The role of e-Government and e-Governance in the developed and developing world: An Annotated Bibliography Emma Flynn

The role of e-Government and e-Governance in the developed and developing world: An Annotated Bibliography

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Central and Integrated Projects. Page Number: 2 . It is also important to mention. Development and Media Studies. E-government also relates to the relationship between citizens and those in power. Developing countries are more likely to have corrupting governments. which aim to be cost effective so local communities can participate. Various case studies and programmes from both the developing and developed world are included. and many governments desire for online services. Abbasi also explains that political will is essential for effective e-Governance and policy making. implementation of programmes produces effective results. even developed countries are confronted by issues such as how to structure their e-government. however e-government requires the use of edemocracy. Programme and Project Level. egov. 2005) to strengthen ICT knowledge in e-Governance. India.E-governance can be defined as “a government structure which is efficient and effective and is duly controlled by citizens” (Bedi et al. 2003). Vol 1. Most of the references are from websites and online journals. the use of e-government is vital. in order to achieve citizen participation. Abbasi elucidates the Institutional Framework of the NeGP (National e Governance Plan) at the Apex. On the other hand. This annotated bibliography gives thirty two examples of e-governance and the e-government. Issue 5. To increase accountability and empowerment. New Delhi. The author also observes the notion that governments are at different stages and possess various initiatives regarding e-Governance in India. “Conceptualisation to project formulation and implementation” (Abbasi S. However developing countries are disadvantaged due to lack of capital and knowledge of the internet and Information Technology. e-governance aims to promote policy making. 2001). Within the same context. thus restricting the level of ICTs within the country. 2005) is based on knowledge although many governments are not at the same level nor do they have the expertise. however books and magazines have been incorporated. e-government means “exploiting the power of information and communications technology to help transform the accessibility. quality and cost-effectiveness of public services” (Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. There is emphasis to “create an institutional mechanism” (Abbasi S. Centre for Science. August 2005. the degree of corruption is reduced and democracy heightens. Abbasi S (2005) Capacity Building and Institutional Framework for e-Governance. Perri 6 (2004) states e-governance tools can “be used to sustain… the important elements of accountability and tension that a liberal democratic order requires”. The topic of e-government and e-governance has become increasingly acknowledged over the last few years. These projects consist of State. However with organisations from developed countries.

http://www. The Canadian goal was to provide all public services online by 2004. Srivastava S (2001) Government@net. 2001). where the use of e-Governance strives to overcome corruption.. Two sections are investigated. The publication explains the opportunities of ICTs and the need for effective governance to create an e-Democracy. The link between the internet. p. The main problems are transparency and limited resources. For each case study. Juillet L. The use of workshops can help to educate people in the developing world about ICTs and e-Governance. Tanzania and Kenya. One of the main barriers is “an administration culture” (Allen et al. E-Governance and Developing Countries. such as Ghana.p. accessibility and power. Consequently. Allen et al (2001) envisages the challenges for Canada and emphasises a “new culture in government”.. To create an environment of knowledge and learning has been a forefront for Canada. Issue 18. Paquet G. The book focuses on the internet as a tool for self-governing.sciencedirect. Success factors include political stability and trust.Allen B.org/files/research/reports/report3. New Delhi. India. http://www. Government Information Quarterly. economic and technological aspects are examined. Links to other e-Governance initiatives such as e-Democracy Initiatives in South Africa. It is not just technology that affects e-Governments but leadership. The use of the internet however reduces the role of local authorities and empowers citizens. such as the ‘Friends Project’ in Kerala.pdf (visited 21st November 2005). Introduction and examples. The internet is seen as a democratic tool to give citizens freedom.ftpiicd. Roy J (2001) E-Governance and government on-line in Canada: Partnerships. Backus M.com (visited 20th November 2005). This report is influential in collating examples form developing countries. to overcome existing barriers for development. Sage Publications India Pvt Ltd. partnerships and leadership of people. governance and society is essentially illustrated in this book. Uganda and Burkina Faso are also outlined. Singh P.A. 93-104. By empowering citizens. an effective e-Government system can be implemented. The social.new governance opportunities for India. Page Number: 3 . The government needs readjusting to the new form of e-Governance. J. problems and development objectives are assessed. updated April 2001. partnerships and existing structures. the use of the internet in the programmes mentioned allows participation on a non-elitist level. depicting existing programmes which have been implemented. Bedi K. people and prospects.

