DBA Tips Archive for Oracle

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DBA Tips Archive for Oracle

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Building an Inexpensive Oracle RAC 11g R2 on Linux - (RHEL 5.5)
by Jeff Hunter, Sr. Database Administrator

Contents
Introduction Oracle RAC 11g Overview Shared-Storage Overview iSCSI Technology Hardware and Costs Install the Linux Operating System Install Required Linux Packages for Oracle RAC Install Openfiler Network Configuration Cluster Time Synchronization Service Configure iSCSI Volumes using Openfiler Configure iSCSI Volumes on Oracle RAC Nodes Create Job Role Separation Operating System Privileges Groups, Users, and Directories Logging In to a Remote System Using X Terminal Configure the Linux Servers for Oracle Configure RAC Nodes for Remote Access using SSH - (Optional) Install and Configure ASMLib 2.0 Download Oracle RAC 11g release 2 Software Pre-installation Tasks for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Post-installation Tasks for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Create ASM Disk Groups for Data and Fast Recovery Area Install Oracle Database 11g with Oracle Real Application Clusters Install Oracle Database 11g Examples (formerly Companion) Create the Oracle Cluster Database Post Database Creation Tasks - (Optional) Create / Alter Tablespaces Verify Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Database Configuration Starting / Stopping the Cluster Troubleshooting Conclusion Acknowledgements About the Author

Introduction
Oracle RAC 11g release 2 allows DBA's to configure a clustered database solution with superior fault tolerance, load balancing, and scalability. However, DBA's who want to become more familiar with the features and benefits of database clustering, will find the costs of configuring even a small RAC cluster costing in the range of US$10,000 to US$20,000. This cost would not even include the heart of a production RAC configuration, the shared storage. In most cases, this would be a

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Storage Area Network (SAN), which generally start at US$10,000. Unfortunately, for many shops, the price of the hardware required for a typical RAC configuration exceeds most training budgets. For those who want to become familiar with Oracle RAC 11g without a major cash outlay, this guide provides a low-cost alternative to configuring an Oracle RAC 11g release 2 system using commercial off-the-shelf components and downloadable software at an estimated cost of US$2,800. The system will consist of a two node cluster, both running Linux (CentOS 5.5 for x86_64), Oracle RAC 11g release 2 for Linux x86_64, and ASMLib 2.0. All shared disk storage for Oracle RAC will be based on iSCSI using Openfiler release 2.3 x86_64 running on a third node (known in this article as the Network Storage Server). This guide is provided for educational purposes only, so the setup is kept simple to demonstrate ideas and concepts. For example, the shared Oracle Clusterware files (OCR and voting files) and all physical database files in this article will be set up on only one physical disk, while in practice that should be stored on multiple physical drives configured for increased performance and redundancy (i.e. RAID). In addition, each Linux node will only be configured with two network interfaces — one for the public network (eth0) and one that will be used for both the Oracle RAC private interconnect "and" the network storage server for shared iSCSI access (eth1). For a production RAC implementation, the private interconnect should be at least Gigabit (or more) with redundant paths and "only" be used by Oracle to transfer Cluster Manager and Cache Fusion related data. A third dedicated network interface (eth2, for example) should be configured on another redundant Gigabit network for access to the network storage server (Openfiler). Oracle Documentation While this guide provides detailed instructions for successfully installing a complete Oracle RAC 11g system, it is by no means a substitute for the official Oracle documentation (see list below). In addition to this guide, users should also consult the following Oracle documents to gain a full understanding of alternative configuration options, installation, and administration with Oracle RAC 11g. Oracle's official documentation site is docs.oracle.com. Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide - 11g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide - 11g Release 2 (11.2) Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide - 11g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux and UNIX Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide - 11g Release 2 (11.2) Oracle Database 2 Day + Real Application Clusters Guide - 11g Release 2 (11.2) Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide - 11g Release 2 (11.2)

Network Storage Server Powered by rPath Linux, Openfiler is a free browser-based network storage management utility that delivers file-based Network Attached Storage (NAS) and block-based Storage Area Networking (SAN) in a single framework. The entire software stack interfaces with open source applications such as Apache, Samba, LVM2, ext3, Linux NFS and iSCSI Enterprise Target. Openfiler combines these ubiquitous technologies into a small, easy to manage solution fronted by a powerful web-based management interface. Openfiler supports CIFS, NFS, HTTP/DAV, FTP, however, we will only be making use of its iSCSI capabilities to implement an inexpensive SAN for the shared storage components required by Oracle RAC 11g. The operating system (rPath Linux) and the Openfiler application will be installed on one internal SATA disk. A second internal 73GB 15K SCSI hard disk will be configured as a single volume group that will be used for all shared disk storage requirements. The Openfiler server will be configured to use this volume group for iSCSI based storage and will be used in our Oracle RAC 11g configuration to store the shared files required by Oracle grid infrastructure and the Oracle RAC database. Oracle Grid Infrastructure 11g Release 2 (11.2) With Oracle grid infrastructure 11g release 2 (11.2), the Automatic Storage Management (ASM) and Oracle Clusterware software is packaged together in a single binary distribution and installed into a single home directory, which is referred to as the Grid Infrastructure home. You must install the grid infrastructure in order to use Oracle RAC 11g release 2. Configuration assistants start after the installer interview process that will be responsible for configuring ASM and Oracle Clusterware. While the installation of the combined products is called Oracle grid infrastructure, Oracle Clusterware and Automatic Storage Manager remain separate products.

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After Oracle grid infrastructure is installed and configured on both nodes in the cluster, the next step will be to install the Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) software on both Oracle RAC nodes. In this article, the Oracle grid infrastructure and Oracle RAC software will be installed on both nodes using the optional Job Role Separation configuration. One OS user will be created to own each Oracle software product — "grid" for the Oracle grid infrastructure owner and "oracle" for the Oracle RAC software. Throughout this article, a user created to own the Oracle grid infrastructure binaries is called the grid user. This user will own both the Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management binaries. The user created to own the Oracle database binaries (Oracle RAC) will be called the oracle user. Both Oracle software owners must have the Oracle Inventory group (oinstall) as their primary group, so that each Oracle software installation owner can write to the central inventory (oraInventory), and so that OCR and Oracle Clusterware resource permissions are set correctly. The Oracle RAC software owner must also have the OSDBA group and the optional OSOPER group as secondary groups. Assigning IP Address Prior to Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2, the only method available for assigning IP addresses to each of the Oracle RAC nodes was to have the network administrator manually assign static IP addresses in DNS — never to use DHCP. This would include the public IP address for the node, the RAC interconnect, virtual IP address (VIP), and new to 11g release 2, the Single Client Access Name (SCAN) virtual IP address(s). Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 now provides two methods for assigning IP addresses to all Oracle RAC nodes: 1. Assigning IP addresses dynamically using Grid Naming Service (GNS) which makes use of DHCP 2. The traditional method of manually assigning static IP addresses in Domain Name Service (DNS)
Assigning IP Addresses Dynamically using Grid Naming Service (GNS)

A new method for assigning IP addresses was introduced in Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 named Grid Naming Service (GNS) which allows all private interconnect addresses, as well as most of the VIP addresses to be dynamically assigned using DHCP. GNS and DHCP are key elements to Oracle's new Grid Plug and Play (GPnP) feature that, as Oracle states, eliminates per-node configuration data and the need for explicit add and delete nodes steps. GNS enables a dynamic grid infrastructure through the self-management of the network requirements for the cluster. While assigning IP addresses using GNS certainly has its benefits and offers more flexibility over manually defining static IP addresses, it does come at the cost of complexity and requires components not defined in this guide. For example, activating GNS in a cluster requires a DHCP server on the public network which falls outside the scope of building an inexpensive Oracle RAC. The example Oracle RAC configuration described in this guide will use the traditional method of manually assigning static IP addresses in DNS. To learn more about the benefits and how to configure GNS, please see Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide 11g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux.
Assigning IP Addresses Manually using Static IP Address - (The DNS Method)

If you choose not to use GNS, manually defining static IP addresses is still available with Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 and will be the method used in this article to assign all required Oracle Clusterware networking components (public IP address for the node, RAC interconnect, virtual IP address, and SCAN virtual IP). It should be pointed out that previous to Oracle 11g release 2, the need for DNS in order to successfully configure Oracle RAC was not a strict requirement. It was technically possible (although not recommended for a production system) to define all IP addresses only in the hosts file on all nodes in the cluster (i.e. /etc/hosts). This actually worked to my advantage with any of my previous articles on building an inexpensive RAC because it was one less component to document and configure. So, why is the use of DNS now a requirement when manually assigning static IP addresses? The answer is SCAN. Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 requires the use of DNS in order to store the SCAN virtual IP address(s). In addition to the requirement of configuring the SCAN virtual IP address in DNS, we will also configure the public and virtual IP address for all

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and can be associated with multiple IP addresses. However. two independent disks can fail without impacting access to the OCR. then you know the pain of going through a list of all clients and updating their SQL*Net or JDBC configuration to reflect the new or deleted node. Automatic Storage Management and Oracle Clusterware Files Automatic Storage Management (ASM) is now fully integrated with Oracle Clusterware in the Oracle grid infrastructure. the SCAN is associated with the entire cluster. the network configuration files on the client computer do not need to be modified when nodes are added to or removed from the cluster. Oracle 11g release 2 introduced a new feature known as Single Client Access Name or SCAN for short. and public IP addresses must all be on the same subnet. a Normal Redundancy ASM disk group will hold a two-waymirrored OCR.168. unlike a virtual IP. A failure of one disk in the disk group will not prevent access to the OCR. Part of this solution is the ability to store the Oracle Clusterware files. independent of the nodes that make up the cluster. For example.shtml Oracle RAC nodes in DNS for name resolution.1. With External 4 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .188 192. rather than an individual node.168.168. Oracle recommends that you configure the SCAN name for round-robin resolution to three IP addresses. Single Client Access Name (SCAN) for the Cluster If you have ever been tasked with extending an Oracle RAC cluster by adding a new node (or shrinking a RAC cluster by removing a node).1. The SCAN virtual IP name is similar to the names used for a node's virtual IP address. Note that SCAN addresses. not the VIP name or address. If an application uses a SCAN to connect to the cluster database. also known as the Voting Disks) on ASM. Oracle recommends that all static IP addresses be manually configured in DNS before starting the Oracle grid infrastructure installation. To address this problem. instructions will be included later in this guide on how to install a minimal DNS server on the Openfiler network storage server. The SCAN should be configured so that it is resolvable either by using Grid Naming Service (GNS) within the cluster or by using the traditional method of assigning static IP addresses using Domain Name Service (DNS) resolution. This feature enables ASM to provide a unified storage solution.. You will be asked to provide the host name (also called the SCAN name in this document) and up to three IP addresses to be used for the SCAN resource during the interview phase of the Oracle grid infrastructure installation. If you do not have access to a DNS. The SCAN resource and its associated IP address(s) provide a stable name for clients to use for connections.189 Further details regarding the configuration of SCAN will be provided in the section "Verify SCAN Configuration" during the network configuration phase of this guide. Clients using SCAN do not need to change their TNS configuration if you add or remove nodes in the cluster. namely the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and the Voting Files (VF. such as racnode1-vip. Clients that access the Oracle RAC database should use the SCAN or SCAN address.1.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. During installation of the Oracle grid infrastructure. SCAN is a new feature that provides a single host name for clients to access an Oracle Database running in a cluster. At a minimum.187 192. a listener is created for each of the SCAN addresses. With a High Redundancy ASM disk group (three-way-mirrored). storing all the data for the clusterware and the database without the need for third-party volume managers or cluster file systems. For high availability and scalability. manually configured static IP address using the DNS method: racnode-cluster-scan racnode-cluster-scan racnode-cluster-scan IN A IN A IN A 192. not just one address. virtual IP addresses. I will configure SCAN for round-robin resolution to three. Just like database files. Oracle Clusterware files are stored in an ASM disk group and therefore utilize the ASM disk group configuration with respect to redundancy. the SCAN must resolve to at least one address. In this article. When using the DNS method for assigning IP addresses. Oracle ASM and Oracle Database 11g release 2 provide a more enhanced storage solution from previous releases.

703024853 From the example above. They follow the ASM disk group configuration with respect to redundancy.255. you can see that after listing all of the ASM files in the +CRS/racnode-cluster/OCRFILE directory. The two Oracle RAC nodes and the network storage server will be configured as follows: Oracle RAC / Openfiler Nodes Node Name racnode1 racnode2 openfiler1 Instance Name racdb1 racdb. The listing does not show the Voting File(s) because they are not managed as normal ASM files. To view the OCR. When configuring Oracle Clusterware files on a production system.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. ONLINE 4cbbd0de4c694f50bfd3857ebd8ad8c4 (ORCL:CRSVOL1) [CRS] Located 1 voting disk(s). The following example describes how the Oracle Clusterware files are stored in ASM after installing Oracle grid infrastructure using this guide. If disk mirroring is already occurring at either the OS or hardware level. Oracle only allows one OCR per disk group in order to protect against physical disk failures. 3.00 GHz 2 x Intel Xeon.shtml Redundancy. Oracle recommends using either normal or high redundancy ASM disk groups.info racdb2 1 x Dual Core Intel Xeon.idevelopment.255. The Oracle physical database files (data. 3. control files.703024853). This guide will store the OCR and voting disk files on ASM in an ASM disk group named +CRS using external redundancy which is one OCR location and one voting disk location. Instead. 3. but are not managed as normal ASM files in the disk group.--------1. If you decide against using ASM for the OCR and voting disk files. The Voting Files are managed in a similar way to the OCR. To find the location of all Voting Files within Oracle Clusterware. no protection is provided by Oracle. Previous versions of this guide used OCFS2 for storing the OCR and voting disk files. Please note that installing Oracle Clusterware files on raw or block devices is no longer supported. unless an existing system is being upgraded.----------------------------. The disk and the location of the Voting Files on the disks are stored internally within Oracle Clusterware. use ASMCMD: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ asmcmd ASMCMD> ls -l +CRS/racnode-cluster/OCRFILE Type Redund Striped Time Sys OCRFILE UNPROT COARSE NOV 22 12:00:00 Y Name REGISTRY. archived redo logs) will be installed on ASM in an ASM disk group named +RACDB_DATA while the Fast Recovery Area will be created in a separate ASM disk group named +FRA. use the crsctl query css votedisk command as follows: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ crsctl query css votedisk ## STATE File Universal Id File Name Disk group -. it only shows the OCR (REGISTRY.00 GHz RAM 4GB 5 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . Oracle Clusterware still allows these files to be stored on a cluster file system like Oracle Cluster File System release 2 (OCFS2) or a NFS system. The ASM disk group should be be created on shared storage and be at least 2GB in size. you can use external redundancy. online redo logs. each voting disk is placed on a specific disk in the disk group.00 GHz 4GB 6GB Database Name Processor 1 x Dual Core Intel Xeon.

151 192.1.1.1.168.2.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.251 192.2.168.168.152 192.252 racnode-cluster-scan SCAN Name 6 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .168.152 192.168.151 192.1.195 Private IP 192.195 Virtual IP 192.168.168.168.2.1.shtml Network Configuration Node Name racnode1 racnode2 openfiler1 Public IP 192.

DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Oracle introduced a generic lock manager that was integrated into the Oracle kernel. Oracle RAC 11g Overview Before introducing the details for building a RAC cluster. Oracle decided to design and write their own DLM for the VAX/VMS cluster product which provided the fine-grain block level locking required by the database. click here. The concept of clustering computers actually started several decades ago. introduced with Oracle9i. machines. It wasn't long. asmdba.3 using iSCSI. In later releases of Oracle. The key benefit of clustering is to provide a highly available framework where the failure of one node (for example a database server running an instance of Oracle) does not bring down an entire application. The only exception here is the choice of vendor hardware (i. The ARCnet product enjoyed much success by academia types in research labs. A cluster is a group of two or more interconnected computers or servers that appear as if they are one server to end users and applications and generally share the same set of physical disks.1 using iSCSI.2. If you are looking for an example that takes advantage of Oracle RAC 11g release 1 with RHEL 5. click here. before Oracle realized the need for a more efficient and scalable distributed lock manager (DLM) as the one included with the VAX/VMS cluster product was not well suited for database applications. In the case of failure with one of the servers. asmoper Home Directory /home/grid Oracle Base / /u01/app/grid /u01/app/11. With the release of Oracle 6 for the Digital VAX cluster product. OPS was extended to included support for not only the VAX/VMS cluster product but also with most flavors of UNIX. By Oracle 7. Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC). asmdba /home/oracle /u01/app/oracle /u01/app/oracle/pro Storage Components Storage Component OCR/Voting Disk Database Files Fast Recovery Area File System ASM ASM ASM Volume Size 2GB 32GB 32GB ASM Volume Group Name +CRS +RACDB_DATA +FRA ASM Redundancy External External External This article is only designed to work as documented with absolutely no substitutions. but didn't really take off in the commercial market. By Oracle8. If you are looking for an example that takes advantage of Oracle RAC 10g release 2 with RHEL 5.2 which gave birth to Oracle Parallel Server (OPS) . networking equipment. but to also create their own clusterware product in future releases. this became known as the Integrated Distributed Lock Manager (IDLM) and relied on an additional layer known as the Operating System Dependant (OSD) layer. it might be helpful to first clarify what a cluster is. This framework required vendor-supplied clusterware which worked well. oper. and internal / external hard drives).the first database to run the parallel server. the other surviving server (or servers) can take over the workload from the failed server and the application continues to function normally as if nothing has happened. however. It wasn't until the 1980's when Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) released its VAX cluster product for the VAX/VMS operating system. Oracle was the first commercial database to support clustering at the database level. but made for a complex environment to setup and manage given the multiple layers involved.e. This new model paved the way for Oracle to not only have their own DLM. Ensure that the hardware you purchase from the vendor is supported on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and Openfiler 2. Using the 7 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . The first successful cluster product was developed by DataPoint in 1977 named ARCnet. is the successor to Oracle Parallel Server. Oracle's own DLM was included in Oracle 6.0/gri Oracle RAC oracle oinstall dba.3 (Final Release).shtml Node Name Public IP Private IP Virtual IP SCAN Name Oracle Software Components Software Component Grid Infrastructure OS User grid Primary Group oinstall Supplementary Groups asmadmin.

For more background about Oracle RAC. When using Oracle 10g or higher.000 to US$5. you need servers that guarantee direct I/O over NFS. Fibre channel. Shared-Storage Overview Today. A typical fibre channel setup which includes fibre channel cards for the servers is roughly US$10. Pre-configured Oracle RAC solutions are available from vendors such as Dell. is very expensive. or switched topologies (FC-SW). Specifically. on the other hand. for CR fabrication). fibre channel is a high-speed serial-transfer interface that is used to connect systems and storage devices in either point-to-point (FC-P2P). Just the fibre channel switch alone can start at around US$1. RAC provides fault tolerance. but keep in mind that Oracle RAC still requires Oracle Clusterware as it is fully integrated with the database software. but for administrators and developers who are used to GPL-based Linux prices. A less expensive alternative to fibre channel is SCSI. and read/write block sizes of 32K. Standard NFS client software (client systems that use the operating system provided NFS driver) is not 8 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .2). Each instance has its own redo log files and UNDO tablespace that are locally read-writeable. With the release of Oracle Database 10g release 2 (10. data is passed along a high-speed interconnect using a sophisticated locking algorithm. As mentioned earlier. You can still use clusterware from other vendors if the clusterware is certified. at around US$2. The redo log files for an instance are only writeable by that instance and will only be read from another instance during system failure. is read all the time during normal database operation (e.000. is now a component of Oracle grid infrastructure. With cache fusion. This process was called disk pinging. in which case you need vendor clusterware).g. then the requesting instance can read that data (after acquiring the required locks). TCP as the transport protocol. however.25 Gbps is expected. At the heart of Oracle RAC is a shared disk subsystem. multiple instances use the same set of disks for storing data. which can reach prices of about US$300 for a single 36GB drive. Some vendors use an approach known as a Federated Cluster.000 for a two-node cluster. The other instances in the cluster must be able to access them (read-only) in order to recover that instance in the event of a system failure. One of the key drawbacks that has limited the benefits of using NFS and NAS for database storage has been performance degradation and complex configuration requirements. CRS was only available for Windows and Linux. Oracle's approach to clustering leverages the collective processing power of all the nodes in the cluster and at the same time provides failover security. and 4. Each instance in the cluster must be able to access all of the data. Oracle's clusterware product was available for all operating systems and was the required cluster technology for Oracle RAC.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. focuses on putting together your own Oracle RAC 11g environment for development and testing by using Linux servers and a low cost shared disk solution. This article. the failure of one node will not cause the loss of access to the database. See the Certify page on Oracle Metalink for supported Network Attached Storage (NAS) devices that can be used with Oracle RAC. Fibre channel configurations can support as many as 127 nodes and have a throughput of up to 2. control files and parameter file for all other instances in the cluster. Oracle9i could still rely on external clusterware but was the first release to include their own clusterware product named Cluster Ready Services (CRS). Not all database clustering solutions use shared storage. It can be used for shared storage but only if you are using a network appliance or something similar. and performance benefits by allowing the system to scale out. By Oracle 10g release 1. which does not include the cost of the servers that make up the Oracle database cluster. arbitrated loop (FC-AL). With Oracle9i. SCSI technology provides acceptable performance for shared storage. Oracle RAC allows multiple instances to access the same database (storage) simultaneously. in which data is spread across several machines rather than shared by all. even SCSI can come in over budget.shtml same IDLM. Protocols supported by Fibre Channel include SCSI and IP. The data disks must be globally available in order to allow all instances to access the database.000. Like OPS. This does not even include the fibre channel storage array and high-end drives. redo log files. With Oracle RAC. fibre channel is one of the most popular solutions for shared storage.12 Gigabits per second in each direction. Another popular solution is the Sun NFS (Network File System) found on a NAS. A big difference between Oracle RAC and OPS is the addition of Cache Fusion. Cluster Ready Services was renamed to Oracle Clusterware. Oracle Clusterware is the only clusterware that you need for most platforms on which Oracle RAC operates (except for Tru cluster. however. load balancing.2). iSCSI. The UNDO. however. and at the same time since all instances access the same database. visit the Oracle RAC Product Center on OTN. With OPS a request for data from one instance to another required the data to be written to disk first. This guide uses Oracle Clusterware which as of 11g release 2 (11. IBM and HP for production environments.

iSCSI is a data transport protocol defined in the SCSI-3 specifications framework and is similar to Fibre Channel in that it is responsible for carrying block-level data over a storage network. iSCSI Technology For many years. better scalability. an iSCSI initiator is a client device that connects and initiates requests to some service offered by a server (in this case an iSCSI target). FC SANs suffer from three major disadvantages. Fibre Channel was developed to move SCSI commands over a storage network. Like a FC SAN.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. increased disk utilization. Oracle is able to optimize the I/O path between the Oracle software and the NFS server resulting in significant performance gains. iSCSI comes with its own set of acronyms and terminology. its components can be much the same as in a typical IP network (LAN). is an Internet Protocol (IP)-based storage networking standard for establishing and managing connections between IP-based storage devices. and clients. With the introduction of Oracle 11g. flexibility. The first is price. better known as iSCSI. and in many cases automate. These specialized cards are sometimes referred to as an iSCSI Host Bus Adaptor (HBA) or a TCP Offload Engine (TOE) card. Fibre Channel has recently been given a run for its money by iSCSI-based storage systems. When purchasing Fibre Channel components from a common manufacturer. With the popularity of Gigabit Ethernet and the demand for lower cost. does this mean the death of Fibre Channel anytime soon? Probably not. many product manufacturers have interpreted the Fibre Channel specifications differently from each other which has resulted in scores of interconnect problems. and most important to us — support for server clustering! Still today. The shared storage that will be used for this article is based on iSCSI technology using a network storage server installed with Openfiler. Customers who have strict requirements for high performance storage. it is only important to understand the difference between an iSCSI initiator and an iSCSI target. For many the solution is to do away with iSCSI software initiators and invest in specialized cards that can offload TCP/IP and iSCSI processing from a server's CPU. The overhead incurred in mapping every SCSI command onto an equivalent iSCSI transaction is excessive. however. most of the processing of the data (both TCP and iSCSI) is handled in software and is much slower than Fibre Channel which is handled completely in hardware. While the costs involved in building a FC SAN have come down in recent years. iSCSI Initiator Basically. it is not often used in a production environment. Ratified on February 11. Fibre Channel has clearly demonstrated its capabilities over the years with its capacity for extremely high speeds. With iSCSI. Direct NFS Client can simplify. The beauty of iSCSI is its ability to utilize an already familiar IP network as its transport mechanism. improved availability. see the Oracle White Paper entitled "Oracle Database 11g Direct NFS Client". As with any new technology. Through this integration. iSCSI SANs remain the leading competitor to FC SANs. this is usually not a problem. the Internet Small Computer System Interface. Several of the advantages to FC SAN include greater performance. Today. The second is incompatible hardware components. For the purpose of this article. Also consider that 10-Gigabit Ethernet is a reality today! So with all of this talk about iSCSI. many of its early critics were quick to point out some of its inherent shortcomings with regards to performance. Database servers depend on this type of communication (as opposed to the file level communication used by most NAS systems) in order to work properly. This solution offers a low-cost alternative to fibre channel for testing and educational purposes. While iSCSI has a promising future. the performance optimization of the NFS client configuration for database workloads. the only technology that existed for building a network based storage solution was a Fibre Channel Storage Area Network (FC SAN).shtml optimized for Oracle database file I/O access patterns. however. and mission critical reliability will undoubtedly continue to choose Fibre Channel. a new feature known as Direct NFS Client integrates the NFS client functionality directly in the Oracle software. 2003 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). To learn more about Direct NFS Client. but given the low-end hardware being used. Block-level communication means that data is transferred between the host and the client in chunks called blocks. The third disadvantage is the fact that a Fibre Channel network is not Ethernet! It requires a separate network technology along with a second set of skill sets that need to exist with the data center staff. the cost of entry still remains prohibitive for small companies with limited IT budgets. Based on an earlier set of ANSI protocols called Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). large complex connectivity. is very complex and CPU intensive. Since its adoption. and robust reliability. The iSCSI initiator software will need to exist on each of the Oracle RAC nodes (racnode1 and 9 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . hosts. however. an iSCSI SAN should be a separate physical network devoted entirely to storage. The TCP/IP protocol.

6MB Cache. 1333MHz 4GB.(Connected to KVM Switch) 1 x Ethernet LAN Card Used for RAC interconnect to racnode2 and Openfiler networked storage. 800MHz 160GB 7.(ATI ES1000) Integrated Gigabit Ethernet . or Mouse . Monitor.(racnode2) Dell PowerEdge T100 Dual Core Intel(R) Xeon(R) E3110. For the purpose of this article. The Dell PowerEdge T100 includes an embedded Broadcom(R) NetXtreme IITM 5722 Gigabit Ethernet NIC that will be used to connect to the public network. which is basically just a specialized Ethernet card with a SCSI ASIC on-board to offload all the work (TCP and SCSI commands) from the system CPU.(Broadcom(R) NetXtreme IITM 5722) 16x DVD Drive No Keyboard. Select the appropriate NIC adapter that is compatible with the maximum data transmission speed of the network switch to be used for the private network.0 GHz. For the purpose of this article. A hardware initiator is an iSCSI HBA (or a TCP Offload Engine (TOE) card).(Broadcom(R) NetXtreme IITM 5722) 16x DVD Drive No Keyboard.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. DDR2. Oracle RAC Node 1 . An iSCSI initiator can be implemented using either software or hardware. 3. Software iSCSI initiators are available for most major operating system platforms. Monitor. A second NIC adapter will be used for the private network (RAC interconnect and Openfiler networked storage).(Connected to KVM Switch) US$90 US$500 US$500 10 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . DDR2. Hardware and Costs The hardware used to build our example Oracle RAC 11g environment consists of three Linux servers (two Oracle RAC nodes and one Network Storage Server) and components that can be purchased at many local computer stores or over the Internet. or Mouse . Intel. iSCSI HBAs are available from a number of vendors. 800MHz 160GB 7. 1333MHz 4GB. Alacritech. Each Linux server for Oracle RAC should contain two NIC adapters.shtml racnode2). we will be using the free Linux Open-iSCSI software driver found in the iscsi-initiator-utils RPM. Intel(R) PRO/1000 PT Server Adapter . 6MB Cache. For this article. and QLogic.(racnode1) Dell PowerEdge T100 Dual Core Intel(R) Xeon(R) E3110. including Adaptec.2K RPM SATA 3Gbps Hard Drive Integrated Graphics . This is typically the storage device that contains the information you want and answers requests from the initiator(s). the node openfiler1 will be the iSCSI target.2K RPM SATA 3Gbps Hard Drive Integrated Graphics .0 GHz. iSCSI Target An iSCSI target is the "server" component of an iSCSI network. 3.(EXPI9400PT) Oracle RAC Node 2 .(ATI ES1000) Integrated Gigabit Ethernet . The iSCSI software initiator is generally used with a standard network interface card (NIC) — a Gigabit Ethernet card in most cases. I used a Gigabit Ethernet switch (and a 1Gb Ethernet card) for the private network.

(PWLA8490MT) Miscellaneous Components 1 x Ethernet Switch US$50 US$125 US$90 US$800 11 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . I used a Gigabit Ethernet switch (and 1Gb Ethernet card) for the private network. A second NIC adapter will be used for the private network (RAC interconnect and Openfiler networked storage). this is by no means a requirement. Intel(R) PRO/1000 MT Server Adapter . Please be aware that any type of hard disk (internal or external) should work for the shared disk storage as long as it can be recognized by the network storage server (Openfiler) and has adequate space. or Mouse . Finally. The Openfiler server could be configured with as little as 2GB for a small test / evaluation network storage server.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Intel(R) PRO/1000 PT Server Adapter . I used a Gigabit Ethernet switch (and a 1Gb Ethernet card) for the private network. The Dell PowerEdge T100 includes an embedded Broadcom(R) NetXtreme IITM 5722 Gigabit Ethernet NIC that will be used to connect to the public network. I could have made an extra partition on the 500GB internal SATA disk for the iSCSI target. Each Linux server for Oracle RAC should contain two NIC adapters.(Connected to KVM Switch) Note: The rPath Linux operating system and Openfiler application will be installed on the 500GB internal SATA disk. The Network Storage Server (Openfiler server) should contain two NIC adapters.(racnode1) 1 x Ethernet LAN Card Used for RAC interconnect to racnode1 and Openfiler networked storage.0GHz Xeon / 1MB Cache / 800FSB (SL7PE) 6GB of ECC Memory 500GB SATA Internal Hard Disk 73GB 15K SCSI Internal Hard Disk Integrated Graphics Single embedded Intel 10/100/1000 Gigabit NIC 16x DVD Drive No Keyboard.(openfiler1) Dell PowerEdge 1800 Dual 3. Monitor. Select the appropriate NIC adapter that is compatible with the maximum data transmission speed of the network switch to be used for the private network. Select the appropriate NIC adapter that is compatible with the maximum data transmission speed of the network switch to be used for the private network. The Openfiler server will be configured to use this second hard disk for iSCSI based storage and will be used in our Oracle RAC 11g configuration to store the shared files required by Oracle Clusterware as well as the clustered database files. A second internal 73GB 15K SCSI hard disk will be configured for the shared database storage.(EXPI9400PT) Network Storage Server . although the Openfiler server used in this example configuration contains 6GB of memory.shtml Oracle RAC Node 1 . The Dell PowerEdge 1800 machine included an integrated 10/100/1000 Ethernet adapter that will be used to connect to the public network. 1 x Ethernet LAN Card Used for networked storage on the private network. For the purpose of this article. The second NIC adapter will be used for the private network (Openfiler networked storage). For example. For the purpose of this article. but decided to make use of the faster SCSI disk for this example.

Avocent provides a high quality and economical 4-port switch which includes four 6' cables: AutoView(R) Analog KVM Switch For a detailed explanation and guide on the use and KVM switches. let's take a conceptual look at what the environment would look like after connecting all of the hardware components (click on the graphic below to view larger image): 12 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . D-Link 8-port 10/100/1000 Desktop Switch . this solution becomes unfeasible.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. This switch will also be used for network storage traffic for Openfiler. For the purpose of this article.2.565 We are about to start the installation process. and mouse in order to access its console. I used a Gigabit Ethernet switch (and 1Gb Ethernet cards) for the private network.168. This solution is made possible using a Keyboard.(racnode1) Used for the interconnect between racnode1-priv and racnode2-priv which will be on the 192. Video.(DGS-2208) 6 x Network Cables Category Category Category Category Category Category switch) 6 6 6 6 6 6 patch patch patch patch patch patch cable cable cable cable cable cable (Connect (Connect (Connect (Connect (Connect (Connect racnode1 to public network) racnode2 to public network) openfiler1 to public network) racnode1 to interconnect Ethernet switch) racnode2 to interconnect Ethernet switch) openfiler1 to interconnect Ethernet US$10 US$10 US$10 US$10 US$10 US$10 Optional Components KVM Switch This guide requires access to the console of all machines in order to install the operating system and perform several of the configuration tasks. Note: This article assumes you already have a switch or VLAN in place what will be used for the public network.shtml Oracle RAC Node 1 . as the number of servers to manage increases. A KVM switch is a hardware device that allows a user to control multiple computers from a single keyboard. keyboard. A more practical solution would be to configure a dedicated device which would include a single monitor. and mouse that would have direct access to the console of each server. When managing a very small number of servers. Total US$350 US$2. please see the article "KVM Switches For the Home and the Enterprise". video monitor and mouse.0 network. it might make sense to connect each server with its own monitor. Now that we have talked about the hardware that will be used in this example. Mouse Switch —better known as a KVM Switch. However. keyboard.

5 for x86_64 and follows Oracle's suggestion of performing a "default RPMs" installation type to ensure all expected Linux O/S packages are present for a successful Oracle RDBMS installation. I wanted to switch to a Linux environment that would guarantee all of the functionality contained with Oracle. note that most of the tasks within this document will need to be performed on both Oracle RAC nodes (racnode1 and racnode2).5 for x86_64 or Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.shtml Figure 1: Oracle RAC 11g release 2 Test Configuration As we start to go into the details of the installation. The CentOS project takes the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 source RPMs and compiles them into a free clone of the Red Hat Enterprise Server 5 product. Although I have used Red Hat Fedora in the past. This section provides a summary of the screens used to install the Linux operating system. but as close to the actual Oracle supported operating system as possible.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. I tend to stick with it as it is stable and reacts fast with regards to updates by Red Hat. This guide is designed to work with CentOS release 5. I will indicate at the beginning of each section whether or not the task(s) should be performed on both Oracle RAC nodes or on the network storage server (openfiler1). This provides a free and stable version of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 (AS/ES) operating environment that I can use for Oracle testing and development. Install the Linux Operating System Perform the following installation on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster. This is where CentOS comes in. While CentOS is not the only project performing the same functionality. I have moved away from Fedora as I need a stable environment that is not only free. Download CentOS 13 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .

5-x86_64-bin-7of8.5-i386-bin-2of7.5-x86_64-bin-5of8.torrent (360 KB) If you are downloading the above ISO files to a MS Windows machine. there are many options for burning these images (ISO files) to a CD. insert CentOS Disk #1 into the first server (racnode1 in this example).5-i386-bin-6of7.5-i386-bin-DVD.5-i386-bin-1of7.9 GB) 64-bit (x86_64) Installations CentOS-5.5-x86_64-bin-1of8.5 for either x86 or x86_64 depending on your hardware architecture. you may find it more convenient to make use of the two DVD images (requires BitTorrent ): CentOS-5.iso CentOS-5.iso CentOS-5.iso CentOS-5. perform the same Linux installation on the second node while substituting the node name racnode1 for racnode2 and the different IP addresses were appropriate.iso CentOS-5.iso (3. 32-bit (x86) Installations CentOS-5. Before installing the Linux operating system on both nodes. you may find it more convenient to make use of the single DVD image: CentOS-5.5-i386-bin-3of7.iso CentOS-5. If you are not familiar with this process and do not have the required software to burn images to CD.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.iso CentOS-5.5-x86_64-bin-2of8. Boot Screen The first screen is the CentOS boot screen.5-x86_64-bin-DVD.iso CentOS-5.5-x86_64-bin-8of8. You may already be familiar with and have the proper software to burn images to CD.5-i386-bin-4of7.5-x86_64-bin-4of8.iso CentOS-5.5-i386-bin-5of7.iso CentOS-5.iso CentOS-5.iso CentOS-5.5-x86_64-bin-3of8.5-i386-bin-7of7.iso (623 MB) (587 MB) (634 MB) (633 MB) (634 MB) (627 MB) (624 MB) (242 MB) Note: If the Linux RAC nodes have a DVD installed. hit [Enter] to start the installation process.5-x86_64-bin-6of8.shtml Use the links below to download CentOS 5.iso CentOS-5. After completing the Linux installation on the first node.iso (623 MB) (621 MB) (630 MB) (619 MB) (629 MB) (637 MB) (231 MB) Note: If the Linux RAC nodes have a DVD installed. power it on.iso CentOS-5. you should have the two NIC interfaces (cards) installed. At the boot: prompt. 14 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . and answer the installation screen prompts as noted below. here are just three of the many software packages that can be used: InfraRecorder UltraISO Magic ISO Maker Install CentOS After downloading and burning the CentOS images (ISO files) to CD/DVD.

Partitioning The installer will then allow you to view (and modify if needed) the disk partitions it automatically selected. Starting with RHEL 4. Always select to Install CentOS. the automatic layout does not configure an adequate amount of swap space. For example.e. [Edit] and decrease the size of the root file system (/) by the amount you want to add to the swap partition.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. you can easily change that from this screen.049MB and 8. This will bring up the "Edit LVM Volume Group: VolGroup00" dialog.75 times the size of RAM For the purpose of this install. You will then be prompted with a dialog window asking if you really want to remove all Linux partitions. The LVM Volume Group (VolGroup00) is then partitioned into two LVM partitions .) If for any reason. Disk Partitioning Setup Select "Remove all partitions on selected drives and create default layout" and check the option to "Review and modify partitioning layout". Now add the space you decreased from the root file system 15 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . Click [Yes] to acknowledge this warning.192MB Swap Space Required 1. Language / Keyboard Selection The next two screens prompt you for the Language and Keyboard settings. the media burning software would have warned us.shtml Media Test When asked to test the CD media. the installer should then detect the video card. click [Next] to continue. and mouse. I will accept all automatically preferred sizes. monitor. and the rest going to the root (/) partition.192MB More than 8.512MB = 35. For most automatic layouts. you would decrease the size of the root file system by 512MB (i. First. double the amount of RAM (systems with <= 2. it will ask if you would like to "Install CentOS" or "Upgrade an existing Installation".048MB Between 2.952MB for swap since I have 4GB of RAM installed. For example. To increase the size of the swap partition. The following is Oracle's minimum requirement for swap space: Available RAM Between 1. The main concern during the partitioning phase is to ensure enough swap space is allocated as required by Oracle (which is a multiple of the available RAM).5 times the size of RAM Equal to the size of RAM 0. Welcome to CentOS At the welcome screen. If there were any errors. the installer will create the same disk configuration as just noted but will create them using the Logical Volume Manager (LVM).one for the root file system (/) and another for swap. Make the appropriate selection for your configuration and click [Next] to continue. Detect Previous Installation If the installer detects a previous version of RHEL / CentOS. After several seconds.024MB and 2. The installer then goes into GUI mode.520MB). it will partition the first hard drive (/dev/sda for my configuration) into two partitions — one for the /boot partition (/dev/sda1) and the remainder of the disk dedicate to a LVM named VolGroup00 (/dev/sda2).048MB RAM) or an amount equal to RAM (systems with > 2. 36. Click "[Next]" to continue.048MB RAM) for swap. the installer will choose 100MB for /boot.032MB . tab over to [Skip] and hit [Enter]. [Edit] the volume group VolGroup00. (Including 5. to add another 512MB to swap.

The most important modification that will be required for this guide is to not configure the Oracle RAC nodes with DHCP since we will be assigning static IP addresses.255.151 255. make sure that each of the network devices are checked to "Active on boot". Make certain to put eth1 (the interconnect) on a different subnet than eth0 (the public network): Oracle RAC Node Network Configuration (racnode1) eth0 Enable IPv4 support Dynamic IP configuration (DHCP) . Network Configuration I made sure to install both NIC interfaces (cards) in each of the Linux machines before starting the operating system installation.shtml (512MB) to the swap partition. When completed.255. Since this guide will use the traditional method of assigning static IP addresses for each of the Oracle RAC nodes. Additionally. there will be several changes that need to be made to the network configuration.151 255. First.168. Boot Loader Configuration The installer will use the GRUB boot loader by default.255.0 OFF Continue by manually setting your hostname. you will need to configure the server with a real host name. Second. accept all default values and click [Next] to continue. 16 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . [Edit] both eth0 and eth1 as follows. I used racnode1 for the first node and racnode2 for the second. click [OK] on the "Edit LVM Volume Group: VolGroup00" dialog.2. The installer may choose to not activate eth1 by default.(select Manual configuration) IPv4 Address Prefix (Netmask) Enable IPv6 support eth1 Enable IPv4 support Dynamic IP configuration (DHCP) . depend on your network configuration. click [Next] to continue.255. The settings you make here will.0 OFF ON OFF 192. Once you are satisfied with the disk layout. The installer should have successfully detected each of the network devices. To use the "GRUB boot loader".DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Finish this dialog off by supplying your gateway and DNS servers.(select Manual configuration) IPv4 Address Prefix (Netmask) Enable IPv6 support ON OFF 192.168. You may choose to use different IP addresses for both eth0 and eth1 that I have documented in this guide and that is OK.1. of course.

however. These packages will need to be manually installed from the CentOS CDs after the operating system install. select the radio button "Customize now" and click [Next] to continue. This is where you pick the packages to install. For the purpose of this article. some of the packages required by Oracle do not get installed. Set Root Password Select a root password and click [Next] to continue. The addition of such RPM groupings is not an issue. Package Installation Defaults By default. Not to worry. Time Zone Selection Select the appropriate time zone for your environment and click [Next] to continue. not all of the packages associated with that group get selected for installation. libaio-devel). there are some packages that are required by Oracle that do not belong to any of the available package groups (i. install the following package groups: Desktop Environments GNOME Desktop Environment Applications Editors Graphical Internet Text-based Internet Development Development Libraries Development Tools Legacy Software Development Servers Server Configuration Tools Base System Administration Tools Base Java Legacy Software Support 17 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . Since these nodes will be hosting the Oracle grid infrastructure and Oracle RAC software. There are several other packages (RPMs). For many of the Linux package groups.) So although the package group gets selected for install. verify that at least the following package groups are selected for install. For now.e.shtml Additional DNS configuration information for both of the Oracle RAC nodes will be discussed later in this guide. however. CentOS installs most of the software required for a typical server. Application -> Editors). Most of the packages required for the Oracle software are grouped into "Package Groups" (i. (Note the "Optional packages" button after selecting a package group. can result in failed Oracle grid infrastructure and Oracle RAC installation attempts. The installer includes a "Customize software" selection that allows the addition of RPM groupings such as "Development Libraries" or "Legacy Library Support". that are required to successfully install the Oracle software. In fact. De-selecting any "default RPM" groupings or individual RPMs. A complete list of required packages for Oracle grid infrastructure 11g release 2 and Oracle RAC 11g release 2 for Linux will be provided in the next section.e.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.

DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. choose the "Disabled" option and click [Forward] to continue. The installer will eject the CD/DVD from the CD-ROM drive. On the sound card screen click [Forward] to continue. I will be creating the "grid" and "oracle" user accounts later in this guide. About to Install This screen is basically a confirmation screen. make sure to select the "Disabled" option and click [Forward] to continue. If you chose not to define any additional operating system user accounts. Kdump Accept the default setting on the Kdump screen (disabled) and click [Forward] to continue. Create User Create any additional (non-oracle) operating system user accounts if desired and click [Forward] to continue. Congratulations And that's it. 18 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . When this occurs. After selecting the packages to install click [Next] to continue. I will not be creating any additional operating system accounts. Date and Time Settings Adjust the date and time settings if necessary and click [Forward] to continue. Sound Card This screen will only appear if the wizard detects a sound card. You have successfully installed Linux on the first node (racnode1). If you are installing CentOS using CDs. it will prompt you with another welcome screen for the "Post Installation Wizard". Post Installation Wizard Welcome Screen When the system boots into CentOS Linux for the first time. click [Yes] to continue. SELinux On the SELinux screen. Click [Next] to start the installation.shtml System Tools X Window System In addition to the above packages. On the "Welcome screen". You will be prompted with a warning dialog about not setting the firewall. select any additional packages you wish to install for this node keeping in mind to NOT de-select any of the "default" RPM packages. Firewall On this screen. click [Forward] to continue. You will be prompted with a warning dialog warning that changing the SELinux setting will require rebooting the system so the entire file system can be relabeled. The post installation wizard allows you to make final O/S configuration settings. click [Continue] to acknowledge the warning dialog. For the purpose of this article. Take out the CD/DVD and click [Reboot] to reboot the system. click [Yes] to acknowledge a reboot of the system will occur after firstboot (Post Installation Wizard) is completed. When this occurs. you will be asked to switch CDs during the installation process depending on which packages you selected.

For my installation.152 255.168. I used racnode2 for the second node. You may choose to use different IP addresses for both eth0 and eth1 that I have documented in this guide and that is OK. we are prompted to reboot the system. Make certain to put eth1 (the interconnect) on a different subnet than eth0 (the public network): Oracle RAC Node Network Configuration (racnode2) eth0 Enable IPv4 support Dynamic IP configuration (DHCP) . you are presented with the login screen.0 OFF Continue by manually setting your hostname. Click [OK] to reboot the system for normal use. make sure that each of the network devices are checked to "Active on boot". [Edit] both eth0 and eth1 as follows. repeat the above steps for the second node (racnode2).1.255.168. Log in using the "root" user account and the password you provided during the installation. Login Screen After rebooting the machine.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.152 255. this is what I configured for racnode2. Perform the same installation on the second node After completing the Linux installation on the first node. First. When configuring the machine name and networking.255. Finish this dialog off by supplying your gateway and DNS servers. The installer may choose to not activate eth1 by default.2. Reboot System Given we changed the SELinux option to "Disabled".255. Second.255.shtml Additional CDs On the "Additional CDs" screen click [Finish] to continue. ensure to configure the proper values.0 OFF ON OFF 192. Perform the same Linux installation on racnode2 19 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .(select Manual configuration) IPv4 Address Prefix (Netmask) Enable IPv6 support ON OFF 192.(select Manual configuration) IPv4 Address Prefix (Netmask) Enable IPv6 support eth1 Enable IPv4 support Dynamic IP configuration (DHCP) .

After installing the Linux O/S.1.* rpm -Uvh ksh-2* rpm -Uvh libaio-0. The Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) performs checks on your machine during installation to verify that it meets the appropriate operating system package requirements.52 glibc-headers-2. To ensure that these checks complete successfully.50.11 Each of the packages listed above can be found on CD #1.2.* 20 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .1.6 compat-libstdc++-33-3. For packages that already exist and are up to date. several will be missing either because they were considered optional within the package group or simply didn't exist in any package group! The packages listed in this section (or later versions) are required for Oracle grid infrastructure 11g release 2 and Oracle RAC 11g release 2 running on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 or CentOS 5 platform.1.106 libaio-devel-0.17.2 libgomp-4.1.125 gcc-4.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. CD #3.shtml Install Required Linux Packages for Oracle RAC Install the following required Linux packages on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster.[CD #1] mkdir -p /media/cdrom mount -r /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom cd /media/cdrom/CentOS rpm -Uvh binutils-2.1.2 libstdc++-4.2.5-24 glibc-common-2.3.3 elfutils-libelf-0.2 gcc-c++-4.* rpm -Uvh elfutils-libelf-0. 32-bit (x86) Installations binutils-2. # From CentOS 5.0.* rpm -Uvh glibc-common-2.125 elfutils-libelf-devel-static-0.14 sysstat-7.11 unixODBC-devel-2.2 libstdc++-devel-4. and CD #4 on the CentOS 5. Although many of the required packages for Oracle were installed during the Linux installation.* rpm -Uvh kernel-headers-2.5 glibc-devel-2.2 unixODBC-2.2 glibc-2. the next step is to verify and install all packages (RPMs) required by both Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC.6.106 libgcc-4.2 make-3. the RPM command will simply ignore the install and print a warning message to the console that the package is already installed. an easier method is to run the rpm -Uvh PackageName command from the four CDs as follows. While it is possible to query each individual package to determine which ones are missing and need to be installed.2.125 elfutils-libelf-devel-0. CD #2.1. verify the software requirements documented in this section before starting the Oracle installs.* rpm -Uvh glibc-2.5 kernel-headers-2.81 pdksh-5.5 (x86).3.2.0.5 for x86 CDs.18 ksh-20060214 libaio-0.

[CD #4] mount -r /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom cd /media/cdrom/CentOS rpm -Uvh sysstat-7.* cd / eject # From CentOS 5.* cd / eject # From CentOS 5.* cd / eject # From CentOS 5.* 21 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .* rpm -Uvh make-3.* rpm -Uvh glibc-common-2.* rpm -Uvh glibc-2.* rpm -Uvh libstdc++-devel-4.* rpm -Uvh libstdc++-4.* rpm -Uvh gcc-c++-4.* rpm -Uvh libaio-devel-0.* cd / eject -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------# From CentOS 5.* rpm -Uvh unixODBC-devel-2.5 (x86) .5 (x86) .[CD #2] mount -r /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom cd /media/cdrom/CentOS rpm -Uvh libgomp-4.* rpm -Uvh unixODBC-2.* rpm -Uvh libgcc-4.* rpm -Uvh kernel-headers-2.* rpm -Uvh libaio-devel-0.shtml rpm -Uvh libgcc-4.* rpm -Uvh unixODBC-2.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.* rpm -Uvh elfutils-libelf-0.* rpm -Uvh glibc-headers-2.* rpm -Uvh ksh-2* rpm -Uvh libaio-0.* rpm -Uvh libstdc++-4.5 (x86).* rpm -Uvh gcc-c++-4.* rpm -Uvh libgomp-4.[DVD #1] mkdir -p /media/cdrom mount -r /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom cd /media/cdrom/CentOS rpm -Uvh binutils-2.* rpm -Uvh libstdc++-devel-4.[CD #3] mount -r /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom cd /media/cdrom/CentOS rpm -Uvh compat-libstdc++-33* rpm -Uvh elfutils-libelf-devel-* rpm -Uvh gcc-4.* rpm -Uvh glibc-devel-2.* rpm -Uvh pdksh-5.* rpm -Uvh make-3.* rpm -Uvh glibc-devel-2.* rpm -Uvh compat-libstdc++-33* rpm -Uvh elfutils-libelf-devel-* rpm -Uvh gcc-4.* rpm -Uvh glibc-headers-2.5 (x86) .

* rpm -Uvh elfutils-libelf-0. For packages that already exist and are up to date.5 for x86_64 CDs.106 (32 bit) libaio-devel-0.2 unixODBC-2. CD #3.* 22 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .2.2.5 ksh-20060214 libaio-0.106 libaio-devel-0.1.2.2.81 pdksh-5.2 libgcc-4.2.3.3.125 gcc-4.* rpm -Uvh unixODBC-devel-2. an easier method is to run the rpm -Uvh PackageName command from the four CDs as follows.125 elfutils-libelf-devel-static-0.11 unixODBC-2.0.5-24 (32 bit) glibc-common-2.* rpm -Uvh ksh-2* rpm -Uvh libaio-0. While it is possible to query each individual package to determine which ones are missing and need to be installed.14 sysstat-7.* rpm -Uvh make-3.* rpm -Uvh sysstat-7.50.2.5 (32 bit) glibc-headers-2.2 gcc-c++-4.2 libstdc++-4.3 (32 bit) elfutils-libelf-0.125 elfutils-libelf-devel-0. and CD #5 on the CentOS 5.* rpm -Uvh libgcc-4.2 make-3.5-24 glibc-2.0.shtml rpm -Uvh pdksh-5.3 compat-libstdc++-33-3.* rpm -Uvh glibc-common-2.3.106 (32 bit) libgcc-4.5 (x86_64).5 glibc-devel-2.1.[CD #1] mkdir -p /media/cdrom mount -r /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom cd /media/cdrom/CentOS rpm -Uvh binutils-2.11 (32 bit) Each of the packages listed above can be found on CD #1.11 (32 bit) unixODBC-devel-2.* rpm -Uvh libstdc++-4.2 glibc-2.11 unixODBC-devel-2.1.106 libaio-0.5 glibc-devel-2. the RPM command will simply ignore the install and print a warning message to the console that the package is already installed.* rpm -Uvh glibc-2.2 (32 bit) libstdc++-4.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.1.1.3. # From CentOS 5.1.2.1.2 (32 bit) libstdc++-devel 4.6 compat-libstdc++-33-3. CD #4.* cd / eject 64-bit (x86_64) Installations binutils-2.17.

* rpm -Uvh libstdc++-4.* rpm -Uvh unixODBC-devel-2.* rpm -Uvh glibc-common-2.* rpm -Uvh elfutils-libelf-0.5 (x86_64) .* cd / eject -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------# From CentOS 5.[CD #5] mount -r /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom cd /media/cdrom/CentOS rpm -Uvh sysstat-7.* rpm -Uvh libstdc++-devel-4.* rpm -Uvh pdksh-5.* cd / eject # From CentOS 5.* cd / eject 23 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .5 (x86_64) .shtml cd / eject # From CentOS 5.* cd / eject # From CentOS 5.* rpm -Uvh unixODBC-devel-2.* rpm -Uvh ksh-2* rpm -Uvh libaio-0.* rpm -Uvh elfutils-libelf-devel-* rpm -Uvh gcc-4.5 (x86_64).* rpm -Uvh libgcc-4.[CD #3] mount -r /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom cd /media/cdrom/CentOS rpm -Uvh elfutils-libelf-devel-* rpm -Uvh gcc-4.* rpm -Uvh unixODBC-2.* rpm -Uvh gcc-c++-4.* rpm -Uvh glibc-devel-2.* rpm -Uvh libstdc++-devel-4.[DVD #1] mkdir -p /media/cdrom mount -r /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom cd /media/cdrom/CentOS rpm -Uvh binutils-2.* rpm -Uvh sysstat-7.* rpm -Uvh make-3.[CD #4] mount -r /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom cd /media/cdrom/CentOS rpm -Uvh compat-libstdc++-33* rpm -Uvh libaio-devel-0.* rpm -Uvh unixODBC-2.* rpm -Uvh glibc-headers-2.5 (x86_64) .* rpm -Uvh gcc-c++-4.* rpm -Uvh glibc-headers-2.* rpm -Uvh pdksh-5.* rpm -Uvh glibc-2.* rpm -Uvh glibc-devel-2.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.* rpm -Uvh compat-libstdc++-33* rpm -Uvh libaio-devel-0.

NFS. there are many options for burning these images (ISO files) to a CD. we will only be making use of its iSCSI capabilities to implement an inexpensive SAN for the shared storage components required by Oracle RAC 11g. Samba. Openfiler combines these ubiquitous technologies into a small. Download Openfiler Use the links below to download Openfiler NAS/SAN Appliance. you will then need to burn the ISO image to CD. Linux NFS and iSCSI Enterprise Target. LVM2. This guide uses x86_64. 32-bit (x86) Installations openfiler-2. With Linux installed on both Oracle RAC nodes. For example. HTTP/DAV. Openfiler is a free browser-based network storage management utility that delivers file-based Network Attached Storage (NAS) and block-based Storage Area Networking (SAN) in a single framework. easy to manage solution fronted by a powerful web-based management interface. the next step is to install the Openfiler software to the network storage server (openfiler1). here are just three of the many software packages that can be used: InfraRecorder UltraISO Magic ISO Maker Install Openfiler This section provides a summary of the screens used to install the Openfiler software.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. You may already be familiar with and have the proper software to burn images to CD. Powered by rPath Linux.3-x86_64-disc1.iso (336 MB) If you are downloading the above ISO file to a MS Windows machine. Later in this guide.shtml Install Openfiler Perform the following installation on the network storage server (openfiler1). A second internal 73GB 15K SCSI hard disk will be configured as a single volume group that will be used for all shared disk storage requirements. The only manual change required was for configuring the local network 24 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .openfiler. the network storage server will be configured as an iSCSI storage device for all Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC shared storage requirements. The Openfiler server will be configured to use this volume group for iSCSI based storage and will be used in our Oracle RAC 11g configuration to store the shared files required by Oracle Clusterware and the Oracle RAC database. The rPath Linux operating system and Openfiler application will be installed on one internal SATA disk.3 (Final Release) for either x86 or x86_64 depending on your hardware architecture. please visit their website at http://www. If you are not familiar with this process and do not have the required software to burn images to CD. FTP. but decided to make use of the faster SCSI disk for this example. version 2. The entire software stack interfaces with open source applications such as Apache. Please be aware that any type of hard disk (internal or external) should work for the shared database storage as long as it can be recognized by the network storage server (Openfiler) and has adequate space. ext3.3-x86-disc1. I could have made an extra partition on the 500GB internal SATA disk for the iSCSI target. After downloading Openfiler. I opted to install Openfiler with all default options. For the purpose of this article. Openfiler supports CIFS.iso (322 MB) 64-bit (x86_64) Installations openfiler-2.com/. however. To learn more about Openfiler.

Welcome to Openfiler NSA At the welcome screen. Make the appropriate selection for your configuration.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Before installing the Openfiler software to the network storage server. Select the option to [Remove all partitions on this system]. I would suggest. Although the official Openfiler documentation suggests to use Manual Partitioning. and mouse. tab over to [Skip] and hit [Enter]. the server will reboot to make sure all required components. 25 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . If there were any errors. hit [Enter] to start the installation process. monitor. insert the CD into the network storage server (openfiler1 in this example). The installer then goes into GUI mode. and the rest going to the root (/) partition for that disk (or disks).shtml settings. however. the media burning software would have warned us. any external hard drives (if connected) will be discovered by the Openfiler server. I selected ONLY the 500GB SATA internal hard drive [sda] for the operating system and Openfiler application installation. Partitioning The installer will then allow you to view (and modify if needed) the disk partitions it automatically chose for hard disks selected in the previous screen. Automatic Partitioning If there were a previous installation of Linux on this machine. After the reboot. that the instructions I have provided below be used for this Oracle RAC 11g configuration. and answer the installation screen prompts as noted below. I de-selected the 73GB SCSI internal hard drive since this disk will be used exclusively later in this guide to create a single "Volume Group" (racdbvg) that will be used for all iSCSI based shared disk storage requirements for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. the installer should then detect the video card. services and drivers are started and recognized. For my example configuration. Click [Next] to continue. In this example. you should have both NIC interfaces (cards) installed and any external hard drives connected and turned on (if you will be using external hard drives). I also keep the check-box [Review (and modify if needed) the partitions created] selected. Click [Yes] to acknowledge this warning. After several seconds.com/learn/. Once the install has completed. the installer will choose 100MB for /boot. Select [Automatically partition] and click [Next] continue. power it on. Media Test When asked to test the CD media. For more detailed installation instructions. At the boot: prompt. Keyboard Configuration The next screen prompts you for the Keyboard settings. You will then be prompted with a dialog window asking if you really want to remove all partitions. Boot Screen The first screen is the Openfiler boot screen. Disk Partitioning Setup The next screen asks whether to perform disk partitioning using "Automatic Partitioning" or "Manual Partitioning with Disk Druid". click [Next] to continue. After downloading and burning the Openfiler ISO image file to CD. In almost all cases. the next screen will ask if you want to "remove" or "keep" old partitions. I am satisfied with the installers recommended partitioning for /dev/sda. an adequate amount of swap.openfiler. I opted to use "Automatic Partitioning" given the simplicity of my example configuration. please visit http://www.

If everything was successful after the reboot. Congratulations And that's it. however.255.0 Continue by setting your hostname manually. 26 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .2. Network Configuration I made sure to install both NIC interfaces (cards) in the network storage server before starting the Openfiler installation.255.168. make sure that each of the network devices are checked to [Active on boot]. I used a hostname of "openfiler1". For now. Take out the CD and click [Reboot] to reboot the system. Time Zone Selection The next screen allows you to configure your time zone information.195 255. configure eth1 (the storage network) to be on the same subnet you configured for eth1 on racnode1 and racnode2: eth0 Configure using DHCP Activate on boot IP Address Netmask eth1 Configure using DHCP Activate on boot IP Address Netmask OFF ON 192.255.shtml The installer will also show any other internal hard disks it discovered. First. you should now be presented with a text login screen and the URL to use for administering the Openfiler server. You have successfully installed Openfiler on the network storage server.1. About to Install This screen is basically a confirmation screen. /dev/sdb1).0 OFF ON 192. [Edit] both eth0 and eth1 as follows. Finish this dialog off by supplying your gateway and DNS servers. The installer may choose to not activate eth1 by default. You must. The installer will eject the CD from the CD-ROM drive.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Click [Next] to start the installation. The installer should have successfully detected each of the network devices.168.195 255. the installer found the 73GB SCSI internal hard drive as /dev/sdb. You may choose to use different IP addresses for both eth0 and eth1 and that is OK. Later in this guide. For my example configuration. I will "Delete" any and all partitions on this drive (there was only one.255. I will create the required partition for this particular hard disk. Make the appropriate selection for your location. Set Root Password Select a root password and click [Next] to continue. Second.

NIC bonding is not covered in this article. the endpoints of all designated interconnect interfaces must be completely reachable on the network. Oracle does not support token-rings or crossover cables for the interconnect. For example. each network adapter must support TCP/IP. The public interface names associated with the network adapters for each network must be the same on all nodes. you cannot configure network adapters on racnode1 with eth0 as the public interface. You can test if an interconnect interface is reachable using ping. Only attempt to log in to the console or SSH using the root user account. You must identify each interface as a public interface. a private interface. and TCP is the interconnect protocol for Oracle Clusterware. Use separate bonding for the public and private networks (i. During installation of Oracle grid infrastructure. but on racnode2 have eth1 as the public interface. Network Hardware Requirements The following is a list of hardware requirements for network configuration: Each Oracle RAC node must have at least two network adapters or network interface cards (NICs) — one for the public network interface and one for the private network interface (the interconnect). To use multiple NICs for the public network or for the private network. UDP is the default interconnect protocol for Oracle RAC. Oracle recommends that you use NIC bonding. verify you can log in to the machine using the root user account and the password you supplied during installation.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Attempting to do so will result in the following error message: openfiler1 login: openfiler Password: password This interface has not been implemented yet. because during installation each interface is defined as a public or private interface. You should configure the private interfaces on the same network adapters as well. or not used and you must use the same private interfaces for both Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC. in case of a NIC failure. Public interface names must be the same.e.shtml After installing Openfiler. For the private network. Oracle recommends that you use a dedicated switch. Do not attempt to log in to the console or SSH using the built-in openfiler user account. you are asked to identify the planned use for each network interface that OUI detects on your cluster node. You can bond separate interfaces to a common interface to provide redundancy. If you use more than one NIC for the private interconnect. You must use a switch for the interconnect. then Oracle recommends that you use NIC bonding. Network Configuration Perform the following network configuration tasks on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster. and the private interface names associated with the network adaptors should be the same on all nodes. Note that multiple 27 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . with our two-node cluster. so you must configure eth0 as public on both nodes. If eth1 is the private interface for racnode1. the interconnect must support the user datagram protocol (UDP) using high-speed network adapters and switches that support TCP/IP (minimum requirement 1 Gigabit Ethernet). then eth1 must be the private interface for racnode2. For the public network. For the private network. it is important to not skip this section as it contains critical steps which include configuring DNS and verifying you have the networking hardware and Internet Protocol (IP) addresses required for an Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster installation. Although we configured several of the network settings during the Linux installation. There should be no node that is not connected to every private network interface. bond0 for the public network and bond1 for the private network). but Oracle recommends that you do not create separate interfaces for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC.

When using the DNS method for assigning IP addresses. The SCAN virtual IP will only be registered in DNS. and not in DNS. the Single Client Access Name (SCAN) virtual IP. Note that every IP address will be registered in DNS and the hosts file for each Oracle RAC node with the exception of the SCAN virtual IP. Oracle Clusterware assigns interconnect addresses on the interface defined during installation as the private interface (eth1. For the sake of brevity. unless bonded. The following table displays the network configuration that will be used to build the example two-node Oracle RAC described in this guide. for example). this article will configure the iSCSI network storage traffic on the same network as the RAC private interconnect (eth1).DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Oracle RAC Network Configuration For this guide. Starting with Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2.152 racnode1-priv racnode2-priv In a production environment that uses iSCSI for network storage. and to the subnet used for the private subnet. the RAC interconnect. you no longer need to provide a private name or IP address for the interconnect. The basic idea of a TOE is to offload the processing of TCP/IP protocols from the host processor to the hardware on the adapter or in the system. In practice. Combining the iSCSI storage traffic and cache fusion traffic for Oracle RAC on the same network interface works great for an inexpensive test system (like the one described in this article) but should never be considered for production. I opted not to use Grid Naming Service (GNS) for assigning IP addresses to each Oracle RAC node but instead will manually assign them in DNS and hosts files. I often refer to this traditional method of manually assigning IP addresses as the "DNS method" given the fact that all IP addresses should be resolved using DNS. then you can configure private IP names in the hosts file or the DNS.151 192.shtml private interfaces provide load balancing but not failover.2. virtual IP address (VIP). 28 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . Oracle recommends that all static IP addresses be manually configured in DNS before starting the Oracle grid infrastructure installation.168. A TOE is often embedded in a network interface card (NIC) or a host bus adapter (HBA) and used to reduce the amount of TCP/IP processing handled by the CPU and server I/O subsystem and improve overall performance. If you want name resolution for the interconnect.2. I will continue to include a private name and IP address on each node for the RAC interconnect. and new to 11g release 2. Note that Oracle requires you to define the SCAN domain address (racnodecluster-scan in this example) to resolve on your DNS to one of three possible IP addresses in order to successfully install Oracle grid infrastructure! Defining the SCAN domain address only in the hosts files for each Oracle RAC node. it is highly recommended to configure a redundant third network interface (eth2. IP addresses on the subnet you identify as private are assigned as private IP addresses for cluster member nodes.168. This would include the public IP address for the node. It provides self-documentation and a set of end-points on the private network I can use for troubleshooting purposes: 192. You do not need to configure these addresses manually in a hosts directory. for example) for that storage traffic using a TCP/IP offload Engine (TOE) card. will cause the "Oracle Cluster Verification Utility" to fail with an [INS-20802] error during the Oracle grid infrastructure install. However. and for the purpose of this guide.

