was the first to master the science of Fiqh. Maliki – Founded by Imam Malik – 3rd generation of Muslims. Al-Khallal. there are many books that can be regarded as the Muttamat. Views largely dependent on the actions of the people of Madina. He is also a Muhaddith. so amongst the Salaf.THE FOUR SCHOOLS OF FIQH
Madhabs are just a tool – they are not the means. Imam Al-Muslim. Every school of Law. Zaydahi. Author of Mu’attah. Abu Yusuf. Position of the Imam ii.
. he has a high regard for Imam Malik and wrote an entire book defending Imam Malik.
but Fiqh is not Aqeedah. etc. Abu Hanifah’s position ii. Abu Hanifa’s fiqh (deep understanding) was unparalleled to other scholars – knowledge on
another level. then it is best to go with the safest position. because:
iii. innovations. Abu Hanifah had to be very strict on hadith and be extra restrictive to make sure he has authentic hadeeths. sects. making his pool of hadith even smaller.
ii. there may be:
i. A ‘Sunnah’ when it comes to Fiqh is something if it is omitted. It is important to understand. where nothing has been found regarding this situation in Hadith. Abu Hanifa’s home town. Abu Hanifah’s opinions were sometimes on their own. The position of the two companion’s of Abu Hanifah (Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood and Ali Ibn Talib) iii. by going over and checking the opinions and the hadeeths of the madhab. that were going on in Iraq at Abu
Hanifa’s time in his locale. Aqeedah – there is no differing in the commandments according to shariah. inshallah. Fiqh – there are differences in opinions on issues which are not firmly established within the Quran and Sunnah. That’s why his opinions are at a variance with other madhabs. A Fiqh ruling is well established. etc. if it is followed.Malik – The Hanafi position on Fiqh is normally deemed as different to other schools. however.
Abu Hanifah’s large dependence on these two companions (Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood & Ali ibn Talib) who went to kufah in Iraq. The school’s position
Which teacher should I ask? Principle – The one who seeks a ruling is upon the madhab of the one who he asks. in the Hanafi Madhab. then it is not punished. If the scholars differ in opinion. A Fatwah is not a Fiqh ruling. Al-Mustaftti-Al-al Madhabi – The one who does not know a ruling is automatically upon the school of the one who he asks. Principle: Live your life by Taqwa (fearing Allah) and not Fatwah (ruling). as nothing is written in stone and sound differences of opinion are permissible with the four Imams. Muhaqeqeen – They make Tahqeeq (authenticate) – they review the Hadith. as it is based on the differences in the classification of hadith. There was a lot of fabrication of hadith. then is rewarded. The Khawarij also came from there. A Fatwah is a ruling which is unique to the person.
If one’s prayer becomes a combination of the different madhabs due to his own study and following trusted scholars. without you knowing or understanding the evidences yourself. The thabeen met the Sahabah and died as Muslim. His collection of hadith and explanations were the very best. million hadith.Takleed – Blindly following the rulings of the Imams and the Scholars – the general masses of Muslims fall into this category as they do not have the knowledge or the means to study the evidences for themselves. There are only authentic hadith in here. Each person in the chain is assessed in the most critical way. there are only authentic hadith in here. and only accepted approx. Imam Nawawi was a strong Shafi. Al-Nasa’i . Ibn Majah. The Layman cannot and should not mix and match between a Madhab. The most authentic set of hadith are contained in Sahih Bukhari. This contains more hadith than Bukhari. 1000 in his book. Al-Albani. For these people. Imam Bukhari is regarded as Amirul Mumineen – and the greatest hadith scholar to walk the earth. the madhabs that they follow should be strictly adhered to – there is no picking and choosing from different madhabs for particular situations. etc. can also be followed. Salaf – The first three generations. Tirmidhi. However. Bukhari went through approx. The four Imams are the most established in the Sunni school. in turn can be followed in his views by others. The hadith becomes stronger the less people there are in the chain. some of which are mentioned here. other great Scholars such as Ibn Taymiyyah. who had universal acceptance by all the schools.e. there are three key people in the chain – Ibn Umar who related the hadith narration to Naf’i (servant boy) who related the narration it to Imam Malik. also. However. the preserved. there are certain hadith which has the “golden chain” – i. Taqleed is a tool – to follow someone who knows more than you. Mu’adh ibn Jabbal was a companion who was sent to Yemen by our Prophet (SAW). so there is no possibility of bias. Tarfeeq – Permissibility for people (students of knowledge) to take from different madhabs as long as it is done for the sake of Allah and not just to find something which is easy. Shawkani. a scholar can mix and match madhabs.in these four books. Sunan of Abu Dawud. In the Muttah of Imam Malik. Imam Bukhari was a Shafi and also Ahlul-Hadith and was also considered to be a Mujtahid Muqlak – which is as qualified as they come. It usually refers to the layman (ammi’) accepting a religious ruling from an Alim without questioning his textual proof of juristic reasoning. there is different classification of Sahih.
. The thabe-thebeen met the thabeen and died as Muslim. and this scholar. then this is also permissible. His books were the very best. All the Sahabah are trustworthy – these are the companions of the Prophet (SAW) – they met the Prophet and died as Muslim. Kalaf – The next generations that followed them. but not as authentic – this was never meant to be a book of hadith.the pious predecessors. The criteria and classification of the hadith are subject to the utmost rigour to verify their authenticity. forgetfulness. In Sahih Muslim. weakness. In Sahih Bukhari there are no weak or hasan hadith in his book. These three generations are known as the Salaf . etc.
ii. The Ulama allow weak hadith to be used when it concerns Salah – to encourage the people to pray.Hasan. Three conditions for using weak hadith: This hadith must not be “very weak” – i.e. The hadith is talking about something that has already been established in the Sunnah.
i. iii. the weakness of it should also be mentioned. When the hadith is quoted or narrated. Weak hadith can be used to encourage others and discourage others from performing actions as long as this does not legislate. there is someone in the chain that has lied or fabricated in the past.”
. and Daeef hadith in these collections.
No excuses are accepted in obligatory actions such as Salah – it is from the matters which are “known by necessity in the religion.
iii. Intention has to be for the sake of Allah – this is from the inner dimension.
THE RULING OF SALAH
Fardul Ayn – Individual Obligation Fardul Kifayah – Community Obligation Three aspects that define the Sunnah:
i. “Kitaban” – Written/Established. Salat and Zakat always mentioned together in the Qur’an by Allah – this religion and our Prophet (SAW) has been sent down to “purify” us.
Suran Al-Nisa. but if you forgive them. A Synagogue Middle of the back (from the definition of the Jahiliyah Arabs)
Technical Definition – “The worship of Allah with a particular set of statements and actions that begin with the takbir (Allahu Akbar) and end with the taslim (Assalamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullah). the Powerful. Salah purifies us physically. An action of the Prophet which has been observed. Statement of our Prophet (SAW).
Du’a Blessing. Zakat purifies our wealth. Has to be done according to the Sunnah of the Prophet (SAW) – this covers the external aspect.
. iii. the Wise. Our scholars used to say our objectives are purification (tasfiyah) and education (tarbiyah). The Prophets approval of somebody else doing/not doing an action.THE DEFINITION OF SALAH
Prophet (SAW) in authentic hadith prayed an entire prayer with just one verse – “O Allah if you punish them. it has to obey two conditions:
i. ii.” For any action to be accepted. This was originally used by Prophet Esa for his people who associated him with Allah. Salah can mean:
i. iv. then you are the Mighty. ii. Mercy. Forgiveness. they are your servants. This verse is known as the verse of Shifaa (intercession). ii. 103.” (Al Maidah).
iv. The reward of fifty was kept to signify how great this action is to Allah. xi. x. iii.
Major sins (Kaba’ir) are sins that have explicitly been strictly forbidden in Islam. It expiates our sins. Musa. It was obligated as fifty prayers and then later reduced to five prayers.g. xii. Esa. xv. sincerely (which comprises of a statement. i. ii. Riba. ix. 180 degrees.
i. It was given to the Prophet (SAW) on the greatest night he ever experienced (Al Isra). vi. xiv.
. etc. It has been given its own public call each time: the Adhan. however. through shedding tears and being broken within yourself. travelling. It is the first thing that the servant of Allah will be judged upon on the Day of Judgment. and then the
changing of the state) Show regret and remorse. It will be the last thing to be taken from this religion. There are obligations in Islam. Need to stop action immediately ii. It was the only obligation from the five pillars to be obligated in Makkah upon the Muslims at the very beginning of Islam. with a defined punishment or a threat of a punishment. v.e. where he met Prophets Idris. which must be performed in all conditions. Its abandonment leads a person to shirk and kufr.e. despite whatever condition or situation we are in. with the reward of fifty remaining. to seek forgiveness. The minor sins (sagha’ir) committed between each prayer are cleansed at the next prayer. otherwise it is not considered to be an obligation upon you. of if the word “cursed” is used. viii. It is the defining characteristic of the Muslim. It was the last testament given to us by the Prophet (SAW) before he passed away. which has the following conditions:
i. These can only be forgiven through tawba.e. It is the best of actions. Bid’ah. is an outright obligation. Ibrahim. vii. It is the only daily continual act of worship we have. Seek forgiveness from Allah. It was given over to the Muslims at the highest point that any human can ever reach (Sidratul Muntaha). It was given to the Prophet (SAW) directly by Allah without any intermediaries. but it is necessary to have the wealth to do this. i. Hajj is an obligation.
THE EXCELLENCE OF SALAH
Salah has the following virtues: It is the main pillar of Islam. xiii. e. iii. whether we are ill.Prophet (SAW) said the Qiblah is between the East and West – This means that in times of difficulty there is a flexibility of approx. Salah. i. in battle. in which certain other obligations need to be met first. It is the foremost obligation after declaration of faith.
1/7th 1/6th . and the child until he reaches puberty. 1/8th. The soul is strengthened and ascends to the Heavenly Realm away from the harms of the Dunyah.
. you will only receive a reward equivalent to a 1/10th .e. It is a relaxation. The entire Salah is based on a single word – tuma’ninah (a relaxation). if they refuse. It takes away stress and hardship It provides physical and spiritual training and discipline – it preserves from lewdness and sins It helps preserve the aqidah (creed) of the community – feeling of unity and strength. The spanking has to be light. no aggression.THE BENEFITS OF SALAH
i. This hadith has been established as authentic. Sanity – when someone understands what they’re being told and has full control over their mental
faculties.e. Post-pubescence – The famous hadith (Abu Dawud) encourages parents to order their children to pray at iii. etc. iv.
THE ACCOUNTABILITY OF SALAH
Every Mukallaf (legally responsible adult ) is fully accountable for Salah. 1/ 3rd or 1/2 of the prayer that has been performed. vi. the sleeping one until he awakens. 1/9th. Islam has to exist for the person – only the Muslim is accountable specifically ii. This is in reference to the accounting of one’s deeds. i. conversing with one’s Lord. 1/5th. This discipline should not be in any form to cause any harm or pain to the child i.
One becomes closer to Allah. According to a hadith. it is for the issue of establishing fear.g. ii. The detail of taklif (legal responsibility) is based on the hadith: “The pen has been lifted from three: the insane one until he regains his sanity.