This slide show presents delivery models in less economically developed countries and provides opportunities and challenges for the future. World Bank. Online rulemaking can be adapted Page Number: 4 .com (visited 20th November 2005). Carlitz R. Thorson S. Programmes such as income tax online (Mexico and Brazil). Bonham G. Case studies in Europe. through opinion polls. customs online (India and Jamaica) and rural internet kiosks are cited.edu/maxpages/faculty/gmbonham/ecpr.sciencedirect. transaction and transformation” (Bonham et al. n. The paper also outlines the stages of e-Government. However the government must decide how to make this information available. Time frameworks are extremely important for programme implementation.p. The Birmingham government allows citizens to pay council taxes and report various domestic problems online. (2003) The Transformational Potential of e-Government. p.worldbank. Issue 19. The Role of Political Leadership. “presence..W. according to Bhatnagar.syr..d. Dimensions and sectors of e-government are examined. interaction. Online rulemaking promotes citizen participation and encourages comments to be made. The initiatives of these three continents are reviewed.htm (visited 20th November 2005). (2002) Online rulemaking: a step toward E-Governance.Bhatnagar.maxwell.). http://www.J. E-Government benefits include “less corruption [and] empowerment” (Bhatnagar. n. Access to rural areas is problematic and needs to be addressed. Government Information Quarterly.ppt (visited 21st November 2005). Issues are investigated.M.d. There are many challenges for federal agencies who implement electronic rulemaking.W. This paper states the potential for e-Governments in developing and developed countries. Asia and North America are also discussed. Public services in Bangalore. in the form of bar graphs show that all services have increased since 1994 and corruption has also declined (Bhatnagar. Rochester (New York) and Seoul (Korea) are discussed. Expectations of e-Governance are an existing issue. as expectations are still very high. with case studies from Birmingham (England). 2003). n. Gunn R.org/INTEDEVELOPMENT/Resources/559323-1114798035525/10555311114798256329/10555556-1114798371392/Bhatnagar1. E-Government strives to achieve efficiency and delivery of services online. 389-405. E-Government: Opportunities and Challenges. http://www.. updated 3rd January 2003. Seifert J.D.d.). http://siteresources.

Government of India) discussing the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) for India. be it at work or home. unlike paperwork and involves people. The main problem that affects developing countries is capital. Vol 1. Paperwork will be a thing of the past as more governments are seeking to adapt to an electronic administration system. which has increased the use of Internews and telecommunications. The importance of demand is central in Page Number: 5 . Chandrashekhar (Department of Information Technology. Centre for Science. Development and Media Studies. Digital Opportunity. New Delhi. The council services and projects are expected to grow.. who have been improving their strategies in e-Government.. Chandrashekhar describes the NeGP Plan which implements projects and is engaged on participation from public-private partnership. Pushing the envelope on e-Government. The editorial emphasises the importance of modernisation in bringing about a global e-Government. India. This online article supports e-Government.digitalopportunity. Romanian Information Technology Initiative: Policy (RITI) is mentioned. Issue 5. August 2005. This project has led to a higher level of awareness of e-Government. which aims to be established in both the government and outside the government. egov.org/article/view/120434/1/ (visited 20th November 2005). This magazine article conducts an interview with R.digitalopportunity. used to discuss problems in order for resolutions to be made. This has also increased awareness and knowledge. Digital Opportunity. http://www. The NeGP Plan has been referred to “economic liberalisation” (Chandrashekhar. The project. E-government in action. Topics such as transparency and common access are examined. Chandrashekhar R (2005) Focusing on outcomes through NeGP. n. according to the article. There is a strong emphasis on citizen participation in order for the NeGP Plan to perform. which emphasises the importance of policies and access to information.d. 2005). Online rulemaking is more accessible. The online editorial discusses present projects. Examples include Kenya and Madagascar. http://www. 2005). The NeGP Plan aims for governments to use ICTs to “delive[r] efficient government services and enhanc[e] transparency in governments” (Chandrashekhar. The article also refers to conferences such as the eGovernment Eastern Europe Conference in September 2005. n.to any level of the government.org/article/view/119958/1/ (visited 20th November 2005). as the deadline 2005 approaches in December.d.