151 192.1.152 192.251 192.151 192.2.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.2.168.188 192.shtml Example Two-Node Oracle RAC Network Configuration Identity Node 1 Public Node 1 Private Node 1 VIP Node 2 Public Node 2 Private Node 2 VIP SCAN VIP 1 SCAN VIP 2 SCAN VIP 3 Name racnode1 racnode1-priv racnode1-vip racnode2 racnode2-priv racnode2-vip racnode-cluster-scan racnode-cluster-scan racnode-cluster-scan Type Public Private Virtual Public Private Virtual Virtual Virtual Virtual IP Address 192.168.1.187 192.168.168.1.168.168.168.1.1.189 Resolved By DNS and hosts file DNS and hosts file DNS and hosts file DNS and hosts file DNS and hosts file DNS and hosts file DNS DNS DNS 29 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .168.252 192.1.1.168.152 192.

racnode-cluster-scan.1.idevelopment.151 192. Note that in the example below.info. developed by rPath.shtml Identity Name Type IP Address Resolved By DNS Configuration The example Oracle RAC configuration described in this guide will use the traditional method of manually assigning static IP addresses and therefore requires a DNS server. simply add the appropriate A and PTR records for Oracle RAC to your DNS and skip ahead to the next section "Update /etc/resolv.1.195 192.168.187 192. Reverse Lookup Zone 151 152 251 252 187 188 189 IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN IN A A A A A A A A A A A PTR PTR PTR PTR PTR PTR PTR 192.info. To install or update packages on Openfiler.1.168.189 racnode1.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.1-1 info-named:user=1-1-0.188 192.251 192.1.195 192. Use and Existing DNS If you already have access to a DNS server.168.152 192.1. racnode1-vip.idevelopment.168. Install DNS on Openfiler Installing DNS on the Openfiler network storage server is a trivial task.1 Applying update job 2 of 2: 30 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . Please feel free to substitute your own domain name if needed.168.1. .168.info. racnode2. Forward Lookup Zone racnode1 racnode2 racnode1-priv racnode2-priv racnode1-vip racnode2-vip openfiler1 openfiler1-priv racnode-cluster-scan racnode-cluster-scan racnode-cluster-scan .2.168. run the following command as the root user account: [root@openfiler1 ~]# conary update bind:runtime Including extra troves to resolve dependencies: bind:lib=9.1 Applying update job 1 of 2: Install info-named(:user)=1-1-0.168.idevelopment. racnode2-vip. To install packages on Openfiler you need access to the Internet! To install DNS on the Openfiler server.idevelopment.1. To learn more about the different options and parameters that can be used with the conary utility. racnode-cluster-scan.4.idevelopment.2.info. If you do not have access to a DNS server.1.conf File".info.252 192. I am using the domain name idevelopment.2.idevelopment.idevelopment.152 192.168.3_P5-1. review the Conary QuickReference guide.151 192.168.168.info. racnode-cluster-scan. this section includes detailed instructions for installing a minimal DNS server on the Openfiler network storage server. use the command-line tool conary.info.info.

zone — (Forward zone definition file) /srv/named/data/1.4.shtml Update bind(:lib) (9.info and the IP range "192.38 -> lib -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1421820 2010-03-11 00:48:52 UTC /usr/lib/libdns.30 -> -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 71428 2010-03-11 00:48:52 UTC /usr/lib/libisccfg.0.168.1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 19 2009-07-29 17:03:00 UTC /usr/lib/libisccfg.4_P1-0.3_P5-1.1-1) Install bind:runtime=9.info.conf configuration file used in this example will be kept fairly simple and only contain the necessary customizations required to run a minimal DNS.2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 18 2009-07-29 17:03:00 UTC /usr/lib/libbind9.1.sh -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 3168 2010-03-11 00:48:51 UTC /usr/sbin/dns-keygen -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 21416 2010-03-11 00:48:51 UTC /usr/sbin/dnssec-keygen -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 53412 2010-03-11 00:48:51 UTC /usr/sbin/dnssec-signzone -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 379912 2010-03-12 14:07:50 UTC /usr/sbin/lwresd -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 379912 2010-03-12 14:07:50 UTC /usr/sbin/named -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 7378 2006-10-11 02:33:29 UTC /usr/sbin/named-bootconf -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 20496 2010-03-11 00:48:51 UTC /usr/sbin/named-checkconf -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 19088 2010-03-11 00:48:51 UTC /usr/sbin/named-checkzone lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 2007-03-09 17:26:40 UTC /usr/sbin/named-compilezone -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 24032 2010-03-11 00:48:51 UTC /usr/sbin/rndc -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 11708 2010-03-11 00:48:51 UTC /usr/sbin/rndc-confgen drwxr-xr-x 1 named named 0 2007-12-16 01:01:35 UTC /var/run/named Configure DNS Configuration of the DNS server involves creating and modifying the following files: /etc/named.conf The first step will be to create the DNS configuration file "/etc/named.5-1[ipv6.ssl] -> 9.so.0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 16 2009-07-29 17:02:58 UTC /usr/lib/libisc.30. For the purpose of this guide.~!pie.38.30.conf -rw-r----1 root named 65 2005-09-24 20:40:23 UTC /etc/rndc.30.so.in-addr.1-1) Update bind-utils(:doc :runtime) (9. I will be using the domain name idevelopment. If you do decide to use a different domain name.key -rw-r--r-1 root root 1561 2006-07-20 18:40:14 UTC /etc/sysconfig/named drwxr-xr-x 1 root named 0 2007-12-16 01:01:35 UTC /srv/named drwxr-xr-x 1 named named 0 2007-12-16 01:01:35 UTC /srv/named/data drwxr-xr-x 1 named named 0 2007-12-16 01:01:35 UTC /srv/named/slaves -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 2927 2010-03-11 00:14:02 UTC /usr/bin/isc-config.3.2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 18 2007-03-09 17:26:37 UTC /usr/lib/libisccc.so.*" for the public network.6 -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 2643 2008-02-22 21:44:05 UTC /etc/init.4.ssl] -> 9.5-1[ipv6.30 -> l -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 64360 2010-03-11 00:48:51 UTC /usr/lib/liblwres.so.so.3_P5-1.168.0.so.36 -> lib -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 308260 2010-03-11 00:48:52 UTC /usr/lib/libisc.1-1 Verify the files installed by the DNS bind package: [root@openfiler1 ~]# conary q bind --lsl lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 16 2009-07-29 17:03:02 UTC /usr/lib/libbind.so.so.conf".so.1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 16 2010-03-11 00:14:00 UTC /usr/lib/libdns.1.so.arpa.4.3_P5-1.so.4. Please feel free to substitute your own domain name if so desired.so.4 -> lib -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 294260 2010-03-11 00:48:52 UTC /usr/lib/libbind. make certain to modify it in all of the files that are part of the network configuration described in this section.30 -> l -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 28112 2010-03-11 00:48:51 UTC /usr/lib/libisccc.so.zone — (Reverse zone definition file) /etc/named.3.30.~!pie.d/named -rw-r----1 root root 1435 2004-06-18 04:39:39 UTC /etc/rndc.0.conf — (DNS configuration file) /srv/named/data/idevelopment.1.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.192. The /etc/named.4_P1-0.0.0.30 -> l -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 37404 2010-03-11 00:48:52 UTC /usr/lib/libbind9.so.5 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 18 2009-07-29 17:03:01 UTC /usr/lib/liblwres.36. 31 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .d/named -rw-r--r-1 root root 163 2004-07-07 19:20:10 UTC /etc/logrotate.

These files will be located in the "/srv/named/data" directory. the fully qualified name for the forward lookup zone definition file described below is "/srv/named/data/idevelopment.conf | | | | DNS configuration file for Oracle RAC 11g release 2 example | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+ options { // FORWARDERS: Forward any name this DNS can't resolve to my router.zone". # ---------------------------------# Forward Zone # ---------------------------------zone "idevelopment. For example.zone". and several other miscellaneous nodes.info.168. directory "/srv/named/data". anything it can't resolve should be passed to the DNS(s) listed.info.zone". The same rules apply for the reverse lookup zone which in this example would be "/srv/named/data/1. // DIRECTORY: Directory where named will look for zone files.168. The fully qualified name for this file is derived by concatenating the directory directive and the "file" specified for that zone. you will notice it's zone definition file is "idevelopment.zone").info. the Openfiler network storage server (which is now also a DNS server!). (which in my case is "/srv/named /data/idevelopment.conf with at least the following content: # # # # # +-------------------------------------------------------------------+ | /etc/named. Take note of the three entries used to configure the SCAN name for round-robin resolution to three IP addresses.inaddr. if you skip forward in the DNS configuration file to the "idevelopment. For example.zone In the DNS configuration file above.arpa.1. I could just as well have used the DNS entries provided by my ISP. we defined the forward and reverse zone definition files.in-addr. file "idevelopment. For the purpose of this example.arpa. Create and edit the file associated with your forward lookup zone. I am using my D-Link router which is configured as my gateway to the Internet.shtml The DNS configuration file described below is configured to resolve the names of the servers described in this guide. file "1.info" forward lookup zone.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.in-addr.info. allow-update { none.info. This directive tells the DNS. like those on the Internet. This includes the two Oracle RAC nodes. The next directive defined in the options section is directory. are resolved properly. This directive specifies where named will look for zone definition files.arpa" IN { type master.192. /srv/named/data/idevelopment. }.168.info" IN { type master.zone". In order to make sure that servers on external networks.1. allow-update { none. forwarders { 192.192. }. # ---------------------------------# Reverse Zone # ---------------------------------zone "1. I needed to add DNS Forwarding by defining the forwarders directive. to look like the one described below. 32 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . }.192. Create the file /etc/named.zone".168. }. }. }.

idevelopment.2.168. .1.168.1. Network Storage Server openfiler1 IN A openfiler1-priv IN A .0. ( 201011021 .1.zone | | | | Forward zone definition file for idevelopment.shtml .idevelopment.125 192.1 192.168.151 192.info.168.168.1.152 192.zone" zone definition file for public network reverse lookups: .2. minimum . time-to-live . serial number . . Single Client Access Name (SCAN) virtual IP racnode-cluster-scan IN A 192.252 192.idevelopment.1 192. 127.idevelopment. we need to create the "/srv/named/data/1.info.152 192.arpa.168.168.168.1. jhunter. refresh . jhunter.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.168.1.168.1.251 192.192.idevelopment.168.189 .188 racnode-cluster-scan IN A 192.121 192.arpa.168. serial number .info. . . retry . Miscellaneous Nodes router packmule domo switch1 oemprod accesspoint IN IN IN IN IN IN A A A A A A 192.168.168. +-------------------------------------------------------------------+ | /srv/named/data/1.1.in-addr.1. Oracle RAC Nodes racnode1 racnode2 racnode1-priv racnode2-priv racnode1-vip racnode2-vip .192. +-------------------------------------------------------------------+ | /srv/named/data/idevelopment.zone Next.(yyyymmdd+s) 33 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .in-addr. $TTL 86400 @ .info.1.187 racnode-cluster-scan IN A 192.info.105 192.195 192.168.122 192.168.0. . expire .info.info | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+ $ORIGIN 1.(yyyymmdd+s) 7200 . .(1 day) IN SOA openfiler1.195 ) localhost .(1 minute) IN NS IN A IN IN IN IN IN IN A A A A A A openfiler1. .168. ( 201011021 .arpa.info.(1 week) 60 .arpa.1.151 192.168.(2 hours) 300 .192.1.168.192.(5 minutes) 604800 .zone | | | | Reverse zone definition file for idevelopment.in-addr. time-to-live .1.2.(1 day) IN SOA openfiler1.168. .info | +-------------------------------------------------------------------+ $ORIGIN idevelopment.1.168. $TTL 86400 @ .245 /srv/named/data/1.in-addr.

0.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.0.0.info.0.0.3-P5 -u named adjusted limit on open files from 1024 to 1048576 found 1 CPU.0.0.0.idevelopment.0.255.0.0. 188 IN PTR racnode-cluster-scan.0.0.idevelopment.0.idevelopment. 127.idevelopment.0.IP6.F. the service will fail to start and errors will be displayed on the screen.0.0. start the DNS server by starting the "named" service: [root@openfiler1 ~]# service named start Starting named: [ OK ] If named finds any problems with the DNS configuration file or zone definition files.ARPA automatic empty zone: 0.192. 65535] listening on IPv4 interface lo.0. refresh retry expire minimum IN NS - (2 (5 (1 (1 hours) minutes) week) minute) openfiler1.IN-ADDR.0. .0.0.conf' using default UDP/IPv4 port range: [1024. automatic empty zone: 1.ARPA automatic empty zone: B.0. the entries in the /var/log/messages file should resemble the following: .info. 192.idevelopment. accesspoint.F.0.0.0.idevelopment.0.169.0. racnode1-vip. racnode2-vip.195#53 listening on IPv4 interface eth1. To troubleshoot problems with starting the named service. switch1.0.255.idevelopment.0. Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: starting BIND 9.IN-ADDR.idevelopment.shtml 7200 300 604800 60 ) . racnode2.0.0. using 1 worker thread using up to 4096 sockets loading configuration from '/etc/named.1#53 listening on IPv4 interface eth0.0.4. openfiler1.0.IN-ADDR.ARPA 34 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .195#53 automatic empty zone: 0.F..info. Start the DNS Service When the DNS configuration file and zone definition files are in place.IN-ADDR.idevelopment.0.0.E.0.idevelopment.info.0.0.0.255.E.0. If named starts successfully. check the /var/log/messages file.info.0.2.1.0.168.0.ARPA automatic empty zone: A. automatic empty zone: D. 189 IN PTR racnode-cluster-scan.ARPA automatic empty zone: 8. .info.idevelopment.ARPA automatic empty zone: 255.F.info.0.ARPA automatic empty zone: 9.info.E.0.0.idevelopment.IP6.0.0.0.IP6.0. ..F.idevelopment. 65535] using default UDP/IPv6 port range: [1024.0.0. oemprod.info.info. Single Client Access Name (SCAN) virtual IP 187 IN PTR racnode-cluster-scan.0.0. domo. Network Storage Server 195 IN PTR .idevelopment. . packmule.idevelopment.0.0.E.0.0.0.info.0.0. Miscellaneous Nodes 1 105 121 122 125 245 IN IN IN IN IN IN PTR PTR PTR PTR PTR PTR router.ARPA automatic empty zone: 2. 192.info.info.0.IP6.ARPA automatic empty zone: 254.info. .168.0.0. Oracle RAC Nodes 151 152 251 252 IN IN IN IN PTR PTR PTR PTR .0.IN-ADDR.info.ARPA automatic empty zone: 127. racnode1.IP6.

168.conf nameserver 192.1.195 search idevelopment.195#53 35 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .info [root@racnode2 ~]# cat /etc/resolv. verify that DNS is functioning correctly by testing forward and reverse lookups using the nslookup command-line utility.conf nameserver 192..168.168.idevelopment.arpa/IN: loaded serial 201011021 zone idevelopment.1.conf file on every server in the cluster. This is accomplished by editing the "/etc/resolv. Verify that the /etc/resolv.0.in-addr.conf nameserver 192.168.conf" file on each server including the two Oracle RAC nodes and the Openfiler network storage server.1.conf file contains the following entries where the IP address of the name server and domain match those of your DNS server and the domain you have configured: nameserver 192.168. Make certain the /etc/resolv.195 search idevelopment.conf file was successfully updated on all servers in our mini-network: [root@openfiler1 ~]# cat /etc/resolv.168.info Server: 192.0.shtml Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov Nov .conf" File With DNS now setup and running.195 search idevelopment.192.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.1#953 command channel listening on ::1#953 no source of entropy found zone 1..info [root@racnode1 ~]# cat /etc/resolv.info The second line allows you to resolve a name on this network without having to specify the fully qualified host name.1. the next step is to configure each server to use it for name resolution. issue the following commands to make sure this service starts automatically at boot time: [root@openfiler1 ~]# chkconfig named on [root@openfiler1 ~]# chkconfig named --list named 0:off 1:off 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off Update "/etc/resolv. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 21:35:49 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 openfiler1 named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named[7995]: named: named named[7995]: command channel listening on 127. Perform tests similar to the following from each node to all other nodes in your cluster: [root@racnode1 ~]# nslookup racnode2.info/IN: loaded serial 201011021 startup succeeded running Configure DNS to Start Automatically Now that the named service is running.195 search idevelopment.195 Address: 192.1.168.1.info After modifying the /etc/resolv.

info.168.195 Address: 192.info Address: 192.idevelopment.168.1.1.in-addr.168. we need to configure the network on both Oracle RAC nodes for access to the public network as well as their private interconnect.189 [root@racnode1 ~]# nslookup 192.in-addr.arpa name = racnode-cluster-scan.168.localdomain6 localhost6 Our example Oracle RAC configuration will use the following network settings: 36 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .info Address: 192.168.152 [root@racnode1 ~]# nslookup racnode2 Server: 192.1. All of these tasks can be completed using the Network Configuration GUI. It should be noted that the /etc/hosts entries are the same for both Oracle RAC nodes and that I removed any entry that has to do with IPv6.168.195 Address: 192.info Address: 192.195#53 152.187 Name: racnode-cluster-scan.195 Address: 192.info Address: 192.1. [root@racnode1 ~]# nslookup racnode-cluster-scan Server: 192.192.187 Server: 192.1. Configuring Public and Private Network In our two node example.1.1.1. The easiest way to configure network settings in RHEL / CentOS is with the program "Network Configuration".idevelopment.168.195 Address: 192.168.arpa name = racnode2.1.152 [root@racnode1 ~]# nslookup 192.1.168.168.1.1.info Address: 192. For example: # ::1 localhost6.195#53 187.168.1.idevelopment.188 Name: racnode-cluster-scan.168.shtml Name: racnode2.1.idevelopment.info.168.idevelopment.1.192.168.idevelopment. Network Configuration is a GUI application that can be started from the command-line as the root user account as follows: [root@racnode1 ~]# /usr/bin/system-config-network & Using the Network Configuration application.168.195#53 Name: racnode-cluster-scan.1.168.1. you need to configure both NIC devices as well as the /etc/hosts file and verifying the DNS configuration.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.168.152 Server: 192.195#53 Name: racnode2.idevelopment.

idevelopment.1.idevelopment.168.2.(eth1) 192.0.info racnode1 racnode2 racnode1-priv racnode2-priv racnode1-vip racnode2-vip openfiler1 openfiler1-priv 37 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .info 192.info 192.0 255.255.2.1.idevelopment.info /etc/hosts # Do not remove the following line.info 192.idevelopment.195 openfiler1.168.168.idevelopment.(eth0:1) 192.idevelopment. 127.conf nameserver 192.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.255.info 192.151 racnode1.1 Purpose Connects racnode1 to the public network Connects racnode1 (interconnect) to racnode2 (racnode2-priv) /etc/resolv.195 openfiler1-priv.168.168.151 racnode1-priv.255. or various programs # that require network functionality will fail.1.168.168.1 localhost.255.168.0 Gateway 192.1.localdomain localhost # Public Network .idevelopment.info # Private Storage Network for Openfiler .(eth1) 192.2.info # Private Interconnect .151 Subnet 255.(eth0) 192.195 search idevelopment.151 192.152 racnode2.251 racnode1-vip.(racnode1) Device eth0 eth1 IP Address 192.2.idevelopment.168.0.info # Public Virtual IP (VIP) addresses .1.1.252 racnode2-vip.152 racnode2-priv.168.shtml Oracle RAC Node 1 .168.1.168.1.

info # Public Virtual IP (VIP) addresses .idevelopment.1.152 Subnet 255.168.idevelopment.151 racnode1-priv.conf nameserver 192.info /etc/hosts # Do not remove the following line.info 192.152 racnode2-priv.168.1.1 localhost.168.2.0. or various programs # that require network functionality will fail.idevelopment.1.info # Private Storage Network for Openfiler .0 255.168.195 search idevelopment.168.localdomain localhost # Public Network .152 racnode2.168.251 racnode1-vip.idevelopment.(eth1) 192.idevelopment.168.(eth0:1) 192.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.(eth0) 192.2.1.1.168.0 Gateway 192.168.info 192.168.shtml Oracle RAC Node 2 .255.1. 127.195 openfiler1-priv.idevelopment.152 192.idevelopment.168.168.195 openfiler1.(eth1) 192.255.1.idevelopment.255.0.info # Private Interconnect .2.1 Purpose Connects racnode2 to the public network Connects racnode2 (interconnect) to racnode1 (racnode1-priv) /etc/resolv.2.(racnode2) Device eth0 eth1 IP Address 192.1.info 192.252 racnode2-vip.info racnode1 racnode2 racnode1-priv racnode2-priv racnode1-vip racnode2-vip openfiler1 openfiler1-priv 38 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .151 racnode1.255.info 192.

255. Be sure to make all the proper network settings to both Oracle RAC nodes.195 search idevelopment. 127.195 192.255. Figure 2: Network Configuration Screen. Node 1 (racnode1) 39 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .195 Subnet 255.2. only Oracle RAC Node 1 (racnode1) is shown.idevelopment.1 Purpose Connects openfiler1 to the public network Connects openfiler1 to the private network /etc/resolv. or various programs # that require network functionality will fail.1.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.info openfiler1 In the screen shots below.conf nameserver 192.info /etc/hosts # Do not remove the following line.168.shtml Device IP Address Subnet Gateway Purpose Openfiler Network Storage Server .168.255.1.0 Gateway 192.1.localdomain localhost 192.1 localhost.255.(openfiler1) Device eth0 eth1 IP Address 192.168.1.0.195 openfiler1.168.0.0 255.168.

DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. eth0 (racnode1) 40 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .shtml Figure 3: Ethernet Device Screen.

DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.shtml Figure 4: Ethernet Device Screen. eth1 (racnode1) 41 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .

shtml Figure 5: Network Configuration Screen. DNS (racnode1) 42 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.

2.255 Mask:255.151 Bcast:192.168.0.4 KiB) Base address:0xddc0 Memory:fe9c0000-fe9e0000 Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.255.168. /etc/hosts (racnode1) Once the network is configured.0 inet6 addr: fe80::20e:cff:fe64:d1e5/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:120 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:48 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:24544 (23. you can use the ifconfig command to verify everything is working.0.255.1.168.168.255.0.0.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.1 Mask:255.3 MiB) TX bytes:159319080 (151.151 Bcast:192.255.255 Mask:255.2.1.0 inet6 addr: fe80::226:9eff:fe02:d3ac/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:236549 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:264953 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:28686645 (27.shtml Figure 6: Network Configuration Screen.0 inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 eth1 lo 43 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .9 MiB) Interrupt:177 Memory:dfef0000-dff00000 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0E:0C:64:D1:E5 inet addr:192.9 KiB) TX bytes:8634 (8. The following example is from racnode1: [root@racnode1 ~]# /sbin/ifconfig -a eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:26:9E:02:D3:AC inet addr:192.

idevelopment. Since our DNS is set up to provide round-robin access to the IP addresses resolved by the SCAN entry. regardless of the number of servers in the cluster.168.info racnode2.shtml RX packets:3191 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:3191 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:4296868 (4.1. not including the domain. resolve the issue before you proceed. manually configured static IP addresses in DNS: racnode-cluster-scan racnode-cluster-scan racnode-cluster-scan IN A IN A IN A 192. For example.168. racnode2-vip) or the SCAN IP addresses (racnode-cluster-scan) until after Oracle Clusterware is installed and running.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.idevelopment.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. the SCAN addresses and virtual IP addresses (VIPs) should not respond to ping commands before installation.188 192.0 b) Verify Network Configuration As the root user account. The virtual IP addresses for SCAN (and the virtual IP address for the node) should not be manually assigned to a network interface on the cluster since Oracle Clusterware is responsible for enabling them after the Oracle grid infrastructure installation.info openfiler1-priv. verify the network configuration by using the ping command to test the connection from each node in the cluster to all the other nodes.info racnode2-priv.info".idevelopment. The SCAN name must be 15 characters or less in length.info racnode1-priv. Verify the SCAN configuration in DNS using the nslookup command-line utility.0 MiB) sit0 Link encap:IPv6-in-IPv4 NOARP MTU:1480 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:0 (0.0 MiB) TX bytes:4296868 (4.1.idevelopment.info racnode1 racnode2 racnode1-priv racnode2-priv openfiler1 openfiler1-priv You should not get a response from the nodes using the ping command for the virtual IPs (racnode1-vip.187 192. Verify SCAN Configuration In this article. and must be resolvable without the domain suffix. run the following commands on each node: # # # # # # # # # # # # ping ping ping ping ping ping ping ping ping ping ping ping -c -c -c -c -c -c -c -c -c -c -c -c 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 racnode1. it will 44 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .168. For example. These virtual IP addresses must all be on the same subnet as the public network in the cluster. as the root user account.idevelopment.1. If the ping commands for the public addresses fail.idevelopment.189 Oracle Corporation strongly recommends configuring three IP addresses considering load balancing and high availability requirements. I will configure SCAN for round-robin resolution to three. "racnode-cluster-scan" must be resolvable as opposed to only "racnode-cluster-scan. The result should be that each time the nslookup is run.info openfiler1.idevelopment. run the nslookup command several times to make certain that the round-robin algorithm is functioning properly. In other words.

168.187 Name: racnode-cluster-scan.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.195 Address: 192.195#53 Name: racnode-cluster-scan.168.info Address: 192.1.idevelopment.1.187 Name: racnode-cluster-scan.188 [root@racnode1 ~]# nslookup racnode-cluster-scan Server: 192.168. For example: [root@racnode1 ~]# nslookup racnode-cluster-scan Server: 192.189 Name: racnode-cluster-scan.195#53 Name: racnode-cluster-scan.idevelopment.168.168.idevelopment.idevelopment.0.168.187 Confirm the RAC Node Name is Not Listed in Loopback Address Ensure that the node name (racnode1 or racnode2) is not included for the loopback address in the /etc/hosts file.1.localdomain localhost it will need to be removed as shown below: 127.idevelopment.1.idevelopment.1.195#53 Name: racnode-cluster-scan.168.localdomain localhost If the RAC node name is listed for the loopback address.0.info Address: 192.168.0.idevelopment.1.idevelopment.168.shtml return the set of three IP addresses in a different order.168.info Address: 192. you will receive the following error during the RAC installation: ORA-00603: ORACLE server session terminated by fatal error or ORA-29702: error occurred in Cluster Group Service operation 45 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .1 racnode1 localhost.189 [root@racnode1 ~]# nslookup racnode-cluster-scan Server: 192.168.195 Address: 192.168.0.info Address: 192.1.188 Name: racnode-cluster-scan.info Address: 192.info Address: 192.1.info Address: 192. If the machine name is listed in the in the loopback address entry as below: 127.188 Name: racnode-cluster-scan.189 Name: racnode-cluster-scan.idevelopment.1.1.info Address: 192.info Address: 192.168.195 Address: 192.1.1 localhost.1.1.1.168.168.1.

you will need to first manually disable UDP ICMP rejections: [root@racnode1 ~]# /etc/rc. 46 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . Oracle provides two options for time synchronization: an operating system configured network time protocol (NTP) or the new Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service (CTSS).d/iptables stop Flushing firewall rules: [ OK ] Setting chains to policy ACCEPT: filter [ OK ] Unloading iptables modules: [ OK ] 3.log file: 08/29/2005 22:17:19 oac_init:2: Could not connect to server.d/iptables status Firewall is stopped.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.d/init.d/init. If UDP ICMP is blocked or rejected by the firewall. Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 and later requires time synchronization across all nodes within a cluster where Oracle RAC is deployed. By default the option to configure a firewall is selected by the installer. Configuring NTP is outside the scope of this article and will therefore rely on the Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service as the network time protocol. Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Service (ctssd) is designed for organizations whose Oracle RAC databases are unable to access NTP services. Check to ensure that the firewall option is turned off. the solution is to remove the UDP ICMP (iptables) rejection rule . The following commands should be executed as the root user account on both Oracle RAC nodes: 1. The Oracle Clusterware software will then start to operate normally and not crash. 2. Then. [root@racnode2 ~]# /etc/rc.d/init.d/iptables status Firewall is stopped.or to simply have the firewall option turned off. I indicated to not configure the firewall option. clsc retcode = 9 08/29/2005 22:17:19 a_init:12!: Client init unsuccessful : [32] ibctx:1:ERROR: INVALID FORMAT proprinit:problem reading the bootblock or superbloc 22 When experiencing this type of error. the Oracle Clusterware software will crash after several minutes of running. When the Oracle Clusterware process fails. [root@racnode1 ~]# /etc/rc. If the firewall option is operating. If the firewall option is stopped (like it is in my example below) you do not have to proceed with the following steps.shtml Check and turn off UDP ICMP rejections During the Linux installation process. turn UDP ICMP rejections off for all subsequent server reboots (which should always be turned off): [root@racnode1 ~]# chkconfig iptables off Cluster Time Synchronization Service Perform the following Cluster Time Synchronization Service configuration on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster. you will have something similar to the following in the <machine_name>_evmocr. This has burned me several times so I like to do a double-check that the firewall option is not configured and to ensure udp ICMP filtering is turned off.

run the following commands as the root user account on both Oracle RAC nodes: [root@racnode1 ~]# /sbin/service ntpd stop [root@racnode1 ~]# chkconfig ntpd off [root@racnode1 ~]# mv /etc/ntp. as in the following example: # Drop root to id 'ntp:ntp' by default.shtml Configure Cluster Time Synchronization Service . This section is provided for documentation purposes only and can be used by organizations already setup to use NTP within their domain. Red Hat Linux.original Also remove the following file: [root@racnode1 ~]# rm /var/run/ntpd. To confirm that ctssd is active after installation. If you are using NTP and you prefer to continue using it instead of Cluster Time Synchronization Service. To deactivate the NTP service. then you need to modify the NTP initialization file to set the -x flag.(only if not using CTSS as documented above) Please note that this guide will use Cluster Time Synchronization Service for time synchronization (described above) across both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster. enter the following command as the Grid installation owner (grid): [grid@racnode1 ~]$ crsctl check ctss CRS-4701: The Cluster Time Synchronization Service is in Active mode. If NTP is found configured.conf file.conf. To complete these steps on Red Hat Enterprise Linux or CentOS. OPTIONS="-x -u ntp:ntp -p /var/run/ntpd. then the Cluster Time Synchronization Service is started in observer mode.pid This file maintains the pid for the NTP daemon. edit the /etc/sysconfig/ntpd file to add the -x flag. To do this on Oracle Enterprise Linux. which prevents time from being adjusted backward. and Asianux systems. then de-configure and de-install the Network Time Protocol (NTP) service.(CTSS) If you want to use Cluster Time Synchronization Service to provide synchronization service in the cluster.pid" # Set to 'yes' to sync hw clock after successful ntpdate SYNC_HWCLOCK=no # Additional options for ntpdate NTPDATE_OPTIONS="" 47 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . CRS-4702: Offset (in msec): 0 Configure Network Time Protocol . and no active time synchronization is performed by Oracle Clusterware within the cluster. When the installer finds that the NTP protocol is not active. disable it from the initialization sequences and remove the ntp. the Cluster Time Synchronization Service is automatically installed in active mode and synchronizes the time across the nodes.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.conf /etc/ntp. Restart the network time protocol daemon after you complete this task. you must stop the existing ntpd service.

configure network access. create new iSCSI targets for each of the logical volumes. Services To control services. we have to perform six major tasks — set up iSCSI services. modify the configuration file /etc/sysconfig/ntp with the following settings: NTPD_OPTIONS="-x -u ntp" Restart the daemon using the following command: # service ntp restart Configure iSCSI Volumes using Openfiler Perform the following configuration tasks on the network storage server (openfiler1).info:446/ From the Openfiler Storage Control Center home page. The default administration login credentials for Openfiler are: Username: openfiler Password: password The first page the administrator sees is the [Status] / [System Overview] screen. identify and partition the physical storage. # /sbin/service ntp restart On SUSE systems.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. and finally.idevelopment. log in as an administrator. Openfiler administration is performed using the Openfiler Storage Control Center — a browser based tool over an https connection on port 446. To use Openfiler as an iSCSI storage server. restart the NTP service. create all logical volumes.shtml Then. For example: https://openfiler1. create a new volume group. we use the Openfiler Storage Control Center and navigate to [Services] / [Manage Services]: 48 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .

Network Access Configuration The next step is to configure network access in Openfiler to identify both Oracle RAC nodes (racnode1 and racnode2) that will need to access the iSCSI volumes through the storage (private) network. That will be accomplished later in this section by updating the ACL for each new logical volume. After that..DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Also note that this step does not actually grant the appropriate permissions to the iSCSI volumes required by both Oracle RAC nodes. we should be able to SSH into the Openfiler server and see the iscsi-target service running: [root@openfiler1 ~]# service iscsi-target status ietd (pid 14243) is running. 49 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . The ietd program implements the user level part of iSCSI Enterprise Target software for building an iSCSI storage system on Linux. the 'iSCSI target server' status should change to 'Enabled'. click on the 'Enable' link under the 'iSCSI target server' service name.. With the iSCSI target enabled. Note that iSCSI logical volumes will be created later on in this section.shtml Figure 7: Enable iSCSI Openfiler Service To enable the iSCSI service.

or ANY other storage can be connected to the Openfiler server and served to the clients. Lastly. note that the 'Name' field is just a logical name used for reference only. always use its IP address even though its host name may already be defined in your /etc/hosts file or DNS. The "Network Access Configuration" section (at the bottom of the page) allows an administrator to setup networks and/or hosts that will be allowed to access resources exported by the Openfiler appliance. For the purpose of this article. Openfiler Storage Control Center can be used to set up and manage all of that storage. storage arrays. As a convention when entering nodes. When entering each of the Oracle RAC nodes. Once these devices are discovered at the OS level.255.2. Storage devices like internal IDE/SATA/SCSI/SAS disks. external FireWire drives. This involves multiple steps that will be performed on the internal 73GB 15K SCSI hard disk connected to the Openfiler server. navigate to [Volumes] / [Block Devices] from the Openfiler Storage Control Center: 50 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . we will be creating the three iSCSI volumes to be used as shared storage by both of the Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster. when entering actual hosts in our Class C network. when entering the actual node in the 'Network/Host' field. To see this and to start the process of creating our iSCSI volumes. use a subnet mask of 255. The following image shows the results of adding both Oracle RAC nodes: Figure 8: Configure Openfiler Network Access for Oracle RAC Nodes Physical Storage In this section. I simply use the node name defined for that IP address.255. Next.168. On the Openfiler server this drive is seen as /dev/sdb (MAXTOR ATLAS15K2_73SCA). we have a 73GB internal SCSI hard drive for our shared storage needs.0 network have access to Openfiler resources.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.255. It is important to remember that you will be entering the IP address of the private network (eth1) for each of the RAC nodes in the cluster. In our case. we will want to add both Oracle RAC nodes individually rather than allowing the entire 192. external USB drives. configuring network access is accomplished using the Openfiler Storage Control Center by navigating to [System] / [Network Setup].shtml As in the previous section.

shtml Figure 9: Openfiler Physical Storage . Since we will be creating a single primary partition that spans the entire disk.36 GB. To accept that we click on the [Create] button. By clicking on the /dev/sdb link. Here are the values I specified to create the primary partition on /dev/sdb: Physical Disk Primary Partition Mode Partition Type Starting Cylinder Ending Cylinder Primary Physical volume 1 8924 The size now shows 68. most of the options can be left to their default setting where the only modification would be to change the 'Partition Type' from 'Extended partition' to 'Physical volume'. This results in a new partition (/dev/sdb1) on our internal hard disk: 51 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . we are presented with the options to 'Edit' or 'Create' a partition.Block Device Management Partitioning the Physical Disk The first step we will perform is to create a single primary partition on the /dev/sdb internal hard disk.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.

There we would see any existing volume groups. We will be creating a single volume group named racdbvg that contains the newly created primary partition. Using the Volume Group Management screen.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. click on the check-box in front of /dev/sdb1 to select that partition. enter the name of the new volume group (racdbvg).shtml Figure 10: Partition the Physical Volume Volume Group Management The next step is to create a Volume Group. navigate to [Volumes] / [Volume Groups]. From the Openfiler Storage Control Center. and finally click on the [Add volume group] button. or none as in our case. After that we are presented with the list that now shows our newly created volume group named "racdbvg": 52 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .

888 iSCSI racdb-fra1 33. the application will point you to the "Manage Volumes" screen. After creating each logical volume. There we will see the newly created volume group (racdbvg) along with its block storage statistics.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Use this screen to create the following three iSCSI logical volumes. You will then need to click back to the "Add Volume" tab to create the next logical volume until all three iSCSI volumes are created: iSCSI / Logical Volumes Volume Name racdb-crs1 Volume Description racdb .208 Filesystem Type iSCSI racdb-data1 33.shtml Figure 11: New Volume Group Created Logical Volumes We can now create the three logical volumes in the newly created volume group (racdbvg).888 iSCSI In effect we have created three iSCSI disks that can now be presented to iSCSI clients (racnode1 and racnode2) on the 53 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . From the Openfiler Storage Control Center.ASM CRS Volume 1 racdb .(Create a volume in "racdbvg").ASM Data Volume 1 racdb .ASM FRA Volume 1 Required Space (MB) 2. navigate to [Volumes] / [Add Volume]. Also available at the bottom of this screen is the option to create a new volume in the selected volume group .

shtml network. For the purpose of this article. The "Manage Volumes" screen should look as follows: Figure 12: New Logical (iSCSI) Volumes iSCSI Targets At this point. 54 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . there will be a one-to-one mapping between an iSCSI logical volume and an iSCSI target. an iSCSI target will need to be created for each of these three volumes. however.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Please note that this process will need to be performed for each of the three iSCSI logical volumes created in the previous section. Before an iSCSI client can have access to them. Each iSCSI logical volume will be mapped to a specific iSCSI target and the appropriate network access permissions to that target will be granted to both Oracle RAC nodes. grant both of the Oracle RAC nodes access to the new iSCSI target. There are three steps involved in creating and configuring an iSCSI target — create a unique Target IQN (basically. map one of the iSCSI logical volumes created in the previous section to the newly created iSCSI target. and finally. the universal name for the new iSCSI target). we have three iSCSI logical volumes.

fra1 racdb-fra1 We are now ready to create the three new iSCSI targets — one for each of the iSCSI logical volumes.ae4683b67fd3" with "racdb. This page allows you to create a new iSCSI target. navigate to [Volumes] / [iSCSI Targets].ae4683b67fd3": Figure 13: Create New iSCSI Target : Default Target IQN I prefer to replace the last segment of the default Target IQN with something more meaningful.crs1).data1 racdb-data1 iqn.com.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.openfiler:tsn.2006-01. The example below illustrates the three steps required to create a new iSCSI target by creating the Oracle Clusterware / racdb-crs1 target (iqn.ASM FRA Volume 1 iqn. I will modify the default Target IQN by replacing the string "tsn.crs1 iSCSI Volume Name racdb-crs1 Volume Description racdb .2006-01.openfiler:racdb.ASM Data Volume 1 racdb . Create New Target IQN From the Openfiler Storage Control Center.shtml For the purpose of this article.openfiler:racdb.com.crs1" as shown in Figure 14 below: 55 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .openfiler:racdb.2006-01. For the first iSCSI target (racdb-crs1).com. Verify the grey sub-tab "Target Configuration" is selected.com. the following table lists the new iSCSI target names (the Target IQN) and which iSCSI logical volume it will be mapped to: iSCSI Target / Logical Volume Mappings Target IQN iqn.com. A default value is automatically generated for the name of the new iSCSI target (better known as the "Target IQN"). This three step process will need to be repeated for each of the three new iSCSI targets listed in the table above.2006-01.openfiler:racdb.ASM CRS Volume 1 racdb .2006-01. An example Target IQN is "iqn.

LUN Mapping After creating the new iSCSI target. use the pull-down menu to select the correct iSCSI target and click the [Change] button.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. If not. This will create a new iSCSI target and then bring up a page that allows you to modify a number of settings for the new iSCSI target. Under the "Target Configuration" sub-tab. click the [Add] button. verify the correct iSCSI target is selected in the section "Select iSCSI Target". You do not need to change any settings on this page.shtml Figure 14: Create New iSCSI Target : Replace Default Target IQN Once you are satisfied with the new Target IQN. none of settings for the new iSCSI target need to be changed. For the purpose of this article. the next step is to map the appropriate iSCSI logical volume to it. click on the grey sub-tab named "LUN Mapping" (next to "Target Configuration" sub-tab). Next. Your screen should look similar to Figure 15 after clicking the "Map" button for volume /dev/racdbvg/racdb-crs1: 56 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . Locate the appropriate iSCSI logical volume (/dev/racdbvg/racdb-crs1 in this first example) and click the [Map] button.

it needs to be granted the appropriate permissions.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. change the "Access" for both hosts from 'Deny' to 'Allow' and click the [Update] button: 57 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . Click on the grey sub-tab named "Network ACL" (next to "LUN Mapping" sub-tab). we configured network access in Openfiler for two hosts (the Oracle RAC nodes). We now need to grant both of the Oracle RAC nodes access to the new iSCSI target. Awhile back. For the current iSCSI target. These are the two nodes that will need to access the new iSCSI targets through the storage (private) network.shtml Figure 15: Create New iSCSI Target : Map LUN Network ACL Before an iSCSI client can have access to the newly created iSCSI target.

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Figure 16: Create New iSCSI Target : Update Network ACL

Go back to the Create New Target IQN section and perform these same three tasks for the remaining two iSCSI logical volumes while substituting the values found in the "iSCSI Target / Logical Volume Mappings" table (namely, the value in the 'Target IQN' column).

Configure iSCSI Volumes on Oracle RAC Nodes
Configure the iSCSI initiator on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster. Creating partitions, however, should only be executed on one of nodes in the RAC cluster. An iSCSI client can be any system (Linux, Unix, MS Windows, Apple Mac, etc.) for which iSCSI support (a driver) is available. In our case, the clients are two Linux servers, racnode1 and racnode2, running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5 or CentOS 5.5. In this section we will be configuring the iSCSI software initiator on both of the Oracle RAC nodes. RHEL / CentOS 5.5 includes the Open-iSCSI iSCSI software initiator which can be found in the iscsi-initiator-utils RPM. This is a change from previous versions of RHEL / CentOS (4.x) which included the Linux iscsi-sfnet software driver developed as part of the Linux-iSCSI Project. All iSCSI management tasks like discovery and logins will use the command-line interface iscsiadm which is included with Open-iSCSI. The iSCSI software initiator will be configured to automatically log in to the network storage server (openfiler1) and discover the iSCSI volumes created in the previous section. We will then go through the steps of creating persistent local SCSI device names (i.e. /dev/iscsi/crs1) for each of the iSCSI target names discovered using udev. Having a consistent local SCSI device name and which iSCSI target it maps to, helps to differentiate between the three volumes when configuring ASM. Before we can do any of this, however, we must first install the iSCSI initiator software.

This guide makes use of ASMLib 2.0 which is a support library for the Automatic Storage Management (ASM) feature of the Oracle Database. ASMLib will be used to label all iSCSI volumes used in this guide. By default, ASMLib already provides persistent paths and permissions for storage devices used with ASM. This feature eliminates the need for updating udev or devlabel files with storage device paths and permissions. For the purpose of this article and in practice, I still opt to create persistent local SCSI device

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names for each of the iSCSI target names discovered using udev. This provides a means of self-documentation which helps to quickly identify the name and location of each volume.

Installing the iSCSI (initiator) service With Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5 or CentOS 5.5, the Open-iSCSI iSCSI software initiator does not get installed by default. The software is included in the iscsi-initiator-utils package which can be found on CD/DVD #1. To determine if this package is installed (which in most cases, it will not be), perform the following on both Oracle RAC nodes:

[root@racnode1 ~]# rpm -qa --queryformat "%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n"| grep iscs

If the iscsi-initiator-utils package is not installed, load CD/DVD #1 into each of the Oracle RAC nodes and perform the following:

[root@racnode1 [root@racnode1 [root@racnode1 [root@racnode1 [root@racnode1

~]# ~]# ~]# ~]# ~]#

mount -r /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom cd /media/cdrom/CentOS rpm -Uvh iscsi-initiator-utils-* cd / eject

Verify the iscsi-initiator-utils package is now installed on both Oracle RAC nodes:

[root@racnode1 ~]# rpm -qa --queryformat "%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n"| grep iscs iscsi-initiator-utils-6.2.0.871-0.16.el5 (x86_64)

[root@racnode2 ~]# rpm -qa --queryformat "%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n"| grep iscs iscsi-initiator-utils-6.2.0.871-0.16.el5 (x86_64)

Configure the iSCSI (initiator) service After verifying that the iscsi-initiator-utils package is installed, start the iscsid service on both Oracle RAC nodes and enable it to automatically start when the system boots. We will also configure the iscsi service to automatically start which logs into iSCSI targets needed at system startup.

[root@racnode1 ~]# service iscsid start Turning off network shutdown. Starting iSCSI daemon: [root@racnode1 ~]# chkconfig iscsid on [root@racnode1 ~]# chkconfig iscsi on

[ [

OK OK

] ]

Now that the iSCSI service is started, use the iscsiadm command-line interface to discover all available targets on the network storage server. This should be performed on both Oracle RAC nodes to verify the configuration is functioning properly:

[root@racnode1 ~]# iscsiadm -m discovery -t sendtargets -p openfiler1-priv 192.168.2.195:3260,1 iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.crs1 192.168.2.195:3260,1 iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.fra1 192.168.2.195:3260,1 iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.data1

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Manually Log In to iSCSI Targets At this point, the iSCSI initiator service has been started and each of the Oracle RAC nodes were able to discover the available targets from the Openfiler network storage server. The next step is to manually log in to each of the available iSCSI targets which can be done using the iscsiadm command-line interface. This needs to be run on both Oracle RAC nodes. Note that I had to specify the IP address and not the host name of the network storage server (openfiler1-priv) — I believe this is required given the discovery (above) shows the targets using the IP address.

[root@racnode1 ~]# iscsiadm -m node -T iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.crs1 -p 192.168.2.195 -l [root@racnode1 ~]# iscsiadm -m node -T iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.data1 -p 192.168.2.195 [root@racnode1 ~]# iscsiadm -m node -T iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.fra1 -p 192.168.2.195 -l

Configure Automatic Log In The next step is to ensure the client will automatically log in to each of the targets listed above when the machine is booted (or the iSCSI initiator service is started/restarted). As with the manual log in process described above, perform the following on both Oracle RAC nodes:

[root@racnode1 ~]# iscsiadm -m node -T iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.crs1 -p 192.168.2.195 -[root@racnode1 ~]# iscsiadm -m node -T iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.data1 -p 192.168.2.195 [root@racnode1 ~]# iscsiadm -m node -T iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.fra1 -p 192.168.2.195 --

Create Persistent Local SCSI Device Names In this section, we will go through the steps to create persistent local SCSI device names for each of the iSCSI target names. This will be done using udev. Having a consistent local SCSI device name and which iSCSI target it maps to, helps to differentiate between the three volumes when configuring ASM. Although this is not a strict requirement since we will be using ASMLib 2.0 for all volumes, it provides a means of self-documentation to quickly identify the name and location of each iSCSI volume. By default, when either of the Oracle RAC nodes boot and the iSCSI initiator service is started, it will automatically log in to each of the iSCSI targets configured in a random fashion and map them to the next available local SCSI device name. For example, the target iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.crs1 may get mapped to /dev/sdb. I can actually determine the current mappings for all targets by looking at the /dev/disk/by-path directory:

[root@racnode1 ~]# (cd /dev/disk/by-path; ls -l *openfiler* | awk '{FS=" "; print $9 " " $10 " ip-192.168.2.195:3260-iscsi-iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.crs1-lun-0 -> ../../sdb ip-192.168.2.195:3260-iscsi-iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.data1-lun-0 -> ../../sdd ip-192.168.2.195:3260-iscsi-iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.fra1-lun-0 -> ../../sdc

Using the output from the above listing, we can establish the following current mappings:
Current iSCSI Target Name to local SCSI Device Name Mappings
iSCSI Target Name iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.crs1 iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.data1 iqn.2006-01.com.openfiler:racdb.fra1 Local SCSI Device Name /dev/sdb /dev/sdd /dev/sdc

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rules KERNEL=="sd*".sh BUS=${1} HOST=${BUS%%:*} [ -e /sys/class/iscsi_host ] || exit 1 file="/sys/class/iscsi_host/host${HOST}/device/session*/iscsi_session*/targetname" target_name=$(cat ${file}) # This is not an open-scsi drive if [ -z "${target_name}" ]. the client logging in to an iSCSI target). What we need is a consistent device name we can reference (i.*}"` fi echo "${target_name##*.com.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. When udev receives a device event (for example. may change every time the Oracle RAC node is rebooted.e. For example. It will also define a call-out SHELL script (/etc/udev/scripts/iscsidev. create the UNIX shell script /etc/udev/scripts/iscsidev.SYMLINK+="iscsi/%c/part% We now need to create the UNIX SHELL script that will be called when this event is received. This is where the Dynamic Device Management tool named udev comes in. udev provides a dynamic device directory using symbolic links that point to the actual device using a configurable set of rules.sh) to handle the event. however.com. It is therefore impractical to rely on using the local SCSI device name given there is no way to predict the iSCSI target mappings after a reboot.d/55-openiscsi.d/55-openiscsi. BUS=="scsi".2006-01. then target_name=`echo "${target_name%.rules and contain only a single line of name=value pairs used to receive events we are interested in.2004-04.sh %b". Create the following rules file /etc/udev/rules. change it to executable: 61 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .rules on both Oracle RAC nodes: # /etc/udev/rules. The first step is to create a new rules file. Rules that match may provide additional device information or specify a device node name and multiple symlink names and instruct udev to run additional programs (a SHELL script for example) as part of the device event handling process. it matches its configured rules against the available device attributes provided in sysfs to identify the device.d/55-openiscsi. then exit 1 fi # Check if QNAP drive check_qnap_target_name=${target_name%%:*} if [ $check_qnap_target_name = "iqn.qnap" ]. PROGRAM="/etc/udev/scripts/iscsidev.crs1 gets mapped to the local SCSI device /dev/sdc. Let's first create a separate directory on both Oracle RAC nodes where udev scripts can be stored: [root@racnode1 ~]# mkdir -p /etc/udev/scripts [root@racnode2 ~]# mkdir -p /etc/udev/scripts Next. after a reboot it may be determined that the iSCSI target iqn. /dev/iscsi/crs1) that will always point to the appropriate iSCSI target through reboots.shtml This mapping. The file will be named /etc/udev/rules.}" After creating the UNIX SHELL script.sh on both Oracle RAC nodes: #!/bin/sh # FILE: /etc/udev/scripts/iscsidev.openfiler:racdb.

2006-01.2006-01. Logging in to [iface: default.com.data1.3 Login to [iface: default.fra1.com.com.openfiler:racdb.2006-01.2006-01.fra1. portal: 192.3 Login to [iface: default.168.openfiler:racdb. portal: 192.com..2.openfiler:racdb.crs1.168.195. portal: 192.2 Logging out of session [sid: 2.com.openfiler:racdb. portal: 192./sdd 62 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . target: iqn.3260]: s Logout of [sid: 2.openfiler:racdb.195.195.com.2.com.168. target: iqn.2006-01. portal: 192.168.openfiler:racdb. target: iqn. target: iqn. portal: 192.data1.2 Logout of [sid: 1.fra1.com.crs1.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.2 Logging out of session [sid: 2.fra1.168.2006-01. Logging out of session [sid: 3.2006-01.2. target: iqn. target: iqn.2006-01. target: iqn.openfiler:racdb.2006-01. target: iqn.openfiler:racdb.2006-01.168.168..data1.com.data1.2. portal: 192.2006-01. target: iqn./sdc /dev/iscsi/data1: total 0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Nov 6 17:32 part -> . portal: 192.3260]: Logout of [sid: 3.2.com.168. target: iqn.crs1.data1.2.2 Login to [iface: default.2006-01.com.com.168.2006-01. target: iqn.168.com.2006-01. portal: 192.168./.openfiler:racdb. target: iqn.2006-01. portal: 192.com.2. target: iqn.openfiler:racdb. Starting iSCSI daemon: [ OK ] [ OK ] Setting up iSCSI targets: Logging in to [iface: default.. [ OK ] [root@racnode2 ~]# service iscsi stop Logging out of session [sid: 1.openfiler:racdb.openfiler:racdb.openfiler:racdb.195.2006-01.com. Login to [iface: default. target: iqn.openfiler:racdb.3260]: s Stopping iSCSI daemon: [ OK ] [root@racnode2 ~]# service iscsi start iscsid dead but pid file exists Starting iSCSI daemon: [ OK ] [ OK ] Setting up iSCSI targets: Logging in to [iface: default.crs1. portal: 192.168.3 Login to [iface: default.2. target: iqn.195.168.crs1.com.168.openfiler:racdb.168. target: iqn.openfiler:racdb. portal: 192. target: iqn.3260]: s Logout of [sid: 2.com. target: iqn.com./.168.openfiler:racdb.168.168.sh [root@racnode2 ~]# chmod 755 /etc/udev/scripts/iscsidev.sh Now that udev is configured.data1.2006-01. portal: 192.3 [ OK ] Let's see if our hard work paid off: [root@racnode1 ~]# ls -l /dev/iscsi/* /dev/iscsi/crs1: total 0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Nov 6 17:32 part -> .openfiler:racdb. target: iqn.2.openfiler:racdb. portal: 192.3260]: s Stopping iSCSI daemon: [ OK ] [root@racnode1 ~]# service iscsi start iscsid dead but pid file exists Turning off network shutdown.2.2. portal: 192. portal: 192.2006-01.2.2. portal: 192.195.crs1.com. portal: 192. target: iqn. restart the iSCSI service on both Oracle RAC nodes: [root@racnode1 ~]# service iscsi stop Logging out of session [sid: 1.com.195.2. target: iqn.195. Logging in to [iface: default.168.shtml [root@racnode1 ~]# chmod 755 /etc/udev/scripts/iscsidev.openfiler:racd Logging in to [iface: default.2006-01..fra1.2006-01. portal: 192.195.com.2.2 Logout of [sid: 1.195.3260]: Logout of [sid: 3.openfiler:racdb.fra1.2006-01. portal: 192.com. portal: 192.data1.2006-01. Logging out of session [sid: 3.2006-01.com.crs1. portal: 192. target: iqn.195.com.openfiler:racd Logging in to [iface: default.fra1.openfiler:racdb.2006-01.168.fra1.168. target: iqn. target: iqn.openfiler:racdb. Login to [iface: default.168.195.

/sde [root@racnode2 ~]# ls -l /dev/iscsi/* /dev/iscsi/crs1: total 0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Nov 6 17:36 part -> .openfiler:racdb. we can safely assume that the device name /dev/iscsi /crs1/part will always reference the iSCSI target iqn. Finally.2006-01.com. online redo log files. As mentioned earlier in this article. the physical database files (data/index files./.2006-01. the Fast Recovery Area (RMAN backups and archived redo log files) will be stored in a third ASM disk group named +FRA which too will be configured for external redundancy.crs1 iqn../sdc 6 17:36 part -> . We now have a consistent iSCSI target name to local device name mapping which is described in the following table: iSCSI Target Name to Local Device Name Mappings iSCSI Target Name iqn.openfiler:racdb.data1 iqn.. For example.com.com.2006-01.../. The Oracle Clusterware shared files (OCR and voting disk) will be stored in an ASM disk group named +CRS which will be configured for external redundancy../. I will be using Automatic Storage Management (ASM) to store the shared files required for Oracle Clusterware. The following table lists the three ASM disk groups that will be created and which iSCSI volume they will contain: Oracle Shared Drive Configuration File Types OCR and Voting Disk Oracle Database Files Oracle Fast Recovery Area ASM Diskgroup Name +CRS +RACDB_DATA +FRA iSCSI Target (short) Name crs1 data1 fra1 ASM Redundancy External External External Size 2GB 32GB 32GB ASMLib Volu ORCL:CRSVOL ORCL:DATAVO ORCL:FRAVOL 63 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .fra1 Local Device Name /dev/iscsi/crs1/part /dev/iscsi/data1/part /dev/iscsi/fra1/part Create Partitions on iSCSI Volumes We now need to create a single primary partition on each of the iSCSI volumes that spans the entire size of the volume.com..DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12./sde The listing above shows that udev did the job it was suppose to do! We now have a consistent set of local device names that can be used to reference the iSCSI targets.. and the Fast Recovery Area (FRA) for the clustered database.crs1.shtml /dev/iscsi/fra1: total 0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Nov 6 17:32 part -> .openfiler:racdb./sdd /dev/iscsi/data1: total 0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Nov /dev/iscsi/fra1: total 0 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Nov 6 17:36 part -> .openfiler:racdb./..2006-01. and control files). The physical database files for the clustered database will be stored in an ASM disk group named +RACDB_DATA which will also be configured for external redundancy.

2315255808 bytes 72 heads.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. In this example. The fdisk command is used in Linux for creating (and removing) partitions. default 33888): 33888 Command (m for help): p Disk /dev/iscsi/data1/part: 35. default 1): 1 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-1012.5 GB. 1012 cylinders Units = cylinders of 4464 * 512 = 2285568 bytes Device Boot /dev/iscsi/crs1/part1 Start 1 End 1012 Blocks 2258753 Id 83 System Linux Command (m for help): w The partition table has been altered! Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table. Syncing disks. we will need to create a single Linux primary partition on each of the three iSCSI volumes. You can safely ignore any warnings that may indicate the device does not contain a valid DOS partition (or Sun. default 1012): 1012 Command (m for help): p Disk /dev/iscsi/crs1/part: 2315 MB. 32 sectors/track. 35534143488 bytes 64 heads. I will be running the fdisk command from racnode1 to create a single primary partition on each iSCSI target using the local device names created by udev in the previous section: /dev/iscsi/crs1/part /dev/iscsi/data1/part /dev/iscsi/fra1/part Creating the single partition on each of the iSCSI volumes must only be run from one of the nodes in the Oracle RAC cluster! (i. 62 sectors/track.e. # --------------------------------------[root@racnode1 ~]# fdisk /dev/iscsi/data1/part Command (m for help): n Command action e extended p primary partition (1-4) p Partition number (1-4): 1 First cylinder (1-33888. racnode1) # --------------------------------------[root@racnode1 ~]# fdisk /dev/iscsi/crs1/part Command (m for help): n Command action e extended p primary partition (1-4) p Partition number (1-4): 1 First cylinder (1-1012. you can use the default values when creating the primary partition as the default action is to use the entire disk. 33888 cylinders Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes 64 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . For each of the three iSCSI volumes. SGI or OSF disklabel).shtml As shown in the table above. default 1): 1 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-33888.

Verify New Partitions After creating all required partitions from racnode1. 19452 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Device Boot /dev/sda1 * /dev/sda2 Start 1 14 End 13 19452 Blocks 104391 156143767+ Id 83 8e System Linux Linux LVM Disk /dev/sdb: 35.0 GB. you should now inform the kernel of the partition changes using the following command as the root user account from all remaining nodes in the Oracle RAC cluster (racnode2). default 1): 1 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-33888. Syncing disks. default 33888): 33888 Command (m for help): p Disk /dev/iscsi/fra1/part: 35. 35534143488 bytes 64 heads. Syncing disks. 32 sectors/track.5 GB. run the following commands: [root@racnode2 ~]# partprobe [root@racnode2 ~]# fdisk -l Disk /dev/sda: 160.shtml Device Boot /dev/iscsi/data1/part1 Start 1 End 33888 Blocks 34701296 Id 83 System Linux Command (m for help): w The partition table has been altered! Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. # --------------------------------------[root@racnode1 ~]# fdisk /dev/iscsi/fra1/part Command (m for help): n Command action e extended p primary partition (1-4) p Partition number (1-4): 1 First cylinder (1-33888. This is not a concern and will not cause any problems since we will not be using the local SCSI device names but rather the local device names created by udev in the previous section. 33888 cylinders Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes 65 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . 63 sectors/track. Note that the mapping of iSCSI target names discovered from Openfiler and the local SCSI device name will be different on both Oracle RAC nodes. 35534143488 bytes 64 heads. From racnode2.5 GB. 33888 cylinders Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes Device Boot /dev/iscsi/fra1/part1 Start 1 End 33888 Blocks 34701296 Id 83 System Linux Command (m for help): w The partition table has been altered! Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table. 160000000000 bytes 255 heads. 32 sectors/track.

168.data1-lun-0-part1 -> .2006-01./sdc ip-192.openfiler:racdb.2./sde ip-192.openfiler:racdb. users. the Oracle database software)..195:3260-iscsi-iqn. 62 sectors/track.195:3260-iscsi-iqn./sdc1 ip-192.openfiler:racdb.data1-lun-0-part1 -> .2.com..2006-01.168.2006-01. print $9 " " $10 " ip-192../sdd ip-192.g.195:3260-iscsi-iqn.2006-01.168..com. ls -l *openfiler* | awk '{FS=" "./. and Directories Perform the following user.openfiler:racdb.168.2006-01. 32 sectors/track./sdd1 ip-192.195:3260-iscsi-iqn. We will be using these new device names when configuring the volumes for ASMlib later in this guide: /dev/iscsi/crs1/part1 /dev/iscsi/data1/part1 /dev/iscsi/fra1/part1 Create Job Role Separation Operating System Privileges Groups.5 GB.2.openfiler:racdb. Administrative privileges access 66 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM ..crs1-lun-0-part1 -> ./sde1 The listing above shows that udev did indeed create new device names for each of the new partitions.././.168..2006-01. and directories./....2006-01.2.168../.195:3260-iscsi-iqn.195:3260-iscsi-iqn. 2315255808 bytes 72 heads.....168.com./..com.data1-lun-0 -> .195:3260-iscsi-iqn. 35534143488 bytes 64 heads.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.fra1-lun-0-part1 -> . directory configuration.openfiler:racdb. print $9 " " $10 " ip-192.. The commands in this section should be performed on both Oracle RAC nodes as root to create these groups.data1-lun-0 -> .openfiler:racdb.com.com.openfiler:racdb.fra1-lun-0 -> .crs1-lun-0-part1 -> .2006-01..openfiler:racdb. ls -l *openfiler* | awk '{FS=" ".com. This section provides the instructions on how to create the operating system users and groups to install all Oracle software using a Job Role Separation configuration.2006-01..2..com.shtml Device Boot /dev/sdb1 Start 1 End 33888 Blocks 34701296 Id 83 System Linux Disk /dev/sdc: 35. 33888 cylinders Units = cylinders of 2048 * 512 = 1048576 bytes Device Boot /dev/sdc1 Start 1 End 33888 Blocks 34701296 Id 83 System Linux Disk /dev/sdd: 2315 MB.2006-01.2.168.195:3260-iscsi-iqn./sdc ip-192.168.2006-01. Check to make sure that the group and user IDs you want to use are available on each cluster member node. Users./.fra1-lun-0-part1 -> ..2006-01.crs1-lun-0 -> .195:3260-iscsi-iqn.195:3260-iscsi-iqn.openfiler:racdb././sde1 [root@racnode2 ~]# (cd /dev/disk/by-path.2./sdd1 ip-192.crs1-lun-0 -> ./sde ip-192.com. and setting shell limit tasks for the grid and oracle users on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster.com.2./sdd ip-192.2. and confirm that the primary group for each grid infrastructure for a cluster installation owner has the same name and group ID which for the purpose of this guide is oinstall (GID 1000). group.com.openfiler:racdb. A Job Role Separation privileges configuration of Oracle is a configuration with operating system groups and users that divide administrative access privileges to the Oracle grid infrastructure installation from other administrative privileges users and groups associated with other Oracle installations (e.168./. 1012 cylinders Units = cylinders of 4464 * 512 = 2285568 bytes Device Boot /dev/sdd1 Start 1 End 1012 Blocks 2258753 Id 83 System Linux As a final step you should run the following command on both Oracle RAC nodes to verify that udev created the new symbolic links for each new partition: [root@racnode1 ~]# (cd /dev/disk/by-path.2./.com../.openfiler:racdb./sdc1 ip-192../.168.2.2. Note that the group and user IDs must be identical on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster..195:3260-iscsi-iqn.168.fra1-lun-0 -> .195:3260-iscsi-iqn.

you can designate the oracle user to be the sole installation owner for all Oracle software (Grid infrastructure and the Oracle database software). The following O/S groups will be created to support job role separation: Description Oracle Inventory and Software Owner Oracle Automatic Storage Management Group ASM Database Administrator Group ASM Operator Group Database Administrator Database Operator OS Group Name oinstall asmadmin asmdba asmoper dba oper OS Users Assigned to this Group grid. OUI creates the /etc/oraInst. Automatic Storage Management. a user created to own the Oracle grid infrastructure binaries is called the grid user. For the purpose of this guide. This file identifies the name of the Oracle Inventory group (by default. Ensure that this group is available as a primary group for all planned Oracle software installation owners. have specialized system roles who will be responsible for installing the Oracle software such as system administrators. and the path of the Oracle Central Inventory directory. and complete all configuration tasks that require operating system root privileges.shtml is granted by membership in separate operating system groups. oracle grid oracle oracle SYSASM SYSDBA for ASM SYSOPER for ASM SYSDBA SYSOPER Oracle Privilege Oracle Inventory Group (typically oinstall) Members of the OINSTALL group are considered the "owners" of the Oracle software and are granted privileges to write to the Oracle central inventory (oraInventory). and all privileges as installation owners. so that each Oracle software installation owner can write to the central inventory (oraInventory). This user will own both the Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage Management binaries. and installation privileges are granted by using different installation owners for each Oracle installation. In Oracle documentation. The user created to own the Oracle database binaries (Oracle RAC) will be called the oracle user. the grid and oracle installation owners must be configured with oinstall as their primary group. it is referred to as asmadmin. For example. network administrators. and in code examples. Create this group as a separate group if you want to have separate administration privilege groups for Oracle ASM and Oracle Database administrators. With this type of configuration. When grid infrastructure installation and configuration is completed successfully. When you install Oracle software on a Linux system for the first time. if an oraInventory group does not exist. One OS user will be created to own each Oracle software product — "grid" for the Oracle grid infrastructure owner and "oracle" for the Oracle RAC software. the operating system group whose members are granted privileges is called the OSASM group. and all Oracle Databases on the servers. These different administrative users can configure a system in preparation for an Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster installation. By default. and designate oinstall to be the single group whose members are granted all system privileges for Oracle Clusterware. oracle grid grid. Members of the OSASM group can use SQL to connect to an Oracle ASM instance as SYSASM using operating 67 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . then the installer lists the primary group of the installation owner for the grid infrastructure for a cluster as the oraInventory group. a system administrator should only need to provide configuration information and to grant access to the database administrator to run scripts as root during an Oracle RAC installation. where there is a group specifically created to grant this privilege. Both Oracle software owners must have the Oracle Inventory group (oinstall) as their primary group. This type of configuration is optional but highly recommend by Oracle for organizations that need to restrict user access to Oracle software by responsibility areas for different administrator users. however. The Oracle RAC software owner must also have the OSDBA group and the optional OSOPER group as secondary groups. and so that OCR and Oracle Clusterware resource permissions are set correctly. oinstall). Throughout this article.loc file. or storage administrators. The Oracle Automatic Storage Management Group (typically asmadmin) This is a required group. a small organization could simply allocate operating system user privileges so that you can use one administrative user and one group for operating system authentication for all system privileges on the storage and database tiers. Other organizations.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.

The SYSDBA system privilege should not be confused with the database role DBA. typically oper) Members of the OSOPER group can use SQL to connect to an Oracle instance as SYSOPER using operating system authentication. Database Administrator (OSDBA.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. To use the ASM Operator group to create an ASM administrator group with fewer privileges than the default asmadmin group.asmdba. The SYSOPER system privilege allows access to a database instance even when the database is not open. The DBA role does not include the SYSDBA or SYSOPER system privileges. In this case. If you want to have an OSOPER for ASM group. then you must choose the Advanced installation type to install the Grid infrastructure software.1200(asmadmin). Database Operator (OSOPER. Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have a limited set of Oracle ASM instance administrative privileges (the SYSOPER for ASM privilege). In this guide.shtml system authentication. Control of this privilege is totally outside of the database itself. such as creating the database and instance startup and shutdown. The default name for this group is oper. including starting up and stopping the Oracle ASM instance. Members of the ASM Operator Group (OSOPER for ASM. then the grid infrastructure for a cluster software owner (grid) must be a member of this group. OUI prompts you to specify the name of this group.1202(asmope 68 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . The SYSASM privilege that was introduced in Oracle ASM 11g release 1 (11.1201(asmdba). choose the Advanced installation type to install the Oracle database software. The grid infrastructure installation owner (grid) and all Oracle Database software owners (oracle) must be a member of this group. typically dba) Members of the OSDBA group can use SQL to connect to an Oracle instance as SYSDBA using operating system authentication. By default. Members of this group can perform critical database administration tasks.1) is now fully separated from the SYSDBA privilege in Oracle ASM 11g release 2 (11.asmoper -d /home/grid -s / [root@racnode1 ~]# id grid uid=1100(grid) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1000(oinstall). Providing system privileges for the storage tier using the SYSASM privilege instead of the SYSDBA privilege provides a clearer division of responsibility between ASM administration and database administration. members of the OSASM group also have all privileges granted by the SYSOPER for ASM privilege. The ASM Database Administrator group (OSDBA for ASM. typically asmoper) This is an optional group. The SYSDBA system privilege allows access to a database instance even when the database is not open. and all users with OSDBA membership on databases that have access to the files managed by Oracle ASM must be members of the OSDBA group for ASM. Create Groups and User for Grid Infrastructure Lets start this section by creating the recommended OS groups and user for Grid Infrastructure on both Oracle RAC nodes: [root@racnode1 [root@racnode1 [root@racnode1 [root@racnode1 [root@racnode1 ~]# ~]# ~]# ~]# ~]# groupadd -g 1000 oinstall groupadd -g 1200 asmadmin groupadd -g 1201 asmdba groupadd -g 1202 asmoper useradd -m -u 1100 -g oinstall -G asmadmin. Control of this privilege is totally outside of the database itself. SYSASM privileges no longer provide access privileges on an RDBMS instance. The default name for this group is dba.2). this group is asmoper. and other storage administration tasks. To use this group. and helps to prevent different databases using the same storage from accidentally overwriting each others files. typically asmdba) Members of the ASM Database Administrator group (OSDBA for ASM) is a subset of the SYSASM privileges and are granted read and write access to files managed by Oracle ASM. Members of this optional group have a limited set of database administrative privileges such as managing and running backups. The SYSASM privileges permit mounting and dismounting disk groups.

bashrc fi alias ls="ls -FA" 69 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .grid # # # # # # # --------------------------------------------------.1200(asmadmin). make certain to assign each RAC node a unique Oracle SID for ASM: racnode1: ORACLE_SID=+ASM1 racnode2: ORACLE_SID=+ASM2 [root@racnode1 ~]# su .1202(asmope Set the password for the grid account on both Oracle RAC nodes: [root@racnode1 ~]# passwd grid Changing password for user grid.1201(asmdba). New UNIX password: xxxxxxxxxxx Retype new UNIX password: xxxxxxxxxxx passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.asmoper -d /home/grid -s / [root@racnode2 ~]# id grid uid=1100(grid) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1000(oinstall). then .DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. [root@racnode2 ~]# passwd grid Changing password for user grid.bash_profile): When setting the Oracle environment variables for each Oracle RAC node in the login script.bash_profile --------------------------------------------------OS User: grid Application: Oracle Grid Infrastructure Version: Oracle 11g release 2 --------------------------------------------------- # Get the aliases and functions if [ -f ~/.shtml ------------------------------------------------[root@racnode2 [root@racnode2 [root@racnode2 [root@racnode2 [root@racnode2 ~]# ~]# ~]# ~]# ~]# groupadd -g 1000 oinstall groupadd -g 1200 asmadmin groupadd -g 1201 asmdba groupadd -g 1202 asmoper useradd -m -u 1100 -g oinstall -G asmadmin.bashrc ].asmdba. New UNIX password: xxxxxxxxxxx Retype new UNIX password: xxxxxxxxxxx passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully. ~/. Create Login Script for the grid User Account Log in to both Oracle RAC nodes as the grid user account and create the following login script (.

