‡ ACID MINE DRAINAGE DEFINITION ACID Mine Drainage refers to acidic water that drains from coal or metal

mines. ‡ Causes ‡ Acid mine drainage is a pollution problem resulting from the oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) present in mine wastes. ‡ Specifically, acid mine drainage is water with a high concentration of sulphuric acid which can create extremely low pH conditions. ‡ The acid is produced by a simple weathering reaction when sulfide minerals associated with coal or a metal such as zinc, gold, lead or copper come into contact with oxygen-rich water near the surface, the sulfide minerals oxidize. ‡ Sources of water ‡ Surface water that infiltrates into mines ‡ Shallow groundwater that moves through mines ‡ Surface and shallow groundwater that come into contact with mining waste, called tailings. ‡ Damaging effects of AMD ‡ The leachate (acid discharge) kills vegetation and fish. ‡ Contaminates ground water ‡ Negatively affects the environment for many years following cessation of mining operations. ‡ Acid mine drainage abatement ‡ Lime treatment

‡ Lime treatment of process water is a common method of treatment in anthracite coal washing plants. ‡ Treatment neutralizes the acidity and removes heavy metals, especially iron. ‡ High purity limestone or a combination of lime and pulverized limestone (a split limestone-lime treatment) are used. ‡ Two step treatment process ‡ Step one: treat acid mine drainage waters with finely ground limestone to raise the pH to between 5 and 6. ‡ Ferric iron precipitates out. ‡ Step two: add lime to complete neutralization process by raising the pH to about 9. ‡ Ferrous iron precipitates out. ‡ Hazards of lime treatment ‡ Lime is a high cost material ‡ Produces large volume of fine sludge ‡ Streams and aquatic life may be adversely affected by accidental over treatment ‡ Advantages of limestone ‡ Limestone is less caustic so it poses less hazard for operating personnel to handle the material. ‡ Most effective as an acid neutralizing agent in a pH range of up to 6.0 ‡ Produces lower volumes of fine sludge. ‡ Bioreclamation

‡ Bioreclamation can be used to abate acid mine drainage environmental hazards. (injection zones) is to isolate hazardous substance from the biosphere. The pumping liquid should be compactible with the subsurface rocks and fluids. ‡ Hazardous Waste Management ‡ Nuclear & chemical Waste ‡ Insitu Vitrification ‡ Deep well injection of liquid waste ‡ Disposal of Hazardous Liquid waste in Deep wells. mainly of industrial origin. ‡ Desulfovibrio desulfurican bacteria is capable of raising the pH of natural acidic wetland soil from 4. reactive and ignitable ‡ Injection of liquid wastes.4 to 7. ‡ Geological considerations . ‡ This biochemical reactions are known to abate the acid mine drainage problem. ‡ This microbial activities can be enhanced by constructing anaerobic wetland to accelerate the biochemical reactions.4. corrosive. Also the pressure must be sufficient to displace the native fluids. ‡ Hazardous liquid waste are toxic. ‡ Injection zones used for chemical waste disposal characteristically are permeable saline-bearing sandstone and carbonate rocks. into a deep underground formation. but not so great to cause fracturing of the strata or excessive migration of the waste. These injection zones are at a depth of 400 to 1500 meters below the surfaces. The bacteria reduces sulphate concentration under anaerobic conditions and produces hydro-oxides.

corrosive.for example. thickness and low permeability to prevent migration of the waste from the disposal zone.‡ A suitable formation should meet the following criteria: ‡ It should have no value as a resource. ‡ Hazardous liquid waste are toxic. ‡ It must have sufficient porosity and volume to accept the anticipated volume of liquids. reactive and ignitable . ‡ Advantages & Disadvantages ‡ advantages :Deep well injections is presently the cheapest method of waste disposal. as a source of drinking water. ‡ It must be sealed above and below by formations with sufficient strength. hydrocarbons. or geothermal energy. to minimize both the risk of the earthquake to the well and the triggering of seismic events. ‡ Disadvantages : there is the tendency of the wastes to contaminate underground source of drinkable water ‡ Hazardous Waste Management ‡ Nuclear & chemical Waste ‡ Insitu Vitrification ‡ Deep well injection of liquid waste ‡ Disposal of Hazardous Liquid waste in Deep wells. ‡ It should be located in an area with little seismic activity. ‡ Neglible waste treatment occurs to injection ‡ There are virtually no restrictions on the type of wastes that may be injected.