The security element of data will also be enhanced. because they must be efficient and effective for citizens and governments alike.Hill Publishing Company Limited. Heeks R (1999) Reinventing Government in The Information Age. The book emphasises the relationship of governance. models of democracy and how to strengthen relationships between the government and citizens. Gill S.S (2004) Information Revolution and India. governments and businesses. International practice has provided new models for reform. As the author concludes. New York. business and citizens. thus each is dynamic in bringing about the Information Revolution. India. Rupa & Co. Globalisation and the influence of democracy are associated with ICTs. Routledge Research in Information Technology and Society. Greed and power are the main elements which inhibit potential ICT growth. The Council aims to reduce costs and improve effectiveness. Tata McGraw. Elements of capacity building and organisation cooperation are also included. Heeks incorporates several initiatives from all over the world. New Delhi.P (2004) Promise of E-Governance: operational challenges. New Delhi. Electronic government projects have included those from Portugal and India. Electronic democracy is also discussed in detail. The chapters include issues and challenges concerning e-Governance with relevant case studies which have been successful. showing governments are unprepared for the information age reform. This publication focuses on the information age and reinventing the government. The use of wireless technology is a solution to previous problems. By enhancing these co-relations.A Critique. the role of e-Governance can continue to be successful. set up by the Westminster City Council includes monitoring and CCTV systems. Analysis of successful programmes regarding e-Governance in India is integrated within the volume. The chapters observe ICT in connection with people. for example online voting. I t also includes relevant case studies. there is a struggle for freedom to use ICTs. A collection of papers for the International Conference on e-Governance (ICEG 2003) in Delhi. Projects such as the Wireless City Project and Project Nomad. Page Number: 6 . Also implications for the government are addressed. India. Gupta M. Several countries have ‘government online’ which broadens the gap between authority and the general public. technology and society have a co-dependent correlation.promoting projects. The application of ‘Citizen Service Centres’ promotes empowerment and accessibility of ICTs for local people. The case studies are collected internationally. This publication draws on the author’s own experience and records ICT advancements. International Practice in IT-enabled public sector reform.

Okot-Uma (2005) states the features of e-Governance needed for implementation. instead of a document. the effectiveness of the government will improve over time. egov. Development and Media Studies.org/INTEDEVELOPMENT/Resources?CIO-pptJha. problems associated with e-Governance and examines the good practices needed. China and South Africa. Understanding eGovernance for Development. http://siteresources. costs need to be cut and relationships must be restored. To promote an efficient and effective government. Centre for Science. It shows the basic leading problems in the government. e-administration. such as lack of experience and limiting infrastructure. Issue 5. Institute for Development Policy and Management.ppt (visited 25th November 2005). People Enablement. Challenges of e-Governance are also addressed. Examples of case studies include those from Egypt.un. Jha S.11. United Nations (2001) I-Government Working Paper Series. Okot-Uma R. India. Governance’ gives an outline of potential problems. By establishing relationships and delivering services.pdf (visited 21st November 2005). W’O (2005) Good practices in e-Governance: Main issues and challenges.Heeks R. such as programmes which are experimental and “methodology driven”. the developing world has more to offer. However corporations and governments do have much experience. By promoting good governance. Tanzania. The key elements of e-Governance are addressed.A corporate perspective. The slide titled ‘Corporations vs. Process Enablement. e-citizens. These programmes disregard reality and instead implement programmes that are not suitable for the needs and demands of citizens.worldbank. New Delhi. The World Bank (2004) Emerging Role of CIO in e-Governance in Developing Countries. Vol 1. which needs to be implemented correctly. August 2005.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/NISPAcee/UNPAN015484. The good practices mentioned include the implementation of ICT initiatives. The paper also emphasises the difference between government approaches and models in the North and South regions of the world. eservices and e-society. This online document brings together the main contributions of e-Governance and mentions case studies. improving links between governments and citizens. Infrastructure Page Number: 7 . This is a relatively short slide show. The component of empowerment is crucial in promoting good governance. good human resources and accessibility. “Change Management. Paper No. Explains the role of governments. http://unpan1.