Tuma’ninah (relaxation) occurs 3 times in the Qur’an e.” This hadith is muttawatir in its meaning. Ibrahim in Surah Al-Baqarah Whole Salah is based upon this word Tuma’ninah (statement of the heart). 1/4th. If you find salah difficult it means you have no khushoo and if you have no khushoo your salat is worthless. it will not write when you are in any of the above three states. the age of seven and then discipline them at the age of ten. v. no marking. iii. Salah is accountable on the following conditions:
i. avoid the face and any marks.
” Scenario B – The one who abandons the prayer out of laziness or other reasons. then you do not need to make these up. in the order of Fajr. then those five prayers need to be made up. then perform the other missed prayers in order. Takfir – To announce/take someone out of Islam. If someone repents after a long period of negligence in prayer. i. v. they don’t need to be made up for missed prayers – however. then these should be immediately made up at the time of consciousness as Qada prayers. In a Hadith narration. However. as the person was unconscious. unconscious. “Disbeliever”. If a number of prayers have been missed. then one of them has disbelieved. then the one who said it has brought disbelief upon himself. Asr. The other scholars say. therefore the prayer was not obligatory for him at that time. then you should perform Maghrib first.e. he must perform it immediately.iv. that if you become ill. it is said: “When someone says to another. according to Ibn Taymiyyah only tawbah is required. Zuhr. Abu Hanifah says if you fall into a coma which lasts for days.
Qada – Means “making up post the time of request.” If prayers are missed through unconsciousness. There is an authentic hadith that says that if someone has made takfir on someone who was once a believer. There is a unanimous consensus that this person is a disbeliever. then all the prayers should be performed in order. or the obligatory prayer that is being performed at the masjid at that time. The exemption is one who is new to Islam and is just learning the commandments and the reality. then it immediately becomes obligatory for him. but as soon as he is awake and conscious. it is just for a day. then you are not accountable.” Adaa – Means “performing something in its right time. If you are unconscious for less than one day. Ibn Taymiyyah said that these prayers missed due to unconsciousness are Adaa. then you have to perform all your prayers on regaining consciousness.
THE RULING ON ABANDONING THE SALAH
Scenario A – The one who denies the obligation of Salah. Abu Hanifah has said if a person is unconscious/drunk for a long period of time. The Ulema have three well-known differing opinions:
. if it is time for Maghrib. If that was not the case. State of purity – the woman should not be in a state of menstruation. If the one he said it to really is a disbeliever then he spoke the truth. Praying after the expiration of time (Qada) The second a person remembers he has missed a prayer. This is a very important issue. Maghrib and Esha. State of awareness. then one of them is definitely a Kafir – either the person making the takfir or the person being accused of it.
however. etc. Surah Nisa. then we are commanded to let them go free. He is asked for
three days yet if he doesn’t then he is killed as a prescribed punishment (hadd) not as a disbeliever or an apostate.
iii. the hadith is weak because there is a break in the chain. Imam Hanifah – The persons is a Muslim but a Fasiq (disobedient evildoer). Imam Malik and Imam Shafi . Ibn Majah narrates a hadith by Abu Hurayrah – “If there are deficiencies in the obligatory prayers. Al-Tirmidhi] Another Hadith: “Verily. he has a promise that he will be forgiven. abandons the prayer he is treated as an apostate. He will forgive everything. Evidences: The verse in the Qur’an about slaying the Polytheists. If a Muslim living in an Islamic state.” Hadeeth of Shifa’ah – last person who comes out of hell has done nothing good in his life except the shahadah. but if he does not do that Allah might either punish him or forgive him. with kushoo. If. Abu Dawud.” [Ahmad.The person is a Muslim but a Fasiq (disobedient evildoer). with sujood. He is not to be killed but
rather he should be imprisoned. for someone to perform perfect ablution and perform the prayer at the correct times. Verse 48 – Allah will not forgive those that assign partners to Him. The Hadith of Buraydah – “The covenant that distinguishes between us and them is the prayer and whoever neglects it has disbelieved. they do not comply. Evidences: The Hadith in the text is Muwattah – i.i.
Imam Ahmad Ibn Habal – The person is to be killed as a Kafir . then the Sunnah and Nafl prayers are checked which will be used to fix these deficiencies. between a person and shirk and kufr is the abandonment of the prayer. Evidences:
. is in the context of warfare – but if the enemy repents and establishes the prayer and pays the zakah.”
ii. except shirk. where this punishment applies.e.this is only applicable in an Islamic State (by the Amirul Amineen) or a country which is run with Islamic Law and there is a Muslim majority where the Muslims are practising. In a Hadith. we are told: Allah has obligated five prayers. then the punishment is applicable.
chamber) – Sad: 21. and My servant shall have what he has asked for. iv. Praying in the Mihrab (retreat. During the time of Ismai’l – Maryam: 55. Praying in the House – Yunus: 10 Standing in Salah – Al-Hajj: 26 Ruku – Al-Hajj: 26 Sujud – Al-Hajj: 26 Congregational Prayer . iii. v. iii.
Every day you have a promise of forgiveness from Allah. v. It is a unique form of creating a Muslim Identity. vii.
Conclusion – strongest opinion Malik & Shafi’I and majority of the scholars of the salaf and khalaf considered the person who leaves salah is not a disbeliever. The Salah is the best capital you have to offer on the Day of Judgment. ii. iv. vi. During the time of Musa – Yunus: 87. During the time of Ibrahim – Ibrahim: 37. but committed an evil sin and is asked to repent either he does that or is killed as an apostate. This is the first mention of Salah to the Prophet (SAW) of the earlier Prophets (the word “ruku”). Salah was prescribed in the Heavens – it is the Divine Link. The person who just prays their Jummah salah only is as close to kufr as possible. iii. v. iv.
The Characteristics of the Prayer Before Islam
i. except in three conditions: the married person who commits adultery. and the one who forsakes his religion. Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet (SAW) said that Allah said: “I have divided prayer between Myself and My servant into two halves. During the time of Esa – Al-e-Imran: 43.Al-Baqarah: 43
.It is Haram to spill the blood of another Muslim. ii.” [Muslim]
THE HISTORY OF SALAH
The reference of the Prophets and the act of Salah mentioned in the Quran: During the time of Dawud – Sad: 24.
Reflection Points – Savour the sweetness of the status of Salah
i. During the time of Bani Israil – Al-Maidah: 12. vi. a life for a life.
Praying in the House of Allah – Al-Baqarah: 125. ii.
Some Salah-related rituals might be different from what we do today.
Points of Reflection:
i. It is usually accepted that it was roughly 18 month to 8 months before the Hijrah. to just after the Hijrah. This was later abrogated by the verse in Surah Al-Nisa: 43.
. ii. iii. in which this was no longer allowed. The Tawakkul of the Prophet (SAW) in his Lord.
Early forms of Salah
i. iii. iv. not exclusively Islamic. The five daily prayers ordained on the Night of Miraj later abrogated this obligation (for the Ummah). Stage 2.
The History of Salah in Islam Stage 1: At the onset of Revelation Stage 2: The early years of the Message – the Night Prayer (Qiyam’l-Layl) was obligated on the Prophet (SAW) first due to the command in Surat’l-Muzzammil. In Surah Al-Baqarah: 219 – mentions that there is some benefit in alcohol. 90-91. but should be avoided.
i. Stage 1.
Stage 3: The Night of Al-Isra’ wal-Miraj The acceptable range for the time of this occurrence was 3 years before the Hijrah. iv. v. iv. The difficulty borne by the Prophet (SAW) to get this prayer to us. There are three stages in the prohibition of alcohol.
Muslims were not the first or only people who performed Salah. iii. ii. Key Lessons:
Two daily prayers (two rakats) established in the Quran – the Doha Prayer and the Asr Prayer Wudu was optional for these prayers. One could drink alcohol before the Salah. Acts of Salah represent humility and humbleness and a sign of devotion. The love of the Prophet (SAW) for the Salah.Establishing Dhikr in Salat – Ta-Ha: 14 Removing Footwear – Ta-Ha: 12 viii. In Surah Al-Maidah. ii. ii.
The five daily prayers were obligated The times of the five daily prayers were established Prayers were only two rakat long Talking during the Salah was initially allowed but then prohibited soon after. Stage 3. The Qiblah was towards Jerusalem The obligation of Qiyam’l Layl is abrogated. Actions of Salah are universal. alcohol and gambling was completely prohibited.
v. indeed the Prayer has been enjoined upon the Believers at set times. Salah was enhanced and number of rak’at is increased.” One of the key hadiths on the Fiqh of Salah. ii.vi. iii.
It is the only pillar in Islam that was obligated in Makkah before the Hijrah We followed the steps of the righteous nations before us in Salah We are the only nation today that adheres to the original form of Salah Allah. 1 hour 30 minutes before
. approx.” [Al Nisa: 103] The word “time” (waqt) is defined as “the legally established time for which that ‘ibaddah is required. and we get as much as fifty – such a lucrative bargain!
THE TIMES OF SALAH
“Establish the Prayer. Al-Fajr’l-Sadiq (the true dawn) – once the twilight becomes visible lengthways across the sky connected to the horizon. The Eid prayer was established – second year after Hijrah. The Hadith mentioned here where the people performing Salah changed their direction whilst praying. Al-Fajr’l-Kadhib (the false dawn) once the twilight becomes visible vertically. prescribed gradually. Talking during Salah was prohibited. ii. vi. The Janazah prayer was established v. The Jumu’ah prayer was obligated but not established. is an evidence that a Hadith Ahad (single narration) can establish Law. iv. iv. vi. with regards to the timing of Prayer is the Hadith of Jibril. vii. The Time for Fajr The Time for Fajr is from the true dawn (Al-Fajr’l-Sadiq) until sunrise (Ulu’ Al-Shams). iii. We do as little as five.
Savour the Sweetness
i. Qiyamul Layl is indeed the most powerful spiritual retreat The change of the qiblah was an indication to the significance of this Ummah. The angle of the morning twilight for Fajr prayer should be about 15 degrees. the Most Merciful. but then disappears. More Sunan prayers were established including Salat’l Ghaib (prayer for someone who has passed away) Salat’l Khawf
i. An hour before Fajr you see a vertical brighness coming from the horizon upwards.
Stage 4: Second Year After The Hijrah The Qiblah was changed towards Makkah.
5 hours between Maghrib and Isha. “Negligence is not to be found during sleep. It ends once the shadow of each object is the same as its length. the disk of the sun disappears from the horizon. All the scholars agree that the best time to pray Maghrib is straight after sunset – this is the preferable time. Muhammad Ibn al-Hassan and Abu Yusuf. It finishes just before the sun has set.the sun rises. Note: 15 degree angle gives approx. The angle of the evening twilight for Esha prayer should be about 15 degrees. plus the length of that object at the time if zawwal. starts once the sun has set. This is the preferable time before which the Isha prayer should be performed. Negligence is when one doesn’t pray a prayer until the time of the next prayer comes. i. which is risky. Ahmad. It ends once the shadow of each object is twice the length of the original object. – Abu Hanifah The Time for Asr The time for Asr starts just after the time for Zuhr has finished. plus the length of that object at the time if zawwal – Malik. According to the two companions (Abu Yusuf Al Qadi and Muhammad Ibn Hamza Shaybani). The Time for Zuhr The time for Zuhr is from when the sun starts to decline to the West post its zenith. The bigger the number (angle). This is agreed upon. and the disk disappears on the horizon.