mainly of industrial origin. ‡ It must be sealed above and below by formations with sufficient strength. ‡ Injection zones used for chemical waste disposal characteristically are permeable saline-bearing sandstone and carbonate rocks. Also the pressure must be sufficient to displace the native fluids. hydrocarbons. ‡ Geological considerations ‡ A suitable formation should meet the following criteria: ‡ It should have no value as a resource. ‡ It must have sufficient porosity and volume to accept the anticipated volume of liquids. but not so great to cause fracturing of the strata or excessive migration of the waste. These injection zones are at a depth of 400 to 1500 meters below the surfaces. (injection zones) is to isolate hazardous substance from the biosphere. ‡ Advantages & Disadvantages ‡ advantages :Deep well injections is presently the cheapest method of waste disposal.‡ Injection of liquid wastes.for example. ‡ It should be located in an area with little seismic activity. or geothermal energy. into a deep underground formation. The pumping liquid should be compactible with the subsurface rocks and fluids. ‡ Neglible waste treatment occurs to injection . as a source of drinking water. to minimize both the risk of the earthquake to the well and the triggering of seismic events. thickness and low permeability to prevent migration of the waste from the disposal zone.

Recycling. dirt ‡ Municipal services: street sweepings. Avoid disposable items such as plastic bottles paper cups and plates. ‡ Disadvantages : there is the tendency of the wastes to contaminate underground source of drinkable water ‡ Management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Source reduction. paper. metal pieces. Recycling. beaches and sludges. Ghana Environmental Protection Agency. electronics etc ‡ Industrial & commercial : housekeeping waste. ‡ Construction and demolition: wood. steel. Incineration & Landfilling ‡ Source reduction:: Keeping the amount of waste generated to a minimum. improvements in material quality. landscape and tree trimmings. textiles. ‡ Source Reduction.‡ There are virtually no restrictions on the type of wastes that may be injected. paper. work or play because the disposal of municipal waste has been a problem since the dawn of civilization. glass. plastics. cardboard. concrete. plastics. For example. The recent population explosion has also led to tremendous generation of solid waste. glass. yard wastes. wastes from parks. substitution of materials . ‡ Residential : food wastes. Reduction is accomplished through process modifications. reported that the cities of Accra and Kumasi generates about 44800 metric tons of muncipal solid waste per month. and increased efficiencies. . raw material quantity reduction. Incineration and Landfill ‡ Sources and Types of solid waste Municipal solid waste affects our quality of life regardless of where we live.

It ensures a stable supply of that material. They include varieties of glass. reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfills) ‡ Recyclable materials are many and varied.‡ Recycling: Recyling reduce municipal solid waste. ‡ Incineration: Burning waste to ashes and sometime generate energy. Disadvantages: Methane & carbon dioxide responsible for the greenhouse effect or global warming . textiles. plastics. ‡ RECYCLING PROCESS ‡ ‡ Collection: Drop-off and Buy Back centers drop-off centers require the waste producer to carry the solid waste to a central location. and electronics components and recyled asphalt pavements (rap). it saves kilowatts of electricity(energy). paper. metal. It saves natural resources such as trees and mineral deposits. ‡ ‡ SORTING: Early sorting of recyclable materials are important step in recycling and this involves a seies of manual or automated processes. which can be either a mobile or installed center or reprocessing plant itself. . reduce energy usage. reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials. RECYCLING OF SOLID WASTE ‡ Recycling is processing used materials (waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials. It reduces global warming. buy-back centers as the name implies rewards people for returning specified materials items for cash. ‡ Landfilling: common method of dealing with municipal solid.