. or if the file is not # in the current directory.e. or under Oracle home directories of # Oracle Database installation owners.. # --------------------------------------------------JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/java. Forms and Menu.shtml # --------------------------------------------------# ORACLE_SID # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the Oracle system identifier (SID) # for the Automatic Storage Management (ASM)instance # running on this node.. the Oracle application # uses ORACLE_PATH to locate the file. +ASM2. and other logs # associated with Oracle ASM and Oracle Clusterware # are stored. +ASM1.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.0/grid.2. If the full path to # the file is not specified. During # installation. # --------------------------------------------------ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/11. # This variable is used by SQL*Plus. # (i. export ORACLE_HOME # --------------------------------------------------# ORACLE_PATH # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the search path for files used by Oracle # applications such as SQL*Plus.sql file. export ORACLE_BASE # --------------------------------------------------# ORACLE_HOME # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the directory containing the Oracle # Grid Infrastructure software. # --------------------------------------------------ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/grid. ownership of the path to the Grid # home is changed to root. 70 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . export ORACLE_SID # --------------------------------------------------# JAVA_HOME # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the directory of the Java SDK and Runtime # Environment. the Grid # home must not be placed under one of the Oracle base # directories. The Oracle base directory for the # grid installation owner is the location where # diagnostic and administrative logs. # Each RAC node must have a unique ORACLE_SID. For grid # infrastructure for a cluster installations. export JAVA_HOME # --------------------------------------------------# ORACLE_BASE # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the base of the Oracle directory structure # for Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) compliant # installations. # --------------------------------------------------ORACLE_PATH=/u01/app/oracle/dba_scripts/common/sql. This change causes # permission errors for other installations. or in the home # directory of an installation owner. export ORACLE_PATH # # # # # --------------------------------------------------SQLPATH --------------------------------------------------Specifies the directory or list of directories that SQL*Plus searches for a login.) # --------------------------------------------------ORACLE_SID=+ASM1.

export ORACLE_TERM # --------------------------------------------------# NLS_DATE_FORMAT # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the default date format to use with the # TO_CHAR and TO_DATE functions. # territory. and linguistic definition # files are stored. # tnsnames. For example: # # NLS_DATE_FORMAT = "MM/DD/YYYY" # # --------------------------------------------------NLS_DATE_FORMAT="DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS".ora. The default value of # this parameter is determined by NLS_TERRITORY. export TNS_ADMIN # --------------------------------------------------# ORA_NLS11 # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the directory where the language. Used by all character mode products.shtml # --------------------------------------------------# SQLPATH=/u01/app/oracle/dba_scripts/common/sql.ora. If not set. export NLS_DATE_FORMAT # --------------------------------------------------# TNS_ADMIN # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the directory containing the Oracle Net # Services configuration files like listener. export ORA_NLS11 # --------------------------------------------------# PATH # --------------------------------------------------# Used by the shell to locate executable programs. # --------------------------------------------------ORA_NLS11=$ORACLE_HOME/nls/data. export SQLPATH # --------------------------------------------------# ORACLE_TERM # --------------------------------------------------# Defines a terminal definition.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. The # value of this parameter can be any valid date # format mask. and sqlnet. # --------------------------------------------------TNS_ADMIN=$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin. # --------------------------------------------------PATH=. and the value must be surrounded by # double quotation marks.:${JAVA_HOME}/bin:${PATH}:$HOME/bin:$ORACLE_HOME/bin PATH=${PATH}:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/local/bin PATH=${PATH}:/u01/app/oracle/dba_scripts/common/bin export PATH # --------------------------------------------------# LD_LIBRARY_PATH # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the list of directories that the shared # library loader searches to locate shared object # libraries at runtime. character set. # --------------------------------------------------LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib LD_LIBRARY_PATH=${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}:$ORACLE_HOME/oracm/lib LD_LIBRARY_PATH=${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}:/lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib 71 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . # must include the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.ora. it # defaults to the value of your TERM environment # variable. # --------------------------------------------------ORACLE_TERM=xterm.

To specify that native threads should be # used. # --------------------------------------------------export TEMP=/tmp export TMPDIR=/tmp # --------------------------------------------------# UMASK # --------------------------------------------------# Set the default file mode creation mask # (umask) to 022 to ensure that the user performing # the Oracle software installation creates files # with 644 permissions.oper. if set. # --------------------------------------------------THREADS_FLAG=native. tools that create temporary files # create them in one of these directories.1301(oper) ------------------------------------------------- [root@racnode2 ~]# groupadd -g 1300 dba [root@racnode2 ~]# groupadd -g 1301 oper [root@racnode2 ~]# useradd -m -u 1101 -g oinstall -G dba. export THREADS_FLAG # --------------------------------------------------# TEMP.asmdba -d /home/oracle -s /bin/ba 72 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . TMP. set the THREADS_FLAG environment variable to # "native". and TMPDIR # --------------------------------------------------# Specify the default directories for temporary # files.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. You can revert to the use of green # threads by setting THREADS_FLAG to the value # "green". create the the recommended OS groups and user for the Oracle database software on both Oracle RAC nodes: [root@racnode1 ~]# groupadd -g 1300 dba [root@racnode1 ~]# groupadd -g 1301 oper [root@racnode1 ~]# useradd -m -u 1101 -g oinstall -G dba.1201(asmdba). # --------------------------------------------------umask 022 Create Groups and User for Oracle Database Software Next.1300(dba).asmdba -d /home/oracle -s /bin/ba [root@racnode1 ~]# id oracle uid=1101(oracle) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1000(oinstall). # --------------------------------------------------CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE CLASSPATH=${CLASSPATH}:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib CLASSPATH=${CLASSPATH}:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib CLASSPATH=${CLASSPATH}:$ORACLE_HOME/network/jlib export CLASSPATH # --------------------------------------------------# THREADS_FLAG # --------------------------------------------------# All the tools in the JDK use green threads as a # default.shtml export LD_LIBRARY_PATH # --------------------------------------------------# CLASSPATH # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the directory or list of directories that # contain compiled Java classes.oper.

Each RAC node must have a unique ORACLE_SID. ~/.bash_profile --------------------------------------------------OS User: oracle Application: Oracle Database Software Owner Version: Oracle 11g release 2 --------------------------------------------------- # Get the aliases and functions if [ -f ~/. racdb1.e. New UNIX password: xxxxxxxxxxx Retype new UNIX password: xxxxxxxxxxx passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully. racdb2.oracle # # # # # # # --------------------------------------------------. then .. [root@racnode2 ~]# passwd oracle Changing password for user oracle.1300(dba).shtml [root@racnode2 ~]# id oracle uid=1101(oracle) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1000(oinstall). (i.bashrc fi alias ls="ls -FA" # # # # # # # --------------------------------------------------ORACLE_SID --------------------------------------------------Specifies the Oracle system identifier (SID) for the Oracle instance running on this node.. Create Login Script for the oracle User Account Log in to both Oracle RAC nodes as the oracle user account and create the following login script (. New UNIX password: xxxxxxxxxxx Retype new UNIX password: xxxxxxxxxxx passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.bash_profile): When setting the Oracle environment variables for each Oracle RAC node in the login script..1301(oper) Set the password for the oracle account: [root@racnode1 ~]# passwd oracle Changing password for user oracle.1201(asmdba).DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.bashrc ].) 73 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . make certain to assign each RAC node a unique Oracle SID: racnode1: ORACLE_SID=racdb1 racnode2: ORACLE_SID=racdb2 [root@racnode1 ~]# su .

export ORACLE_HOME # --------------------------------------------------# ORACLE_PATH # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the search path for files used by Oracle # applications such as SQL*Plus. # Set ORACLE_UNQNAME equal to the database unique # name. export ORACLE_UNQNAME # --------------------------------------------------# JAVA_HOME # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the directory of the Java SDK and Runtime # Environment. export SQLPATH # --------------------------------------------------# ORACLE_TERM # --------------------------------------------------- 74 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . # --------------------------------------------------JAVA_HOME=/usr/local/java. export JAVA_HOME # --------------------------------------------------# ORACLE_BASE # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the base of the Oracle directory structure # for Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) compliant # database software installations. stop.2. --------------------------------------------------SQLPATH=/u01/app/oracle/dba_scripts/common/sql. With # Oracle Database 11g release 2 (11.0/dbhome_1.2) and later. # --------------------------------------------------ORACLE_UNQNAME=racdb.shtml # --------------------------------------------------ORACLE_SID=racdb1. you were # required to set environment variables for # ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_SID to start. # --------------------------------------------------ORACLE_PATH=/u01/app/oracle/dba_scripts/common/sql:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin. export ORACLE_PATH # # # # # # # --------------------------------------------------SQLPATH --------------------------------------------------Specifies the directory or list of directories that SQL*Plus searches for a login. or if the file is not # in the current directory. # --------------------------------------------------ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle.sql file. the Oracle application # uses ORACLE_PATH to locate the file.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. and # check the status of Enterprise Manager. export ORACLE_BASE # --------------------------------------------------# ORACLE_HOME # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the directory containing the Oracle # Database software. you # need to set the environment variables ORACLE_HOME # and ORACLE_UNQNAME to use Enterprise Manager. # --------------------------------------------------ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/11. export ORACLE_SID # --------------------------------------------------# ORACLE_UNQNAME # --------------------------------------------------# In previous releases of Oracle Database. # This variable is used by SQL*Plus. If the full path to # the file is not specified. Forms and Menu.

export ORA_NLS11 # --------------------------------------------------# PATH # --------------------------------------------------# Used by the shell to locate executable programs. and the value must be surrounded by # double quotation marks.:${JAVA_HOME}/bin:${PATH}:$HOME/bin:$ORACLE_HOME/bin PATH=${PATH}:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/local/bin PATH=${PATH}:/u01/app/oracle/dba_scripts/common/bin export PATH # --------------------------------------------------# LD_LIBRARY_PATH # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the list of directories that the shared # library loader searches to locate shared object # libraries at runtime. export TNS_ADMIN # --------------------------------------------------# ORA_NLS11 # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the directory where the language.ora. # territory. # must include the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. The default value of # this parameter is determined by NLS_TERRITORY. If not set. # --------------------------------------------------TNS_ADMIN=$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin. export ORACLE_TERM # --------------------------------------------------# NLS_DATE_FORMAT # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the default date format to use with the # TO_CHAR and TO_DATE functions. and sqlnet. # --------------------------------------------------LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib LD_LIBRARY_PATH=${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}:$ORACLE_HOME/oracm/lib LD_LIBRARY_PATH=${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}:/lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib export LD_LIBRARY_PATH # # # # --------------------------------------------------CLASSPATH --------------------------------------------------Specifies the directory or list of directories that 75 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . The # value of this parameter can be any valid date # format mask. Used by all character mode products. # tnsnames. and linguistic definition # files are stored. # --------------------------------------------------PATH=. For example: # # NLS_DATE_FORMAT = "MM/DD/YYYY" # # --------------------------------------------------NLS_DATE_FORMAT="DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS".ora. # --------------------------------------------------ORA_NLS11=$ORACLE_HOME/nls/data. export NLS_DATE_FORMAT # --------------------------------------------------# TNS_ADMIN # --------------------------------------------------# Specifies the directory containing the Oracle Net # Services configuration files like listener. character set.ora.shtml # Defines a terminal definition. it # defaults to the value of your TERM environment # variable. # --------------------------------------------------ORACLE_TERM=xterm.

# --------------------------------------------------CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE CLASSPATH=${CLASSPATH}:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib CLASSPATH=${CLASSPATH}:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib CLASSPATH=${CLASSPATH}:$ORACLE_HOME/network/jlib export CLASSPATH # --------------------------------------------------# THREADS_FLAG # --------------------------------------------------# All the tools in the JDK use green threads as a # default. export THREADS_FLAG # --------------------------------------------------# TEMP. then enter the following command to create it: [root@racnode1 ~]# /usr/sbin/useradd nobody Create the Oracle Base Directory Path [root@racnode2 ~]# /usr/sbin/useradd nobody 76 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .shtml # contain compiled Java classes. complete the following procedure to verify that the user nobody exists on both Oracle RAC nodes: 1.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. enter the following command: [root@racnode1 ~]# id nobody uid=99(nobody) gid=99(nobody) groups=99(nobody) [root@racnode2 ~]# id nobody uid=99(nobody) gid=99(nobody) groups=99(nobody) If this command displays information about the nobody user. set the THREADS_FLAG environment variable to # "native". # --------------------------------------------------THREADS_FLAG=native. To determine if the user exists. If the user nobody does not exist. 2. # --------------------------------------------------umask 022 Verify That the User nobody Exists Before installing the software. and TMPDIR # --------------------------------------------------# Specify the default directories for temporary # files. To specify that native threads should be # used. TMP. then you do not have to create that user. tools that create temporary files # create them in one of these directories. You can revert to the use of green # threads by setting THREADS_FLAG to the value # "green". if set. # --------------------------------------------------export TEMP=/tmp export TMPDIR=/tmp # --------------------------------------------------# UMASK # --------------------------------------------------# Set the default file mode creation mask # (umask) to 022 to ensure that the user performing # the Oracle software installation creates files # with 644 permissions.

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The final step is to configure an Oracle base path compliant with an Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) structure and correct permissions. This will need to be performed on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster as root. This guide assumes that the /u01 directory is being created in the root file system. Please note that this is being done for the sake of brevity and is not recommended as a general practice. Normally, the /u01 directory would be provisioned as a separate file system with either hardware or software mirroring configured.

[root@racnode1 [root@racnode1 [root@racnode1 [root@racnode1 [root@racnode1 [root@racnode1

~]# ~]# ~]# ~]# ~]# ~]#

mkdir mkdir chown mkdir chown chmod

-p /u01/app/grid -p /u01/app/11.2.0/grid -R grid:oinstall /u01 -p /u01/app/oracle oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle -R 775 /u01

------------------------------------------------------------[root@racnode2 [root@racnode2 [root@racnode2 [root@racnode2 [root@racnode2 [root@racnode2 ~]# ~]# ~]# ~]# ~]# ~]# mkdir mkdir chown mkdir chown chmod -p /u01/app/grid -p /u01/app/11.2.0/grid -R grid:oinstall /u01 -p /u01/app/oracle oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle -R 775 /u01

At the end of this section, you should have the following on both Oracle RAC nodes: An Oracle central inventory group, or oraInventory group (oinstall), whose members that have the central inventory group as their primary group are granted permissions to write to the oraInventory directory. A separate OSASM group (asmadmin), whose members are granted the SYSASM privilege to administer Oracle Clusterware and Oracle ASM. A separate OSDBA for ASM group (asmdba), whose members include grid and oracle, and who are granted access to Oracle ASM. A separate OSOPER for ASM group (asmoper), whose members include grid, and who are granted limited Oracle ASM administrator privileges, including the permissions to start and stop the Oracle ASM instance. An Oracle grid installation for a cluster owner (grid), with the oraInventory group as its primary group, and with the OSASM (asmadmin), OSDBA for ASM (asmdba) and OSOPER for ASM (asmoper) groups as secondary groups. A separate OSDBA group (dba), whose members are granted the SYSDBA privilege to administer the Oracle Database. A separate OSOPER group (oper), whose members include oracle, and who are granted limited Oracle database administrator privileges. An Oracle Database software owner (oracle), with the oraInventory group as its primary group, and with the OSDBA (dba), OSOPER (oper), and the OSDBA for ASM group (asmdba) as their secondary groups. An OFA-compliant mount point /u01 owned by grid:oinstall before installation. An Oracle base for the grid /u01/app/grid owned by grid:oinstall with 775 permissions, and changed during the installation process to 755 permissions. The grid installation owner Oracle base directory is the location where Oracle ASM diagnostic and administrative log files are placed. A Grid home /u01/app/11.2.0/grid owned by grid:oinstall with 775 (drwxdrwxr-x) permissions. These permissions are required for installation, and are changed during the installation process to root:oinstall with 755 permissions (drwxr-xr-x). During installation, OUI creates the Oracle Inventory directory in the path /u01/app/oraInventory. This path remains owned by grid:oinstall, to enable other Oracle software owners to write to the central inventory.

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An Oracle base /u01/app/oracle owned by oracle:oinstall with 775 permissions. Set Resource Limits for the Oracle Software Installation Users To improve the performance of the software on Linux systems, you must increase the following resource limits for the Oracle software owner users (grid, oracle):
Shell Limit Maximum number of open file descriptors Maximum number of processes available to a single user Maximum size of the stack segment of the process Item in limits.conf nofile nproc stack Hard Limit 65536 16384 10240

To make these changes, run the following as root: 1. On each Oracle RAC node, add the following lines to the /etc/security/limits.conf file (the following example shows the software account owners oracle and grid):

[root@racnode1 ~]# cat >> /etc/security/limits.conf <<EOF grid soft nproc 2047 grid hard nproc 16384 grid soft nofile 1024 grid hard nofile 65536 oracle soft nproc 2047 oracle hard nproc 16384 oracle soft nofile 1024 oracle hard nofile 65536 EOF [root@racnode2 ~]# cat >> /etc/security/limits.conf <<EOF grid soft nproc 2047 grid hard nproc 16384 grid soft nofile 1024 grid hard nofile 65536 oracle soft nproc 2047 oracle hard nproc 16384 oracle soft nofile 1024 oracle hard nofile 65536 EOF

2. On each Oracle RAC node, add or edit the following line in the /etc/pam.d/login file, if it does not already exist:

[root@racnode1 ~]# cat >> /etc/pam.d/login <<EOF session required pam_limits.so EOF [root@racnode2 ~]# cat >> /etc/pam.d/login <<EOF session required pam_limits.so EOF

3. Depending on your shell environment, make the following changes to the default shell startup file in order to change ulimit settings for all Oracle installation owners (note that these examples show the users oracle and grid): For the Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell, add the following lines to the /etc/profile file by running the following:

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[root@racnode1 ~]# cat >> /etc/profile <<EOF if [ \$USER = "oracle" ] || [ \$USER = "grid" ]; then if [ \$SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then ulimit -p 16384 ulimit -n 65536 else ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536 fi umask 022 fi EOF [root@racnode2 ~]# cat >> /etc/profile <<EOF if [ \$USER = "oracle" ] || [ \$USER = "grid" ]; then if [ \$SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then ulimit -p 16384 ulimit -n 65536 else ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536 fi umask 022 fi EOF

For the C shell (csh or tcsh), add the following lines to the /etc/csh.login file by running the following:

[root@racnode1 ~]# cat >> /etc/csh.login <<EOF if ( \$USER == "oracle" || \$USER == "grid" ) then limit maxproc 16384 limit descriptors 65536 endif EOF [root@racnode2 ~]# cat >> /etc/csh.login <<EOF if ( \$USER == "oracle" || \$USER == "grid" ) then limit maxproc 16384 limit descriptors 65536 endif EOF

Logging In to a Remote System Using X Terminal
This guide requires access to the console of all machines (Oracle RAC nodes and Openfiler) in order to install the operating system and perform several of the configuration tasks. When managing a very small number of servers, it might make sense to connect each server with its own monitor, keyboard, and mouse in order to access its console. However, as the number of servers to manage increases, this solution becomes unfeasible. A more practical solution would be to configure a dedicated device which would include a single monitor, keyboard, and mouse that would have direct access to the console of each machine. This solution is made possible using a Keyboard, Video, Mouse Switch —better known as a KVM Switch. After installing the Linux operating system, there are several applications which are needed to install and configure Oracle RAC that use a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and require the use of an X11 display server. The most notable of these GUI applications (or better known as an X application) is the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) although others like the Virtual IP Configuration Assistant (VIPCA) also require the use of an X11 display server. Given the fact that I created this article on a system that makes use of a KVM Switch, I am able to toggle to each node and rely on the native X11 display server for Linux in order to display X applications.

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From the client workstation. set the DISPLAY environment: [root@racnode1 ~]# su .shtml If you are not logged directly on to the graphical console of a node but rather you are using a remote client like SSH. As the software owner (grid. log in to the server where you want to install the software as the Oracle grid infrastructure for a cluster software owner (grid) or the Oracle RAC software (oracle). 2. any X application will require an X11 display server installed on the client. or Telnet to connect to the node. This section provides information about setting all OS kernel parameters required for Oracle. 80 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . Instructions for setting all OS kernel parameters required by Oracle in a startup script (/etc/sysctl.0 [grid@racnode1 ~]$ export DISPLAY [grid@racnode1 ~]$ # TEST X CONFIGURATION BY RUNNING xterm [grid@racnode1 ~]$ xterm & Figure 17: Test X11 Display Server on Windows.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Start the X11 display server software on the client workstation. The kernel parameters discussed in this section will need to be set on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster every time the machine is booted. 4. If you intend to install the Oracle grid infrastructure and Oracle RAC software from a Windows workstation or other system with an X11 display server installed. then perform the following actions: 1.conf) will be discussed later in this section. you would need to install an X11 display server on that Windows client (Xming for example). PuTTY.grid [grid@racnode1 ~]$ DISPLAY=<your local workstation>:0. 3. Run xterm from Node 1 (racnode1) Configure the Linux Servers for Oracle Perform the following configuration procedures on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster. if you are making a terminal remote connection to racnode1 from a Windows workstation. For example. oracle). Configure the security settings of the X server software to permit remote hosts to display X applications on the local system.

use swap space equal to RAM.conf file. let's say about 500MB: [root@racnode1 ~]# dd if=/dev/zero of=tempswap bs=1k count=500000 Next. you can add temporary swap space by creating a temporary swap file. setting the maximum number of file handles. There are several different ways to set these parameters. use 16 GB of RAM for swap space. or 2. To check the amount of memory you have. setting the IP local port range. type: [root@racnode1 ~]# cat /proc/meminfo | grep MemTotal MemTotal: 4038512 kB [root@racnode2 ~]# cat /proc/meminfo | grep MemTotal MemTotal: 4038512 kB To check the amount of swap you have allocated. For the purpose of this article. each Oracle RAC node will be hosting Oracle grid infrastructure and Oracle RAC and will therefore require at least 2. This way you do not have to use a raw device or even more drastic. how to activate all kernel parameters for the system. type: [root@racnode1 ~]# cat /proc/meminfo | grep SwapTotal 6094840 kB SwapTotal: [root@racnode2 ~]# cat /proc/meminfo | grep SwapTotal SwapTotal: 6094840 kB If you have less than 4GB of memory (between your RAM and SWAP). Each of the Oracle RAC nodes used in this example are equipped with 4 GB of physical RAM.5 GB for grid infrastructure for a cluster and Oracle RAC. For systems with more than 16 GB RAM. As root. and finally. setting shared memory and semaphores. Memory and Swap Space Considerations The minimum required RAM on RHEL/CentOS is 1. change the file permissions: [root@racnode1 ~]# chmod 600 tempswap Finally.5 GB for grid infrastructure for a cluster. format the "partition" as swap and add it to the swap space: 81 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . rebuild your system.5 GB. make a file that will act as additional swap space. Oracle recommends that you set swap space to 1.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. I will be making all changes permanent through reboots by placing all values in the /etc/sysctl. In this guide. The minimum required swap space is 1.5 GB in each server.5 times the amount of RAM for systems with 2 GB of RAM or less. For systems with 2 GB to 16 GB RAM. This includes verifying enough memory and swap space.shtml Overview This section focuses on configuring both Oracle RAC Linux servers — getting each one prepared for the Oracle 11g release 2 grid infrastructure and Oracle RAC 11g release 2 installations on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 or CentOS 5 platform.

wmem_max=1048576 fs.shmall = 2097152 kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128 SEMMNI_value # Sets the maximum number of file-handles that the Linux kernel will allocate fs.shmmni = 4096 # Sets the following semaphore values: # SEMMSL_value SEMMNS_value SEMOPM_value kernel. Also note that when setting the four semaphore values that all four values need to be entered on one line. you can simply copy / paste the following to both Oracle RAC nodes while logged in as root: [root@racnode1 ~]# cat >> /etc/sysctl. The values given are minimums.core. This article assumes a fresh new install of RHEL/CentOS 5 and as such. On both Oracle RAC nodes. do not change it.rmem_max=4194304 net.conf <<EOF # Controls the maximum number of shared memory segments system wide kernel. Oracle recommends that you tune these values to optimize the performance of the system. kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128 fs.rmem_default=262144 net. For production database systems.shmmax = 4294967295 kernel.wmem_default=262144 net.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500 net.core.file-max = 6815744 net.core.aio-max-nr=1048576 RHEL/CentOS 5 already comes configured with default values defined for the following kernel parameters. many of the required kernel parameters are already set (see above).ipv4.shmmni = 4096 kernel. This being the case.shmall kernel. so if your system uses a larger value.file-max = 6815744 # Defines the local port range that is used by TCP and UDP # traffic to choose the local port 82 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .shtml [root@racnode1 ~]# mke2fs tempswap [root@racnode1 ~]# mkswap tempswap [root@racnode1 ~]# swapon tempswap Configure Kernel Parameters The kernel parameters presented in this section are recommended values only as documented by Oracle. verify that the kernel parameters described in this section are set to values greater than or equal to the recommended values. Oracle Database 11g release 2 on RHEL/CentOS 5 requires the kernel parameter settings shown below.core. The default values for these two kernel parameters is adequate for Oracle Database 11g release 2 and therefore do not need to be modified: kernel.shmmax Use the default values if they are the same or larger than the required values.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.

aio-max-nr=1048576 EOF Activate All Kernel Parameters for the System 83 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500 # Default setting in bytes of the socket "receive" buffer which # may be set by using the SO_RCVBUF socket option net.conf <<EOF # Controls the maximum number of shared memory segments system wide kernel.wmem_default=262144 # Maximum setting in bytes of the socket "send" buffer which # may be set by using the SO_SNDBUF socket option net.core.wmem_max=1048576 # Maximum number of allowable concurrent asynchronous I/O requests requests fs.core.core.core.ipv4.rmem_default=262144 # Maximum setting in bytes of the socket "receive" buffer which # may be set by using the SO_RCVBUF socket option net.shmmni = 4096 # Sets the following semaphore values: # SEMMSL_value SEMMNS_value SEMOPM_value kernel.ipv4.shtml net.core.aio-max-nr=1048576 EOF [root@racnode2 ~]# cat >> /etc/sysctl.rmem_max=4194304 # Default setting in bytes of the socket "send" buffer which # may be set by using the SO_SNDBUF socket option net.rmem_default=262144 # Maximum setting in bytes of the socket "receive" buffer which # may be set by using the SO_RCVBUF socket option net.core.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500 # Default setting in bytes of the socket "receive" buffer which # may be set by using the SO_RCVBUF socket option net.core.wmem_default=262144 # Maximum setting in bytes of the socket "send" buffer which # may be set by using the SO_SNDBUF socket option net.wmem_max=1048576 # Maximum number of allowable concurrent asynchronous I/O requests requests fs.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.core.rmem_max=4194304 # Default setting in bytes of the socket "send" buffer which # may be set by using the SO_SNDBUF socket option net.sem = 250 32000 100 128 SEMMNI_value # Sets the maximum number of file-handles that the Linux kernel will allocate fs.file-max = 6815744 # Defines the local port range that is used by TCP and UDP # traffic to choose the local port net.

file-max = 6815744 84 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .msgmnb = 65536 kernel.aio-max-nr = 1048576 Verify the new kernel parameter values by running the following on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster: [root@racnode1 ~]# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep shm vm.shmmni = 4096 kernel.rp_filter = 1 net.rmem_max = 4194304 net.accept_source_route = 0 kernel. Linux allows modification of these kernel parameters to the current system while it is up and running.default.conf startup file.msgmax = 65536 kernel.aio-max-nr = 1048576 [root@racnode2 ~]# sysctl -p net.sem = 250 32000 100 128 fs.ipv4.rp_filter = 1 net.ip_forward = 0 net.conf.ipv4.core.core_uses_pid = 1 net.ipv4. so there's no need to reboot the system after making kernel parameter changes.shtml The above command persisted the required kernel parameters through reboots by inserting them in the /etc/sysctl.shmmax = 68719476736 [root@racnode1 ~]# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep sem kernel.default.wmem_default = 262144 net.ipv4.ipv4.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1 kernel.rmem_default = 262144 net.shmall = 4294967296 kernel.wmem_max = 1048576 fs.msgmax = 65536 kernel. run the following as root on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster: [root@racnode1 ~]# sysctl -p net.conf.default.sysrq = 0 kernel.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500 net.sysrq = 0 kernel.core.shmmax = 68719476736 kernel.rmem_default = 262144 net.rmem_max = 4194304 net.core_uses_pid = 1 net.ip_forward = 0 net.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500 net.ipv4.core.core.shmmax = 68719476736 kernel.core.hugetlb_shm_group = 0 kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128 fs.conf.msgmnb = 65536 kernel.file-max = 6815744 net.shmmni = 4096 kernel.default.core.core.conf.ipv4.file-max = 6815744 net. To activate the new kernel parameter values for the currently running system.sem = 250 32000 100 128 [root@racnode1 ~]# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep file-max fs.accept_source_route = 0 kernel.ipv4.core.wmem_max = 1048576 fs.tcp_syncookies = 1 kernel.shmall = 4294967296 kernel.shmmni = 4096 kernel.ipv4.wmem_default = 262144 net.shmall = 4294967296 kernel.

The reason this section of the document is optional is that the OUI interface in 11g release 2 includes a new feature that can automatically configure SSH during the install phase of the Oracle software for the user account running the installation.shtml [root@racnode1 ~]# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep ip_local_port_range net. the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) uses the secure shell tools ssh and scp commands during installation to run remote commands on and copy files to the other cluster nodes. The automatic configuration performed by OUI creates passwordless SSH connectivity between all cluster member nodes.el5 (x86_64) openssh-server-4.rmem_max = 4194304 net.core.[rw]mem' net. Oracle recommends that you use the automatic procedure provided by the OUI whenever possible.core.el5 (x86_64) openssh-4. OpenSSH should be included in the Linux distribution minimal installation. Oracle Enterprise Manager. are disabled by default on most Linux systems.core. Since this guide uses grid as the Oracle grid infrastructure software owner and oracle as the owner of the Oracle RAC software. OPatch. To confirm that SSH packages are installed.wmem_default = 262144 net.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.(Optional) Perform the following optional procedures on both Oracle RAC nodes to manually configure passwordless SSH connectivity between the two cluster member nodes as the "grid" and "oracle" user. then install those packages for your Linux distribution. SSH is used after installation by configuration assistants.core.3p2-41. In addition to installing the Oracle software. load CD #1 85 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . These services. When SSH is not available.3p2-41.rmem_default = 262144 net.wmem_max = 1048576 Configure RAC Nodes for Remote Access using SSH .ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500 [root@racnode1 ~]# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep 'core\. Verify SSH Software is Installed The supported version of SSH for Linux distributions is OpenSSH.ipv4. One of the best parts about this section of the document is that it is completely optional! That's not to say configuring Secure Shell (SSH) connectivity between the Oracle RAC nodes is not necessary. the installer attempts to use the rsh and rcp commands instead of ssh and scp. passwordless SSH must be configured for both user accounts.el5 (x86_64) openssh-clients-4.el5 (x86_64) If you do not see a list of SSH packages. To the contrary. For example. Configuring SSH with a passphrase is no longer supported for Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 and later releases.3p2-41.3p2-41. The use of RSH will not be discussed in this guide. Passwordless SSH is required for Oracle 11g release 2 and higher. The ability to run SSH commands without being prompted for a password is sometimes referred to as user equivalence. During the Oracle software installations. and other features that perform configuration operations from local to remote nodes. SSH must be configured so that these commands do not prompt for a password. however. run the following command on both Oracle RAC nodes: [root@racnode1 ~]# rpm -qa --queryformat "%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n"| grep ssh openssh-askpass-4.