.e. if the angle is too big. Shafi. 1. then the later time for esha. the Hanabilah and the Shafiyyah. by consensus. Civil Evening Twilight – When the sun starts to set. The time for Maghrib continues until the twilight remains in the sky. however. The Time for Isha Midnight is normally considered half the time between the beginning time of Maghrib and the beginning time of Fajr. Abu Hanifah said that the twilight is the whiteness that remains on the horizon after the redness until darkness falls. this is makrooh and should be avoided. This is now the position of the Hanafi madhab as well. The Time for Maghrib The time for Maghrib. the earlier starting time for fajr.” [Muslim] This shows that each prayer is technically valid until the start time of the next prayer. The scholars say it is makrooh to pray the Asr prayer just before the Maghrib prayer. as it may actually be before Fajr has started. the twilight is the redness in the sky.
When is a Prayer considered “within its time”? When only a portion of the prayer is performed within the time limit. for it is greater in reward. The Hanbalis All the prayers are to be performed in their earliest times except Isha. This effectively means the time for Isha starts that length of time that it takes for the new moon on the third night for it to set. Maghrib: should be prayed as soon as possible at all times.” [Tirmidhi: 142] – Sahih. as per the Hadith. The Shafi’is All of the prayers are to be prayed in their earliest times. Asr: should be delayed. other than Zuhr during intense heat. and Mahgrib if it is cloudy. Zuhr during intense heat. Middle of the night – half way between the beginning of Maghrib and the beginning of Fajr. is to be performed in the earliest time because that gains the pleasure of Allah. whether hot or cold weather. Zuhr: should be delayed until it gets cooler in the hot countries. Isha: should be delayed until a third of the night has passed. Time for Witr It’s beginning time is after Isha and its end time is just before the break of dawn. They liked to hasten it during Autumn and Winter. Witr is to to be delayed until the end of the night. The Preferred Salah Times for the Madhab The Hanafis Fajr: should be delayed and prayed once the sky has started to become brighter and lighter because of the narration: “Pray the Fajr when it becomes brighter. whether prayed individually or in congregation. because it is makruh to pray those after Asr as per the Hadith. so that more nawafil can be performed before it.
The Malakis Every single prayer.
. with no more that a brief time to sit or three verses length between the adhan and iqamah.The Hadith of Numan Ibn Bashir said the Messenger of Allah would pray it once the moon had set on the third night.
and is punished upon doing it. When the sun is at its zenith (al-istiwa) and highest midday point iv.e. after prayer with congregation has finished. The second opinion: The Malikis and Shafi. Upon Hadith of Qibla which was also Hadith Ahad (Fardun Ayn).The first opinion: The Hanafi & Hanbalis in the strongest narration.
. (iii). The Hanafis said that is also Haram. unlike something which is classified as haram. Its ruling is: one is rewarded if he avoids it. During the yellow period of the sunset (ghurubl shams)
These times are divided into two groups: The three times (associated with sun) equals (ii). Yet one is not excommunicated if he denies this ruling. They differed between Asr (allowing it) and Fajr (prohibiting it) but also allowed the masses to pray during these times in case they left the prayer off completely. All scholars therefore said that this is Haram and therefore is punishable. no prayer is allowed now until after sunrise) During sunrise (tulu al-shams) until about 15-20 mins afterwards ii. The Prohibited/Disliked Times After the Fajr prayer until the length of a spear after sunrise (i. If it is less than a rakah. then the prayer is considered qada. Prophet (SAW) said don’t wear gold or silk. This is based on the Hadith in Bukhari: 523.
The Hanafis Makruh Tahriman – This is something which is popular and specific to the Hanafi madhab. then it is punishable. It has to be complete rakah with its two prostrations included. The three prohibited times are classified as Makhruh Tahriman to pray in these times. The two prohibited times are also classified as Makhruh Tahriman to pray at all. wajib or qada prayers. (v). The two times (associated with time intervals) equals (i) and (iv). iii. but if you say it’s not from Islam (Daleel Dhanni – has come to us from Khabar Ahad (singlular narration). but it is Makruh Tahriman. Yet the prayers in all these times is considered correct. except Qada. Makruh Tanzihan – The Hanafis defined this as something which is requested to be avoided in the Shariah – not obligated. Safest position is the rakah – when ruku has been performed. shows that Hadith Ahad is acceptable. whether nawafil. which they don’t consider binding. After Asr until the sun sets v. just requested – and there is no punishment for the one who does it.
but is still accepted. such as eclipse prayer. The Shafis The two prohibited times: Makruh Tanzihan except:
i. The is when an action is done in the wrong way.
. even if someone doesn’t pray. iii. The three prohibited times: Voluntary prayers prohibited but obligatory allowed. including missed prayers. iv. etc. An example of this is the fast which remains valid.
The Malikis The two prohibited times: The nawafil are disliked but specific ones are allowed such as Sajdat-l-tilawah.Something can be classified as Haram in Islam. ii. ii.
The three prohibited times: Makruh Tahriman to perform the voluntary prayers but obligatory allowed. A specific prayer that cannot be delayed. Malikis allowed it outside the mosque as long as first rakah is caught afterwards)
Note: If you are praying a sunnah. This applies to both nafl and wajib. two units for Tawaf. prayer for rain. One must make up all of his missed prayers – this is the Hanafi position and the position of all the four imams. The Hanbalis Allowed some prayers to be made up during all five prohibited times. the prayer to make up a vow. The Salat Janazah is only allowed during the two prohibited times. Salat’lJanazah and the two Sunnah of Fajr. v. to repeat a congregational prayer again for no reason with the conditions that it is repeated in a Masjid. iv. Other voluntary prayers are prohibited whether they have specific reasons or not. sunnah of wudu. but can still be correct/valid. iii.
Jumu’ah: allowed during the zenith (based on weak hadith) In the Haram Makkah (all allowed based on authentic narration in Abu Dawud) Sajdat’l Shukr (due to action of Ka’b ibn Malik after his tawbah was accepted). if the Iqamah for the obligatory prayer has been given. two units of entering masjid.
After the break of dawn. missed prayer. before the obligatory Fajr prayer Before Salat Maghrib During the Khutbah Before the Eid prayer and after it During the Iqamah for an obligatory prayer (Hanafis allowed it only for the two rakats sunnah for Fajr. this should be broken by walking away from it. General Nawafil Prayers Many Ulema disliked voluntary prayers to be prayed at certain times:
i. funeral prayer.
will be a witness for them (Muezzin) on the Day of Resurrection.According to the Hanafi Madhab. The Imam is a guarantor and the Mu’adhdin is a trustee. This can be a sign of honour..” [Al-Fussilat: 33]
. One should make tawbah and spend time offering extra sunnah and nawafil prayers – position of Ibn Taymiyyah (This is also the position of Abu Eesa).
The Definition of Adhan Mean to proclaim something publicly. these people will have their head above this. to make people know something. According to the Shafi and Hanbali said that to give the adhan is better than being the Imam.” There are authentic narrations that the adhan was also delayed (so not always said at beginning time). The story was of Abdullah Ibn Zayd who saw in his dream someone in green garments teaching him the words of the adhan. whether human being or jinn or any other creature. Umar ibn Khattab told Prophet (SAW) an angel taught him the exact same words in his dream the night before. This can be also be because people will be drowning of their own sweat. A missed prayer can be prayed after an obligatory prayer.
The History of the Adhan The story behind adhan is based on some long authentic hadith collected by Abu Dawud and all the Imams of the Sunan. after the entering of the time for a Prayer. Technical Definition: “It is an act of worship for Allah with a specific dhikr.. because Allah says: “Who speaks better than someone who calls people to Allah. This was really only applicable when Bilal gave the adhan... The Mu’adhdin will have the tallest necks amongst mankind on the Day of Standing. many years of missed prayers can be prayed during the permissible times. if the prayer itself is delayed such as the Zuhr in intense heat. informing of it thereby. These words were then taught to Bilal. on the request of Prophet (SAW). The Virtue of the Adhan Various Hadith Whoever hears the adhan. The additional recitation of “Prayer is better than sleep” during the adhan is not required today.
Ruling of the Adhan for an Indivdual Both Adhan and Iqamah are Recommended – this is the opinion of Shafi and strongly emphasised by the Hanafis ii. he would have been a Mu’addhin. Hanafiyyah and Hanbali said neither of them allowed because of fitnah. performing Umrah or going on Jihad.Some of the Ulema considered this to refer to those who give the adhan. This is the correct opinion – someone in the community should perform it. iii.
Malikiyyah and Shafiyyah said only the iqamah is Mustahhab (recommended) and the adhan is not done because of fitnah. Some scholars considered it as a Fard-ul-Kifayah (a communal obligation) such as the Hanabilah and Ibn Tayyimah. The adhan of the locality is sufficient for all the people. Only the Iqamah is Recommended – this is the position of Maliki. even for the individual or the one who has missed prayers.
i. The Iqamah is sunnah for women to be said silently for the Shafi’s and Malikis. The Ruling of the Adhan Majority of scholars consider it as a Sunnah Mu’akkadah. The majority said it is Sunnah for men to have adhan. Both Adhan and Iqamah are Fard Kifayah – this is the Hanbali position. Ibn Hazm even considered it a condition for the prayer. Abdullah Ibn Masud said if had been a Mu’addhin. Umar Ibn al-Khattab said if it wasn’t for the Khilafah. but not for women. ii.
. disliked by the Hanafis and
not legislated for the Hanbalis
Ruling of the Adhan for a Women’s Congregation
i. except the Shafi’is who ask for it from everyone.
i. he wouldn’t care about going to Hajj. It is Sunnah for missed prayers but not for the Malikis iii.
Third opinion – Ahl’l Hadith – If there are two Muaddhins in one locality. The correct way of doing this is performing the extra ‘shahadaytayn’ to yourself. be Sane.Every obligatory action in Islam has:
i. The Etiquettes of the Adhan
. The 19-word version included additional words (the ‘shahadatayn’ are repeated) are the tarjee’. How many Adhans are there for Fajr Salah? First opinion – Malik. vi. Shurut of the action itself – e. the person must be a Muslim.e. Wajibat – obligations v. and then loud. iii. the place needs to be clean. iv.
The adhan of Kufiyun. Sunan – preferred actions vi. Asl – this is the status quo. ii.
To be given after the start of the actual Salah time To be in the Arabic language To be performed by a male muslim To be loud enough for people to hear (or oneself for the Iqamah) To maintain the order of its statement To be performed by one individual in its entirety. it cannot be divided up. one before the actual time of Fajr. i. the body needs to
be clean. iv.g. one should call before actual time and one for the actual time of Fajr.g. key aspects. Adhab – etiquette
The Shurut of the Adhan The conditions (shurut) of the adhan are:
i. ii. v. not four times. etc. When praying the Salah. Shafi and Ahmad – Two Adhans. Shurut (conditions) – e. pillars. and one upon the start of Fajr time Second opinion – Abu Hanifah – There should be one adhan at the state of the actual time of Fajr. have Iman. Al-Thawri and Abu Hanifa is referred to as the 15-word version. The 17-word version is the same as the 19-word version. etc. Integrals. but at the beginning Allah-u-Akbar is only said twice. Arkan – obligations that cannot be compensated for. iii.