More trees in the forest reduces global warming. bauxite. glass and metals. a paper mill uses 40 percent less energy to make paper from recycled paper than it does to make paper from fresh lumber. For example. ‡ Benefits of Recycling ‡ Energy : Recycling saves a lot of energy. ‡ Deforestation is reduced since less trees are felled down to make newspapers. however the amount of saved energy depends on the recyclable material. Also. Metals such as steel and aluminium are very costly to manufacture . . The conserved bauxite and iron ores also saves the environmental terrain from surface mining and mine wastes tailings. recycling aluminium cans. ‡ Incineration ‡ Definition: Incinerate is to burn completely or to reduce to ashes. ‡ Conservation of Natural Resources: Recycling of solid waste materials into new products helps to conserve many natural resources. prevents erosion and runoff. ‡ Recycling reduces amount of garbage going to the landfill thereby saving landfill space for other developmental projects. ‡ Employment : Recyling creats emploment opportunities ‡ Education: people should be educated about the importance of recyling to the environment and economy. so they are the world s most recyled materials. Steel cans and scraps are melted and annealed at recycling plants to make the steel new again. save 95 percent of the energy required to make the same amount of aluminium from its virgin source.‡ RECYCLING PLANT: Different Recycling plants are set up for different materials such as papers. About 67 percent of the steel is recycled .

liquid injection. . sludge until it is converted to ash. Critical design variables include combustion chamber temperature. residence time. ‡ Production of thermal energy. concentration and type of contaminants ‡ How does it work?: Waste is fed in. and aldehydes. Reduction of waste volume is 90 %. After the process is complete. ‡ Performance is constant and predictable. when incinerators are properly designed. heavy metals. And mass reduction of75%. ‡ Advantages & Disadvantages of Incinerators ‡ Advantages: When designed and operated properly. ‡ Disadvantages: High operating and capital costs. Sox.‡ An incinerator is a unit or facility used to burn all kinds of waste materials such as gas. removal of combustible pollutants such as toxins and pathogenically contaminated material is essentially complete. waste gas flare and direct flame. Nox. flue gas and heat . and oxygen (such as chlorine and sulfur) causing production of acidic gases that result in corrosion problems. Potential emissions include CO. ‡ Incineration is a high-efficiency process.9 %. destruction efficiency can be as high as 99. HCl. ‡ Formation of secondary products during incineration of compounds containing elements other than carbon. . Waste material are allowed to combust with the aid of air (oxygen). ‡ Public opposition due to concern about emissions. turbulence (degree of mixing). fluidized bed. ash and flue gas generated are disposed of appropriately. catalytic bed. emission is quite clean and safe. ‡ Types of incinerators: Rotary kiln. solid. The furnace is ignited and the temperature is raised to suite the waste material to be burned. hydrogen. liquid.

design. At least there should be minimum vertical separation of 3 meters between the landfill liner and the seasonally high water table. ‡ Abundant workable soils to cover daily or at least twice a week of deposited garbage. ‡ Landfill Facility phases ‡ Siting ‡ Design ‡ Construction ‡ Operation ‡ Closure ‡ Post-closure care ‡ Selecting the Ideal landfill Site ‡ Deep soil with low hydraulic conductivity. Soils with a clay-rich matrix would minimize the risk of leachate into the groundwater in the event of liner failure. ‡ Adequate deposits of final cover of low permeability soils to act as a cap for the landfill to minimize the infiltration of rainfall at the site ‡ Deep occurrence of ground water table.‡ Analysis and design of Landfills Introduction A sanitary landfill is an engineered facility that requires detailed planning. ‡ Technical and non-technical criteria ‡ Proximity to populated areas and transportation routes . specification. construction and efficient operation.