. If they are not disabled.. I decided to forgo manually configuring SSH connectivity in favor of Oracle's automatic methods included in the installer. called fixup scripts. mail checks. Starting with Oracle 11g 86 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . Further documentation on preventing installation errors caused by stty commands can be found later in this section. to resolve many incomplete system configuration requirements. if the OUI already includes a feature that automates the SSH configuration between the Oracle RAC nodes. Please note that it is not required to run the CVU utility before installing the Oracle software.racnode Performing pre-checks for cluster services setup Checking node reachability. know that the CVU utility will fail before having the opportunity to perform any of its critical checks: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ /media/cdrom/grid/runcluvfy. One reason to include this section on manually configuring SSH is to make mention of the fact that you must remove stty commands from the profiles of any Oracle software installation owners. then why provide a section on how to manually configure passwordless SSH connectivity? In fact. then SSH must be configured manually before an installation can be run. for the purpose of this article.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. it also has the ability to generate shell script programs. If you intend to configure SSH connectivity using the OUI..shtml into each of the Oracle RAC nodes and perform the following to install the OpenSSH packages: [root@racnode1 [root@racnode1 [root@racnode1 [root@racnode1 [root@racnode1 ~]# ~]# ~]# ~]# ~]# mount -r /dev/cdrom /media/cdrom cd /media/cdrom/Server rpm -Uvh openssh-* cd / eject Why Configure SSH User Equivalence Using the Manual Method Option? So. however. and remove other security measures that are triggered during a login and that generate messages to the terminal. have a prerequisite of its own and that is that SSH user equivalency is configured correctly for the user account running the installation. Check: Node reachability from node "racnode1" Destination Node Reachable? -----------------------------------. and other displays prevent Oracle software installation owners from using the SSH configuration script that is built into the Oracle Universal Installer..-----------------------racnode1 yes racnode2 yes Result: Node reachability check passed from node "racnode1" Checking user equivalence.-----------------------racnode2 failed racnode1 failed Result: PRVF-4007 : User equivalence check failed for user "grid" ERROR: User equivalence unavailable on all the specified nodes Verification cannot proceed Pre-check for cluster services setup was unsuccessful on all the nodes.sh stage -pre crsinst -fixup -n racnode1. Another reason you may decide to manually configure SSH for user equivalence is to have the ability to run the Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) prior to installing the Oracle software. The CVU does. The CVU (runcluvfy. Check: User equivalence for user "grid" Node Name Comment -----------------------------------.sh) is a valuable tool located in the Oracle Clusterware root directory that not only verifies all prerequisites have been met before software installation. These messages.

In the examples that follow. Oracle added support in 10g release 1 for using the SSH tool suite for setting up user equivalence. The instructions that follow are for SSH1. as SSH ignores a private key file if it is accessible by others. complete the following on both Oracle RAC nodes. To configure passwordless SSH. If you decide to manually configure SSH connectivity. the DSA key is used. The goal in this section is to setup user equivalence for the grid and oracle OS user accounts. you can use either RSA or DSA. oracle). RSA is used with the SSH 1. enter the following command: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ pgrep sshd 2535 19852 If SSH is running. the installer detects when minimum requirements for installation are not completed and performs the same tasks done by the CVU to generate fixup scripts to resolve incomplete system configuration requirements.0 protocol. you must first create RSA or DSA keys on each cluster node. oracle). Checking Existing SSH Configuration on the System To determine if SSH is installed and running. In the example that follows. You must configure passwordless SSH separately for each Oracle software installation owner that you intend to use for installation (grid.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. If you have an SSH2 installation. This is the recommend approach by Oracle and the method used in this article. Before Oracle Database 10g. 87 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .5 protocol. Run this check on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster to verify the SSH daemons are installed and running. Note that the SSH files must be readable only by root and by the software installation user (grid. it is not required to manually configure SSH connectivity before running the OUI. and then copy all the keys generated on all cluster node members into an authorized keys file that is identical on each node.shtml release 2. then the response to this command is a list of process ID number(s). Keep in mind that this guide uses grid as the Oracle grid infrastructure software owner and oracle as the owner of the Oracle RAC software. while DSA is the default for the SSH 2. and you cannot use SSH1. The tasks below to manually configure SSH connectivity between all cluster member nodes is included for documentation purposes only. With OpenSSH. the Oracle software owner grid will be configured for passwordless SSH. The OUI in 11g release 2 provides an interface during the install for the user account running the installation to automatically create passwordless SSH connectivity between all cluster member nodes. then refer to your SSH distribution documentation to configure SSH1 compatibility or to configure SSH2 with DSA. Automatic passwordless SSH configuration using the OUI creates RSA encryption keys on all nodes of the cluster. User equivalence enables the grid and oracle user accounts to access all other nodes in the cluster (running commands and copying files) without the need for a password. user equivalence had to be configured using remote shell (RSH). Configuring Passwordless SSH on Cluster Nodes To configure passwordless SSH. it should be performed for both user accounts. You need either an RSA or a DSA key for the SSH protocol. Configure SSH Connectivity Manually on All Cluster Nodes To reiterate. Create SSH Directory and SSH Keys Complete the following steps on each Oracle RAC node.

For example: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ id uid=1100(grid) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1000(oinstall). To ensure that you are logged in as grid and to verify that the user ID matches the expected user ID you have assigned to the grid user.shtml 1. enter the commands id and id grid. Add All Keys to a Common authorized_keys File 88 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .ssh/id_dsa): [Enter] Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): [Enter] Enter same passphrase again: [Enter] Your identification has been saved in /home/grid/.ssh/id_dsa.ssh/id_dsa.1200(asmadmin). Enter file in which to save the key (/home/grid/. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for all remaining nodes that you intend to make a member of the cluster using the DSA key (racnode2). The key fingerprint is: 57:21:d7:d5:54:29:4c:12:40:23:36:e9:6e:2f:e6:40 grid@racnode1 SSH with passphrase is not supported for Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 and later releases. 3.1201(asmdba).DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. [grid@racnode1 ~]$ id grid uid=1100(grid) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1000(oinstall).1200(asmadmin). At the prompts. Verify that the Oracle user group and user and the user terminal window process you are using have group and user IDs that are identical.ssh [grid@racnode1 ~]$ chmod 700 ~/.pub.ssh /id_dsa file. Enter the following command to generate a DSA key pair (public and private key) for the SSH protocol.ssh SSH configuration will fail if the permissions are not set to 700. Log in to both Oracle RAC nodes as the software owner (in this example. the grid user): [root@racnode1 ~]# su . accept the default key file location and no passphrase (simply press [Enter] three times!): [grid@racnode1 ~]$ /usr/bin/ssh-keygen -t dsa Generating public/private dsa key pair.grid 2.ssh/id_dsa.1201(asmdba). If necessary. and set permissions on it to ensure that only the grid user has read and write permissions: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ mkdir ~/. This command writes the DSA public key to the ~/. 4. Never distribute the private key to anyone not authorized to perform Oracle software installations. Your public key has been saved in /home/grid/.pub file and the private key to the ~/. Passwordless SSH is required for Oracle 11g release 2 and higher. 5.ssh directory in the grid user's home directory. create the .

it is then distributed to all of the nodes in the cluster. An authorized key file is nothing more than a single file that contains a copy of everyone's (every node's) DSA public key.ssh directory and you will not see this message again when you connect from this system to the same node. 2. you will see a message similar to the following: EnterThe authenticity continue.1.1. create it now: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ touch ~/. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes Warning: Permanently added 'racnode1. From racnode1. The following example is being run from racnode1 and assumes a two-node cluster.1.pub >> ~/.ssh total 8 -rw-r--r-.ssh directory of the owner's home directory.pub public key that was created and the blank file authorized_keys.ssh directory.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.1 grid oinstall 0 Nov 7 17:25 authorized_keys -rw------. racnode1: 1.shtml Now that both Oracle RAC nodes contain a public and private key for DSA.152' (RSA) to the list of known hosts grid@racnode2's password: xxxxx The first time you use SSH to connect to a node from a particular system. The public hostname will then be addedcan't known_hosts file in the yes at the prompt to of host 'racnode1 (192.ssh/authorized_keys already exists in the .ssh/id_dsa. Once the authorized key file contains all of the public keys for each node. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes 3.ssh/authorized_keys The authenticity of host 'racnode1 (192. At this point.1 grid oinstall 603 Nov 7 16:56 id_dsa.pub >> ~/. RSA key fingerprint is 66:65:a6:99:5f:cb:6e:60:6a:06:18:b7:fc:c2:cc:3e.151' (RSA) to the list of known hosts grid@racnode1's password: xxxxx [grid@racnode1 ~]$ ssh racnode2 cat ~/. with nodes racnode1 and racnode2: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ ssh racnode1 cat ~/.192. From racnode1.ssh/authorized_keys The authenticity of host 'racnode2 (192.ssh 89 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .pub files that you generated on all cluster nodes.pub) from both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster to the authorized key file just created (~/. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes Warning: Permanently added 'racnode2. RSA key fingerprint is 66:65:a6:99:5f:cb:6e:60:6a:06:18:b7:fc:c2:cc:3e.168.151)' to the be established.152)' can't be established.ssh/id_dsa. you should see the id_dsa.168.ssh/id_dsa.1.ssh/authorized_keys). use SCP (Secure Copy) or SFTP (Secure FTP) to copy the public key (~/. this will be done from racnode1. Again. we have the DSA public key from every node in the cluster contained in the authorized key file (~/.ssh/authorized_keys file on every node must contain the contents from all of the ~/.1.192. In most cases this will not exist since this article assumes you are working with a new install. Complete the following steps on one of the nodes in the cluster to create and then distribute the authorized key file. ~/. RSA key fingerprint is 30:cd:90:ad:18:00:24:c5:42:49:21:b0:1d:59:2d:7b.ssh/id_dsa. I am using the primary node in the cluster. If the file doesn't exist. The grid user's ~/. determine if the authorized key file ~/. You will be prompted for the grid OS user account password for both Oracle RAC nodes accessed.168.168.151)' can't be established.168.ssh/authorized_keys [grid@racnode1 ~]$ ls -l ~/. you will need to create an authorized key file (authorized_keys) on one of the nodes.1 grid oinstall 672 Nov 7 16:56 id_dsa -rw-r--r-. For the purpose of this example.pub In the .

or asks any questions. In our two-node cluster example. log in as the grid user.ssh/authorized_keys Enable SSH User Equivalency on Cluster Nodes After you have copied the authorized_keys file that contains all public keys to each node in the cluster. then the Oracle installation will fail.ssh/authorized_keys [grid@racnode2 ~]$ chmod 600 ~/. the Oracle grid infrastructure software owner will be used which is named grid.pub known_hosts We now need to copy the authorized key file to the remaining nodes in the cluster. If any of the nodes prompt for a password or pass phrase then verify that the ~/. [root@racnode1 ~]# su .2KB/s 00:00 4.ssh/authorized_keys grid@racnode2's password: xxxxx authorized_keys 100% 1206 1.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. the only remaining node is racnode2. Make any changes required to ensure that only the date and host name is displayed when you enter these commands.ssh/authorized_keys file on that node contains the correct public keys and that you have created an Oracle software owner with identical group membership and IDs. If SSH is configured correctly. you will be able to use the ssh and scp commands without being prompted for a password or pass phrase from the terminal session: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ ssh racnode1 "date.1 grid oinstall 603 -rw-r--r-. When running the test SSH commands in this section. is modified so it acts only when the shell is an interactive shell.ssh/authorized_keys racnode2:. if you see any other messages or text.1 grid oinstall 808 Nov Nov Nov Nov 7 7 7 7 17:31 16:56 16:56 17:31 authorized_keys id_dsa id_dsa.hostname" Sun Nov 7 18:07:55 EST 2010 racnode2 90 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .grid 2. apart from the date and host name. complete the steps in this section to ensure passwordless SSH connectivity between all cluster member nodes is configured correctly.hostname" Sun Nov 7 18:06:17 EST 2010 racnode1 [grid@racnode1 ~]$ ssh racnode2 "date. You should ensure that any part of a login script that generates any output. On the system where you want to run OUI from (racnode1).1 grid oinstall 1206 -rw------. Use the scp command to copy the authorized key file to all remaining nodes in the cluster: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ scp ~/.shtml /authorized_keys) on racnode1: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ ls -l ~/.ssh total 16 -rw-r--r-.1 grid oinstall 672 -rw-r--r-. Change the permission of the authorized key file for both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster by logging into the node and running the following: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ chmod 600 ~/. In this example. 1.

grid [grid@racnode2 ~]$ ssh racnode1 "date.168. and Bash shells: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ DISPLAY=<Any X-Windows Host>:0 [grid@racnode1 ~]$ export DISPLAY C shell: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ setenv DISPLAY <Any X-Windows Host>:0 After setting the DISPLAY variable to a valid X Windows display.hostname" Sun Nov 7 18:08:53 EST 2010 racnode1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------[grid@racnode2 ~]$ ssh racnode2 "date.shtml 3.1.1.168.hostname" The authenticity of host 'racnode1 (192.hostname" Sun Nov 7 18:11:54 EST 2010 racnode2 4. set the environment variable DISPLAY to a valid X Windows display: Bourne. RSA key fingerprint is 66:65:a6:99:5f:cb:6e:60:6a:06:18:b7:fc:c2:cc:3e.1.hostname" The authenticity of host 'racnode2 (192.152)' can't be established. RSA key fingerprint is 30:cd:90:ad:18:00:24:c5:42:49:21:b0:1d:59:2d:7b.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.192.1. The Oracle Universal Installer is a GUI interface and requires the use of an X Server. you should perform another test of the current terminal session to ensure that X11 forwarding is not enabled: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ ssh racnode1 hostname racnode1 [grid@racnode1 ~]$ ssh racnode2 hostname racnode2 91 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .192.151)' can't be established. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes Warning: Permanently added 'racnode2.152' (RSA) to the list of known hosts Sun Nov 7 18:11:51 EST 2010 racnode2 [grid@racnode2 ~]$ ssh racnode2 "date. From the terminal session enabled for user equivalence (the node you will be performing the Oracle installations from). Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes Warning: Permanently added 'racnode1. Korn.151' (RSA) to the list of known hosts Sun Nov 7 18:08:46 EST 2010 racnode1 [grid@racnode2 ~]$ ssh racnode1 "date.168.168. Perform the same actions above from the remaining nodes in the Oracle RAC cluster (racnode2) to ensure they too can access all other nodes without being prompted for a password or pass phrase and get added to the known_hosts file: [root@racnode2 ~]# su .

however. edit or create the file ~/.bashrc or . using fake authentication data for X11 forwarding.0 92 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . For example: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ export DISPLAY=melody:0 [grid@racnode1 ~]$ ssh racnode2 hostname Warning: No xauth data.ssh/config 2. or Korn shell: if [ -t 0 ]. then stty intr ^C fi C shell: test -t 0 if ($status == 0) then stty intr ^C endif If there are hidden files that contain stty commands that are loaded by the remote shell. insert the following into the ~/. create a user-level SSH client configuration file for the grid and oracle OS user account that disables X11 Forwarding: 1.cshrc) will cause makefile and other installation errors if they contain stty commands. and you see a message similar to: "Warning: No xauth data. For example. racnode2 Note that having X11 Forwarding enabled will cause the Oracle installation to fail. Make sure that the ForwardX11 attribute is set to no. OUI uses SSH to run commands and copy files to the other nodes. To correct this problem." then this means that your authorized keys file is configured correctly. as in the following examples: Bourne. using fake authentication data for X11 forwarding. you must modify these files in each Oracle installation owner user home directory to suppress all output on STDERR. . During the installation. Bash. Using a text editor.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. then OUI indicates an error and stops the installation.ssh /config file: Host * ForwardX11 no Preventing Installation Errors Caused by stty Commands During an Oracle grid infrastructure or Oracle RAC software installation. your SSH configuration has X11 forwarding enabled. To avoid this problem. hidden files on the system (for example.shtml If you are using a remote client to connect to the node performing the installation. Install and Configure ASMLib 2.

el5 running on the x86_64 architecture: [root@racnode1 ~]# uname -a Linux racnode1 2.1 that "ASMLib was provided to enable ASM I/O to Linux disks without the limitations of the standard UNIX I/O API". however.6.18-194.5-1.6.0 which is an optional support library for the Automatic Storage Management (ASM) feature of the Oracle Database. Keep in mind that ASMLib is only a support library for the ASM software. which is referred to as the Grid Infrastructure home. Starting with Oracle grid infrastructure 11g release 2 (11. ASM is built into the Oracle kernel and can be used for both single and clustered instances of Oracle.0 Packages We start this section by downloading the latest ASMLib 2.shtml The installation and configuration procedures in this section should be performed on both of the Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster. ASMLib allows an Oracle Database using ASM more efficient and capable access to the disk groups it is using. In this section. there are two different methods to configure ASM on Linux: ASM with ASMLib I/O: This method creates all Oracle database files on raw block devices managed by ASM using ASMLib calls. In this article. the Automatic Storage Management and Oracle Clusterware software is packaged together in a single binary distribution and installed into a single home directory. Oracle ASMLib Downloads for Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server 5 At the time of this writing. Download ASMLib 2. we will install and configure ASMLib 2. ASM will be used as the shared file system and volume manager for Oracle Clusterware files (OCR and voting disk). Those performance metrics and testing details are out of scope of this article and therefore will not be discussed. ASM with Standard Linux I/O: This method does not make use of ASMLib. archived redo logs). RAW character devices are not required with this method as ASMLib works with block devices.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. ASM automatically performs load balancing in parallel across all available disk drives to prevent hot spots and maximize performance. control files. The ASM software will be installed as part of Oracle grid infrastructure later in this guide.2).oracle. three disk groups). the latest release of the ASMLib kernel driver is 2. All of the files and directories to be used for Oracle will be contained in a disk group — (or for the purpose of this article. online redo logs. Automatic Storage Management simplifies database administration by eliminating the need for the DBA to directly manage potentially thousands of Oracle database files requiring only the management of groups of disks allocated to the Oracle Database.0 libraries and the kernel driver from OTN.com/technetwork/topics/linux/asmlib/index101839. In this article. will only need to be performed on a single node within the cluster (racnode1). If you would like to learn more about Oracle ASMLib 2.0. Oracle states in Metalink Note 275315. Creating the ASM disks.18-194. I will be using the "ASM with ASMLib I/O" method. In fact. is ASMLib required for ASM? Not at all. and the Fast Recovery Area.html. So. visit http://www.el5 #1 SMP Fri Apr 2 14:58:14 EDT 2010 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux 32-bit (x86) Installations 93 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . even with rapidly changing data usage patterns. Oracle Database files (data. Oracle database files are created on raw character devices managed by ASM using standard Linux I/O system calls.0. I plan on performing several tests in the future to identify the performance gains in using ASMLib. The Oracle grid infrastructure software will be owned by the user grid. We need to download the appropriate version of the ASMLib driver for the Linux kernel which in my case is kernel 2. You will be required to create RAW devices for all disk partitions used by ASM.

x86_64.4-1.5-1. ########################################### [100%] 1:oracleasm-support ########################################### [ 33%] 2:oracleasm-2.18-194.0 Packages The installation of ASMLib 2.6.4-1.0.6.el5..el5.el5.rpm 64-bit (x86_64) Installations oracleasm-2.18-194.5-1.0.0..1. ########################################### [100%] 1:oracleasm-support ########################################### [ 33%] 2:oracleasm-2.el5 (x86_64) Configure ASMLib Now that you have installed the ASMLib Packages for Linux.shtml oracleasm-2. 94 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .el5.rpm \ > oracleasmlib-2.rpm Next.rpm Next.rpm \ > oracleasm-support-2.1.x86_64.x86_64.el5 (x86_64) oracleasm-support-2.3-1.el5.0.rpm warning: oracleasm-2.i386.18-194.0.el########################################### [ 67%] 3:oracleasmlib ########################################### [100%] After installing the ASMLib packages.1.x86_64.18-194.el5-2.0 needs to be performed on both nodes in the Oracle RAC cluster as the root user account: [root@racnode1 ~]# rpm -Uvh oracleasm-2.0.0.3-1. key I Preparing.el5 (x86_64) oracleasmlib-2.el5.el5-2.0.el5.x86_64.5-1.18-194.1.rpm Install ASMLib 2.18-194.5-1.6.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.0.6.x86_64.el########################################### [ 67%] 3:oracleasmlib ########################################### [100%] [root@racnode2 ~]# rpm -Uvh oracleasm-2.el5.3-1.3-1.el5-2.4-1.i386.x86_64.4-1.rpm oracleasmlib-2..18-194.6.rpm warning: oracleasm-2.el5.x86_64.5-1.4-1.6.el5.0.3-1.0.rpm \ > oracleasmlib-2. This task needs to be run on both Oracle RAC nodes as the root user account.el5.el5.18-194.18-194.rpm oracleasmlib-2.4-1.el5.x86_64.6.el5 (x86_64) [root@racnode2 ~]# rpm -qa --queryformat "%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n"| grep orac oracleasm-2.el5-2.rpm \ > oracleasm-support-2. verify from both Oracle RAC nodes that the software is installed: [root@racnode1 ~]# rpm -qa --queryformat "%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n"| grep orac oracleasm-2.1.0.el5-2.el5-2.5-1.18-194.6.el5 (x86_64) oracleasmlib-2.6.6.el5 (x86_64) oracleasm-support-2.. key I Preparing.el5-2.0.rpm: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY.3-1.0.5-1.5-1.el5-2. you need to configure and load the ASM kernel module.x86_64. download the ASMLib tools: oracleasm-support-2.el5.i686.x86_64.1.rpm: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY. download the ASMLib tools: oracleasm-support-2.

95 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . which was used in previous releases. Default user to own the driver interface []: grid Default group to own the driver interface []: asmadmin Start Oracle ASM library driver on boot (y/n) [n]: y Scan for Oracle ASM disks on boot (y/n) [y]: y Writing Oracle ASM library driver configuration: done The script completes the following tasks: Creates the /etc/sysconfig/oracleasm configuration file Creates the /dev/oracleasm mount point Mounts the ASMLib driver file system The ASMLib driver file system is not a regular file system. I will be running these commands on racnode1. Repeat this procedure on all nodes in the cluster (racnode2) where you want to install Oracle RAC. then you are shown the current configuration. Enter the following command to run the oracleasm initialization script with the configure option: [root@racnode1 ~]# /usr/sbin/oracleasm configure -i Configuring the Oracle ASM library driver. you will need to perform a scandisk to recognize the new volumes. On the other Oracle RAC node(s). If you enter the command oracleasm configure without the -i flag. you should then run the oracleasm listdisks command on both Oracle RAC nodes to verify that all ASM disks were created and available. Enter the following command to load the oracleasm kernel module: [root@racnode1 ~]# /usr/sbin/oracleasm init Creating /dev/oracleasm mount point: /dev/oracleasm Loading module "oracleasm": oracleasm Mounting ASMlib driver filesystem: /dev/oracleasm 3. This will configure the on-boot properties of the Oracle ASM library driver. Ctrl-C will abort. 2.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Create ASM Disks for Oracle Creating the ASM disks only needs to be performed from one node in the RAC cluster as the root user account.shtml The oracleasm command by default is in the path /usr/sbin. The /etc/init. It is used only by the Automatic Storage Management library to communicate with the Automatic Storage Management driver. Hitting <ENTER> without typing an answer will keep that current value. The following questions will determine whether the driver is loaded on boot and what permissions it will have. When that is complete.d path. is not deprecated but the oracleasm binary in that path is now used typically for internal commands. The current values will be shown in brackets ('[]'). [root@racnode1 ~]# /usr/sbin/oracleasm configure ORACLEASM_ENABLED=false ORACLEASM_UID= ORACLEASM_GID= ORACLEASM_SCANBOOT=true ORACLEASM_SCANORDER="" ORACLEASM_SCANEXCLUDE="" 1. For example.

enter the following command as root on each node: [root@racnode2 ~]# /usr/sbin/oracleasm scandisks Reloading disk partitions: done Cleaning any stale ASM disks. The next step is to download and extract the required Oracle software packages from the Oracle Technology Network (OTN): If you do not currently have an account with Oracle OTN. control files. No support. we configured (partitioned) three iSCSI volumes to be used by ASM. Instantiating disk "DATAVOL1" Instantiating disk "CRSVOL1" Instantiating disk "FRAVOL1" We can now test that the ASM disks were successfully created by using the following command on both nodes in the RAC cluster as the root user account.. database files. you will need to create one. To create the ASM disks using the iSCSI target names to local device name mappings. type the following: [root@racnode1 ~]# /usr/sbin/oracleasm createdisk CRSVOL1 /dev/iscsi/crs1/part1 Writing disk header: done Instantiating disk: done [root@racnode1 ~]# /usr/sbin/oracleasm createdisk DATAVOL1 /dev/iscsi/data1/part1 Writing disk header: done Instantiating disk: done [root@racnode1 ~]# /usr/sbin/oracleasm createdisk FRAVOL1 /dev/iscsi/fra1/part1 Writing disk header: done Instantiating disk: done To make the volumes available on the other nodes in the cluster (racnode2). Scanning system for ASM disks. ASM will be used for storing Oracle Clusterware files. Use the local device names that were created by udev when configuring the three ASM volumes. however. archived redo log files.shtml In the section "Create Partitions on iSCSI Volumes".. and the Fast Recovery Area.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. This command identifies shared disks attached to the node that are marked as Automatic Storage Management disks: [root@racnode1 ~]# /usr/sbin/oracleasm listdisks CRSVOL1 DATAVOL1 FRAVOL1 [root@racnode2 ~]# /usr/sbin/oracleasm listdisks CRSVOL1 DATAVOL1 FRAVOL1 Download Oracle RAC 11g release 2 Software The following download procedures only need to be performed on one node in the cluster (racnode1). This is a FREE account! Oracle offers a development and testing license free of charge... Oracle database files like online redo logs. is 96 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .

Download and Extract the Oracle Software Download the following software packages: Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Grid Infrastructure (11. Next.zip Extract the Oracle Database and Oracle Examples software as the oracle user: [oracle@racnode1 [oracle@racnode1 [oracle@racnode1 [oracle@racnode1 [oracle@racnode1 [oracle@racnode1 [oracle@racnode1 [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ mkdir -p /home/oracle/software/oracle ~]$ mv linux.1. login and download the Oracle grid infrastructure software to the directory /home/grid/software /oracle as the grid user. Log in to the node that you will be performing all of the Oracle installations from (racnode1) as the appropriate software owner.oracle.1. The Oracle installer will copy the required software packages to all other nodes in the RAC configuration using remote access (scp).0) for Linux Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Examples (optional) All downloads are available from the same page.zip /home/oracle/software/oracle ~]$ mv linux. You will perform all Oracle software installs from this machine.x64_11gR2_examples.2.0. For example.x64_11gR2_database_2of2.html 64-bit (x86_64) Installations http://www. A full description of the license agreement is available on OTN. racnode1. Please note that manually running the Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) before running the Oracle installer is not 97 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .zip oracle]$ unzip linux.com/technetwork/database/enterprise-edition/downloads/112010-linuxsoft-085393.zip Pre-installation Tasks for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Perform the following checks on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster.x64_11gR2_grid.zip /home/oracle/software/oracle ~]$ cd /home/oracle/software/oracle oracle]$ unzip linux.zip oracle]$ unzip linux.zip /home/oracle/software/oracle ~]$ mv linux.html You will be downloading and extracting the required software from Oracle to only one of the Linux nodes in the cluster — namely.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.0) for Linux Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.x64_11gR2_database_1of2. 32-bit (x86) Installations http://www.zip /home/grid/software/oracle ~]$ cd /home/grid/software/oracle oracle]$ unzip linux. Extract the Oracle grid infrastructure software as the grid user: [grid@racnode1 [grid@racnode1 [grid@racnode1 [grid@racnode1 ~]$ mkdir -p /home/grid/software/oracle ~]$ mv linux.shtml provided and the license does not permit production use.x64_11gR2_database_2of2. This section contains any remaining pre-installation tasks for Oracle grid infrastructure that have not already been discussed.x64_11gR2_grid.2.com/technetwork/database/enterprise-edition/downloads/112010-linx8664soft-100572.x64_11gR2_database_1of2.oracle. log in and download the Oracle Database and Oracle Examples (optional) software to the /home/oracle/software/oracle directory as the oracle user.0.x64_11gR2_examples.

Without cvuqdisk. Use the cvuqdisk RPM for your hardware architecture (for example.0. export CVUQDISK_GRP [root@racnode2 rpm]# CVUQDISK_GRP=oinstall. and you will receive the error message "Package cvuqdisk not installed" when the Cluster Verification Utility is run (either manually or at the end of the Oracle grid infrastructure installation)..7-1. In the directory where you have saved the cvuqdisk RPM. Log in as root on both Oracle RAC nodes: [grid@racnode1 rpm]$ su [grid@racnode2 rpm]$ su 4. use the following command to install the cvuqdisk package on both Oracle RAC nodes: [root@racnode1 rpm]# rpm -iv cvuqdisk-1.0. which for this article is oinstall: [root@racnode1 rpm]# CVUQDISK_GRP=oinstall. Verify the cvuqdisk utility was successfully installed: 98 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . cvuqdisk-1.. the Oracle grid infrastructure media was extracted to the /home/grid/software/oracle/grid directory on racnode1 as the grid user.7-1.0. Set the environment variable CVUQDISK_GRP to point to the group that will own cvuqdisk.rpm Preparing packages for installation.0.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.0. The CVU is run automatically at the end of the Oracle grid infrastructure installation as part of the Configuration Assistants process. The cvuqdisk RPM can be found on the Oracle grid infrastructure installation media in the rpm directory.0.. cvuqdisk-1. x86_64 or i386). Locate the cvuqdisk RPM package. Cluster Verification Utility cannot discover shared disks. complete the following procedures: 1..rpm 2. To install the cvuqdisk RPM.shtml required.7-1 6.7-1 [root@racnode2 rpm]# rpm -iv cvuqdisk-1. Copy the cvuqdisk package from racnode1 to racnode2 as the grid user account: [racnode2]: /home/grid/software/oracle/grid/rpm/cvuqdisk-1. For the purpose of this article. which is in the directory rpm on the installation media from racnode1: [racnode1]: /home/grid/software/oracle/grid/rpm/cvuqdisk-1. Install the cvuqdisk Package for Linux Install the operating system package cvuqdisk to both Oracle RAC nodes. export CVUQDISK_GRP 5.rpm Preparing packages for installation.7-1.rpm 3.7-1.

SSH connectivity with user equivalence must be configured for the grid user. If OUI detects an incomplete task./runcluvfy. Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) detects when the minimum requirements for an installation are not met and creates shell scripts called fixup scripts to finish incomplete system configuration steps. If you decide that you want to run the CVU. Starting with Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2.-----------------------racnode2 failed racnode1 failed Result: PRVF-4007 : User equivalence check failed for user "grid" ERROR: User equivalence unavailable on all the specified nodes Verification cannot proceed Pre-check for cluster services setup was unsuccessful on all the nodes. please keep in mind that it should be run as the grid user from from the node you will be performing the Oracle installation from (racnode1).DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. the CVU utility will fail before having the opportunity to perform any of its critical checks and generate the fixup scripts: Checking user equivalence.racnode2 -fixup -verbose Review the CVU report. The only failure that should be found given the configuration described in this guide is: Check: Membership of user "grid" in group "dba" Node Name User Exists Group Exists User in Group Comment ---------------.---------------racnode2 yes yes no failed racnode1 yes yes no failed Result: Membership check for user "grid" in group "dba" failed The check fails because this guide creates role-allocated groups and users by using a Job Role Separation configuration 99 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .sh). You also can have CVU generate fixup scripts before installation..sh stage -pre crsinst -n racnode1. In addition.-----------. Once all prerequisites for running the CVU utility have been met. running the Cluster Verification Utility before running the Oracle installer is not required.(optional) As stated earlier in this section. If you intend to configure SSH connectivity using the OUI.-----------. [grid@racnode1 ~]$ cd /home/grid/software/oracle/grid [grid@racnode1 grid]$ . You can run the fixup script after you click the [Fix and Check Again Button] during the Oracle grid infrastructure installation. it then generates fixup scripts (runfixup..-----------. Check: User equivalence for user "grid" Node Name Comment -----------------------------------.shtml [root@racnode1 rpm]# ls -l /usr/sbin/cvuqdisk -rwsr-xr-x 1 root oinstall 9832 May 28 2009 /usr/sbin/cvuqdisk [root@racnode2 rpm]# ls -l /usr/sbin/cvuqdisk -rwsr-xr-x 1 root oinstall 9832 May 28 2009 /usr/sbin/cvuqdisk Verify Oracle Clusterware Requirements with CVU . you can now manually check your cluster configuration before installation and generate a fixup script to make operating system changes before starting the installation.

Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Perform the following installation procedures from only one of the Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster (racnode1). All other checks performed by CVU should be reported as "passed" before continuing with the Oracle grid infrastructure installation. Complete the following steps to install Oracle grid infrastructure on your cluster. if you have a question about what you are being asked to do. Next. Typical and Advanced Installation Starting with 11g release 2. use of operating system group authentication for role-based administrative privileges. if you are using a remote client to connect to the Oracle RAC node performing the installation (SSH or Telnet to racnode1 from a workstation configured with an X Server). 100 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM ./runcluvfy. Verify Terminal Shell Environment Before starting the Oracle Universal Installer. The CVU fails to recognize this type of configuration and assumes the grid user should always be part of the dba group.racnode2 -verbose Review the CVU report. Advanced Installation The advanced installation option is an advanced procedure that requires a higher degree of system knowledge. Creating a Job Role Separation configuration was described in the section Create Job Role Separation Operating System Privileges Groups. At any time during installation. we will be using the "Advanced Installation" option. It enables you to select particular configuration choices including additional storage and network choices. Typical installation defaults as many options as possible to those recommended as best practices. especially for those customers who are new to clustering. Oracle now provides two options for installing the Oracle grid infrastructure software: Typical Installation The typical installation option is a simplified installation with a minimal number of manual configuration choices.shtml which is not accurately recognized by the CVU. run the following as the grid user account from racnode1 with user equivalence configured: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ cd /home/grid/software/oracle/grid [grid@racnode1 grid]$ . This failed check can be safely ignored. This new option provides streamlined cluster installations. Again. Users.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Verify Hardware and Operating System Setup with CVU The next CVU check to run will verify the hardware and operating system setup. The Oracle grid infrastructure software (Oracle Clusterware and Automatic Storage Management) will be installed to both of the Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster by the Oracle Universal Installer. You are now ready to install the "grid" part of the environment — Oracle Clusterware and Automatic Storage Management. and more granularity in specifying Automatic Storage Management roles. integration with IPMI. verify your X11 display server settings which were described in the section Logging In to a Remote System Using X Terminal.sh stage -post hwos -n racnode1. All checks performed by CVU should be reported as "passed" before continuing with the Oracle grid infrastructure installation. click the Help button on the OUI page. log in to racnode1 as the owner of the Oracle grid infrastructure software which for this article is grid. and Directories. Given the fact that this guide makes use of role-based administrative privileges and high granularity in specifying Automatic Storage Management roles.