For the Mu’adhdhin to call the Iqamah xii. People who are in a Masjid should not leave after the Adhan had been called
Iqamah – It is the call to stand up in order to establish the actual Salah itself. Turning face right and left upon saying “Hayya ‘alal’. This means a 17-word Iqamah. Slowing down while giving the Adhan x.” (the Haya’alatayn) viii... Standing whilst calling the Adhan iii. It should be delivered right at the beginning time ix. Raise the voice loudly vi. Being in a state of purity ii. Insert index fingers into the ears vii. First opinion: Shafi and Ahmad – To repeat the statements of the Adhan once each and the statement “Qad Qamatus Salah” twice: this is called the 11-word Iqamah.
. It should not be interrupted by foreign speech xiv. Second opinion: Malik – Same as first opinion except “Qad Qamatus Salah” only pronounced once. Following the rules of Tajwid xi.. One should not demand payment for doing the Adhan xv. Calling from an elevated area iv. Facing the Qiblah v. For the listeners to repeat with the Mu’adhdhin xiii..i. Third opinion: Abu Hanifah –The Iqamah should be like the Ahdan in repeating each statement twice including the statement “Qad Qamatus Salah”.
The Niyyah should not be uttered by the tongue. Blood
loss that is considered shocking breaks the wudu (fahish). i. To avoid any foreign speech. The niyyah should preferrably start just prior to the act. that act becomes invalidated. it is not part of the action
Pre-requisites (Shurut) for obligating Salah
i. A little bit of blood loss (yaseer) is no problem. [Niyah – The act of the heart concerning the actions of the Mukallaf (the accountable party/legally responsible adult)]. iv. falling asleep. there is no salah
ii. Acts which other people will have doubts whether one is in prayer or not. Covering the Awrah – this denotes the parts of the body that are not meant to be exposed in public. For the man. the intention of Salah. Purification from minor and major ritual impurities.
. The Ma’mum can make an intention of Zuhr for him individually. The Niyyah of the Ma’mum does not need to match the niyyah of the Imam. even though the Imam is praying Asr. can nullify the prayer. etc.e. Puberty iii. except her hands and face. scratching. To be performed after the time has certainly started ii. v. extensive itching. Facing the direction of the Qiblah vi. it should only be made in the heart. he has to cover what is between the navel and thighs – there is a disagreement about the exposing of the navel. By itself it’s not good enough iii.
If it’s not there. Removal of physical filth (impurities) from the body and the place of worship iii. The Niyyah of the heart should match the actual act of that particular Salah – the second that intention changes during the act. her entire body must be covered. vii. thighs and knees. Islam ii.SHURUT OF SALAH
Shurut of Salah Technical meaning of ‘shurut’ in summarised form:
i. The continuation of the acts of Salah without any long intermission. Al-Niyyah. Sound mind
Conditions (Shurut) for validating Salah
i. viii. For the woman.
but if it is hidden quickly. It is Sunnah to recite a longer surah in the first rakat and a shorter surah in the second rakat. If it is done accidentally and only a tiny amount is shown. this does not invalidate the prayer. the prayer is invalidated. but order is maintained out of adab. the principle of urf (community discretion) should be used. During the loud prayers. Isha). it is important to get one rakat in before sunrise. * In matters such as this. what is deemed acceptable by the community as a whole.Note: Both the praying area and the area of Sujud needs to be clean. The Fard prayers should be swift and brief. Maghrib. in the non-silent prayers. During the silent prayers.e. it is permissible to recite out aloud during the prayer. The ‘basmallah’ includes ‘hirrahma-nirrahim’. it is not permissible to recite anything while the Imam is reciting. There is an obligation to say ‘bismillah’ for wudu and food. Note: If awrah is intentionally exposed during the Salat – it is invalidated. you must go into ruku immediately. There is an obligation to say ‘basmallah’ when reciting Fatihah. For Fajr. The Sunnah prayers should be longer. The surahs recited in Prayer don’t have to be chronological in order. If the exposure is considered ‘shocking’ and the patch is exposed for a significant time*. then this is ok. it is permissible to (silently) recite fatihah and a surah – it should be treated just like a normal prayer – except the ‘samiallahulliman-hamidah’. (Basmallah is part of the Fatihah) For a person praying by himself.
. If praying in a congregation and you are in the middle of fatihah in silent prayer and the Imam goes into ruku. Bismillah should be recited silently for the individual. i. Zuhr) Jahri prayers – Loud Prayers (Fajr. in order for the prayer to be valid. Shiri prayers – Silent Prayers (Asr.
then should try and mimic actions of someone standing up. v. for the Al-Fatiha. making it undisputed) in wording and meaning.e.ARKAN (INTEGRALS) OF SALAH – These are obligations Arkan is the plural of Rukn. if possible. then one may sit down and pray. Avoid leaning on anything. The Hadith of the One who Erred in His Prayer (Al-Musi fi Salathi) This Hadith is Mutawattir (the number of narrators involved. they must be performed. Takbirat’l-Ihram – The opening Takbir. the fact they wouldn’t lie. etc).
ii. This is the text that established the Arkan of Salah.
The Opening Takbir Standing Recitation of Quran Ruku Sujud Tashahhud (Final Sitting)
Second Opinion: Maliki. vi. so one may sit down after this. etc. The recitation of the Quran – By unanimous agreement (Ijmaa). The
Prophet (SAW) raised his hands to his ear lobes and to his shoulders. old age. if required.e. It is not permissible to do Sajda on a pillow. which means the strong corner on which a structure is built. the companions involved.
Al-Qiyam – Standing for those who are able to. ii. the recitation of the Quran is an integral
part of the Salah. The back should be straight. excessive pain. Shafi’i and Ahmad There are fourteen Arkan for the Salah:
i. i. The safest and best position is where the fingers are at the level of the ear lobes (not necessarily touching. iii. but this is also permissible) and base of palms at about the shoulder length. The head being lowered slightly out of humility is permissible. the places they lived. they didn’t always agree with one another. Qiyam is only required for the key part of the recitation. there is no prayer – omitting these cannot be compensated for. Without these. If praying sitting down.
iii. they place they ended up. have all narrated the same hadith. If there is a problem standing (i. Arkan of Salah First Opinion: Abu Hanifah There are six Arkan for the Salah:
. iv. It should be in Arabic and it should just be “Allahu Akbar”. lowering each position. pregnancy.
you must recite the Fatihah and another surah following it (if first two rakahs). Hanafi position is that the follower cannot recite Fatihah behind the Imaam. The Prophet (SAW) criticised others that recited Al-Fatihah aloud when the Prophet (SAW) was reciting. Ahl-e-Hadith). but you don’t need to verbalize it. This Surah contains a cure for every illness. The ruling to say out Amin out loud at the end of the Fatihah is the strongest position. then according to Abu Hanifah. because the Imam’s recitation should suffice. in the silent prayers.
Ø On saying of the ‘Basmallah’ aloud for the Imam in Jahri Salah
First Opinion: Abu Hanifah. This Surah was revealed from a treasure beneath the Throne. he should recite the Basmallah silently to himself when starting Fatihah. The Virtues of Surah Al-Fatihah This Surah is the seven-oft repeated verses. then there is no need for the followers to recite the Fatihah. The Hanafi position doesn’t encourage it being said out aloud.Ø On recitation of the Al-Fatihah
Hadith of the Prophet (SAW) “There is no prayer without the opening of the book (Al Fatihah). It is permissible to recite the word in your mind. Second Opinion: Shafi’i He should start with the Basmallah. Malik and Ahmad – He should not say it out aloud. If the Imam is reciting out loud.
. however. Second Opinion: Abu Hanifah – It is a wajib.” First Opinion: Maliki. Shafi’i and Ahmad – It is a rukn. Issues on the Fatihah The person reciting Al-Fatihah has to be very articulate when reciting the Fatihah. Everyone else – one must recite the Fatihah behind the Imam in the silent prayers. For the individual. Abu Hanifah – Fatihah of the Imaam is enough for the follower. According to the other schools. Do not compete with the Imam during the recitation – this is not allowed at all. the correct position (Ibn Taymiyyah. The companions have reported that they would say Amin on the completion of Al-Fatihah. you need to actualize the words of the Iman. If the Imam is reciting quietly. Hadeeths support both opinions.
The minimum time spent in Ruku should be the time it takes to achieve a relaxed state. the person who just says “Alhamdolillah” in order to praise Allah. no holding. Sitting during the last Tashahhud. but not the strongest position. recorded in An-Nasi’ie. The recitation should be beautified and time should be taken to recite this. the left buttock should now rest on the floor and the left leg should slide slightly inwards to allow this (tawarrur). the palms. not the rukn – the actual sitting is the rukn). The
right foot should be upright and the toes facing Qiblah and the left buttock should be resting on the left foot which is flat – this is the strongest position.Ubay Ibn Ka’ab praying in the masjid and the Prophet called him. when he has received some good news. In a Hadith it
says don’t descend like the camels descend (i. Coming up from Sujud – Required to perform the second sajdah.
iv. The recitation of the last Tashahhud xi. the palm and fingers should rest on the front of the knees.
x. Sitting calmly (tuma’ninah) between the two sajdahs – Making Adhkar asking Allah to forgive you.
v. The fingers and toes should be touching the ground and facing the Kiblah. but Ubay waited until he finished to respond to the Prophet…. The recitation of the Salawat al-Ibrahiyyah xii. the front legs first and then lowering the back) but the narrator then added a judgment mistake to the Hadith at the time by saying “don’t go down with your legs first”. On the last tashahhud. tasbeeh & tahmeed to replace the fatihah until he learns the fatihah – hadith of the Prophet. vi. Technically. Hadith in Musnad of Imam Ahmad . has performed a better and more superior action than the news itself. The prophet said do you want me to teach you a surah…… ??? Practical Tip: The meaning of Surah Al-Fatihah should be understood and internalised during prayer. The forearms should not be flat on the floor. The position of both feet up is permissible. the feet should be apart. The Sujud on seven bones – Prostration (the forehead. takbir. Hands should be flat on the knee caps. the bare minimum to establish this rukn is to do one
vii. Rising up from the Ruku –you must stand up straight following the Ruku. Back must be horizontally straight. Having right foot upright (Nasl) and left foot flat with left buttock
resting on left foot (this sitting position is a Sunan.e. the knees and the toes).
ix. Ibn Al Qayyim Al Jawzziyah then came along and said there is Inqilaab (said something but meant something else) in the Hadith and that the narrator made a mistake in the narration and what he wanted to say was don’t go down with your front first. which should correspond to the time it takes to say “Subhana Rabbil Azeem” once.In a hadith. The Ruku (bowing down) –bow down so that the back is straight and then relaxed (a cup of water should
be able to balance on your back without falling). viii. The Taslim – saying salam at the end. The correct position is that you go down with knees first. A new muslim should say tahlil.
