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Amity School of Business

Amity School of Business


BBA, Semester 1 Computer in Management Ms Bhawana Gupta

Amity School of Business

Amity School of Business


BBA, Semester 1 Computer in Management Ms Bhawana Gupta

Amity School of Business

MODULE-3 INTERNET

Amity School of Business

INTERNET
INTERNET is defined as interconnection of networks. Internet allows computers on different kinds of networks to interact each other . The Internet has made things simple. It can be used for following: 1. Direct Communications 2. Online shopping 3. Distance Education 4. Banking 5. Knowledge Base 6. Travel 7. Bill Payments.etc.

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History and Evolution


The seeds of Internet were planted in 1970s U.S Department of DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), developed the ARPANET (acronym for Advanced Research Project NETwork) as a WAN to connect different computers and later to connect computer on different network. Internetworking became focus of research at ARPA. During their research, DARPA set up design goals for themselves, which included-1) the ability to interconnect different types of network 2) to connect through alternate path if some path gets destroyed and 3) to support applications of various types like audio, video etc. Based on the design goals, a protocol named TCP/IP was developed for computer communication (Protocol is a network term used to indicate the set of rules used for computer communication. TCP/IP has become the protocol for Internet.
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History and Evolution


In late 1970s another federal agency, the National Science Foundation (NSF) created a new high capacity network called NSFnet, which was more capable than ARPANET. NSFnet allowed only the academic research on its network and not any kind of private business on it. This allowed scientists across the country to share data and interact with each other for their research projects. So many private companies built their own networks, which were later interconnected along with ARPANET and NSFnet to form Internet. In 1980s , many internet application like e-mail, newsgroups, file transfer facility and remote login were developed.
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History and Evolution


In the early 1990s a new applications WWW changed the way in which internet was used. WWW is a system of creating, organizing, and linking documents, and was created by British scientist Tim Lee. A protocol based on hypertext was developed that allowed the documents and content on WWW to be connected via hyperlink. Internet and WWW which are interconnection of networks , and interconnection of documents and resources respectively has wired the whole world together.

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Who Governs the Internet


Internet is not governed by any particular body. It is coordinated (not governed) by many volunteer organizations. There is no single authoritative organization. Various volunteer organizations are responsible for different types of activities as listed below:1) Internet Society (ISOC): Provide information about Internet. Responsible for development of standards and protocols related to Internet. 2) The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) is responsible for developing of Internet architecture. Advisory group of ISOC (Internet Society). 3) The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is responsible for discussing and investigating the operational and technical problems of Internet. 4) The Internet Network Information (InterNIC) is responsible for 8 domain name registration.

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Intranet and Extranet


Intranet internal, private network using Web technologies to facilitate transmission of information within the organization Extranet a private inter-organizational information system Connects the intranets of two or more companies in a business alliance Also known as an extended intranet Alliances sometimes referred to as e-marketplaces - Plays an important role in the global business strategy of many companies - Enables them to build alliances with vendors, suppliers, and other organizations internationally
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Intranet System Architecture


Firewalls hardware devices with special software that prevent unauthorized access An intranet server is placed behind the firewall Packets are never routed outside the firewall, but remain within the organizations network

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Intranet Architecture

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Extranet System Architecture


Extranet
Connects two or more business partners Like an intranet Same software, hardware, and networking Additional component:
Virtual Private Network (VPN) Secure transmission of proprietary info

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Extranet System Architecture


Virtual Private Network (VPN)
Tunneling A technology that encapsulates, encrypts, and transmits data over the Internet A secure tunnel is created over the VPN connecting the two intranets Authentication Confirms the identity of the remote user who is attempting to access information from the Web server
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Client Server Architecture


A network architecture in which each computer or process on the network is either a client or a server

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Components
Client
Server Communication Networks

Server

Client
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Clients
Applications that run on computers Rely on servers for Files Clients are Applications Devices Processing power Example: E-mail client An application that enables you to send and receive e-mail

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Servers
Respond to Client requests for information Accept data from clients Provide gateway to other computers to access the Internet Provide a physical location where several domains can be hosted Server runs a special software known as Web Server Software

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Communication Networks
Networks Connect Clients and Servers

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ClientServer Computing
Process takes place on the server and on the client Servers Store and protect data Process requests from clients Clients Make requests Format data on the desktop

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Internet Protocols
Internet Protocols are required to transfer data over networks and / or the Internet in an efficient manner. When various computers are connected through a computer network, it becomes necessary to use a protocol to efficiently use network bandwidth and avoid collisions. A network protocol defines languages that contains rules and conventions for reliable communication between different devices over the network. There are a number of Internet protocols used. The most commonly used protocols are: - Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) - HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) - File Transfer Protocol (FTP) - Telnet
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Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)


TCP/IP is the communications protocol for the Internet. The TCP/IP protocol has two parts: TCP and IP. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): provides reliable transport service i.e. it ensures that messages sent from sender to receiver are properly routed and arrive interact at the destination. TCP converts messages into a set of packages at the source, which are then reassembled back into messages at the destination. For this, TCP operates with the packet switching techniques, which is described as follows: The messages is divided into small packets.