1200(asmadmin).1202(asmope [grid@racnode1 ~]$ DISPLAY=<your local workstation>:0.info Next. Click the [Add] button to add "racnode2.info" according to the table below: Public Node Name racnode1.shtml Install Oracle Grid Infrastructure Perform the following tasks as the grid user to install Oracle grid infrastructure: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ id uid=1100(grid) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1000(oinstall).idevelopment.idevelopment.1201(asmdba). the OUI will attempt to validate the SCAN information: Use this screen to add the node racnode2 to the cluster and to configure SSH connectivity.idevelopment.0 [grid@racnode1 ~]$ export DISPLAY [grid@racnode1 ~]$ cd /home/grid/software/oracle/grid [grid@racnode1 grid]$ ./runInstaller Screen Name Select Installation Option Select Installation Type Select Product Languages Response Screen Shot Select "Install and Configure Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster" Select "Advanced Installation" Make the appropriate selection(s) for your environment.info Virtual Host Name racnode1-vip. Cluster Name racnode-cluster SCAN Name racnode-cluster-scan SCAN Port 1521 Grid Plug and Play Information After clicking [Next].info" and its virtual IP address "racnode2-vip.info racnode2-vip.idevelopment. Enter the "OS Password" for the grid user and click the [Setup] button. click the [SSH Connectivity] button.info Cluster Node Information racnode2.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Instructions on how to configure Grid Naming Service (GNS) is beyond the scope of this article. Un-check the option to "Configure GNS". This will start the "SSH Connectivity" configuration process: 101 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .idevelopment.idevelopment.

0/grid Since this is the first install on the host. Create an ASM Disk Group that will be used to store the Oracle Clusterware files according to the values in the table below: Create ASM Disk Group Disk Group Name CRS Redundancy External Disk Path ORCL:CRSVOL1 Specify ASM Password Failure Isolation Support For the purpose of this article.1.shtml Screen Name Response Screen Shot After the SSH configuration process successfully completes. This article makes use of role-based administrative privileges and high granularity in specifying Automatic Storage Management roles using a Job Role Separation configuration. acknowledge the dialog box. Finish off this screen by clicking the [Test] button to verify passwordless SSH connectivity.2. Select "Do not use Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI)".0 Interface Type Public Private Storage Option Information Select "Automatic Storage Management (ASM)". Identify the network interface to be used for the "Public" and "Private" network.168.0 192. Use the default values provided by the OUI: Inventory Directory: /u01/app/oraInventory oraInventory Group Name: oinstall Create Inventory 102 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .2. Configuring Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) is beyond the scope of this article.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Privileged Operating System Groups Make any changes necessary to match the values in the table below: OSDBA for ASM asmdba OSOPER for ASM asmoper OSASM asmadmin Specify Installation Location Set the "Oracle Base" ($ORACLE_BASE) and "Software Location" ($ORACLE_HOME) for the Oracle grid infrastructure installation: Oracle Base: /u01/app/grid Software Location: /u01/app/11. I choose to "Use same passwords for these accounts". you will need to create the Oracle Inventory.168. Make any changes necessary to match the values in the table below: Specify Network Interface Usage Interface Name eth0 eth1 Subnet 192.

you will receive output similar to the following which signifies a successful install: . click the [Close] button to exit the OUI.2. When running root.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Run the root. Automatic Storage Management (ASMCA). the installer (OUI) will create shell script programs called fixup scripts to resolve many incomplete system configuration requirements.sh script on both nodes in the RAC cluster one at a time starting with the node you are performing the install from: [root@racnode1 ~]# /u01/app/11.. then you can easily fix the issue by generating the fixup script by clicking the [Fix & Check Again] button. Open a new console window on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster. You will be prompted to run the script as root in a separate terminal session.2). then Oracle Clusterware could encounter intermittent hangs and you will 103 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .sh Within the same new console window on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster. Starting with Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11. Go back to OUI and acknowledge the "Execute Configuration scripts" dialog window. The final step performed by OUI is to run the Cluster Verification Utility (CVU).oracle or its files while Oracle Clusterware is up. and completes other operating system configuration tasks. After the installation completes. Run the orainstRoot. you will be prompted to run the /u01/app /oraInventory/orainstRoot.0/grid/root. if necessary. Execute Configuration scripts Configure Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Finish The installer will run configuration assistants for Oracle Net Services (NETCA). After installation is complete. stay logged in as the root user account. if any check fails. and Oracle Private Interconnect (VIPCA). If OUI detects an incomplete task that is marked "fixable".sh [root@racnode2 ~]# /u01/app/11. If all prerequisite checks pass (as was the case for my install). the OUI continues to the Summary screen.oracle or /var/tmp/. (starting with the node you are performing the install from). do not manually remove or run cron jobs that remove /tmp/. The inventory pointer is located at /etc/oraInst.sh script on both nodes in the RAC cluster: [root@racnode1 ~]# /u01/app/oraInventory/orainstRoot. When you run the script.loc The inventory is located at /u01/app/oraInventory 'UpdateNodeList' was successful. as the root user account. Screen Shot Prerequisite Checks Summary Setup Click [Finish] to start the installation. The installer performs the Oracle grid infrastructure setup process on both Oracle RAC nodes.0/grid/root.2..sh script can take several minutes to run.0/grid/root. At the end of the installation. If you remove these files.sh scripts.sh on the last node.sh and /u01/app/11. (starting with the node you are performing the install from). it raises kernel values to required minimums.sh [root@racnode2 ~]# /u01/app/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh The root. The fixup script is generated during installation.2.shtml Screen Name Response The installer will run through a series of checks to determine if both Oracle RAC nodes meet the minimum requirements for installing and configuring the Oracle Clusterware and Automatic Storage Management software.

.ER...vip ora..lsnr application 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.oc4j......asm application 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora....ip.gsd.type 0/0 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.type 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora..de2..eons ora....type 0/0 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.vip ora..de1.type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora..eons...shtml encounter error: CRS-0184: Cannot communicate with the CRS daemon Post-installation Tasks for Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster Perform the following postinstallation procedures on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster.....CRS.E1...N1.type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.scan3..N3.type 0/3 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.t1.type 0/0 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 104 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .ons application 0/3 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.er.type 0/5 0/0 OFFLINE OFFLINE ora.asm ora.t1...ip.de1....scan2..rk....N2.de2.asm.vip ora.ons application 0/3 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.ons.lsnr ora.lsnr application 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.ip....er..er..scan1.dg ora....network ora.type 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora..SM1.ons ora.oc4j ora.lsnr ora... Check CRS Status [grid@racnode1 ~]$ crsctl check crs CRS-4638: Oracle High Availability Services is online CRS-4537: Cluster Ready Services is online CRS-4529: Cluster Synchronization Services is online CRS-4533: Event Manager is online Check Clusterware Resources [grid@racnode1 ~]$ crs_stat -t -v Name Type R/RA F/FT Target State Host ---------------------------------------------------------------------ora...vip ora..lsnr ora.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.lsnr ora..gsd application 0/5 0/0 OFFLINE OFFLINE ora.....vip ora.....E2..gsd ora...type 0/5 0/ OFFLINE OFFLINE ora....up. Run the following commands on both nodes in the RAC cluster as the grid user..type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.type 0/3 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.de2. Verify Oracle Clusterware Installation After the installation of Oracle grid infrastructure.type 0/0 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.type 0/0 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.er.gsd application 0/5 0/0 OFFLINE OFFLINE ora.de1.....asm application 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora... you should run through several tests to verify the install was successful.type 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.SM2......

then use the following command syntax as the Grid Infrastructure installation owner to confirm that your Oracle ASM installation is running: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl status asm -a ASM is running on racnode1.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.racnode2 ASM is enabled. Check Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) [grid@racnode1 ~]$ ocrcheck Status of Oracle Cluster Registry Version Total space (kbytes) Used space (kbytes) Available space (kbytes) ID Device/File Name is as follows : : 3 : 262120 : 2332 : 259788 : 1559468462 : +CRS Device/File integrity check succeeded Device/File not configured Device/File not configured Device/File not configured Device/File not configured Cluster registry integrity check succeeded 105 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .2). Check Cluster Nodes [grid@racnode1 ~]$ olsnodes -n racnode1 1 racnode2 2 Check Oracle TNS Listener Process on Both Nodes [grid@racnode1 ~]$ ps -ef | grep lsnr | grep -v 'grep' | grep -v 'ocfs' | awk '{print $9}' LISTENER_SCAN2 LISTENER_SCAN3 LISTENER [grid@racnode2 ~]$ ps -ef | grep lsnr | grep -v 'grep' | grep -v 'ocfs' | awk '{print $9}' LISTENER_SCAN1 LISTENER Confirming Oracle ASM Function for Oracle Clusterware Files If you installed the OCR and voting disk files on Oracle ASM.shtml The crs_stat command is deprecated in Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.

6-P1-RedHat-9. .. id: 37366 ..168. use the srvctl binary in the Oracle grid infrastructure home for a cluster (Grid home). Check SCAN Resolution After installing Oracle grid infrastructure.3. ->>HEADER<<. As shown in the output below.idevelopment.2 and later.. . ANSWER SECTION: racnode-cluster-scan.info .. ADDITIONAL: 1 . backing up and restoring a voting disk using the dd is not supported and may result in the loss of the voting disk.info.info. it was highly recommended to back up the voting disk using the dd command after installing the Oracle Clusterware software.idevelopment.3.info.idevelopment. <<>> DiG 9.info. ONLINE 05592be032644f19bf2b50a929efe843 (ORCL:CRSVOL1) [CRS] Located 1 voting disk(s).2 <<>> racnode-cluster-scan. ADDITIONAL SECTION: openfiler1. 86400 IN NS A openfiler1.168.1. QUERY: 1.187 racnode-cluster-scan.idevelopment.shtml Logical corruption check bypassed due to non-privileged user Check Voting Disk [grid@racnode1 ~]$ crsctl query css votedisk ## STATE File Universal Id File Name Disk group -.1.195 . 86400 IN A 192.idevelopment. IN A . the scan address is resolved to 3 different ip-addresses: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ dig racnode-cluster-scan.188 racnode-cluster-scan.1.info.168.info .P1. 106 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .idevelopment. 86400 IN .. 192.1. .DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.info. global options: printcmd . QUESTION SECTION: . 86400 IN A 192.168. With Oracle Clusterware release 11.. Query time: 0 msec SERVER: 192.195#53(192.6-4.168. flags: qr aa rd ra.195) WHEN: Mon Nov 8 16:54:02 2010 MSG SIZE rcvd: 145 Voting Disk Management In prior releases..168. 86400 IN A 192.el5_4..----------------------------.idevelopment.1. AUTHORITY SECTION: idevelopment.. AUTHORITY: 1.info.--------1.. ANSWER: 3.idevelopment..1. you cannot use the srvctl binary in the database home to manage Oracle ASM or Oracle Net which reside in the Oracle grid infrastructure home..opcode: QUERY. Got answer: . verify the SCAN virtual IP.2) or later installations. To manage Oracle ASM or Oracle Net 11g release 2 (11. When we install Oracle Real Application Clusters (the Oracle database software).racnode-cluster-scan. status: NOERROR.189 .

an alert is shown to the operator. 107 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . The tool can provide better explanations for many issues that occur in clusters where Oracle Clusterware.18 kernel: [root@racnode1 ~]# uname -a Linux racnode1 2. For root cause analysis.9 or higher. If you install other products in the same Oracle home directory. then you would use OS Watcher and RACDDT which is available through the My Oracle Support website (formerly Metalink).racnode1.6. and device level continuously.6. During the installation of Oracle grid infrastructure.9.oracle.el5 #1 SMP Fri Apr 2 14:58:14 EDT 2010 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux If you are using a Linux kernel earlier than 2.shtml Backing up the voting disks in Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 is no longer required.racnode2. Back Up the root.2.sh. If you require information contained in the original root. To learn more about managing the voting disks. Instructions for installing and configuring the IPD/OS tool is beyond the scope of this article and will not be discussed. such as node evictions.html Create ASM Disk Groups for Data and Fast Recovery Area Run the ASM Configuration Assistant (asmca) as the grid user from only one node in the cluster (racnode1) to create the additional ASM disk groups which will be used to create the clustered database.2).2.AFTER_INSTALL_NOV-08-2010 [root@racnode2 ~]# cd /u01/app/11. Oracle recommends that you install Instantaneous Problem Detection OS Tool (IPD/OS) if you are using Linux kernel 2.sh root. In this section. process. It tracks the operating system resource consumption at each node.sh script during the installation.com/technology/products/database/clustering/ipd_download_homepage. Back up the root.5 which uses the 2. The voting disk data is automatically backed up in OCR as part of any configuration change and is automatically restored to any voting disk added. These new ASM disk groups will be used later in this guide when creating the clustered database.sh. please refer to the Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide 11g Release 2 (11.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Oracle ASM and Oracle RAC are running.0/grid [root@racnode1 grid]# cp root.6.18-194. Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR).0/grid [root@racnode2 grid]# cp root. historical data can be replayed to understand what was happening at the time of failure.sh script.sh script after you complete an installation. This article was written using RHEL/CentOS 5. then the installer updates the contents of the existing root.AFTER_INSTALL_NOV-08-2010 Install Cluster Health Management Software .sh root. and Oracle Local Registry (OLR). It collects and analyzes cluster-wide data. we configured one ASM disk group named +CRS which was used to store the Oracle clusterware files (OCR and voting disk). then you can recover it from the root. In real time mode.6. when thresholds are reached.sh file copy. You can download the IPD/OS tool along with a detailed installation and configuration guide at the following URL: http://www. we will create two additional ASM disk groups using the ASM Configuration Assistant (asmca).sh Script Oracle recommends that you back up the root. The IPD/OS tool is designed to detect and analyze operating system and cluster resource-related degradation and failures.sh file on both Oracle RAC nodes as root: [root@racnode1 ~]# cd /u01/app/11.(Optional) To address troubleshooting issues.

Finally. Install Oracle Database 11g with Oracle Real Application Clusters Perform the Oracle Database software installation from only one of the Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster (racnode1). verify your X11 display server settings which were described in the section Logging In to a Remote System Using X Terminal.shtml The first ASM disk group will be named +RACDB_DATA and will be used to store all Oracle physical database files (data. The Oracle Database software will be installed to both of the Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster by the Oracle Universal Installer using SSH. After verifying all values in this dialog are correct. In the "Redundancy" section. Create Disk Group When creating the "Fast Recovery Area" disk group. you will be returned to the initial dialog. click the [OK] button. control files. click the [Create] button. use "FRA" for the "Disk Group Name". Screen Shot Create Disk Group Disk Groups After creating the first ASM disk group. choose "External (None)". If the ASMLib volumes we created earlier in this article do not show up in the "Select Member Disks" window as eligible (ORCL:DATAVOL1 and ORCL:FRAVOL1) then click on the [Change Disk Discovery Path] button and input "ORCL:*". The "Create Disk Group" dialog should show two of the ASMLib volumes we created earlier in this guide. log in to racnode1 as the owner of the Oracle grid infrastructure software which for this article is grid. choose "External (None)". After verifying all values in this dialog are correct. online redo logs. Next. In the "Redundancy" section. When creating the "Data" ASM disk group. Now that the grid infrastructure software is functional. Create Additional ASM Disk Groups using ASMCA Perform the following tasks as the grid user to create two additional ASM disk groups: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ asmca & Screen Name Disk Groups Response From the "Disk Groups" tab. Finally. 108 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . check the ASMLib volume "ORCL:DATAVOL1" in the "Select Member Disks" section. click the [OK] button. OUI copies the binary files from this node to all the other node in the cluster during the installation process. if you are using a remote client to connect to the Oracle RAC node performing the installation (SSH or Telnet to racnode1 from a workstation configured with an X Server). you can install the Oracle Database software on the one node in your cluster (racnode1) as the oracle user. archived redo logs). use "RACDB_DATA" for the "Disk Group Name". The "Create Disk Group" dialog should now show the final remaining ASMLib volume. Click the [Create] button again to create the second ASM disk group. check the ASMLib volume "ORCL:FRAVOL1" in the "Select Member Disks" section.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. A second ASM disk group will be created for the Fast Recovery Area named +FRA. Disk Groups Exit the ASM Configuration Assistant by clicking the [Exit] button. Verify Terminal Shell Environment Before starting the ASM Configuration Assistant.

Acknowledge the warning dialog indicating you have not provided an email address by clicking the [Yes] button. Select "Install database software only". click the [SSH Connectivity] button.shtml For the purpose of this guide. Next. if you are using a remote client to connect to the Oracle RAC node performing the installation (SSH or Telnet to racnode1 from a workstation configured with an X Server). Select "Enterprise Edition".0 [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ export DISPLAY [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ cd /home/oracle/software/oracle/database [oracle@racnode1 database]$ .DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12./runInstaller Screen Name Configure Security Updates Installation Option Response For the purpose of this article. acknowledge the dialog box. verify your X11 display server settings which were described in the section Logging In to a Remote System Using X Terminal. The clustered database will be created later in this guide using the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) after all installs have been completed. Install Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Software Perform the following tasks as the oracle user to install the Oracle Database software: [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ id uid=1101(oracle) gid=1000(oinstall) groups=1000(oinstall). Verify Terminal Shell Environment Before starting the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI). Next.1201(asmdba). Select the "Real Application Clusters database installation" radio button (default) and verify that both Oracle RAC nodes are checked in the "Node Name" window. Enter the "OS Password" for the oracle user and click the [Setup] button. Product Languages Database Edition Make the appropriate selection(s) for your environment. Finish off this screen by clicking the [Test] button to verify passwordless SSH connectivity. un-check the security updates check-box and click the [Next] button to continue.1300(dba). This will start the "SSH Connectivity" configuration process: Screen Shot Grid Options After the SSH configuration process successfully completes.1301(oper) [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ DISPLAY=<your local workstation>:0. log in to racnode1 as the owner of the Oracle Database software which for this article is oracle. we will forgo the "Create Database" option when installing the Oracle Database software. 109 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .

the OUI continues to the Summary screen.2. and completes other operating system configuration tasks.sh script on all nodes in the RAC cluster: [root@racnode1 ~]# /u01/app/oracle/product/11.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. the installer (OUI) will create shell script programs called fixup scripts. if necessary. The fixup script is generated during installation. Operating System Groups Prerequisite Checks Summary Install Product Click [Finish] to start the installation.sh script on both Oracle RAC nodes. you have the option to install the Oracle Database 11g Examples. (starting with the node you are performing the install from). then you can easily fix the issue by generating the fixup script by clicking the [Fix & Check Again] button.2. The installer performs the Oracle Database software installation process on both Oracle RAC nodes. if any checks fail.0/dbhome_1 Select the OS groups to be used for the SYSDBA and SYSOPER privileges: Database Administrator (OSDBA) Group: dba Database Operator (OSOPER) Group: oper The installer will run through a series of checks to determine if both Oracle RAC nodes meet the minimum requirements for installing and configuring the Oracle Database software. Finish At the end of the installation. as the root user account. click the [Close] button to exit the OUI. the Examples software is only installed from one node in your cluster (racnode1) as the oracle user. Verify Terminal Shell Environment 110 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . If OUI detects an incomplete task that is marked "fixable".0/dbhome_1/root. Execute Configuration scripts Run the root. You will be prompted to run the script as root in a separate terminal session. to resolve many incomplete system configuration requirements.sh Go back to OUI and acknowledge the "Execute Configuration scripts" dialog window. Now that the Oracle Database 11g software is installed.2.2. you will be prompted to run the /u01/app /oracle/product/11.2). OUI copies the binary files from this node to all the other node in the cluster during the installation process. If all prerequisite checks pass (as was the case for my install). it raises kernel values to required minimums. Open a new console window on both Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster. Install Oracle Database 11g Examples (formerly Companion) Perform the Oracle Database 11g Examples software installation from only one of the Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster (racnode1). Like the Oracle Database software install. When you run the script.0/dbhome_1/root. The Oracle Database Examples software will be installed to both of Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster by the Oracle Universal Installer using SSH.shtml Screen Name Response Specify the Oracle base and Software location (Oracle_home) as follows: Screen Shot Installation Location Oracle Base: /u01/app/oracle Software Location: /u01/app/oracle/product/11.0/dbhome_1/root. After the installation completes.sh [root@racnode2 ~]# /u01/app/oracle/product/11. Starting with 11g release 2 (11.

Create the Oracle Cluster Database The database creation process should only be performed from one of the Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster (racnode1). it raises kernel values to required minimums. The installer performs the Oracle Database Examples software installation process on both Oracle RAC nodes. verify your X11 display server settings which were described in the section Logging In to a Remote System Using X Terminal.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. etc. You will be prompted to run the script as root in a separate terminal session. Next.shtml Before starting the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI). and completes other operating system configuration tasks. Before executing the DBCA. At the end of the installation. You should also verify that all services we have installed up to this point (Oracle TNS listener. log in to racnode1 as the owner of the Oracle Database software which for this article is oracle. Use the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) to create the clustered database. Install Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Examples Perform the following tasks as the oracle user to install the Oracle Database Examples: [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ cd /home/oracle/software/oracle/examples [oracle@racnode1 examples]$ . If OUI detects an incomplete task that is marked "fixable".0/dbhome_1 environment. When you run the script.) are running on both Oracle RAC nodes before attempting to start the clustered database creation process: [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ su .2. the installer (OUI) will create shell script programs called fixup scripts. If all prerequisite checks pass (as was the case for my install). Starting with 11g release 2 (11. the OUI continues to the Summary screen. The fixup script is generated during installation. Setting environment variables in the login script for the oracle user account was covered in the section "Create Login Script for the oracle User Account".2). if you are using a remote client to connect to the Oracle RAC node performing the installation (SSH or Telnet to racnode1 from a workstation configured with an X Server).0/dbhome_1 The installer will run through a series of checks to determine if both Oracle RAC nodes meet the minimum requirements for installing and configuring the Oracle Database Examples software.2. click the [Close] button to exit the OUI.grid -c "crs_stat -t -v" Password: ********* 111 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . then you can easily fix the issue by generating the fixup script by clicking the [Fix & Check Again] button. if necessary. make certain that the $ORACLE_HOME and $PATH are set appropriately for the $ORACLE_BASE/product/11. Oracle Clusterware processes. Prerequisite Checks Summary Install Product Finish Click [Finish] to start the installation. to resolve many incomplete system configuration requirements./runInstaller Screen Name Response Specify the Oracle base and Software location (Oracle_home) as follows: Screen Shot Installation Location Oracle Base: /u01/app/oracle Software Location: /u01/app/oracle/product/11. if any checks fail.

...type 0/3 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora...gsd application 0/5 0/0 OFFLINE OFFLINE ora.....type 0/3 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora....dg ora.vip ora.....type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.vip ora....scan2....ons application 0/3 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.type 0/3 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora...type 0/0 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora...ip.eons...gsd application 0/5 0/0 OFFLINE OFFLINE ora.rk...er....type 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora....type 0/0 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.network ora..lsnr ora....N3..FRA.up. log in to racnode1 as the owner of the Oracle Database 112 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .....ons application 0/3 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora..de1.SM1..ons ora......vip ora..up.t1.de1.type 0/3 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora....type 0/0 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 [oracle@racnode2 ~]$ su ..SM2..E1...type 0/0 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora..vip ora..N1.vip ora.E1....type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.vip ora.type 0/0 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.grid -c "crs_stat -t -v" Password: ********* Name Type R/RA F/FT Target State Host ---------------------------------------------------------------------ora..gsd.type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora..gsd application 0/5 0/0 OFFLINE OFFLINE ora.de1.er.de2......er..dg ora.type 0/0 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.type 0/0 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora...scan1..type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.ip...dg ora.ons.eons ora.lsnr application 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.ons application 0/3 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.FRA..N2.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.N3.ER.E2.type 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora...vip ora..de1....de2.CRS...asm ora.vip ora.gsd ora.ip......lsnr ora.type 0/5 0/ OFFLINE OFFLINE ora.eons...gsd.ons.DATA...asm application 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora..lsnr application 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.....de2.lsnr ora.up.t1..lsnr application 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora..scan1...DATA..lsnr ora....ons ora.type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.lsnr ora.ip..de1.SM1..lsnr ora.vip ora....oc4j ora.type 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.asm...up.type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.asm.type 0/5 0/0 OFFLINE OFFLINE ora..er.up.dg ora....de2.de1.lsnr ora.asm application 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.eons ora.de2.gsd application 0/5 0/0 OFFLINE OFFLINE ora..type 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora...type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora..ons application 0/3 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.CRS....oc4j.de2.E2..type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora..asm application 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.type 0/0 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora....N2..asm application 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.t1..ip.dg ora..type 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora...er...oc4j ora..type 0/0 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.ER.lsnr ora.ip..type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.....type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora....asm ora.scan3....up.scan3..type 0/5 0/ ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.type 0/0 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 Verify Terminal Shell Environment Before starting the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA).gsd ora.type 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora..network ora.scan2....type 0/5 0/0 OFFLINE OFFLINE ora..vip ora.shtml Name Type R/RA F/FT Target State Host ---------------------------------------------------------------------ora.t1..SM2.....lsnr application 0/5 0/0 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ora.N1..er....er..type 0/5 0/ OFFLINE OFFLINE ora.rk.er...dg ora....oc4j...

Click the [Select All] button to select all servers: racnode1 and racnode2. Check the option for Specify Fast Recovery Area.idevelopment. Global Database Name: racdb. For the Fast Recovery Area. Specify storage type and locations for database files. This option is available since we installed the Oracle Database 11g Examples.info SID Prefix: racdb Note: I used idevelopment.info for the database domain. use the entire volume minus 10% for overhead — (33-10%=30 GB).shtml software which for this article is oracle. which is to Configure Enterprise Manager / Configure Database Control for local management. click the [Browse] button and select the disk group name +FRA. Database File Locations Storage Type: Automatic Storage Management (ASM) Storage Locations: Use Oracle-Managed Files Database Area: +RACDB_DATA Specify ASMSNMP Password Specify the ASMSNMP password for the ASM instance. Configuration Type: Admin-Managed Database naming. Cluster database configuration. Database Content I left all of the Database Components (and destination tablespaces) set to their default value although it is perfectly OK to select the Sample Schemas. Select Create a Database. Select Custom Database. Screen Shot Database Identification Management Options Database Credentials Leave the default options here.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. if you are using a remote client to connect to the Oracle RAC node performing the installation (SSH or Telnet to racnode1 from a workstation configured with an X Server). Keep in mind that this domain does not have to be a valid DNS domain. I used a Fast Recovery Area Size of 30 GB (30413 MB). Node Selection. run the following as the oracle user: [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ dbca & Screen Name Welcome Screen Operations Database Templates Response Select Oracle Real Application Clusters database. Next. verify your X11 display server settings which were described in the section Logging In to a Remote System Using X Terminal. I selected to Use the Same Administrative Password for All Accounts. Enter the password (twice) and make sure the password does not start with a digit number. My disk group has a size of about 33GB. When defining the Fast Recovery Area size. Create the Clustered Database To start the database creation process. You may use any database domain. Recovery Configuration 113 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .

ons ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Cluster Resources -------------------------------------------------------------------------------ora.lsnr ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.dg ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora. exit from the DBCA. Click Finish to start the database creation process.eons ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora. After acknowledging the database creation report and script generation dialog.dg ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.gsd OFFLINE OFFLINE racnode1 OFFLINE OFFLINE racnode2 ora.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.network ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.FRA.dg ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.shtml Screen Name Initialization Parameters Database Storage Response Change any parameters for your environment.grid -c "crsctl status resource -w \"TYPE co 'ora'\" -t" Password: ********* -------------------------------------------------------------------------------NAME TARGET STATE SERVER STATE_DETAILS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Local Resources -------------------------------------------------------------------------------ora. you will have a fully functional Oracle RAC 11g release 2 cluster running! Verify Clustered Database is Open [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ su .CRS. I left them all at their default settings. I also always select to Generate Database Creation Scripts. Keep the default option Create Database selected.net1. Screen Shot Creation Options End of Database Creation At the end of the database creation.asm ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 Started ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 Started ora. When the DBCA has completed.lsnr 1 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 114 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . I left them all at their default settings.lsnr 1 ONLINE ONLINE racnode2 ora.LISTENER.LISTENER_SCAN1.LISTENER_SCAN2. the database creation will start.RACDB_DATA. Change any parameters for your environment. Click OK on the "Summary" screen.

0 Copyright (c) 1996. 2009 Oracle Corporation.shtml ora.racnode1.racdb.oc4j 1 OFFLINE OFFLINE ora.scan2.db 1 ONLINE ONLINE 2 ONLINE ONLINE ora.scan1.vip 1 ONLINE ONLINE ora. -----------------------------------------------------------------Logs are generated in directory /u01/app/oracle/product/11.lsnr 1 ONLINE ONLINE ora.vip 1 ONLINE ONLINE ora. All rights reserved.idevelopment.dbora.info:1158/em [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ emctl status dbconsole Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g Database Control Release 11.1. it can be used to view the database configuration and current status of the database.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.racnode2.vip 1 ONLINE ONLINE ora.idevelopment.2.2.0/dbhome_1/racnode1_racdb/sysman/l 115 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . The URL for this example is: https://racnode1.vip 1 ONLINE ONLINE racnode1 racnode1 racnode2 racnode1 racnode2 racnode2 racnode1 racnode1 Open Open Oracle Enterprise Manager If you configured Oracle Enterprise Manager (Database Control).vip 1 ONLINE ONLINE ora.0.LISTENER_SCAN3. https://racnode1.scan3.info:1158/em/console/aboutApplication Oracle Enterprise Manager 11g is running.racdb.

each instance will have its own set of online redolog files known as a thread. Re-compile Invalid Objects Run the utlrp.(Database Console) Post Database Creation Tasks .(Optional) This section offers several optional tasks that can be performed on your new Oracle 11g in order to enhance availability as well as database management.sql Enabling Archive Logs in a RAC Environment Whether a single instance or clustered database.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Oracle tracks and logs all changes to database blocks in online redolog files.shtml Figure 18: Oracle Enterprise Manager . In an Oracle RAC environment. Each Oracle instance will use its group of online redologs in a circular manner.sql script to recompile all invalid PL/SQL packages now instead of when the packages are accessed for the first time. [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/utlrp. Oracle moves to the 116 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . This step is optional but recommended. Once an online redolog fills.

1. Total System Global Area 1653518336 bytes Fixed Size 2213896 bytes Variable Size 1073743864 bytes Database Buffers 570425344 bytes Redo Buffers 7135232 bytes All rights reserved. The Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) allows users to configure a new database to be in archive log mode. Log in to one of the nodes (i.2. use the following tasks to put a RAC enabled database into archive log mode. From one of the nodes in the Oracle RAC configuration.e. racnode1) as oracle and disable the cluster instance parameter by setting cluster_database to FALSE from the current instance: [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba SQL> alter system set cluster_database=false scope=spfile sid='racdb1'. Connected to an idle instance. When the current online redolog fills. It is also worth mentioning that each instance has exclusive write access to its own online redolog files. This is a process known as archiving. In a correctly configured RAC environment. It is therefore a requirement that online redo logs be located on a shared storage device (just like the database files). As already mentioned.0. Shutdown all instances accessing the clustered database as the oracle user: [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl stop database -d racdb 3. If the database is in "Archive Log Mode". it may be different depending on the workload and backup / recovery considerations for each node. The same holds true for a single instance configuration. however. System altered. Enable archiving: 117 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . it is a simple task to put the database into archive log mode.shtml next one. SQL> startup mount ORACLE instance started. Oracle will make a copy of the online redo log before it gets reused. Oracle writes to its online redolog files in a circular manner. I will use the node racnode1 which runs the racdb1 instance: 1. To facilitate media recovery. The single instance must contain at least two online redologs (or online redolog groups). In cases like this where the database is in no archive log mode. however most DBA's opt to bypass this option during initial database creation. Oracle will switch to the next one. each instance can read another instance's current online redolog file to perform instance recovery if that instance was terminated abnormally. A thread must contain at least two online redologs (or online redolog groups).DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. MOUNT the database: [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba SQL*Plus: Release 11.0 Production on Sat Nov 21 19:26:47 2009 Copyright (c) 1982. 2. For the purpose of this article. Using the local instance. Oracle allows the DBA to put the database into "Archive Log Mode" which makes a copy of the online redolog after it fills (and before it gets reused). 2009. Note however that this will require a short database outage. Oracle. The size of an online redolog file is completely independent of another instance's' redolog size. Although in most configurations the size is the same. 4.

Database altered.shtml SQL> alter database archivelog.2.1. System altered. Bring all instances back up as the oracle account using srvctl: [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl start database -d racdb 8. 2009. Oracle. OLAP Data Mining and Real Application Testing options SQL> archive log list Database log mode Automatic archival Archive destination Oldest online log sequence Next log sequence to archive Current log sequence Archive Mode Enabled USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST 68 69 69 After enabling Archive Log Mode.64bit Production With the Partitioning.1. Re-enable support for clustering by modifying the instance parameter cluster_database to TRUE from the current instance: SQL> alter system set cluster_database=true scope=spfile sid='racdb1'. 118 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . Shutdown the local instance: SQL> shutdown immediate ORA-01109: database not open Database dismounted. ORACLE instance shut down. 6.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11. 5. All rights reserved.0 Production on Mon Nov 8 20:07:48 2010 Copyright (c) 1982. each instance in the RAC configuration can automatically archive redologs! Download and Install Custom Oracle Database Scripts DBA's rely on Oracle's data dictionary views and dynamic performance views in order to support and better manage their databases.0. Login to the local instance and verify Archive Log Mode is enabled: [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba SQL*Plus: Release 11. 7. Real Application Clusters.0 .2. Automatic Storage Management. Although these views provide a simple and easy mechanism to query critical information regarding the database.0.