“Hatta Tutma’in” . There should be tuma’ninah in each of the positions of the Prayer. Take a huge breath in each position after you’ve sat in each position.until you are relaxed. Physical movements will control your inner consciousness. xiv. At-Tuma’ninah – being tranquil in every rukn. state of mind and khushoo. the hearts find relaxation.
Tuma’ninah – putting the heart at rest.
xiii. Take a deep breath between each position and let the bones in the body just relax. In remembering and recognising Allah. this helps to attain Tuma’ninah
even further. Maintaining the order of the Arkan of Salah
iii. if one does not have access to a Sutra whatsoever he can simply just draw a line. The Sutra should be placed just beyond the position of Sujud – the area in which the prayer is being performed is considered to be the personal space of someone performing the Prayer. However. If there is no Sutra present.
i. generally considered from the Sunnah of Salah – these increase the reward of the prayer. Note: The Hanafis do not classify these acts as Fard (obligatory) because they come from ‘Daleel Dhanni’ or ‘Khabar Ahad’ therefore.WAJJIBAT (OBLIGATORY ACTS) OF SALAH – omitting one of the Wajibat of Salah does not nullify the Salah. but scholars differ on raising them with the other takbir. however. raising hands with the
opening takbir is recommended. If children pass through the personal space. They give the ruling of Wajib on a matter if that matter is based upon a hadith that has come by one narration (ahad). iv. Sitting down and reciting the first Tashahhud. then this does not invalidate the prayer.
SUNAN (RECOMMENDED ACTS) OF SALAH – These are acts and statements of Salah which are pardoned if omitted and their absence does not nullify the Salah. which is the Sutra for the Jamaat. The palms should be showing and facing kiblah. According to Imam Abu Hanifah and Malik. Saying ‘Subhana Rabbiy’l Azim’ (Praise be to my Lord. Saying ‘Sami Allahu liman hamidah’ (May Allah answer he who praised him) as one is returning back
from Ruku. The hands should be raised between level of ears and shoulders. If in congregation. without affecting their prayer.
Placing a Sutra (barrier) in the front between the person praying and the Qiblah. then the Sutra area is just in front of the Imam. They are generally considered anything that is not a Rukn or a Wajjibat. Hanafi’s make a distinction between Fard and Wajib. the Supreme) in the Ruku. these will lead you to closely align your Prayer with the Prayer of the Prophet (SAW) and they are the beautification of the prayer.
ii. Saying Takbir upon moving from one position to another ii. and Sujjud’l-Sahw is not required to compensate for them. If the person who breaks someone’s personal space is a woman. then there is an opinion where the person’s prayer is invalidated – this is the safest position. v. The minimum size of the Sutra should be a foot. at least once. The pillar in the mosque used to be the most commonly used Sutra by the Prophet (SAW). it is permissible to pass through the personal spaces of the people praying in congregation. in denying these as Fard would not lead to making takfir of someone. he alone says ‘Sami Allahu liman hamidah’ and the followers say ‘Rabbana wa lakal hamd’. Saying ‘Subhana Rabbiy’l A’la’ (Praise be to my Lord. then a person should only pass across as long as the area of the personal space is not traversed. the Most High) in the Sujjud. Raising the hands (Rafi’idayn) on saying the Takbir – by unanimous agreement. at least once. but must be compensated for by the Sujud’l-Sahw (the Prostration for Forgetfulness). When Imam is leading. according to that school. Saying ‘Rabbana wa lakal hamd’ is an obligation for every single person when praying by themselves. so they consider it speculative (dhanni). therefore. there is no raising of the hands in Salah besides the
he narrates the hadith of the Prophet praying with one hand on the other hand. Hanbali school has three positions:
i. From a Hadith point of view those that state high on chest and below the naval have concerns. one should look straight down. When in ruku. eyes should be focussed on the finger. however. Hassan al Basri (famous tabieen) prayed with his hands to the sides. Imam Malik himself. Imam Shafi says the hands should be placed above the navel and below around the chest. Principle of Usul-ul-Fiqh: If there is no evidence to take something away from the norm. When in actual fact.opening Takbir. Below the navel based on the reports of Ali & Abdullah ibn Mas’ood (Iraqi companions). Looking down towards the spot of one’s prostration
When standing in prayer. showing his transcendence above the entire creation. According to Imam Shafi and Ahmad. When in tasahhaud. (Chest is as low as the rib bone). as he saw the early companions and their descendents praying like this. the eyes should be fixed at the point of prostration.
Ahl-e-Hadith says that the hand should be placed above the navel and should be placed in the mid region. Maliki school say hand goes on the hand or arm goes on the arm. then remain with the norm. Folding the right hand on the left hand
Imam Abu Hanifah placed the hands (small finger and thumb clasping the forearm and the middle 3 fingers across the wrist) under the navel. used to pray with the hands to his side. In his Muwatta. this is really used to proclaim Allah’s supremacy and exaltedness above the creation. there are four positions for raising the hands in Salah:
At the opening of Salah Before bowing for Ruku After rising up from Ruku After finishing the first Tashhahud
v. ‘Subahanallah’ normally translated as “Glory be to Allah”. Above the navel on (the middle of) the stomach iii. High on the chest ii. Commencing the Salah with the prescribed Du’a
. Best position – In the middle on the stomach
The finger is brought back down.
xii. Ta’min (Saying Amin)
Abu Hanifah and Malik: It should be pronounced silently. Placing the hands on the thighs during the Tashahhud xiv. To point out with the index finger during Tashahhud.vi. Nasab – right foot is up in the first tashahud (1st seating position). Hanbali: Finger is brought up from the beginning until the end of the actual tashahhud position. Shafi and Ahmad: It should be pronounced out loud during the Salah in which recitation is done loudly. but circle maintained. no movement at all. whether the finger should be kept straight or kept in a relaxed
Shafi: Finger brought up at the shahadah and kept up until the end. (‘asl Base position) Variations – finger moving. There are differences in opinion. Note: In the Hanafi madhab.
xiii. The fingers are returned to a flat hand. until the shahadah and the finger goes up. there is no tawarruk. however. this hadith in Bukhari is understood to be something that the Prophet (SAW) did when he got a bit older and needed a little rest. To sit down before moving up for the second or fourth rak’ah (Jalsat’l-Istiraha) – It is permissible to take
a rest before getting up for Qiyam. A short silence before and after recitation of the Qur’an viii. some scholars (hanbali madhab) deem this as an obligation
xi. Spreading between the feet in the standing position ix. b. This opinion is not strongly supported by hadith.
vii. Hadeeth to prove this is in Sahih Bukahari. Reciting a Surah after al-Fatihah x. The status quo on this however and the most accepted position amongst the scholars is to get up immediately after the prostration. To sit for the final Tashahhud in the position of Tawarruk (to tuck the left foot under the right shin and
the left buttock resting on the floor). a circle is made and then:
Hanafi: The fingers are all flat. Reciting a Du’a between the two sujud – ‘Rabighfirli Rabighfirli’ as a minimum should be recited or a du’a
between the sajdah. toes should be facing the Qibla and all the toes should be touching the floor.
There are differences in opinion that the finger should move with the zikr that is being done (Ibn Jawziyyah and Ibn Uthaymeen). There is another opinion that it is not the actual movement that hurts the shaytaan. but are opinions of some of the scholars. To say “as-salaamu alaykum” to the right is the bare minimum that should be done. This is the most supreme position of worship.
It is permissible to make dua in the Sajdah. The sajdah is the closest you will ever get to Allah.
xv. To turn the face right and left upon pronouncing the final Salam. Reciting the prescribed Du’a after Tashahhud. This particular action does not belong to any particular madhab. The two places of making open du’a are the sajdah and
xvi. but it is the finger itself that performs this.
as you miss the rukn of Qiyaam. vi. if it is required to try and achieve focus in the prayer. However. mouth needs to be covered with the hand. then inshallah. this does not nullify the Prayer. then the prayer can be repeated when a suitable place of prayer is found. Moving without any excusable reason iii. one should try and avoid it. To wear clothes that carries distracting designs or images x. v. To pray while in need for going to the bathroom or when the food is served. nor do they require Sujud’l-Sahw as compensation. the ruling is not as strict. viii. however. he will get the reward. If there are
distractions around. The verbalisation of intentions came about from early scholars who identified a problem and tried to give the masses a tool in which they could focus on what they were doing. To close the eyes – The Asl is that one should not close their eyes during the prayer. The garments should be worn above the ankles when in prayer. To wear tight clothes If there is excessive waswasah (whispering) during the prayer. If trousers are worn. If thawb is worn. it is more important not to hasten to ensure one catches the Salah with the Imam. therefore. The same is true in the case of paint being on the body.
. They do. It is permissible to close eyes during the sajdah. but has gone to the masjid with that intention. however. It is not recommended that the trousers/sleeves are rolled up or the hair tied back during the prayer.MAKRUH (ABONIMABLE) ACTS IN SALAH
These acts do not nullify the Salah. To omit one of the wajibat intentionally ii.
i. then this is also permissible. then it is possible to use a “dry spitting” action over the left shoulder and reciting “Auzu-billihimanishaytani-rajim”. then it is more strict. then this is permissible. To look away from the spot of one’s prostration iv. as the water must touch all parts of the skin. To spread the forearms on the ground. then this may be permissible. Yawning – if this happens. It is Haraam/Makruh to run to the prayer. however take away from the reward acquired during Salah. It is important to approach the prayer with ease and focus of the mind on the act that is about to be performed. Even if one misses the prayer behind the Imam. If there are doubts. It is not really permissible to pray in the car or on a plane. To dress untidily ix. Wearing nail polish invalidates the wudu as this does not allow water to penetrate the nail. The trousers should be pulled up instead. if it gets too difficult. vii. if no other option is available whatsoever. This is because the Prophet (SAW) said everything should make sajdah.
In the sitting position. it is permissible to respond to it with a hand gesture. The response to a salam verbally was abrogated. however should be kept to a minimum. To assist the Imam if he makes a mistake (Fath). the hands and the feet and men cover between the navel and the knees Men raise their hands to their ears and women to their shoulders ii. then it is best to avoid it. the four Imams (Fuqaha) unanimously agreed on certain recommendations based on multiple accounts of the Sunnah (not from the hadith): Women cover their entire body except for the face. as Malik-ibnHuwaryrith said that the Prophet (SAW) said: “Pray as you have seen me pray. more movements are permissible than the Fard prayers.MUBAH (PERMISSIBLE) ACTS IN SALAH
Acts that do not nullify the Salah and do not lessen the reward:
i. iii. as long as they are clean. then it is permissible. If it is to try and imitate the Prophet. To respond to the salam by raising the hand. The socks/shoes have to cover the ankles if you want to perform masah. Women bring their stomachs close to their thighs and men don’t v. In Sunnah and Nafl prayers.e.
. Men spread their hands out in sujud and women bring them to their sides iv. i. in congregation.