Perri 6 (2004) E-governance styles of political judgement in the information age. These models are dynamic and affected by time. with examples and initiatives.Concepts and Case Studies.com (visited 20th November 2005). Picci L (2005) The quantitative evaluation of the economic impact of e-government: A structural modelling approach.Enablement and Systems Enablement”. Palgrave Macmillan. Picci comments on the model on e-Government. Structural models are assessed in relation to e-Government. A brief history of e-Governance is incorporated. Prentice Hall Of India Private Limited. [c]reating public awareness programmes [and] [f]ormulating and implementing a communication strategy” (Okot-Uma. e-management and e-Governance. Prabhu C. This book attempts to explore threats of ICT for governance and policy making. 2004) such as training and management. The article outlines mathematical equations. The importance of time will substantially affect the performance of e-Government strategies. This book focuses on e-Governance in India and also includes case studies ranging from Brazil. Perri 6 aims to define e-Government in four sub categories. 2005). e-Governance tools rely on different situations and frameworks dependent on what stage the government is in. http://www.S. Perri 6 criticises previous publications on eGovernance. Tuscany is briefly referred to in the article. e-service provision. Okot-Uma accentuates that good practice in e-Governance will bring about improved ICT development. simply stating its content has been “astonishingly neglected in all this vast recent literature”. New Delhi. e-democracy. The three main good practices also include “Building an IT culture.R (2004) E-Governance. London. E-governance tools are investigated. policies and time. However opportunities are also discussed. however both governmental support and organisational commitment are essential. relationships. Investment of e-Government can only take place if they “are accompanied by appropriate complementary interventions” (Picci.elsevier. Graphs are also integrated. contains useful definitions and discusses the importance of political judgment needed for implementation of e-Governance. which also relates to criticism of polices. This publication draws on principal analysts’ knowledge. India. Information Economic and Politics. to show private labour and e-Government’s savings. China and Page Number: 8 .

Volume 1. The need for reliable infrastructure has improved the situation of Sri Lanka’s global communication. The article states several objectives to overcome problems affecting the NeGP plan. Integration of ICTs within the governmental framework led to increased “transparency. however this publication is merely an outline of case studies and needs to include improved guidance for future programmes. However the main concern for NeGP is at the implementation stage. Volume 1. accountability and efficiency” (Samarajiva et al. scheduled in 2002 aimed to bring ICTs to everyone in Sri Lanka and to improve the role of governance. The overview also states the progress of NeGP. This initiative uses ICTs to improve the “quality. called ’e-Bharat’. web portals and citizen service centres. Samarajiva R. Zainudeen A (2005) E-Government as a part of Sri Lanka’s overall development strategy. The case studies are useful for future projects. It also mentions that the World Bank has helped to fund the Government of India’s programme. Being accessible in major languages ensured information accessibility. no matter their location. integrated deliverance and cost. 2005). giving stages which are not very useful for many governments. although it is not very constructive. The literature focuses on models and theories. July 2005. http://www. infrastructure. egov. the publication needs more positive and negative points from the experience of past projects. India. The role of ICTs also intended to develop the economic situation. Page Number: 9 . Ratan N (2005) National e-Governance Plan of India: Driving Good Governance using ICT. Development and Media Studies. Sealy W. New Delhi. national connectivity. Ratan’s overview accentuates the key elements of NeGP. Issue 4.U (2003) Empowering Development Through E-Governance: Creating Smart Communities In Small Island States. India. The eSri Lanka Initiative (eSL). some are at a theoretical stage and others have started practical schemes.Sri Lanka. Development and Media Studies. Centre for Science. Centre for Science. coverage. The main objectives were to alleviate poverty and to improve human welfare. May-June 2005. The government services have been made accessible to everyone.com (visited 21st November 2005). Issue 3.sciencedirect. The book includes other literature. accessibility and effectiveness” of government assistance to communities” (Ratan. The surveys are slightly dated as much has changed since the data was collected. The NeGP aims to increase the role of e-Governance to make it accessible to citizens. New Delhi. 2005). egov. This article indicates the implications for e-Governance.