For UNIX.---------------. and session management.bash_profile login script that was created in the section Create Login Script for the oracle User Account. For example.264 MANUAL 209.135. perform the following on both nodes in the Oracle RAC cluster as the oracle user account: [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ mv dba_scripts_archive_Oracle. ---------LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL Seg.448 MANUAL 75. Next. For example.059.zip. download the dba_scripts_archive_Oracle.600 511.zip The final step is to verify (or set) the appropriate environment variable for the current UNIX shell to ensure the Oracle SQL scripts can be run from within SQL*Plus while in any directory. Mgt.---------------. Tablespace Size Used (in bytes) P --------.---------------. performance.043. to query tablespace information while logged into the Oracle database as a DBA user: SQL> @dba_tablespaces Status ------ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE avg sum 7 rows selected.776 AUTO 5. As the oracle user account. you should now be able to run any of the SQL scripts in the $ORACLE_BASE/dba_scripts/common/sql while logged into SQL*Plus.760 948.048.060.003.131.242.967.zip archive will be copied to /u01/app/oracle. unzip the archive file to the $ORACLE_BASE directory.200 20.472 66.sql script: SQL> @help.869.227.715.zip archive to the $ORACLE_BASE directory of each node in the cluster.shtml it helps to have a collection of accurate and readily available SQL scripts to query these views. In this section you will download and install a collection of Oracle DBA scripts that can be used to manage many aspects of your database including space management.061.840.2. run the help.952.200 703. the dba_scripts_archive_Oracle.idevelopment.232 MANUAL 1. Now that the DBA Scripts Archive for Oracle has been unzipped and the UNIX environment variable ($ORACLE_PATH) has been set to the appropriate directory.576 MANUAL 734.sql ======================================== 119 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . The DBA Scripts Archive for Oracle can be downloaded using the following link http://www.288 ---------------.328 To obtain a list of all available Oracle DBA scripts while logged into SQL*Plus.497.AUTO 629. backups.744 AUTO 157.286. For the purpose of this example.400 85.512 2.zip /u01/app/oracle [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ cd /u01/app/oracle [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ unzip dba_scripts_archive_Oracle. verify the following environment variable is set and included in your login shell script: ORACLE_PATH=$ORACLE_BASE/dba_scripts/common/sql:.145.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. security.:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin export ORACLE_PATH The ORACLE_PATH environment variable should already be set in the .info/data/Oracle/DBA_scripts /dba_scripts_archive_Oracle.880 1. Tablespace Name ----------------SYSAUX UNDOTBS1 USERS SYSTEM EXAMPLE UNDOTBS2 TEMP TS Type -----------PERMANENT UNDO PERMANENT PERMANENT PERMANENT UNDO TEMPORARY Ext. Mgt.336.

sql wm_workspaces.sql wm_remove_workspace.sql wm_goto_workspace. FILE_NAME -------------------------------------------------+RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/example. file_name from dba_temp_files.sql wm_unfreeze_workspace.260.shtml Automatic Shared Memory Management ======================================== asmm_components.> perf_top_sql_by_buffer_gets.sql asm_disks.sql ======================================== Workspace Manager ======================================== wm_create_workspace.264.703530429 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/undotbs1. you may want to make a sizable testing database.sql perf_top_sql_by_disk_reads. Please keep in mind that the database file names (OMF files) used in this example may differ from what the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) creates for your environment. substitute the data file names that were created in your environment where appropriate.sql asm_clients. The following query can be used to determine the file names for your environment: SQL> 2 3 4 5 select tablespace_name.sql ======================================== Automatic Storage Management ======================================== asm_alias. file_name from dba_data_files union select tablespace_name.sql wm_freeze_workspace. When working through this section.262.sql asm_templates. If you are using a large drive for the shared storage.sql wm_refresh_workspace.sql asm_files2.sql asm_diskgroups.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.263.703530397 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/tempfile/temp.sql asm_disks_perf.703530411 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/system.sql wm_enable_versioning.259.sql asm_drop_files.sql wm_disable_versioning.261.703530423 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/undotbs2.sql wm_get_workspace.sql Create / Alter Tablespaces When creating the clustered database.sql wm_merge_workspace. Below are several optional SQL commands for modifying and creating all tablespaces for the test database.SNIP --.703530441 TABLESPACE_NAME --------------EXAMPLE SYSAUX SYSTEM TEMP UNDOTBS1 UNDOTBS2 120 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .sql < --. we left all tablespaces set to their default size.703530435 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/sysaux.sql asm_files.

824 512. Grant succeeded.741.824 1.259.265.286.AUTO 1.576 MANUAL 1.---------------.060.097. Tablespace Size Used (in bytes) P --------.073. +RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/users.260. SQL> grant dba.264.073.741.703530411' resize 102 Database altered.703530447' resize 1024 Database altered.265.840.280 AUTO 157.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.741. Mgt. User created. Mgt. SQL> alter database datafile '+RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/sysaux.448 MANUAL 1. SQL> alter tablespace users add datafile '+RACDB_DATA' size 1024m autoextend off.400 85.824 20.131.304 MANUAL 1. SQL> alter database tempfile '+RACDB_DATA/racdb/tempfile/temp.703530429' resize 1024m Database altered.073.262.483.824 66.288 121 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .043.824 703.703530447 [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ sqlplus "/ as sysdba" SQL> create user scott identified by tiger default tablespace users.201. Tablespace created.073. SQL> 2 3 4 create tablespace indx datafile '+RACDB_DATA' size 1024m autoextend on next 100m maxsize unlimited extent management local autoallocate segment space management auto.147. SQL> alter database datafile '+RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/users. connect to scott.shtml USERS 7 rows selected.703530397' resize 102 Database altered.648 2. SQL> alter database datafile '+RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/undotbs2. SQL> alter database datafile '+RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/undotbs1. SQL> alter database datafile '+RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/system.---------------. Here is a snapshot of the tablespaces I have defined for my test database environment: Status ------ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE Tablespace Name ----------------SYSAUX UNDOTBS1 USERS SYSTEM EXAMPLE INDX UNDOTBS2 TEMP TS Type -----------PERMANENT UNDO PERMANENT PERMANENT PERMANENT PERMANENT UNDO TEMPORARY Ext.703530441' resize 1 Database altered.264 AUTO 1.073.741.152 MANUAL 1.098. Tablespace altered. ---------LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL LOCAL Seg.741.776 AUTO 2.073.741.703530423' resize 1 Database altered. resource.824 948.261.048.

992 2. You can use CRSCTL commands to perform several operations on Oracle Clusterware. parsing and calling Oracle Clusterware APIs for Oracle Clusterware objects.521. start. listeners.088 Verify Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Database Configuration The following Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC verification checks can be performed on any of the Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster. and Oracle Enterprise Manager agents (for maintenance purposes). Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.shtml ---------------. depending on the operation. Oracle Notification Services. There are five node-level tasks defined for SRVCTL: Adding and deleting node-level applications Setting and un-setting the environment for node-level applications Administering node applications Administering ASM instances Starting and stopping a group of programs that includes virtual IP addresses.220. Oracle also provides the Oracle Clusterware Control (CRSCTL) utility. For the purpose of this article.338.2): crs_stat crs_register crs_unregister crs_start crs_stop crs_getperm crs_profile crs_relocate crs_setperm crsctl check crsd crsctl check cssd crsctl check evmd crsctl debug log 122 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .---------------. You can run these commands from any node in the cluster on another node in the cluster. and stop operations on the cluster. or on all nodes in the cluster. I will only be performing checks from racnode1 as the oracle OS user. Most of the checks described in this section use the Server Control Utility (SRVCTL) and can be run as either the oracle or grid OS user.747. such as: Starting and stopping Oracle Clusterware resources Enabling and disabling Oracle Clusterware daemons Checking the health of the cluster Managing resources that represent third-party applications Integrating Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) with Oracle Clusterware to provide failure isolation support and to ensure cluster integrity Debugging Oracle Clusterware components For the purpose of this article (and this section). CRSCTL is an interface between you and Oracle Clusterware. we will only make use of the "Checking the health of the cluster" operation which uses the Clusterized (Cluster Aware) Command: crsctl check cluster Many subprograms and commands were deprecated in Oracle Clusterware 11g release 2 (11.2) introduces cluster-aware commands with which you can perform check.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. 8.avg sum 8 rows selected.

DBA Tips Archive for Oracle

file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.shtml

crsctl set css votedisk crsctl start resources crsctl stop resources
Check the Health of the Cluster - (Clusterized Command)

Run as the grid user.

[grid@racnode1 ~]$ crsctl check cluster CRS-4537: Cluster Ready Services is online CRS-4529: Cluster Synchronization Services is online CRS-4533: Event Manager is online

All Oracle Instances - (Database Status)

[oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl status database -d racdb Instance racdb1 is running on node racnode1 Instance racdb2 is running on node racnode2

Single Oracle Instance - (Status of Specific Instance)

[oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl status instance -d racdb -i racdb1 Instance racdb1 is running on node racnode1

Node Applications - (Status)

[oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl status nodeapps VIP racnode1-vip is enabled VIP racnode1-vip is running on node: racnode1 VIP racnode2-vip is enabled VIP racnode2-vip is running on node: racnode2 Network is enabled Network is running on node: racnode1 Network is running on node: racnode2 GSD is disabled GSD is not running on node: racnode1 GSD is not running on node: racnode2 ONS is enabled ONS daemon is running on node: racnode1 ONS daemon is running on node: racnode2 eONS is enabled eONS daemon is running on node: racnode1 eONS daemon is running on node: racnode2

Node Applications - (Configuration)

[oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl config nodeapps VIP exists.:racnode1 VIP exists.: /racnode1-vip/192.168.1.251/255.255.255.0/eth0 VIP exists.:racnode2

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file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.shtml

VIP exists.: /racnode2-vip/192.168.1.252/255.255.255.0/eth0 GSD exists. ONS daemon exists. Local port 6100, remote port 6200 eONS daemon exists. Multicast port 24057, multicast IP address 234.194.43.168, listening port 2

List all Configured Databases

[oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl config database racdb

Database - (Configuration)

[oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl config database -d racdb -a Database unique name: racdb Database name: racdb Oracle home: /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1 Oracle user: oracle Spfile: +RACDB_DATA/racdb/spfileracdb.ora Domain: idevelopment.info Start options: open Stop options: immediate Database role: PRIMARY Management policy: AUTOMATIC Server pools: racdb Database instances: racdb1,racdb2 Disk Groups: RACDB_DATA,FRA Services: Database is enabled Database is administrator managed

ASM - (Status)

[oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl status asm ASM is running on racnode1,racnode2

ASM - (Configuration)

$ srvctl config asm -a ASM home: /u01/app/11.2.0/grid ASM listener: LISTENER ASM is enabled.

TNS listener - (Status)

[oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl status listener Listener LISTENER is enabled Listener LISTENER is running on node(s): racnode1,racnode2

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TNS listener - (Configuration)

[oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl config listener -a Name: LISTENER Network: 1, Owner: grid Home: /u01/app/11.2.0/grid on node(s) racnode2,racnode1 End points: TCP:1521

SCAN - (Status)

[oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl status scan SCAN VIP scan1 is enabled SCAN VIP scan1 is running on node racnode2 SCAN VIP scan2 is enabled SCAN VIP scan2 is running on node racnode1 SCAN VIP scan3 is enabled SCAN VIP scan3 is running on node racnode1

SCAN - (Configuration)

[oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl config scan SCAN name: racnode-cluster-scan, Network: 1/192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0/eth0 SCAN VIP name: scan1, IP: /racnode-cluster-scan.idevelopment.info/192.168.1.188 SCAN VIP name: scan2, IP: /racnode-cluster-scan.idevelopment.info/192.168.1.189 SCAN VIP name: scan3, IP: /racnode-cluster-scan.idevelopment.info/192.168.1.187

VIP - (Status of Specific Node)

[oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl status vip -n racnode1 VIP racnode1-vip is enabled VIP racnode1-vip is running on node: racnode1 [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl status vip -n racnode2 VIP racnode2-vip is enabled VIP racnode2-vip is running on node: racnode2

VIP - (Configuration of Specific Node)

[oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl config vip -n racnode1 VIP exists.:racnode1 VIP exists.: /racnode1-vip/192.168.1.251/255.255.255.0/eth0 [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl config vip -n racnode2 VIP exists.:racnode2 VIP exists.: /racnode2-vip/192.168.1.252/255.255.255.0/eth0

Configuration for Node Applications - (VIP, GSD, ONS, Listener)

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1...168.168..DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.-----------------------racnode1 Active CTSS is in Active state.1. All running instances in the cluster .0/grid on node(s) racnode2. VIP exists. Owner: grid Home: /u01/app/11.252/255.(SQL) SELECT 126 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . Check of Clusterware install passed Checking if CTSS Resource is running on all nodes.0 msecs Check: Reference Time Offset Node Name Time Offset Status -----------. Proceeding with check of clock time offsets on all nodes. remote port 6200 Name: LISTENER Network: 1.racnode1 End points: TCP:1521 Verifying Clock Synchronization across the Cluster Nodes [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ cluvfy comp clocksync -verbose Verifying Clock Synchronization across the cluster nodes Checking if Clusterware is installed on all nodes.0 passed Time offset is within the specified limits on the following set of nodes: "[racnode1]" Result: Check of clock time offsets passed Oracle Cluster Time Synchronization Services check passed Verification of Clock Synchronization across the cluster nodes was successful.: /racnode1-vip/192..-----------------------.:racnode2 VIP exists.-----------------------racnode1 passed Result: CTSS resource check passed Querying CTSS for time offset on all nodes. ONS daemon exists.-----------------------racnode1 0. Result: Query of CTSS for time offset passed Check CTSS state started. Check: CTSS Resource running on all nodes Node Name Status -----------------------------------.: /racnode2-vip/192.255..255.0/eth0 GSD exists.251/255.255. Check: CTSS state Node Name State -----------------------------------..shtml [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl config nodeapps -a -g -s -l -l option has been deprecated and will be ignored. Local port 6100. Reference Time Offset Limit: 1000.0/eth0 VIP exists.:racnode1 VIP exists.2..255....

DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.703533499 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/controlfile/current.703530391 +FRA/racdb/onlinelog/group_2.256.259.266.703530423 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/undotbs2.703530447 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/users.703530397 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/undotbs1.703530389 +FRA/racdb/onlinelog/group_1.703533499 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/tempfile/temp. instance_name inst_name .257.262.---------1 1 racdb1 2 2 racdb2 PAR --YES YES STATUS ------OPEN OPEN DB_STATUS -----------ACTIVE ACTIVE STATE --------NORMAL NORMAL HOST ------racnode1 racnode2 All database files and the ASM disk group they reside in . database_status db_status . PATH ---------------------------------ORCL:CRSVOL1 ORCL:DATAVOL1 127 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .259.256.270.260.703530389 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/example.703530429 19 rows selected.703530393 +FRA/racdb/onlinelog/group_3.-------.257.703530411 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/system. NAME ------------------------------------------+FRA/racdb/controlfile/current.703533497 +FRA/racdb/onlinelog/group_4.703542993 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/sysaux.269.703530441 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/users.703530391 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/onlinelog/group_2.703530393 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/onlinelog/group_3. host_name host FROM gv$instance ORDER BY inst_id. active_state state .703530435 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/datafile/indx.264. status .265.260.(SQL) select union select union select union select name from v$datafile member from v$logfile name from v$controlfile name from v$tempfile.703533497 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/onlinelog/group_4.258.267. ASM Disk Volumes . instance_number inst_no . parallel .(SQL) SELECT path FROM v$asm_disk. INST_ID INST_NO INST_NAME -------.shtml inst_id .258.703542943 +RACDB_DATA/racdb/onlinelog/group_1.263.261.

scan3.FRA. SCAN.vip' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.lsnr' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.lsnr' on 'racnode1' CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.dg' on 'racnode1' CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.scan2.lsnr' on 'racnode1' CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.FRA.LISTENER.LISTENER_SCAN2.lsnr' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.scan2.eons' on 'racnode1' CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora. There are times.LISTENER_SCAN2.lsnr' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.vip' on 'racnode2' succeeded <-CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.vip' on 'racnode1' CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.scan2.vip' on 'racnode1' CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.LISTENER_SCAN2.lsnr' on 'racnode1' CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.racnode1. If you have followed the instructions in this guide. everything has been installed and configured for Oracle RAC 11g release 2.vip' on 'racnode2' <-CRS-2676: Start of 'ora. We also have a fully functional clustered database running named racdb.dg' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.racnode1. After all of that hard work. Oracle grid infrastructure was installed by the grid user while the Oracle RAC software was installed by oracle.scan3.racnode1. VIP.racdb.scan2.scan3. The following stop/start actions need to be performed as root.LISTENER.dg' on 'racnode1' CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.CRS.LISTENER_SCAN2. This section provides the commands necessary to stop and start the Oracle Clusterware stack on a local server (racnode1). so how do I start and stop services?".vip' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora. when you might want to take down the Oracle services on a node for maintenance purposes and restart the Oracle Clusterware stack at a later time. Stopping the Oracle Clusterware Stack on the Local Server Use the "crsctl stop cluster" command on racnode1 to stop the Oracle Clusterware stack: [root@racnode1 ~]# /u01/app/11.vip' on 'racnode2' succeeded CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.LISTENER_SCAN3.db' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.shtml ORCL:FRAVOL1 Starting / Stopping the Cluster At this point.racnode1. however.LISTENER_SCAN3.lsnr' on 'racnode2' succeeded <-CRS-2676: Start of 'ora. and so on should start automatically on each reboot of the Linux nodes.RACDB_DATA.vip' on 'racnode2' CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.dg' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.LISTENER_SCAN3.dg' on 'racnode1' CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.vip' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora. all services. network.LISTENER_SCAN3.vip' on 'racnode2' CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.ons' on 'racnode1' 'racnode1' Notice racnode1 VIP Notice SCAN3 VIP mov Notice SCAN2 VIP mov Notice LISTENER_SCAN Notice LISTENER_SCAN 128 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .vip' on 'racnode1' CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.db' on 'racnode1' CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.asm' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.RACDB_DATA. including Oracle Clusterware.scan3.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. "OK.CRS.dg' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.0/grid/bin/crsctl stop cluster CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.vip' on 'racnode2' succeeded <-CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora. the Oracle Database.racdb.lsnr' on 'racnode2' succeeded <-CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.2. ASM. you may ask.lsnr' on 'racnode2' CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.lsnr' on 'racnode2' CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.crsd' on 'racnode1' CRS-2790: Starting shutdown of Cluster Ready Services-managed resources on CRS-2673: Attempting to stop 'ora.asm' on 'racnode1' CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora. Or you may find that Enterprise Manager is not running and need to start it.

2.cssd' on 'racnode1' CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.cssdmonitor' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.2. Also note that you can stop the Oracle Clusterware stack on all servers in the cluster by specifying -all.diskmon' on 'racnode1' succeeded If any resources that Oracle Clusterware manages are still running after you run the "crsctl stop cluster" command.shtml CRS-2677: CRS-2673: CRS-2677: CRS-2677: CRS-2792: CRS-2677: CRS-2673: CRS-2673: CRS-2673: CRS-2673: CRS-2677: CRS-2677: CRS-2677: CRS-2677: CRS-2673: CRS-2677: CRS-2673: CRS-2677: Stop of 'ora.diskmon' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2676: Start of 'ora. Use the -f option to unconditionally stop all resources and stop the Oracle Clusterware stack.ctssd' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.eons' on 'racnode1' succeeded Shutdown of Cluster Ready Services-managed resources on 'racnode1' has completed Stop of 'ora.crsd' on 'racnode1' succeeded Attempting to stop 'ora.asm' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.0/grid/bin/crsctl start cluster CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.evmd' on 'racnode1' succeeded Stop of 'ora.diskmon' on 'racnode1' Stop of 'ora.crsd' on 'racnode1' succeeded You can choose to start the Oracle Clusterware stack on all servers in the cluster by specifying -all: [root@racnode1 ~]# /u01/app/11.evmd' on 'racnode1' Attempting to stop 'ora.asm' on 'racnode1' Stop of 'ora.cssdmonitor' on 'racnode1' succeeded Stop of 'ora.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.asm' on 'racnode1' succeeded Attempting to stop 'ora.cssd' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.evmd' on 'racnode1' succeeded CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.ctssd' on 'racnode1' Attempting to stop 'ora. then the entire command fails.diskmon' on 'racnode1' CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.cssdmonitor' on 'racnode1' CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.evmd' on 'racnode1' CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.0/grid/bin/crsctl start cluster -all You can also start the Oracle Clusterware stack on one or more named servers in the cluster by listing the servers 129 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . The following will bring down the Oracle Clusterware stack on both racnode1 and racnode2: [root@racnode1 ~]# /u01/app/11.ctssd' on 'racnode1' CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.ctssd' on 'racnode1' succeeded Stop of 'ora.cssd' on 'racnode1' Stop of 'ora.net1.net1.0/grid/bin/crsctl stop cluster -all Starting the Oracle Clusterware Stack on the Local Server Use the "crsctl start cluster" command on racnode1 to start the Oracle Clusterware stack: [root@racnode1 ~]# /u01/app/11.ons' on 'racnode1' succeeded Attempting to stop 'ora.crsd' on 'racnode1' CRS-2676: Start of 'ora.cssdmonitor' on 'racnode1' Attempting to stop 'ora.network' on 'racnode1' Stop of 'ora.asm' on 'racnode1' CRS-2672: Attempting to start 'ora.cssd' on 'racnode1' succeeded Attempting to stop 'ora.2.network' on 'racnode1' succeeded Stop of 'ora.

0/grid/bin/crsctl start cluster -n racnode1 racnode2 Start/Stop All Instances with SRVCTL Finally.(Configuring SCAN without DNS) 130 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. you can start/stop all instances and associated services using the following: [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl stop database -d racdb [oracle@racnode1 ~]$ srvctl start database -d racdb Troubleshooting This section contains a short list of common errors (and solutions) that can be encountered during the Oracle RAC installation described in this article.2.shtml separated by a space: [root@racnode1 ~]# /u01/app/11. Configuring SCAN without DNS Defining the SCAN in only the hosts file (/etc/hosts) and not in either Grid Naming Service (GNS) or DNS is an invalid configuration and will cause the Cluster Verification Utility to fail during the Oracle grid infrastructure installation: Figure 19: Oracle Grid Infrastructure / CVU Error .

First.original $HOSTNAME fi Finally.1.154.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.24. The instructions below include a workaround (Ok.34#53" echo "Non-authoritative answer:" echo "Name: racnode-cluster-scan" echo "Address: 192.. a total hack) to the nslookup binary that allows the Cluster Verification Utility to finish successfully during the Oracle grid infrastructure install. 131 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM .168.34" echo "Address: 24. and 192.. simply modify the nslookup utility as root on both Oracle RAC nodes as follows.154.1.. racnode-cluster-scan with your SCAN host name. This is documented in Doc ID: 887471.168. it is OK to ignore this check and continue by clicking the [Next] button in OUI and move forward with the Oracle grid infrastructure installation. Although Oracle strongly discourages this practice and highly recommends the use of GNS or DNS resolution. If on the other hand you want the CVU to complete successfully while still only defining the SCAN in the hosts file.1 ERROR: PRVF-4664 : Found inconsistent name resolution entries for SCAN name "racnode-cluster-sca Verification of SCAN VIP and Listener setup failed Provided this is the only error reported by the CVU. Please note that the workaround documented in this section is only for the sake of brevity and should not be considered for a production implementation. then echo "Server: 24.original Next.1 on the My Oracle Support web site. create a new shell script on both Oracle RAC nodes named /usr/bin/nslookup as shown below while replacing 24. some readers may not have access to a DNS.original on both Oracle RAC nodes: [root@racnode1 ~]# mv /usr/bin/nslookup /usr/bin/nslookup.187" else /usr/bin/nslookup. rename the original nslookup binary to nslookup.187 with your SCAN IP address: #!/bin/bash HOSTNAME=${1} if [[ $HOSTNAME = "racnode-cluster-scan" ]]. ERROR: PRVF-4657 : Name resolution setup check for "racnode-cluster-scan" (IP address: 216.168. Checking name resolution setup for "racnode-cluster-scan".13 ERROR: PRVF-4657 : Name resolution setup check for "racnode-cluster-scan" (IP address: 192.154. change the new nslookup shell script to executable: [root@racnode1 ~]# chmod 755 /usr/bin/nslookup [root@racnode2 ~]# chmod 755 /usr/bin/nslookup Remember to perform these actions on both Oracle RAC nodes.1.shtml INFO: INFO: INFO: INFO: INFO: INFO: INFO: INFO: INFO: Checking Single Client Access Name (SCAN).34 with your primary DNS.1..1.original [root@racnode2 ~]# mv /usr/bin/nslookup /usr/bin/nslookup.

SCAN VIP name Node Running? ---------------.168. SCAN VIP name Node Running? ---------------.168.-----------------------. SCAN Name IP Address Status -----------... If the machine name is listed in the in the loopback address entry as below: 127.0.0.1.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.-----------racnode-cluster-scan racnode1 true ListenerName -----------LISTENER Port -----------1521 Running? -----------true Checking name resolution setup for "racnode-cluster-scan".-----------.-----------------------racnode-cluster-scan 192...187 Verification of SCAN VIP and Listener setup passed Verification of scan was successful.localdomain localhost it will need to be removed as shown below: 127. otherwise.1.1 racnode1 localhost.-----------racnode-cluster-scan racnode1 true ListenerName -----------LISTENER Port -----------1521 Running? -----------true Checking name resolution setup for "racnode-cluster-scan".shtml The new nslookup shell script simply echo's back your SCAN IP address whenever the CVU calls nslookup with your SCAN host name. SCAN Name IP Address Status -----------..0..187 passed Verification of SCAN VIP and Listener setup passed Verification of scan was successful.-----------------------passed racnode-cluster-scan 192. it calls the original nslookup binary..0. Comment ---------- =============================================================================== [grid@racnode2 ~]$ cluvfy comp scan -verbose Verifying scan Checking Single Client Access Name (SCAN). The CVU will now pass during the Oracle grid infrastructure installation when it attempts to verify your SCAN: [grid@racnode1 ~]$ cluvfy comp scan -verbose Verifying scan Checking Single Client Access Name (SCAN). you will receive the following error during the RAC installation: 132 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . Comment ---------- Confirm the RAC Node Name is Not Listed in Loopback Address Ensure that the node name (racnode1 or racnode2) is not included for the loopback address in the /etc/hosts file.-----------.-----------------------.localdomain localhost If the RAC node name is listed for the loopback address..1 localhost.

Then.94 GB] inherit '/dev/rac1/asm2' [115.Logical Volumes Not Active on Boot One issue that I have run into several times occurs when using a USB drive connected to the Openfiler server.(racnode1 and racnode2).(the status for each logical volume on a working system would be set to ACTIVE). you should first check the status of all logical volumes using the lvscan command from the Openfiler server: # lvscan inactive inactive inactive inactive inactive '/dev/rac1/crs' [2. both of which are described below.94 GB] inherit '/dev/rac1/asm4' [115. It may occur with other types of drives.version 0.14 iotype_init(91) register fileio iotype_init(91) register blockio iotype_init(91) register nullio open_path(120) Can't open /dev/rac1/crs -2 fileio_attach(268) -2 open_path(120) Can't open /dev/rac1/asm1 -2 fileio_attach(268) -2 open_path(120) Can't open /dev/rac1/asm2 -2 fileio_attach(268) -2 open_path(120) Can't open /dev/rac1/asm3 -2 fileio_attach(268) -2 open_path(120) Can't open /dev/rac1/asm4 -2 fileio_attach(268) -2 Please note that I am not suggesting that this only occurs with USB drives connected to the Openfiler server.00 GB] inherit '/dev/rac1/asm1' [115. manually set each of the logical volumes to ACTIVE for each consecutive reboot: # # # # lvchange lvchange lvchange lvchange -a -a -a -a y y y y /dev/rac1/crs /dev/rac1/asm1 /dev/rac1/asm2 /dev/rac1/asm3 133 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . Method 1 One of the first steps is to shutdown both of the Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster .(also available through dmesg): iSCSI Enterprise Target Software .4. the system is able to recognize the USB drive however.94 GB] inherit Notice that the status for each of the logical volumes is set to inactive .DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.94 GB] inherit '/dev/rac1/asm3' [115.shtml ORA-00603: ORACLE server session terminated by fatal error or ORA-29702: error occurred in Cluster Group Service operation Openfiler . however I have only seen it with USB drives! If you do receive this error. When the Openfiler server is rebooted. I currently know of two methods to get Openfiler to automatically load the logical volumes on reboot. from the Openfiler server. it is not able to load the logical volumes and writes the following message to /var/log/messages .

.static -v 0 if [ -x /sbin/kpartx ]....94 GB] inherit '/dev/rac1/asm2' [115. The following is a small portion of the /etc/rc.. restart each of the Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster ..(racnode1 and racnode2).. This may take a while...... check that the iSCSI target service is running: # service iscsi-target status ietd (pid 2668) is running.... take 2 if [ -c /dev/mapper/control ]. After you have verified that each of the logical volumes will be active on boot.. then modprobe dm-multipath >/dev/null 2>&1 /sbin/multipath... then modprobe dm-mirror > /dev/null 2>&1 /sbin/dmraid -i -a y fi #----- 134 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM ..... # LVM2 initialization.............. Method 2 This method was kindly provided by Martin Jones..... then if [ -x /sbin/multipath.....94 GB] inherit As a final test..00 GB] inherit '/dev/rac1/asm1' [115. reboot the Openfiler server to ensure each of the logical volumes will be set to ACTIVE after the boot process.sysinit script to basically wait for the USB disk (/dev/sda in my example) to be detected.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.static ].. verify the external drives are powered on and then reboot the Openfiler server...sysinit script on the Openfiler server with the changes (highlighted in blue) proposed by Martin: ...sysinit script (described below). Found volume group "rac1" using metadata type lvm2 # vgchange -ay 5 logical volume(s) in volume group "rac1" now active After setting each of the logical volumes to active. After making the changes to the /etc/rc.. His workaround includes amending the /etc/rc.shtml # lvchange -a y /dev/rac1/asm4 Another method to set the status to active for all logical volumes is to use the Volume Group change command as follows: # vgscan Reading all physical volumes....... Finally..94 GB] inherit '/dev/rac1/asm3' [115. use the lvscan command again to verify the status: # lvscan ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE '/dev/rac1/crs' [2.... then /sbin/dmsetup ls --target multipath --exec "/sbin/kpartx -a" fi fi if [ -x /sbin/dmraid ]...94 GB] inherit '/dev/rac1/asm4' [115....

static vgchange -a y --ignorelockingfailure fi fi fi # Clean up SELinux labels if [ -n "$SELINUX" ].." echo "Waiting. then action $"Setting up Logical Volume Management:" /sbin/lvm..... Acknowledgements An article of this magnitude and complexity is generally not the work of one person alone. much of the content regarding the history of Oracle RAC can be found in his very popular book Oracle Database 10g Real Application Clusters Handbook.." sleep 5 done echo "INFO .. Bane was also involved with hardware recommendations and testing... for those DBA's that want to become more familiar with the features and benefits of database clustering will find the costs of configuring even a small RAC cluster costing in the range of US$15....DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12.. His research and hard work made the task of configuring Openfiler seamless...... do [ -r $file ] && restorecon $file >/dev/null 2>&1 done fi ......(racnode1 and racnode2). The RAC solution presented in this article can be put together for around US$2. While the hardware used for this guide is stable enough for educational purposes. but shared with me his experience and knowledge of the product and how to best utilize it for Oracle RAC.. However.. I would like to thank Bane Radulovic from the Server BDE Team at Oracle. there are several other individuals that deserve credit in making this article a success...static vgscan --mknodes --ignorelockingfailure && /sbin/lvm.. Conclusion Oracle RAC 11g release 2 allows the DBA to configure a clustered database solution with superior fault tolerance and load balancing. This book comes highly recommended for both DBA's and Developers 135 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . then for file in /etc/mtab /etc/ld. A special thanks to K Gopalakrishnan for his assistance in delivering the Oracle RAC 11g Overview section of this article... Although I was able to author and successfully demonstrate the validity of the components that make up this configuration. Finally..shtml #----#----- MJONES ....700 and will provide the DBA with a fully functional Oracle 11g release 2 RAC cluster...static ]..000 to US$20..Customisation Start # Check if /dev/sda is ready while [ ! -e /dev/sda ] do echo "Device /dev/sda for first USB Drive is not yet ready....... This article has hopefully given you an economical solution to setting up and configuring an inexpensive Oracle 11g release 2 RAC Cluster using Red Hat Enterprise Linux (or CentOS) and iSCSI technology.Customisation END if [ -x /sbin/lvm..Device /dev/sda for first USB Drive is ready.static vgscan > /dev/null 2>&1 . In this section..cache .so. Bane not only introduced me to Openfiler." #----#----#----- MJONES ... it should never be considered for a production environment. restart each of the Oracle RAC nodes in the cluster .......000.... First. then if /sbin/lvm.......

Inc. developing high availability solutions. This document may not be hosted on any other site without my express. All rights reserved. Seagate. written permission. Java Development Certified Professional.info. Java and PL/SQL programming. I have made every effort and taken great care in making sure that the material included on my web site is technically accurate. Database Administrator and Software Engineer for over 17 years and maintains his own website site at: http://www.DBA Tips Archive for Oracle file:///D:/rac11gr2/CLUSTER_12. His work includes advanced performance tuning. Copyright (c) 1998-2011 Jeffrey M. and Windows server environment. Last modified on Saturday.info. Jeff graduated from Stanislaus State University in Turlock. He has been a Sr. Linux. capacity planning. Author.shtml wanting to successfully implement Oracle RAC and fully understand how many of the advanced services like Cache Fusion and Global Resource Directory operate. Pennsylvania. 26-Feb-2011 12:19:26 EST Page Count: 11560 136 of 136 4/18/2011 10:17 PM . and an Oracle ACE.info is the copyright of Jeffrey M. About the Author Jeffrey Hunter is an Oracle Certified Professional. and Intel. and physical / logical database design in a UNIX.idevelopment. scripts and material located at the Internet address of http://www. damage or destruction. Application to host any of the material elsewhere can be made by contacting me at jhunter@idevelopment. LDAP. Hunter and is protected under copyright laws of the United States. Avocent Corporation. but I disclaim any and all responsibility for any loss. writing web-based database administration tools. I would like to express my appreciation to the following vendors for generously supplying the hardware for this article. prior. located in Pittsburgh. Hunter. California. Lastly. Jeff currently works as a Senior Database Administrator for The DBA Zone. database security. programming language processors (compilers and interpreters) in Java and C. damage or destruction of data or any other property which may arise from relying on it.iDevelopment. Jeff's other interests include mathematical encryption theory. I will in no case be liable for any monetary damages arising from such loss. All articles. with a Bachelor's degree in Computer Science. and of course Linux.

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