To pray behind a human who is praying or sitting down. then it is permissible to make some small subtle movements to turn the phone off. There is no extra reward for wearing a hat or turban during the prayer. Wearing the hat is not necessary during the prayer. it was permissible previously (all foreign speech during the prayer was abrogated). it can be discrete to just signify that the salam has been responded to. To respond to a caller by a sign. It is actually sunnah to pray with shoes on from time to time. women bring their knees close to each other and men spread them out
i. If a person is performing obligatory prayer. If performing tawarruk disturbs person on side of you. To move and take action in order to remove an imminent harm. this is permissible. then it is permissible to touch them. however. If mobile phone is ringing.
THE ETIQUETTE OF SALAH
The Difference between Men and Women in Regard To Salah There are no evidences based on hadith that women should pray any differently from men. if someone is trying to pass through. iii.” [Bukhari] However. which doesn’t need to be visible to the person who gives the salam.
It is permissible to pray with shoes.
v. iv. ii. Small movements during a prayer (to alleviate a problem) is permissible. to let them know you are there.
xix. xv. Women sit on their heels and men sit on their left foot and prop up their right foot vii. The female Imam for a group of women stands in the middle of the first row ix. Come early to your Salah whether at home or in the Masjid. vi. men say “subhanallah” and women clap with the hands viii. focus on this upcoming event (Salah). xvi. xviii. there is no hadith for this. Dress nicely for your Salah. Prepare for Salah ahead of time ii. xi. Race for the first row. Do not challenge your stomach.
Means required during the Salah:
. concentrated and aware you are of Allah (swt). xxi. xii. If praying in congregation. Do not pray if you were overtaken by slumber or fatigue. Read some Qur’an (especially what you plan to recite in your Salah). Make a thorough Wudu. vii. If praying in the Masjid. Remember the salaf and how they performed their Salah. in order to have less distraction. Select a place or spot where there will be less or no distractions. Pray as close as possible to the Iman. Pray your Nafl Salah. Make some Du’a and Dhikr. enough time prior to your Salah. don’t talk too much with people until after Salah is over.
HOW TO ACHIEVE KHUSHU IN SALAH
Khushu is to be still. v. Things to do before you start your salah:
i. x. viii. xiii. ix. women should pray with their hands slightly under their chest. xx. Contemplate over the excellences and virtues of Khushu. iii. Remember to consider this your final Salah. as this is more modest. xvii. There is a hadith. Contemplate about the greatness of whom you are standing before. iv. Pray behind a Sutrah. However. where Prophet (SAW) said if one is in the masjid waiting for Salah. If you need to answer the call of nature. then do it first. xxii.vi. broken. and eat first. it is as though he is actually in Salah. relaxed. calm. Repeat the words of the Adhan after the Mu’adhdin. xiv. To help internalise and achieve khushu in your salah. Do not look around and get distracted in the Masjid. straighten your lines for the Salah. ensure that the external aspects are there. The female Imam does not recite out loud in case men were present
According to the Hanafi madhab. To correct the Imam’s mistake. It is how focussed.
Fold you hands.
Means required after the Salah is over:
i. Considering the status of ‘Ihsan’ “Pray as if you see Allah. if not then as he sees you” iii. ii.
. the right on the left and look with your eyes down in humility iv. or try to understand what the Imam is reciting viii. xiii. v. ii. Contemplate over the Ayat you recite.i. iv. iii. xiv. Beautify the Quran with your voice ix. Remember that Allah answers as you recite the Fatihah x. vi.
Do not move from your position right away Do your tasbih Do your Dhikr and Du’a Review your Salah and evaluate yourself Pray your Nafl Salah Look forward to the next Salah. Start with commencing Du’a vii. Observe the Sunnah and correct way of Salah v. xii. Contemplate over the words ‘Allahu Akbar’ while raising your hands up. Savour the sweetness of each position in Salah
xi. Bring tranquillity to your Salah and slow down the pace of your recitation vi.
but it is better to use the right hand. Sometimes our methodology (manhaj) should be that we leave some actions in order to preserve the unity of the brothers. although making du’a after prayers now and again in congregation is not a problem – but this should not be legislated.
. It is considered Bida’h to always make congregational du’a afterevery salah. The du’as should be learnt and internalized. One should be relaxed and focussed during the Dhikr. Dhikr is your meditation moment. Dhikr should not be performed in congregation. its permissibility has been debated by the Scholars. so is not from the Sunnah. It is permissible to perform a congregational du’a. it should be remembered that the Prophet (SAW) did not make dua in congregation after every prayer. The tasbih beads were never used by the Prophet (SAW) or the companions. which is the key point here. as this is in accordance to the Sunnah. this is the Sunnah. Therefore. The Du’a is Mukhlil Ibadah (essence of worship). but there are reports that Aisha (rah) used to use some means (stones) to count her Dhikr. However.THE POST SALAH DHIKR
The Prophet (SAW) used to make Dhikr on his right hand.
According to the evidences from Quran and Sunnah. If I am in Qasr and I am a traveller. The prayers which have four units. The traveller should not pray the Nafl salah associated with the obligatory prayer. by camels (approximately 81km or 48/50 miles – distance to Makkah/Jeddah) Group of pious predecessors – There is no specific distance as long as it is called “safar” or travelling. The Minimum distance to allow Qasr Abu Hanifah. if you do not shorten your prayers during travel. then you have sinned.e. as long as he has exited his home city. Even though this is technically the more correct position. stopping for a few days in one locality and then moving on. Therefore. and then stopping in a different locality for another few days and moving on. If the traveller is (hopper travelling). The second that one leaves his home town. However. his Qasr has started. this is the more correct position. he should also complete the four. two prayers after Isha. two prayers after maghrib. Therefore. the first position is normally adopted. I should also pray four. Asr and Isha can be performed as two rakats.e. Maliki. Zuhr. as this becomes difficult to practically uphold. Fajr remains as two rakats and Maghrib remains as three. but the Imam prays four.
. even if the total duration time is more than the minimum duration of residency. Even if the traveller catches him in the last rakat (of four). Two sunnah of Fajr and the Witr prayer remains.SALAT’L-MUSAFIR (THE PRAYER OF THE TRAVELLER)
Al Qasr – Shortening the prayer The shortening of the prayers is Ar-Rukhsa (concession) that has given to us by Allah. as there was no distance specified. it is the safer position. then he is considered to be in Qasr during this entire period.e. the first position is taken to avoid disputes amongst the masses that try and make Urf (customs of the people) on this and define what a “journey” is. even if one has not completed the entire journey (> 50 miles). This is technically the most accurate and correct opinion. The Rulings of praying Al-Qasr Abu Hanifah – It is wajib. then one can still pray Qasr whilst in transit. If I am in Qasr and lead the prayer. i. Malik – It is highly recommended Shafi and Ahmad – It is a permissible concession. Shafi and Ahmad – The distance of travelling three days and three nights or two days and two nights. i. According to the Hanafi school. but the rest of the Jamaat should pray four. which should be treated with Adab and taken as a blessing. etc. to assume this time starts when you have left your home city. i. then I should pray two.
then you should shorten and pray Qasr.
. Malik. The residency starts when you have actually reached your destination.What is the time-period that constitutes residency? Abu Hanifah – 15 days and up. Shafi and Ahmad – 4 days and up (Ahmad specifically defined this as 21 prayers or more) – If you are going to pray 21 prayers or more in this new place of residency. Note: If you are travelling to your destination. If the intended residency is anything less than 15 days. If it is 20 or less prayers. then Qasr can be performed for all 14 days of the stay. then you should make Qasr (this does not count as your time of residency). If your residency is 15 or more days. then you must pray normal prayers from day one. then from day one you need to pray your full length prayers.
Jam’u Taqdim. therefore. Two units of prayer should be prayed. you should not combine (not recommended) at this time. but when you are fixed in your place (even though as a traveller). Because of a unique pressing need (if this is a pressing one-off unique situation. make intention for the next prayer and then start.e. permissible to combine prayers. is that when you are physically travelling. The rulings on combining prayer Malik.e. then the concession of combining should be used. if a student has an exam that extends between the time of two prayers) The Hadith here in Sahih Muslim regarding combining prayers. Then you should stand. i. In the Hanafi school. the only form of combining is known as As-Suri (image of combining). is one of the few that is not practised by the Ulema. but it is permissible. It is a concession that can be used when travelling. the combining of prayers can be used. This is not a concession intrinsically linked to travel. there is a legislated
concession for this. Ibn Umar said that the continual combining of prayer is the opening of Kaba’eer (major sins). Shafi and Ahmad – It is permissible Abu Hanifah –It is not permissible except for the Hujjaj. In an emergency situation. in times of war) iii. Combining between Fard Salah Can also be used in the following scenarios:
i. The forms of combining prayer
a. The Maghrib and Isha prayer is performed at the time of Isha. It is. If legal excuse for combining prayer ceases before the time of the latter salah starts. The intention of the first prayer should then be made (i. at best. Jam’u Ta’khir. Zuhr). b. e. if the later Salah was performed during the time of the earlier one. The Zuhr and Asr prayer is performed at the time of Asr.g. give Iqamah. then completed with taslim. praying Zuhr at its last possible time and then completing it just before (few minutes) the Asr start and then performing the Asr prayer straight after. one should try and pray at
.e. one should perform the prayers at the appointed time. The Zuhr and Asr
prayer is performed at the time of Zuhr.COMBINING PRAYERS
The intention of combining should be made before the first prayer is performed (i. Prayer should be avoided on the plane (as Qiyaam would not be possible). The Asl (principle) is that you don’t combine the prayers. However. Because of the rain (this is considered to be serious dangerous rain) ii.e. The Maghrib and Isha is performed at the time of Maghrib. Zuhr). Because of the excessive fear (i. if the earlier Salah was delayed until the time of the later one. The principle that Ahle-hadith should use.
i. Losing the state of purification vi. To protect property and possessions from possible theft. Sujud’l-Sahw (Prostration due to forgetfulness) The reasons for applying Sujud’l-Sahw:
. so someone observing knows that you are still in state of prayer) iv. The arrival of water for someone who prays with Tayammum (dry ablution) xiii. If one realises in the third rakah he has missed the tashhahud. x. Laughing (smiling is permissible. iii. To return back to the middle Tashahhud after standing up to the third Rak’ah (if one starts to get up but does not fully stand. Combining the prayers at home before the journey is not permissible.
To rescue someone who is in the face of harm. Omitting one of the wajibbat without an excusable reason xi. The one who precedes the imam is likened to a donkey in the hadith. Continuous foreign acts (if it is required to switch mobile phone off when in jacket. is in a partial seated. it should just be washed off.
Acts that allows the departure from Salah
i. urine. even if it means to combine the prayers. vii. giving him a chance to correct himself following the adab) ii. xii. (faeces. Getting in contact with Najasah (i. To give salam deliberately prior to reaching the end xiv. Exposure of ‘Awrah deliberately v. ii. he should continue and then perform the Sajd’Sahw – this does not nullify the prayer. partial upright position. this is permissible) iii. crying is recommended in prayer) viii. only if he tries to return back to the tashhahud position will invalidate it. impurities from baby) Note: Touching Najasat.e. then this does not invalidate the prayer). the movements should be very minimal. i. Eating or drinking (if there are small (yaseer) particles of food in the mouth and they get swallowed.the airport. Preceding the Imam (a person should never move to the next position in prayer until the Imam has completed this position not necessarily when he says ‘Allahu-Akbar’). v. then this is considered to be a tahira (impurity) and therefore the person should leave the prayer immediately.