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Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)


Each packet contains address, sequencing information, and error control information. The address is used to route the packet to its destination. Since multiple users can send or receive information over the same communication line. The sequencing information in the packet is used to reassemble the packets in order, at their destination. The error control information is used ti check that the packet arrived at the destination is the same as that sent from the source. Internet Protocol (IP) : Handles the address part of each packet so that it is delivered to the right destination. Usually, each gateway computer on the network checks this address to identify where to forward the message. This implies that all the packets of a message are delivered to the destination regardless of the route used for delivering the packets. 23

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HyperText Transfer Protocol(HTTP)


HTTP is a protocol for transferring files (text, image, sound, video and other multimedia files) using the Internet. Its defines how messages are formatted and transmitted and what actions Web servers and Web browsers should take in response to the commands issued. HTTP is based on Client/server architecture where your Web browser acts as a HTTP client making requests to the Web server machines. HTTP is a stateless protocol, which means each request is processed independently ,without any knowledge of the previous request.
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File Transfer Protocol (FTP)


FTP is an Internet tool used for copying file from one computer to another. It gives access to directories or folders on remote computers, and allows software, data and text files to be transferred between different kinds of computers. Using a FTP program or a web browser, the user can log onto an FTP host computers over Internet and copy files onto their own computer. FTP works on the client-server model. FTP client is a program running on the users computer that enables the user to talk to, and get files from remote computers. FTP server is the remote computer or the host computer from which files are accessed by the FTP client. It is the simplest and most commonly used protocol for downloading /uploading a file from / to a server.
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Telnet (Terminal Network)


Telnet services enables an Internet user to log into another computer on the Internet from his/her local computer. That is a user can execute the telnet command on his/her local computer to start a login session on a remote computer. This action is also called remote login. To start a remote login session, a user types the command telnet and address of the remote computer on his/her local computer terminal. Then system asks the user to enter a login name and a password. That is the remote computer authenticates the user to ensure that he/she is authorized to access it.
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Telnet
If the user specifies a correct login and password, he /she is logged on to remote computer, once login session is established with remote computer, telnet enter input mode and anything typed on the terminal of the local computer by the user is sent to the remote computer for processing.

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Internet Addressing
Internet consists of a large number of computers connected with each other, it requires a proper addressing system to uniquely identify each computer in the network. Each computer connected to the Internet is associated with a unique number and or a name called computer address. To access any WEB PAGES on a computer, you would require the computer address

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IP Address
An IP address is a unique number associated with each computer making it uniquely identifiable within all the computers connected to the Internet. This is a 32 bit number and is divided into four octets such as 00001010 00000000 00000000 00000110 For human readability, it is represented in a decimal notation, separating each octet with a period. The above number would therefore be represented as 10.0.0.6 Each octet can range from 0-255, this IP addresses lie between 0.0.0.0. to 255.255.255.255
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Domain Naming System


A Domain Name is a way to identify and locate computers connected to the Internet. No two organisations can have the same domain name. A domain name always contains two or more components separated by periods called dots: some example of domain names are ibm.com, nasa.gov etc. One a domain name has been established, subdomains can be created within domain . For example, the domain name of or a large company could be vni.com and within this domain, subdomain can be created for each of the companys regional offices. The structure for this is hostname.subdomain.second-level-domain.top-level domain.

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Domain Naming System


There are two types of domains Geographic Domains and Non-Geographic Domains Non-Geographic Domains Com Commercial entities Edu Educational institutions Net - Organisations directly involved in the Internet operations,such as network providers and information centers Gov United States Federal Government entities Mil United States military Co - For Companies Org - For non-profit organizations Ac - For academics
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Domain Naming System


Geographic Domains au ca fr uk in il pk Australia Canada France United Kingdom India Israel - Pakistan

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Uniform Resource Locator (URL)


A web page on the Internet is uniquely identified by its address, called URL. URL is the address on the Internet at which the web page resides. The user uses this address to get a web page from the Internet. The general form of URL is protocol ://address /path where, protocol defines the method used to access the web pages e.g http address is the Internet address of the server where the web page resides. It contains the service (e.g. WWW) and the domain name (e.g google.com), and path is the location of web page on the server.
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Web Browser
Web Browser is a software that extracts information on user request from the Internet and presents it as a web page to the user. It is also referred to as the user interface of the web. Some of the popular web browsers are Internet Explorer from Microsoft, Mosaic browser, Googles chrome and Netscape Navigator from Netscape.