USA restricts new landfill development near airports b cos of the potential hazards that birds cause to aircraft. parks.‡ Potential impacts on ecologically sensitive areas such as lakes. The excavated area is lined with compacted clayey soil. ‡ On top of the clay is a liner called geo-textile membrane (a non biodegradable plastic) which prevents the leachate (leaked waste water from the solid waste) from seeping into the ground to contaminate the ground water. wetlands and lagoons ‡ Wind direction and speed . ‡ Protection of air quality and conservation of energy by installing a landfill gas recovery system ‡ Minimizing impact on adjacent wetlands by controlling and diverting or impounding surface runoff ‡ ‡ minimizing transport time for site users provision for miximum use of land upon site completion ‡ Construction of an engineered landfill ‡ The selected landfill site is excavated into a trapezoidal shape and divided into cells. ‡ not my backyard but in someone s else town ‡ Design goals ‡ Protection of groundwater quality by minimizing discharge\leakage of leachates from landfill. . including ordor. and erosion considerations ‡ Dry climate and low infiltration rates ‡ Social and political concerns ‡ Proximity to airport FAA. rivers. dust . streams.

After the first month or so. nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide.or other animals of public health significance capable of causing human discomfort or injury. the organic material within a landfill cell decomposes. Gaseous products of the initial aerobic decomposition include carbon dioxide and water. mosquitoes. and other trace amounts carbon monoxide. LANDFILL GAS & LEACHATE ‡ VECTORS : In landfill parlance. mice. ‡ LANDFILL CAS: Once covered. ‡ Underground monitoring wells are installed around the landfill to ensure that the liner and leachate collection system are operating properly. ‡ Buldozers are used to spread the wastes at the landfill site and then compacted using steel wheeled rollers (compactors) to reduce the vokume of wastes. a vector is an insect or rodent.‡ Installed perforated pipes on top of the geomembrane help drain away the leachate from the geo textile membrane surface. This process continues until the targeted height of a cell is reached. ‡ A low permeability cap is installed to prevent water infiltrating into the closed land fill. Vertical pipes are also installed to collect built up gases. the decomposing waste will have exhausted the oxygen from the cell. cockroaches and vultures. These gases . laterite is used to spread over the compacted wastes to control odors and vectors. Digestion continues anaerobic producing a low-heating value landfill gas consisting of approximately 50 % methane. Decomposition occurs at temperatures of 40 to 60 degrees. ‡ After the compaction.. VECTORS. or capable of harboring or transmitting the causative agent of human disease. Aerobic conditions prevail for approximately the first month. Vectors include flies. 49 % carbon dioxide.

36 m .3 m* 1. It consists of comparing the weight of a column of soil between bottom o f excavation and a confined aquifer to the hydrostatic pressure or head in confined aquifer. how deep can the excaqvation proceed before the bottom heaves? Use a factor of safety of 1. and iprecipitation. Leachates contaminate the surrounding soils and groundwater.are collected and destroyed or a gas collection system collect these gas to generate electricity to supply energy to local communities. ‡ LEACHATE: Leachate are liquid wastes containing dissolved and finely suspended solid matter and microbial waste produced in landfills.2 =6. If an open excavation is to be made in the clay. This helps avoid any explosion under the wastes. water runoff. Leachate becomes more concentrated as the landfill ages. ‡ BASAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF LANDFILL EXCATIONS ‡ The basal stability analysis is to ensure the stability against heave of the bottom of an excavation destined for a landfill.2. Leachate forms from liquids brought into the landfill. It was observed that the sand layer underlying the clay was under artesian pressure. ‡ An exploratory drill hole in a saturated stiff clay.48.Water in the drill hole rose to a height of 10 meters.0 kN\m ‡ Solution: 18.48*t = 9. unit weight of clay is 18. A factor of safety is then used.81*10. t =5.