Note: If a person realises he has no wudu during the prayer. A woman tending the food on the stove.e. etc) does not breach your wudu. To answer the call of parents (in the Nafl Salah).
ACTS THAT NULLIFY THE SALAH
Foreign speech (correcting Imam should be done patiently. An urgent need for the bathroom. iv. Hesitation in regard to the intention (confusion in which prayer is being prayed at any time during the prayer) Omitting a rukn without returning back to it ix.
one must get up and stand immediately in the qiyam position and then go into the ruku position (the rukn that he had missed in the first rakat) and continue from their onwards as normal (this now being his first rakat. as they consider the hadith to have weakness in it. If you have moved onto the next rakat without performing a Rukn. [MISSING TEXT] The Hanafis recite Tashahhud.i. There are differences in opinion when this should be performed. The other schools don’t deem this necessary. ii. Another opinion is that if you are in the fourth Rakat. However. when sitting after the Sajd’l Sahw.g. If one missed a rukn. Another opinion is that you just need to do the one rakat again. Forgetfulness ii. doubts about praying either zuhr or asr) you momentarily forget (lapse) but then remember that you are ok. he missed the ruku of the first rakat and is currently in the sajdah position of the second rakat. he missed the ruku of the first rakat and is currently in the sajdah position of the same first rakat. not second) and then offer sajdah sahw after the tasleem as he has added to his prayer.g. i. Doubt – If there is doubt how many rakats one has performed. but is now in a different rakat e. but only realised after the performing the taslim (exiting from his prayer) then he must re-do his prayer again. Two scenarios of each should be memorized. the correct positions are the following: After the Taslim: When you have added something to the prayer. right from the beginning. then he should perform a sujud’l-sahw. If one missed a rukn in his prayer. Note: If praying behind the Imam in the congregational prayer and one forgets to say the takbir (which is wajibaat). If one missed a rukn. one must get up and stand immediately in the qiyam position and then go into the ruku position (the rukn that he had missed) and continue from their onwards as normal (this still being his first rakat) and then offer sajdah sahw after the tasleem as he has added to his prayer. Tayyib?? iii. prayer should be continued. and when you have doubt (tahariy) about something (e. and therefore no sajdah-sahw is required. This is ok if the prayer has been completed and you are still in the masjid and haven’t gone home.g. then you should start again right from the beginning. Before the Taslim: When you omit an obligation (wajib) or have doubt for example whether you have prayed 2 rakats or 3. then these are all forgiven – these are all pardoned and overseen (yaseer) as you are praying behind the Imam. but is in the same rakat e. so you take the lesser number and continue your salah and then have to build upon that doubt as per the hadith. Sajdah sahw can still be done. he should continue with the prayers
assuming he has performed the lesser number of rakats. and the Rakat should be performed from the beginning. etc.
The Ruling of Congregation Salah
. Listening and deeply reflecting upon the recitation of the Imam. Greeting the mosque with two rakat of Tahiyyat’l Masjid vi. Safety from the Devil as he flees at hearing the Iqamah x. The angels will bear witness for you ix. xvi. The returning of the Salam upon the Imam (at end of prayer) xxiv. Responding to the Imam when he says “Sami Allahu liman hamidah” (“Allah Hears the one who praises Him) A greater chance of not forgetting the prayer. Standing and waiting with the Imam in readiness to enter a state where everything else other than the
prayer will become haram Being present for the Takbirat’l Ihram xii. Arriving early to pray in its beginning time iii. Being surrounded by the Angels throughout the prayer xix. xxv. or being able to remind the Imam if he forgets xv. Waiting in the mosque for the Jama’ah to start vii. xiii. Joining in with the Imam and the Angels un saying Amin after Surat’l-Fatihah. Benefitting from the congregation in supplication and dhikr. Responding to the call of the Iqamah xi. whilst at the same time enjoying the combined blessings of others when one is deficient Establishing good relations with your neighbours. Straightening the rows and closing the gaps xiv. The angels praying for you and seeking forgiveness for you viii. Familiarising oneself with the recitation of the Qur’an and the pillars of the prayer xx. A greater chance of perfecting the external aspects of the prayer xvii. Going to the mosque with sakinah iv. Responding to the Mu’adhdhin with the intention to pray in Jama’ah ii. A greater chance to achieve peace and humility in the prayer from what normally distracts oneself whilst praying alone xviii. xxvi.CONGREGATIONAL SALAH
Benefits of Congregational Salah
i. looking out for them especially at the prayer times. Promoting the signs and rituals of Islam xxi. Entering the mosque in supplication v. xxvii. Defeating the attempts of Satan by the combined worship of those in the congregation xxii. Safety from showing the sign of the hypocrites (those not attending the mosque) xxiii.
However.First Opinion: Shafi – Fard Kifayah (Communal obligation) Second Opinion: Abu Hanifah and Malik (Highly recommended) Third Opinion: Ahmad – Fard Ayn (Personal obligation) Four Opinion: Zahiri – Rukn Two people constitute a congregation for Salah. that the Huffaz. adab of the masjid should be obtained. but it is permissible. If one catches the Imam while he is in or before the Ruku. There should only be one congregational Salah in one masjid. Both positions are accepted. If the women are in a separate hall. The best prayer you will pray in the week is the Fajr on Friday in congregation at the Masjid with the Imaam. etc are directly behind the Imam. is equivalent to spending the entire night in prayer. first line completed first. A Muslim ii. it should be remembered that when touching feet one takes all precautions not to distract or disturb one from the prayer. The feet do not need to be touching. second line next. then the lines of women behind the children. should be more right side heavy than the left. not by the side. If it is required to have congregation after the main congregation. It should be ensured that the shoulders are touching. etc. A wife should pray behind the man when following in prayer. it can be side by side exactly and feet are level (these are from the evidences from Quran and Sunnah). the Imam should be:
i. the best prayer of the woman is the prayer performed by her in her own house. or Imam slightly in front. Lines should comprise of men first. Male
. then the front lines are permissible for them. According to Hadith. he should join the congregation salah. If someone who has already performed his Salah enters the masjid. the ruku and sajdah can be performed on the back or legs of the brothers in front of you. Rules of the Imam Conditions of the Imam. then lines of children.
The Prayer Line The lines should be straightened. When praying in congregation and space is an issue. should he need to be corrected. this is not obligatory. Of sound mind iii. if uneven. he has caught that Rakat. It is the norm. When two people are praying by themselves. Praying the Isha prayer with the Imam in the masjid. as this is the Haraam. and permission obtained. The lines behind the Imam should be equal in length.
Knowledgeable on how to read the Qur’an properly
Abominable acts in leading Salah
. therefore the host is most rightful to lead the Salah. Knowledgeable of the basic rulings of Salah v. after Asr. The Imam should be able to recite Fatihah with the rules of tajweed. When the Imam prays seated. then all the followers should pray seated. Hanafis don’t like to pray behind an Imam who has just wiped over his cotton socks for his masah) Imam should not prolong the Salah in general Imam should not prolong any act of Salah in order to let the latecomers join in although this is differed over
The preferred person to lead the Salah is the person who is a Hafiz or knows the most Qur’an. If the Imam breaks his wudu. then he should announce verbally that he has lost his wudu and then put forward someone else to continue leading the prayer.
Imam should not be someone who is openly Fasiq (disobedient) or Mubtadi (innovator) Imam should not lead if people dislike his leading (e. ii. in a scenario. The Imam can be someone who has already performed his Salah earlier.Can a woman lead Salah for all female congregation? Shafi and Ahmad: Yes. In the house of a host. unless explicit permission is given. so should be avoided. Hanafi: The Imam has to be an adult who has reached age of puberty. The Imam should take care of the alignment of the lines before he starts his Salah – this is Sunnah. even if he does not know as much as the others there. to ensure their backs are all in line. iv. The Imam should join the prayer at the back of the lines when wudu has been completed and not rejoin as Imam for that particular Salah. This is the opinion of all the Imams. iii.g. except Abu Hanifah – who says that the followers should stand and pray (according to hadith where Abu Bakr led the prayer whilst the Prophet (SAW) sat when he was elderly) One can pray behind an Imam of a different madhab.
iv. a man should not lead another in his place of authority. Abu Hanifah: It is strictly abominable Malik: It is invalid Can someone who has just reached the age of puberty lead the congregation? Shafi – A minor only needs to reach the age of recognition to lead the Salah Shafi and Ahmad. However. The first would be counted as a Fard and the second would be counted as a Nafl. according to the hadith. no nafl prayer should be prayed between Asr and Maghrib.
i. but should really only be done in the Sunnah/Nafl prayers. as it may be necessary at that time to say ‘Ya Allah’ or ‘Subhanallah’. it is important that one does not always say ‘Ameen’. as he is not invading the congregation’s personal space. the sutra has now become active again for the people who are still praying in jamaat. but not in the one done aloud. It is not permissible to pray in pathways. it is necessary for them to hear the women. When an Imam makes dua in Qunut. If the person left a gap at the front line.Rules of the Ma’mum
i. and complete afterwards whatever you missed. as you are following the line in front and there can be someone who echoes the Imams instructions for ruku.
Etiquette of the latecomer for Salah (al-Masbuq) In the case of latecomers. The Ma’mum does not need to hear or see the Imam to validate his salah – what is important is that the
lines are properly constructed. do not run. sujud. the women should just continue and complete the Salah themselves. then the women. it is permissible for this person to pass through the lines of people praying.
. getting up himself after the second rakat and continuing the prayer by himself. If the speaker goes at this time. iii. whatever portion of the Salah you get. For the women. to perform Isha (having the intention of Isha) if he has missed this prayer. When praying in congregation. Abu Hanifah: He should not recite anything in both kinds of Salah. etc. When in sajdah during the obligatory prayers. he should go back and fill that gap. if the salam has been performed in the congregational prayer. and then offer it. The Ma’mum should recite the following in the Salah: Shafi: He should recite Fatihah and another Surah in silent prayers and only the Fatihah in the loud prayers. duas in your own language can be prayed. so it is not permissible to traverse their personal space. then children. It is permissible for a person joining a teraweeh prayer.
He should walk with tranquillity to the line. The Ma’mum should line up behind the Imam with the men first. Otherwise. ii. Malik and Ahmad: He should recite in the silent Salat. It is important to walk your way to the salah place with tranquillity and dignity and do not hurry up. the people in the lines should move forward to fill the gap. if a person returns.
Shafi. She soils the masjid ii. The Masbuq can count the Rakah. except if
i. and then you should continue accordingly. which has now been included now part of the Masjid-e-Nabi by the Umayyads and Kings). Reciting the Du’a for going to the Masjid ii. Reciting the Du’a for entering the Masjid (entering the prayer hall and masjid with right foot) iii. if he joins before the Ruku. Malik. in your missed rakats. A menstruating woman can stay in the masjid. Hanafi – It’s the opposite. If he is in sujud. if space is limited
Non-muslims can enter the masjid It is not permissible to engage in sale and trade in the masjid It is permissible to serve food and drink in masjid It is permissible to sleep in the masjid The masjid should not be very decorative. Reciting the Du’a for leaving the Masjid
. He should not stand alone behind the lines (it is not good to pray alone behind the lines intentionally). without delaying a second. The entire Earth is a Masjid ii.