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E-mailing
Electronic mail (E-mail) is an electronic message transmitted over a network from one user to another. E0mail is a text-based consisting of lines of text, and can include attachments such as audio messages, pictures and documents. The features of e-mail are as follows: E-mail can be sent to one person or more than one person at the same time. Communicating via e-mail does not require physical presence of the recipient. The recipient can open the e-mail at his /her convenience. since message are transmitted electronically, e-mail is a fast way to communicate with the people in your office or to people located in a distant country as compared to postal system. E-mail messages can be sent at any time of the dayetc 35

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Internet Services
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) Internet Content Providers World Wide Web Application Service Providers (ASPs)

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Internet Service Provider


An Internet service provider (ISP), also sometimes referred to as an Internet access provider (IAP), is a company that offers its customers access to the Internet typically for a fee. The ISP connects to its customers using a data transmission technology appropriate for delivering Internet Protocol Paradigm, such as dial-up, DSL (Digital Subscriber Line is a broadband connection that allows connecting to Internet over the existing telephone lines.), cable modem, wireless or dedicated high-speed interconnects. ISPs may provide Internet e-mail accounts to users which allow them to communicate with one another by sending and receiving electronic messages through their ISP's servers
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Internet Content Providers


Internet content providers supply the information that is available through the Internet. Internet content providers can be commercial businesses, nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, and more. Some examples of Internet content providers are listed below:a) A photographer who posts samples of her best work on a web page. b) A political action group that sponsors an online forum for discussions about topics that interest its members. c) An individual who publishes his opinion on various subjects to an online journal. d) A software company that creates a Web site to provide information and software downloads. e) A national newspaper that maintains an online site to provide upto-the-minute news, feature stories and video clips. 38

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World Wide Web


WWW (also called as Web) is a large scale, online store of information. It is a system of creating, organizing and linking of documents. Information is stored on WWW as a collection of documents that are interconnected with each other via links. The interconnected documents may be located on one or more than one computer, worldwide, thus, the name world wide web. The features of WWW and terms linked to WWW are given below: The documents on web are created in hypertext format. Hypertext facilitates linking of documents.

The language used to create a hypertext format document is HyperText Markup Language. The hypertext format document is transferred on the Web using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) A single hypertext document is called a Web page.
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World Wide Web


A group of related web pages is called a Web site. A first web page or main page of a website is called Home page. The web pages are stored on the Internet on the Web Server. Web Servers are host computers that can store thousands of web pages. The process of storing a web page on a web server is called uploading. The process of retrieving a web page from a web server onto the users computer is downloading. The web pages stored on web sever on the Internet, can be viewed from the users computer using a tool called Web 40 browser.

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World Wide Web


Every web page is identified on Internet by its address , also called Uniform Resource Locator (URL) A web portal is a web site that presents information from different sources and makes then available in a unified way. A web portal enables the user to reach fir any type of information from a single location. i.e. the home page of the web portal. A web portal generally consists of a search engine, advertisements and an extensive lists of links to other sites etc. www.google.co.in are popular web portals.

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Application Service Providers (ASPs)


Application service providers (ASPs) are companies that manage and distribute software-based services to customers over the Internet. Instead of providing access to the Internet like ISPs do, ASPs provide access to software applications via the Internet. In essence, ASPs rent access to software programs to companies or individuals- typically, customers pay a monthly or yearly fee to use each application. The advantages to using an ASP over buying software outright include less up-front cost and the ability to try out a software program without potentially wasting money purchasing software that might not fit the customers needs. In addition, all users see the most up-to-date software each time they use the application, since the software is located on the 42 ASPs server and can be updated as needed.

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Internet Applications
Internet Relay Chat On-line Banking Software sharing Feedback about products In-line journals and magazines Newgroups On-line shopping VOIP Online Music
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Internet Relay Chat


The Internet Relay Chat (commonly known as the IRC). It allows you to communicate with people anywhere in the world as long as they are logged on to the Internet at the same time. Its allows you to type in a message and your friend, anywhere in the world, if logged in would receive it almost instantaneously. He/She can then respond in the same way.

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Newsgroups
Usenet services enables a group of Internet users to exchange their views/idea/information on some common topic of interest which all members belonging to the group. Several such groups exist on the Internet and are called newsgroups. A newsgroup is like a large notice board accessible to all belonging to the group. A member, who wants to exchange his/her views/idea/information with other members, creates a specially formatted message and submits it to the Usenet software running on his/her own computer. The software posts the message on the virtual notice board. The posted message can be read (seen) from any members computer belonging to the dame newsgroup, just as a notice posted on a notice board can be read by anyone having access to the notice board.

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VOIP
Short for Voice over Internet Protocol, a category of hardware and software that enables people to use the Internet as the transmission medium for telephone calls by sending voice data in packets using IP rather than by traditional circuit transmissions of the PSTN(public switched telephone network) One advantage of VoIP is that the telephone calls over the Internet do not incur a surcharge beyond what the user is paying for Internet access, much in the same way that the user doesn't pay for sending individual e-mails over the Internet. There are many Internet telephony applications available. Some, like CoolTalk and NetMeeting
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Internet - Advantages
Employment Opportunities High Speed 24*7 Knowledge Reservoir Interactive Communication Business on the Internet Direct contacts between customers and organisations Reduction of Uncertainty Cost Effective Source of Entertainment
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Internet - Disadvantages
Internet Crime Virus attacks Privacy Issues Physical Ailments

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Email-Privacy

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