Eg. ‡ Characteristics of hazardous waste ‡ A waste is considered hazardous if it exhibits one or more of the following characteristics: ignitability. stored. Flammable liquids such as solvents. toxic fumes or gases. waste oils. brake fluids . wastes from acids and alkaline liquids. eg. or infectious characteristics which may either a) cause an increase in mortality or serious illness or b) pose a present or future hazard to health or the environment when improperly treated.Hazardous Waste Management Nuclear & chemical Waste Insitu Vitrification Deep well injection of liquid waste ‡ Hazardous waste (soilids. chemical. or managed. ‡ Reactive : a substance which reacts violently with water to create explosions. The mixture rule states that any solid waste mixed with hazardous waste becomes hazardous. ash from the incineration of hazardous waste) remains a hazardous waste. and toxicity.5.g. The derived from rule states that any waste derived from the treatment of a hazardous waste (e. ‡ Corrosive: if the pH is less than 2 or greater than 12. Eg. disposed of. ‡ Ignitable: wastes whose flash point is less than 60 degrees celcius. corrosivity. litium-sulfur batteries and explosives . reactivity. ‡ Two notable rules pertain to hazardous wastes. liquids & gas) ‡ Definition: Hazardous waste is defined as solid or liquid or gas which is in large quantity. or concentration. transported. or has physical.

.‡ Toxic: Wastes which are harmful or fatal when ingested or absorbed . mercury. maintenance. Nuclear waste is classified as low. cells and red blood copuscles and may cause cancer and leukemia. uranium-238 and thorium-232. and nuclear bomb production. nuclear research projects. and disposal. medium. ‡ When in a molten state. chromium. arsenic. ‡ All substances are slightly radioactive from the decay of naturally occuring isotopes such as carbon-14. they also present huge hurdles in terms of their safe processing. and high-level waste depending on the amount of radioactivity the waste produces. use. ‡ Nuclear waste ‡ Nuclear waste is the radioactive waste left over from nuclear reactors. SOURCES OF NUCLEAR WASTE: ‡ A) The largest source of nuclear waste is naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM) eg radon gas ‡ B) The other primary source of nuclear waste is human-built nuclear reactors and leftover depleted uranium from the enrichment process. herbicides and pesticides. glasses tend to be highly corrosive and dissolve other oxides readily . and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Lead. benzene. ‡ Disposal of Nuclear waste: while nuclear materials represent some of the highest levels of tectnological development. Eg. ‡ Harmful effects of nuclear wastes: nuclear wastes emit harmful radiations which damage our tissues.

reactive and ignitable . ‡ Compounds such as dichlorodiphenoltrichloromethane (DDT) and dioxins.Disposal of nuclear waste ‡ Glasses are nonselective in this dissolution because their noncrystalline nature permits them to incorporate other atoms without much regard for size. toxic materials. ground waters and destroy auatic life and terrestrial animals. ‡ ‡ Disposal of Hazardous Liquid waste in Deep wells. paints. One way to take advantage of this characteristic is to use particularly durable glasses as a matrix material for disposal of high-level nuclear waste. ‡ Hazardous chemical waste pollute rivers. alkalis. PCB are more soluble in fats than in water and therefore tend to build up in the fats within plants and animals. acids. ‡ Nuclear waste is combined with glassmaking ingredients and fed to the top of as an aqueous slurry. valence or crystal form. ‡ Harmful effect of Chemical waste ‡ Chemical waste includes solvents. The water evaporates and the ingredients combine to form a homogeneous black glass. laboratory chemicals whose shelf life has expired and has deteriorated with age. ‡ All nuclear wastes must be identified before disposal. ‡ The nuclear waste must be sealed and packaged appropriately for storage and disposal. lakes. corrosive. photographic chemicals. in which the radioactive elements (waste) are dissolved at the molecular level. ‡ Hazardous liquid waste are toxic.

‡ It should be located in an area with little seismic activity.for example. mainly of industrial origin. hydrocarbons. thickness and low permeability to prevent migration of the waste from the disposal zone. (injection zones) is to isolate hazardous substance from the biosphere. ‡ Neglible waste treatment occurs to injection . to minimize both the risk of the earthquake to the well and the triggering of seismic events. These injection zones are at a depth of 400 to 1500 meters below the surfaces. Also the pressure must be sufficient to displace the native fluids. The pumping liquid should be compactible with the subsurface rocks and fluids. or geothermal energy. ‡ It must be sealed above and below by formations with sufficient strength. ‡ Advantages & Disadvantages ‡ advantages :Deep well injections is presently the cheapest method of waste disposal. ‡ Injection zones used for chemical waste disposal characteristically are permeable saline-bearing sandstone and carbonate rocks. as a source of drinking water. but not so great to cause fracturing of the strata or excessive migration of the waste. ‡ Geological considerations ‡ A suitable formation should meet the following criteria: ‡ It should have no value as a resource. ‡ It must have sufficient porosity and volume to accept the anticipated volume of liquids.‡ Injection of liquid wastes. into a deep underground formation.