uk. The use of technologies has enabled e-learning. Stanca states Italy has assisted with e-Government programmes in the developing world. This page also provides links to partnership organisations and partnership polls and publications. http://excelgov. Minister of Innovation and Technologies.This e-journal contains relevant case studies. India. Issue 4. Stanca implies the “digital revolution must be cultural before it can be technological”. for example Barbados. These projects must have an effect on rural communities and the poor must be targeted. New Delhi. e-Government Fellows Program Seeks to Make Government. This article is an interview with Minister Lucio Stanca. Local e-gov. updated 3rd October. Non-Profit Managers More Tech-Savvy.php?NewsItemID=5878&keyword=a4334e73c7977c&searchWord=e %20government (visited 23rd November 2005). updated 24th July 2001. The project intends to incorporate the government and citizens. use of internet and phone lines. thus to encourage participation. for example from Jamaica. The use of ICT has enabled Italy to conform to perform efficiency within their government and to improve connections with citizens and corporations. The programme also allows online services. The aim is to encourage the citizen-state relationship for the future. which provides training and knowledge to the population The Council for Excellence in Government. Government of Italy. Centre for Science. July 2005. Development and Media Studies. Sealy states e-Governance is more about citizens rather than technology. which was implemented in 2000. The article displays Washington’s e-Government Fellows Programme.gov. egov. 2005 (visited 25th November). and is funded by not just the state but non-profit organisations. Importantly. The programme aims to train and educate government officials and to eventually implement online systems. The Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. Page Number: 10 . The focus on these islands and the existence of globalisation is also mentioned. Useful data and statistics are provided. Volume 1.org/dispalyContent. E-Governance is an effective instrument in determining development and can bring about change. providing ICT programmes in deprived regions. Topics of e-governance and the poor are focused on. http://localegov. The e-Government policy has been successful. Stanca L (2005) In focus: Italy. Sealy proposes that a “national unit within government” is needed for successful e-Governance.

whereas ‘e-enabled’ has increased. such as the workforce and infrastructure. The website is also used by organisations and promotes good practice for digital use. The strategies page gives an overview of the strategies over the last three years. The national strategy for local e-government.uk/images/2%20years%20on%20-%20Realising%20the%20benefits%20from %20our%20investment%20in%20e-gov_227. The website intends to combine experience of past projects for all local governments to aspire to. the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister has gained success in promoting e-governance. SOCITM and SOLACE. An example of a case study includes internet voting for youths. updated March 2005. with successful results.This useful website aims to support local governments in order to promote sustainable use of electronic services.pdf (visited 20th November 2005). http://www. This report draws on surveys of Electronic Local Government and case study interviews. This report aims to emphasise such success over the last few years with reference to investment from efficient use of e-Governance in programmes. Page Number: 11 . Strategies and recent reports are included. The e-Government strategy and effective diagrammatic models are included. The importance of e-Governance is not limited to these years but for the future also. Queen’s Printer and Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. Process Evaluation of the Implementation of Electronic Local Government in England. The Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (2003) Local e-Government. Models of e-Government implementation are discussed in chapter three. The document has clear aims to promote the capability in electronic services and delivery. with reference to white papers and policies. Downloadable documents are also available for public use. The Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. Two Years On: realising the benefits from our investment in e-government. Firstly the report aims to define local e-Government and lists the objectives such as issues on democracy and service delivery. The results have found an increase in ‘e-enable’ over the last twelve months and have helped Councils in eGovernment approaches. listing their aims. The importance of economy is also illustrated. The results have shown that time and cost of providing information has decreased. This strategy has also been supported by the IDeA.gov. Since the publication was released in 2002.localgov. The page on e-Government and efficiency includes a brief report on the e-Government programme.