However. vii. Place and steady himself in line iii. should go straight to sujud.e. if they are going to run around and cause distraction.ii. you would need to recite Surah Al-Fatihah and another Surah. it should be simple and not distracting Children should not be brought into the masjid. She has not taken the place of a woman that needs to pray. Etiquette of going to the Masjid
i. To be built in residential areas
It is permissible to have a multi-purpose Masjid It is not permissible to have a grave in the Masjid (the Prophet (SAW) grave was in his house. Stand up when the Imam gives his Taslim. Start with the opening Takbir v. Rules of the Masjid
i. i. iv. Do his moving Takbir (if needed) vi. to make up for the missed Rak’ah. Follow the Imam in whichever stage he may be – this should be done immediately. Ahmad – The rakah you join with the Imam is your first Rakah. it is not permissible to tap someone from the line in front to join you behind – there is no evidence for this. you join with the Imam counting the Rakah he is at and then work out what you have missed.
the last thing that is done and shouldn’t be done in the masjid. Other scholars say that it can be 1. The preferred way is 3 rakat – two rakats. It is better to perform Nafl salah individually. followed by tasleem. in particular. Al-Rawtib – Two sunnahs before Fajr. b. Nafl Salah cannot be performed during the prohibited times. Al-Witr – strongest opinion is that this is a Sunnah Muakkadah. Then one rakat by itself. In Hanafi school.5. According to them. the witr can be performed in the following two ways:
a. the night prayer is the best salat after the obligatory prayers. The Nafl Salah can be peformed while seated. Two by two then a single prayer (e. Only 1 tashahhud in the final (odd) rakat. but the sunnah prayers linked to the obligatory prayers are best (better) during the day. It is better to perform the Nafl Salah at home.” It’s significance – These will be used to make up any deficiencies in the obligatory prayers. Forms of Nafl Salah
i. Then two rakats. or two rakats. ii.7 and 11. etc. another two rakats. The Hanafi’s say the rakat for this is 3. then need to perform two rakats. Qiyam’l Layl.g. Nafl Salah are performed in units of two. If done as five rakats. there are also units of four. even without an excuse. This is the strongest position. The Qunut is performed
. Should be performed as late as possible.SALAT’L NAFILAH (SUPEREROGATORY PRAYERS)
It’s virtue – “Their distinguishing feature is on their faces from the effect of Sajdah. tasleem. followed by tasleem. but only half the reward will be obtained. In general. tasleem and then offer one single unit of prayer).3. two rakats then tasleem and the offer one single unit of
prayer. No tashahhud until the last rakat. tasleem. then one rakat and then the final tasleem. The Nafl salah are better to be performed during the night.
just before Zawwal. Al-Mutlaq – Absolute and unrestricted Salah. using wisdom. Tahyyiat’l Masjid – Two rakats when entering the masjid. If someone misses the Witr and has fallen asleep. vii. Only the Hanafis raise their hands with takbir before the Qunut. Reward of one Hajj and one Umrah. viii.
iv. Al-Tawbah – Two rakats performed after the sin. In Makkah. if absolutely required. just before the fajr. there is no tahyyiatul masjid. it should be prayed when woken up. This prayer is the Duha prayer. it can be performed before the ruku. then the person should still pray. In Ahle hadith. There is no evidence of any signs that will come to signify what will happen. or after the ruku. xii. Shafi say that this is a wajib. Performing the six rakaat after Maghrib (Awwabeen) does have some basis. etc. x. it is recommended and should not be done. Qiyam’l Layl (tahhajud) – performed anytime after the Isha prayer. xi. Rubbing the face after a du’a is permissible.
Obligatory Prayer Rakats 2 Fajr 4 Zuhr
. therefore this can be performed at the prohibited times during the entering of the masjid. Al-Hajah – Two rakats when in time of need. Should not be performed during the prohibited times. Al-Wudu – Two rakats. as every footstep is effacing of sins. but when prayed at its preferred time (30 mins after sunset) it is called the Shuruq prayer. then there are no nafl prayers. it is permissible to perform the Witr again. maximum of eight. If Khateeb is giving Kutbah. Al-Istikharah – Make up your mind when it comes to making a decision. Al-Shuruq (Ishraq) – Performed just after sunrise. the Qunut is done after the ruku. Al-Awwabin – This is the late Duha prayer.
Minimum of two. However. This is a sadaqah. in Hanafi school. v. taking advice. It is permissible to make dua in sujud in any language. One should pray two rakats of Al-Istikharah for extra blessing and guidance from Allah. the tawaf should be performed instead as this is more rewarding. This prayer can be performed as many times as one chooses. so should be performed before asking from Allah. Opinions are divided on this. ix. xiii. vi. It is technically permissible to hold the Quran in prayer. If the obligatory prayer has started. Some scholars say up to twelve. as this is an act of Ibadah. Performed as two
cycles of two units. Al-Tasbih – There are ahadith authenticated by the early muhadditheen as being permissible. Others do the qunut either before or after the ruku in the final rakat – both stated in Bukhari. and a dua can be said at this time – before the sajdah. and then perform the Tawbah. The hands can also be raised for supplication (Qunut) before the ruku. Al-Duha – Half an hour after sunrise. and then get up for Qiyaam. If you have already prayed your witr and then gone to sleep. This can substitute many forms of charity. But.
iii.in 3rd rakat (last unit) before the ruku.
4 Asr 3 Maghrib 4 Isha
Sunnah Prayer Rakats 10 Sunnah Mokidah 2 before Fajr 2 before Zuhr and 2 after 2 after Maghrib 2 after Isha ????? 12 Sunnah Mokidah – strongest opinion 2 before Fajr 4 before Zuhr 2 after Zuhr 2 after Maghrib 2 after Isha 14 Sunnah Mokidah 2 before Fajr 4 before Zuhr 2 after Zuhr 2 after Maghrib 2 after Isha ????? Sunnah Ghair Moqidah 4 before Asr 2 before Maghrib
If you have missed the Jumah (i. The Hanafi say as long as you catch the Imam before the tasleem. resident of that area (mustawtir) – most of the congregation in the Jum’ah here in this country are workers that are not resident in that area. Hadith. then you stand up and pray four rakats of Zuhr. Imam Ahmad Hanbali is 12. in environments where there are people working. The correct opinion is 3 as this is the minimum required for a congregation. The Khateeb cannot be female. It is only obligatory for males. in accordance to the other schools. their hearts will be sealed. mature. It is an obligation for the khutbah to be done. etc. It is not permissible for the Imam or the followers to lift the hands when the Imam is making the du’a. etc. or are students. The time for Jum’ah is generally considered to be the time for Zuhr. but it is not wajib for the congregation to attend the khutbah. the second ruku). If the person has missed the Khutbah. Salat’l-Eedayn
. muslim. The minimum number of people have to be male.Between Adhan and Iqama ?????
OTHER CONGRAGATIONAL PRAYERS
Salat’l-Jum’ah This is a substitution for the zuhr prayer. but the mention of Allah. It is two units of prayer. then the prayer has been caught. But there are fatawah to allow this. The other schools state that there are only two athans – one at the beginning to signify the beginning of the prayer. The Imam other than the Khateeb can lead the Salah. Imam Shafi is easy. then this person has caught the prayer.e. Whoever misses three consecutive Jum’ah prayers. to allow Sunnah prayer to be performed and one just before the Khutbah is going to start. the more people in the congregation the better it is. The best prayer in the week in the masjid after the Jumah prayer is the Fajr prayer on the Friday. The minimum required for the Jum’ah congregation according to Imam Malik is 40. The khutbah can be done in another language. There can be two Jum’ahs in one masjid. It can be established with 2 people. issue of space. but others can be done. but has got there before the second Ruku of the Jumah prayer. This is more obligatory than the five daily prayers themselves. This part should be in Arabic. According to the Hanafi school there are three Adhans for Jum’uah. It should be started by praising Allah and sending Salaam on the Prophet. etc. Surah A’la and Surah Ghashiya should be recited by the Imam. Khutbah is an obligation. Imam Abu Hanifah is 4. However. should be done in Arabic.
The number of Fatihahs is four. The six extra takbirat (in first rakat). The ruku is also long. When Imam says Allah hu Akbar. The number of Rukus is four. Even if women are menstruating. Salat’l-Istiqa – Prayer for the request of rain After the prayer. The second group then comes. Half of the army move forward and pray behind the Imam. The exact time of this prayer is open. depending on what the masjid imam is praying. before Zawwal. The sermon should include two khutbah. Zuhr becomes two rakats. the extra takbirat is done in the second rakat. It is not necessary to recite the whole Qur’an in teraweeh in Ramadan. The takbiraat is Sunnah. The followers get up and then perform the second rakat and by themselves. in each rak’ah are two ruku. After first rakat. One way to pray this is as follows. Salat’l-Taraweeh This is a Sunnah prayer. The prayer of Ra’ha (Teraweeh) – to take it easy. Surah Al Ala and Al Ghasiyah should be recited during the prayer. Half the group stay behind and guard. it is permissible for them to attend the Eid prayer – not pray it. and then performs the extra six before saying sanaa. It is performed as two units. then the entire congregation should also pray 20 and not leave the prayer until the Imam leaves the prayer. However. It is a simple straight forward two rakats. It is prayed in congregation although can be prayed individually. The Khutbah is a Sunnah and should be performed after the prayer. The traveller should also pray the Eid. thirty six (prayed by the people of madina according to Imam Malik). In Hanafi school. it is Sunnah to raise the hands very high above your heads in prayer. just before the ruku. Imam says Allahu akbar. then one should say Allah hu Akbar to himself. then just before the Fatihah is five extra takbir. Salat’l-Khusuf (Lunar) & Kusuf (Solar) – The Eclipse Prayer There is no adhan or iqamah to be called. It is good and recommended to complete the Qur’an once in Ramadan. It should be performed in congregation and is only permissible in the masjid – this is a prerequisite for its validity. Salat’l-Khawf Performed in a battle situation when facing the enemy. but just to attend.After sunrise. this is a Sunnah – and even if he prays 20. The recitation in the first rak’ah is long. The Imam then prays his second rakat and then remains seated waiting for the second
. There is no Adhan or Iqamah for Eid salah. However. The Imam prays first rakat and gets up and waits there. The prayer is of two units. Five takbirs in the second rakat. The prayer can be performed in the masjid or outside. It is sunnah to raise the hands. It can vary between eight (the Prophet (SAW) only prayed eight). The Sunnah is to pray 8 rakats. There is no evidence that the Imam should commence the khutbah with takbir. twenty (prayed by Umar bin Khattab). reciting fatihah and the surah. These numbers were increased by the generations to take more frequent breaks in between – the essence is that it should be performed in a relaxed way.
group to complete their second rakat. then get up and complete the second rakat. completing the second rakat with the Imam.
. The followers after completing the first rakat.