‡ Disadvantages : there is the tendency of the wastes to contaminate underground source of drinkable water ‡ Engineered Remediation Processes ‡ In situ remediation schemes are introduced for the treatment of both groundwater and the vadose zone. cement or steel. ‡ Soil vapour extraction and bioventing are popular treatment schemes used for vadose zone. ‡ Air-sparging and pump-and treat technologies are used to remediate groundwater. The vadose zone is the unsaturated zone between the land surface and the water table. ‡ REMOVAL: (PUMP & TREAT TECHNOLOGY) The most common way of removing a full range of contaminants ( including metals. ‡ CHEMISTRY: known reactive chemicals are used to either immobilize or detoxify the contaminant. . ‡ HYDRAULICS: Extraction wells are installed to keep contaminants from moving past the wells. volatile organic compounds (VOC). Another process is In situ vitrification ‡ Remediation process ‡ Containment:: ‡ PHYSICAL: Groundwater contamination can be contained physically by using an underground barrier of clay.‡ There are virtually no restrictions on the type of wastes that may be injected. herbicides and pesticides from an aquifer is by capturing the pollution with extraction wells and then treating the contaminant waterabove ground and the reulting clean water is discharged back into the aquifer or a river.

‡ Value of In Situ Vitrification to Soil & Groundwater Remediation. As the air moves through the aquifer. The relevant meaning of "In Situ Vitrification" in respect to soil and groundwater pollution is to turn the soil containing the pollutant into a large block of glass.‡ Air sparging: Small diameter wells are used to pump air into the aquifer. Yhe contaminant air that rises to the top of the aquifer is then collected using vapor extraction wells. ‡ IN SITU VITRIFICATION ‡ ‡ What is In Situ Vitrification? ‡ The process of In Situ Vitrification. The pollutant can then be left in place forever encased inside of the glass. ‡ The Advantages of In Situ Vitrification. ‡ What is In Situ Vitrification? ‡ In Situ Vitrification is a new technology developed for a new nastier breed of contaminants and pollutants. "In Situ" means to work in place. it evaporates the volatile chemicals. A normal site undergoing in Situ Vitrification looks like the following. "Vitrification" is the process to make glass out of something. . ‡ The Process of In Situ Vitrification.

600 to 1. powerful generators or a direct line to a city power grid are activated. As the electricity passes through the soil great heat is produced. The Vitrification depth is limited by the length of the graphite electrodes and the availability of power. During the molten phase of the process almost all of the void spaces in the soil are removed .800 degrees Celcius. increasing the amount of molten soil. The inorganic pollutants or heavy metals are encased in the glass formed by the vitrification process. This heat reduces the soil into a molten form. The temperatures achieved by In Situ Vitrification have reached temperatures ranging from 1. As the ground liquefies the electrodes move deeper. Radioactive materials are also encased in the glass and the glass formed by the soil also helps to limit the radiation leakage. After the determination of what type of pollutant is involved the decision to use in situ vitrification can be made.400 tons and depths exceeding 20-ft have been achieved. As the electrodes are driven into the ground. This is a treatment system for the rendering volatile or dangerous gasses from the vitrification process inert. Adjacent processes can fuse the vitrified blocks together to form a single contiguous monolith. In Situ Vitrification utilizes 4 large graphite electrodes that are inserted into the ground in a square pattern. The electricity arcs from one electrode to another. The gases are then transported to an off-gas treatment center. Individual blocks of glass have been formed as large as 1. ‡ The gasses rise to the surface where they are collected by a gas hood over the affected site.‡ The first part of the procedure for using In Situ Vitrification is determining the type of pollutants in the ground. As the molten soil solidifies into glass the graphite electrodes become entombed. Organic pollutants are pyrolyzed and are generally reduced into gasses. ‡ In situ vitrification cont d ‡ The pollutants react in various ways to this remediation technique. When the graphite electrodes have reached the maximum possible depth the electricity is shut off and the electrodes are disconnected from the system.