However there is lack of e-government attention. the issue of access is still a problematic feature. The Working Group on E-Government in the Developing World.The Pacific Council on International Policy. Roadmap for E-Government in the Developing World. The process of ‘e-volution’ is crucial in understanding how e-Governments work. http://portal. However the Page Number: 12 .php/bc99cd450940e78925b8a2113c75173002+Internet+Sur vey+Final. Questions such as “why are we pursuing e-Government?” and “what kind of e-Government are we ready for?” are answered with the evidence of failures and successes from developing countries. http://portal..php/191643ab9c5791b69b337f3893c5799bTanzania+Report .final.org/ci/en/file_download. The majority of the states acquired their own websites. Administration of simple databases and statistics have been incorporated. The report concludes that infrastructure and partnership is imperative for these projects to take place.d. United Nations Educational.org/publicsector/egov/e-gov. The report contains useful definitions of e-Governments to “promote more efficient and effective government” through the use of ICT.doc (visited 29th November 2005). sustainability and conclusions. Objectives of the projects incorporated access to information and provision of services to improve governance. The investigation intended to create a “connected Pacific”. Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) n. with recommendations. administrations within Tanzania aim to provide training and the use of equipment. Pilot Project on Village E-Governance in Tanzania.org/ci/en/file_download. This project collates lessons learned from developing countries to inspire other nations.unesco. The survey contains issues that the Pacific states have to deal with. http://www1. Obstacles such as capital and bandwidth are other problems which are addressed. There is however much to be done to improve e-Governance within the Pacific states. The two computerisation projects took place in Tanzanian villages. This report on the pilot project in Tanzania includes objectives. In partnership with COSTECH. There are fifteen member states included in the documentation. Local businesses will also benefit from the use of the e-mail system. 10 questions E-Government Leaders Should Ask Themselves.doc (visited 21st November 2005).pdf (visited 18th November 2005). updated April 2002. UNESCO (2002) Internet Infrastructure and e-Governance in Pacific Islands Countries.worldbank. This survey aimed to document the degree of internet use for e-Governance in the Pacific states. The work achieved by the Pacific Council aims to improve leadership across the western United States and the Pacific Rim.unesco. E-mail systems and software have been set up.

d.un. it is expected services (both public and private) will prosper. E-Government will initially bring about change. The slides give a historical perspective of electronic use.com (visited 21st November 2005). The conclusion emphasises the processes. http://unpan1. as there is an unequal distribution of IT in Sri Lanka. Issue 36.elsevier. With the implementation of e-Governance. Therefore the economy of Sri Lanka has a positive outlook.p. http://www. where South and North divides one another.pdf (visited 21st November 2005).. Page Number: 13 . especially those from the rural sector who are desperately isolated. Especially in developing countries. Weerasinghe S (2004) Revolution within the revolution: the Sri Lankan attempt to bridge the digital divide through e-governance. where e-Government is only about computerisation. p. rather than infrastructure. 319327. United Nations. related to e-Government within administration. however developing countries are less able to adapt. The journal article presents information about a new concept within the Sri Lankan government. however there is scarcely enough information on e-Governance. which bring about change.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan006249. Therefore the concept launched by the government aims to involve each individual. This strategy aims to build ICTs in the country.components of management have been discussed as more significant as a requirement. namely ‘E-Sri Lanka‘. Figures such as internet usage data and useful diagrams are included. The slides are basic and provide an overall summary rather than a detailed account. rather than computerisation itself. n. structures and organisations. The United Nations have devised a presentation of slides. Weerasinghe states the divergence of Information Technology within the world. The International Information and Library Review.

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