In the case of the contamination ‡ Value of In Situ Vitrification to Soil and Groundwater Remediation. ‡ The Insitu vtrification process can have several advantages over other remediation processes or the removing of the pollutant in question. This gives the owner of the project a large saftey benefit as there is less risk of exposure in the cleanup. in situ vitrification is a more comprehensive remediation technique. This results in a very dense block of glass.and therefore there is a volume reduction of 20-50%. After the vitrification process is completed. Below is a list of these advantages: . inorganic. The process of vitrification does not care if the contaminants are organic. ‡ Vitrification can deal with multiple types of contamination at once is the largest advantage of this remediation technique. The remeditation is extremely effective. the fused glass block can even be left in place. ‡ Vitrification deals with the site on location not requiring expensive waste removal processes that spread out the contamination zone.400 tons and are not subject to breakdown or other decomposition from the environment. ‡ In a comparison of In Situ Vitrification and other remediation methods. or radioactive materials. The block represents a compaction of the soil from 20-50% of the original soil volume. The blocks can weigh as much as 1. ‡ The Advantages of In Situ Vitrification (1) ‡ There are many advantages to In Situ Vitrification over other conventional remediation techniques. A side effect of this is the formation of the fused soil block. destroying or immobilizing almost all of the contaminants.

‡ Single step Process Quicker -> This process takes only about 24 to 36 hours as opposed to weeks or possibly years. Soil conditions can also affect the price of the process. ‡ Value of In Situ Vitrification to Soil and Groundwater Remediation. Permanent containment Requires no cleaning of soils An on-site problem solver Fixes problem with no transport You get a proper disposal of pollutant Waste is contained Allows biodegradation of waste depending on half-life Protects soil from possible leaching or leaking of waste ‡ The Advantages of In Situ Vitrification (2) ‡ must be removed after treatment. Where the price of electricity is around $. Permanent containment . ‡ The Insitu vtrification process can have several advantages over other remediation processes or the removing of the pollutant in question. Some information that affects this is the depth of the contamination. the price of In Situ Vitrification ranges from $250/ton $750/ton. Below is a list of these advantages: ‡ Single step Process Quicker -> This process takes only about 24 to 36 hours as opposed to weeks or possibly years.07KW. for deeper projects the price is generally lower. ‡ The cost of In Situ Vitrification depends on the availability of the electricity for the melting process. the reduced volume of the block and it solid nature make the transportation easier.

6. John. John.htm .com/ttvitrif.em. "Geosafe In Situ Vitrification Site Demonstration" Geosafe Corporation.gtri.html ‡ Tixier. "Environmental Applications Research and Future Plans in Plasma Arc Technology at the Georgia Institute of Technology" Georgia Tech Research Corporation. 26 Sep 96. November 1995.70. Terry. http://eoemlwww. "In Situ Vitrification Treats Organics and Inorganics" Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory of the U. 13 Apr 96. http://www.23/html_docs/rrd/hansen. http://clu-in. "In Situ Vitrification" Pacific Northwest Corporation. Environmental Protection Agency.gatech.html ‡ Nemeth.doe. http://128.html ‡ Richardson.Requires no cleaning of soils An on-site problem solver Fixes problem with no transport You get a proper disposal of pollutant Waste is contained Allows biodegradation of waste depending on half-life Protects soil from possible leaching or leaking of waste ‡ References ‡ Hanson.edu/lab/nemeth_paper. James.S.gov/rainland/land49. 31 Mar 95.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful