Transformer Lecture

The Transformer and its Maintenance
CJC V30 Transformer Oil Vacuum Filtration Unit & Ion Exchange Filtration Units

C.C.JENSEN A/S - Kim Kjær – March 2005

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Transformer Lecture
The V30 Vacuum Filter
Installed at Rathkeale Power Station, Ireland

C.C.JENSEN A/S - Kim Kjær – March 2005

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Transformer Lecture V30 – Mo I Rana, Norway

C.C.JENSEN A/S - Kim Kjær – March 2005

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Transformer Lecture
V30 Production
C.C.JENSEN A/S Svendborg

C.C.JENSEN A/S - Kim Kjær – March 2005

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Transformer Lecture Hypothesis
Oil O2
Acids are formed by oxidation

H2O
Paper ageing: Water & acids

Acids

accelerates ageing. Water is formed

Oil reclaiming Transformer refurbishment

H2O

Source: L. Lundgaard, SINTEF Energiforskning AS

C.C.JENSEN A/S - Kim Kjær – March 2005

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Accelerators: Heat.JENSEN A/S . Oxygen.Kim Kjær – March 2005 6 . C. Vibrations / overload.C. Dirt. Copper. Ageing products. Electrical stress / voltage waves.Transformer Lecture Ageing Factors Catalysts: Water.

C.Transformer Lecture Ageing Processes Pyrolysis (heat) Hydrolysis (reactions with water) Oxidation (reactions with O2) C.JENSEN A/S .Kim Kjær – March 2005 7 .

cupper). age). Acts as catalyst for further oxidation. Acts as catalyst for further oxidation.C. Reduces the “break-down voltage”. C2H4.Kim Kjær – March 2005 8 .Transformer Lecture The Transformer and its Maintenance When oil (CxHy) and O2 react chemically the oil starts to deteriorate (oxidize. CO2. Reduces the cooling effect. C. Deteriorates the cellulose. Acids: Create corrosion Acts as catalyst for further oxidation Water: Deteriorates the cellulose. Gasses: Among others CO. During this reaction the following compounds are formed: Sludge: Reduces the “break-down voltage”. CH4 .JENSEN A/S . acids. H2. C4H6. O2. C6H8. water. The aging process dramatically increases the higher the oil temperature is and if catalysts are present (sludge.

75 0. AS .25 1.Kim Kjær – March 2005 9 .Transformer Lecture Development in Transformer Design Year 1915 1930 1945 1960 1975 1977 1979 Ltrs of oil / kVa 9.C.JENSEN A/S .50 0.SDMyers. C.50 Source: Grestad Diag.50 2. & Rehab.65 0.00 4.

JENSEN A/S . 10-15 % due to core mechanically weakened by twisting. Old constructions may have gas problems due to induction loss.C. 3-5 % due to far progressed ageing. AS Doble og ZTZ C.Transformer Lecture Causes of Failure 70 % of all failures happens on transformers older than 30 years. Source: Grestad Diag. water and particles in the isolation. & Rehab. 15-20 % are due to reduced stability.Kim Kjær – March 2005 10 . 50 % of the failures originates in OLTC and lead-in bushings.

JENSEN A/S .C. Accelerated Ageing (130 C) With/Without Presence of Oxygen 1200 1100 1000 900 800 DP-value 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Oxygen No Oxygen Time [days] C.Kim Kjær – March 2005 11 .Transformer Lecture Lowering the Oxygen Concentration slows Down Oxidation Depolymerisation of Cellulose.

Source: Roland Agnemo C. 0% and 1% moisture.Transformer Lecture Ageing of Cellulose – No Oxygen Present Ageing under a Nitrogen blanket.C.JENSEN A/S . Please note the relative speed of the ageing btw. These curves are interesting because they show the effect of ”no oxygen” (same as having an efficient Nitrogen blanket). This change in reduction of DP is much more severe than from 1-2% moisture.Kim Kjær – March 2005 12 .

AS .00 1.Transformer Lecture Oxygen . / SDMyers. & Rehab.10 0.C.00 3.affecting Transformer Life Length 100.03 0.00 30. C.00 Year 10.JENSEN A/S .Kim Kjær – March 2005 13 .00 0.01 90 110 O 130 150 170 190 Low Hig h O 2 O 2 con ten t con te nt C Source: Grestad Diag.30 0.

Kim Kjær – March 2005 Continuous degassing (freedom from water and oxygen.5 %.33 mBar). gas-hungry oil). < 0. Conclusions: Higher dielectric strength of the oil. < 5 µm. C. Source: TG Diagnostikk & Lampe et al.ASEA 1977 (today ABB) In the years 1976 & 1977 ASEA published articles about the oxygen-free transformer. <1 Torr (1. 14 . Ageing rate reduced by a factor of 5. Gas-free oil: 200 N/m2. Specification: Oxygen: Water: Particles: < 300 µl/l. Continuous monitoring of the gassing rate for total and combustible gases. These features are achieved with a a new apparatus which incorporates: Continuous filtration (freedom from fibres and metal particles in the oil). It was tested on a transformer with rubber membrane and continuous degassed including filtration. Continuous monitoring of the gassing rate.C. Reduced ageing.Transformer Lecture The Oxygen-Free Transformer DEOX .JENSEN A/S .

Kim Kjær – March 2005 15 .JENSEN A/S .Transformer Lecture Life Expectancy can be Calculated from Water Content and Temperature. Lundgaard.C. SINTEF Energiforskning AS C. Expected Life 1 1 13350 DPEnd 1000 * e T 273 year A * 24 * 365 Source: L.

20oC gives acceleration of e2 = 7.Transformer Lecture The Model Facilitiates Analyses of Impact from Temperature and Water. Source: L.Kim Kjær – March 2005 16 . Wet and 20oC gives acceleration of e2+3 = 7. Lundgaard.JENSEN A/S . SINTEF Energiforskning AS C. Dry to wet gives acceleration of e3 = 20.4.C.4 x 20 = 148.

C.C.JENSEN A/S .Transformer Lecture Acid generation accelerates when water and oxygen are present.Kim Kjær – March 2005 17 . Acid in turn causes acid-hydrolysis.

JENSEN A/S .C.Transformer Lecture Gases generated during a Fault Combustible Gas Generation vs. approximate Oil Decomposition Temperature.Kim Kjær – March 2005 18 . C.

Kim Kjær – March 2005 .JENSEN A/S .Transformer Lecture The Transformer and its Maintenance Gas Analysis Gas H2 CH4 CO CO2 CH4 C2H6 C2H4 H2 C2H2 CO CO2 Hydrogen Methane Carbonmonoxide Carbon dioxide Methane Ethane Ethylene Hydrogen Acethylene Carbonmonoxide Carbon dioxide Decomposition of cellulose 19 Reason Normal ageing High oil temp.C. Partial discharges Arcing C.

JENSEN A/S .5% ann water CO2: More than 2.Transformer Lecture CO and CO2 is produced through paper Ageing CO / CO2: 1/10 = normal oil ageing 1/1 = very hot 2/1 = very very hot 1/5 = normal ageing of paper water 8% vann v 0.000 ppm is alarming! C.Kim Kjær – March 2005 20 .C.

5 C O/C O2 Ratio 0 0 5 10 15 20 Probability of failure [%] 25 Source: Lars Arvidsson. Acceptable dissolved gas-in-oil concentration levels in power and instrument transformers as function of age. F.Gervais.5 2 1.Transformer Lecture CO / CO2 Ratio CO/CO2 Ratio CO/CO2 ratio CO/CO2 Ratio curve for recorded failures in Canada on conservator type transformers without tap changers communicating with the main body.Duval.G. C.JENSEN A/S .Kim Kjær – March 2005 21 .500 transformers.P. 2.C. 2.5 1 0.Belanger. M.Langdeau.

C.C. 22 . SINTEF Energiforskning AS. Will remove some acids from paper. Lundgaard. Oil acidity is reported to be stable and low after fluidex treatment (how many passes).Kim Kjær – March 2005 Source: L. But with oil in the transformer the moisture transport takes time.JENSEN A/S .Transformer Lecture Oil Regeneration & Reclaiming Will remove some moisture from paper.

C. so we can remove 240 g per 24 hours.6% of 1 ton of paper – 46 kg of water.we have 10 g per ton.8% of water in cellulose.Transformer Lecture Transformer Features: • • • • Working at 20°C 1 ton of paper 10 tons of oil 10 ppm water measured in oil Degasser Features: • Flow 1000 l/h • Removal efficiency 100% Calculation: • We can clean 24 tons in per 24 hours . • 4.JENSEN A/S . Calculation: • 10 ppm of water – 10 mg/kg – 10 g/ton in 10 tons of oil: 100 g of water.Kim Kjær – March 2005 23 . • We have totally 46. • 100 g of water in oil and 46 kg of water in paper – 99.100 g / 240 g = it takes 192 days to remove all water in this transformer.100 g of water in the transformer – 46.C.

C. B=1567-1670 C.Transformer Lecture Water in Oil – Water in Cellulose Relation T (C) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Commen 20 33 53 82 122 179 255 358 491 663 880 Griffin 23 36 56 83 122 174 243 334 450 596 777 Shell 22 35 55 84 124 180 255 355 484 648 855 Log(Water ppm) = A – B/T Where A=7.Kim Kjær – March 2005 100 24 .JENSEN A/S .09-7.42.

JENSEN A/S .at different oil temperatures 10 W a t e r i n ce ll u l o se ( W % ) 20 C O 30 C O 8 6 4 2 0 50 C O 70 C 90 C O O 0 20 40 Water in oil (ppm) 60 80 C.Transformer Lecture The Transformer and its Maintenance Oil/Cellulose Humidity Correlation .Kim Kjær – March 2005 25 .C.

water.Kim Kjær – March 2005 26 .Transformer Lecture Summarizing “End-of-life” of transformer = “End-of-life” of cellulose isolation. oxygen and ageing products are severely contributing to transformer ageing.JENSEN A/S . continuous degassing and regeneration. Heat. C.C. The possibilities of reconditioning transformers on site are good: drying.

C. By removing particles the break down voltage is increased.Transformer Lecture Conclusion By lowering the Oxygen concentration in the oil.C. the oxidation (degradation) of the cellulose is reduced.Kim Kjær – March 2005 27 . By reducing acidity levels the transformer cellulose is better protected against ageing acceleration.JENSEN A/S . By removing water from the transformer the remaining life time is increased.

C.JENSEN A/S .Transformer Lecture Vacuum Filtration Unit Highly efficient Deaeration & Drying of Power Transformer Oils.Kim Kjær – March 2005 28 . C.

C.Principle of Operation C A = Oil Inlet B = Oil Outlet C = Gas Outlet D = Oil Drain C.Transformer Lecture V30 Vacuum Filter .JENSEN A/S .Kim Kjær – March 2005 D B A 29 .

Kim Kjær – March 2005 30 .JENSEN A/S .Transformer Lecture C.C.

JENSEN A/S . C.Kim Kjær – March 2005 31 .C. The curve above shows the efficiency of full flow and minimum pressure of 2 mBar.Transformer Lecture V30 Efficiency of Water Removal Example: 20 ppm in >> 6 ppm out The V30 will remove moisture down to 4 ppm given time enough.

JENSEN A/S .Kim Kjær – March 2005 .C.Transformer Lecture Water Removal on a very dry Transformer. Stubbekøbing water content in/out [ppm] 6 5 4 3 2 ppm in ppm out 1 0 06-06-03 07-06-03 08-06-03 09-06-03 10-06-03 11-06-03 12-06-03 13-06-03 32 tim e C.

Transformer Lecture Oxygen Removal V30 Stubbekøbing O2 Concentration vs time.C. 22000 20000 18000 Oxygen concentration in oil [ppm] 16000 14000 12000 V30 Started 20910 V30 Started 10000 8000 V30 Stopped 6000 4000 2000 0 02-03-2003 5870 1940 200 11-04-2003 01-05-2003 21-05-2003 10-06-2003 30-06-2003 20-07-2003 720 580 22-03-2003 1307 09-08-2003 Time C.Kim Kjær – March 2005 33 . Denmark.JENSEN A/S . 8000L oil in transformer. Stubbekøbing.

Ljusdal Transformer Lecture 34 .C.Gas in oil concentration [ppm] 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 2000 4000 6000 8000 0 24-07-1998 01-11-1998 09-02-1999 20-05-1999 28-08-1999 06-12-1999 15-03-2000 23-06-2000 01-10-2000 09-01-2001 Tim e 19-04-2001 28-07-2001 05-11-2001 13-02-2002 24-05-2002 01-09-2002 10-12-2002 20-03-2003 28-06-2003 06-10-2003 14-01-2004 C.Kim Kjær – March 2005 O2 Concentration INLET V30 Degasser Started CO2 Concentration INLET Oxygen Removal with V30.JENSEN A/S .

e.Transformer Lecture Oxygen Content & Carbon Monoxide Generation i.C. Rate of Paper Degradation 12 22000 V30 Started Koncentrationsforhold [O2 ppm/ CO2 ppm] 20000 18000 Koncentration O2 [ppm] 10 16000 8 14000 12000 6 10000 4 8000 6000 2 4000 O2/C O2 O2 C oncentration IND 2000 0 0 01-12-1996 30-05-1997 26-11-1997 25-05-1998 21-11-1998 20-05-1999 16-11-1999 14-05-2000 10-11-2000 09-05-2001 05-11-2001 04-05-2002 31-10-2002 29-04-2003 26-10-2003 Tid C.Kim Kjær – March 2005 35 .JENSEN A/S .

JENSEN A/S . Down to 200 ppm. Removes WATER from the transformer oil. C.4 micron.Kim Kjær – March 2005 36 . Down to 0.C. With an ion exchange filter ACID is removed. Down to 0.Transformer Lecture V30 Advantages Removes OXYGEN from the transformer oil. Removes PARTICLES from the oil. Down to 4 ppm.01 mg KOH/g.

ISO Breakdown Voltage/2. The old 5 my and 15 my standard.16/13 35 .40 ppm 2-7% 14/10 .C.000 – 25.000 ppm 0.CIGRE C.6 . Source: EFFECT OF PARTICLES ON TRANSFORMER DIELECTRIC STRENGTH – Working Group 12.JENSEN A/S .0.Kim Kjær – March 2005 37 .0050 0.25 mg KOH/g After filtration 4 ppm 0.0500 .000 ppm 0.Transformer Lecture Results using a V30 / Ion Exchange Filter Typical value for aged system Water in oil Water in cellulose Particles.02 mg KOH/g Time frame years years days days weeks weeks months months ISO-standard.1.1500 0.0.5mm Bubble Formation Temp Oxygen Tan delta@ 90˚C Acid 20 .10 .60 Kv 95˚C 20.01 .17 .1% 11/8 >75 kV 170˚C 200 – 2.0.

Medium level stops the oil pump. Vacuum pump low vacuum oil level alarm. In the unlikely case of leakage. In case the vacuum pump fails to keep the pressure below a preset value.Kim Kjær – March 2005 38 . C. Air/fluids cannot enter only leave the system. A Buchholz relay can only detect free gas >70.JENSEN A/S . Drip pan oil sensor.Transformer Lecture CJC V30 Safety Features High pressure alarm. low level stops the system. Low level alarm.C. All alarms on potential free relay. Adjustable from 2-250 mBar (down to 500 ppm gas in oil increase.000ppm H2 ). One way valve on vacuum pump. Foam sensor that shuts vacuum off. In case the oil level inside the vacuum chamber falls below a preset value. The system shuts itself off. Oil in (as foam) cannot leave the system. In case the transformer starts gassing and the gas content of the oil increases rapidly.

Transformer Lecture Optional CJC V30 Safety Features Shut off valves operated by differential oil pressure monitoring system on inlet.JENSEN A/S .Kim Kjær – March 2005 39 . C. Non return valve on outlet.C.

3.Transformer Lecture V30 Vacuum Filter Early Warning Systems The CJC V30 Vacuum Filtration Unit equipped with standard as well as optional sensors will operate as an early warning system for the transformer. Alarm via sms. Hydrogen. Direct online gas measurement. Carbon Monoxide. This includes: 1. Data on WWW.JENSEN A/S . 2. Gassing alarm on V30 – indication of a high thermal fault in the transformer. ComPosIT GSM datalogger. Methane. Abnormal rise in oil temperature – detects large scale heating.Kim Kjær – March 2005 40 . Increased water in oil detection – indication of a low thermal fault. Especially the gas sensor will yield important information – and a very early warning for a possible fault. 5. Specific gasses produced – high thermal fault – more sensitive than gassing level. 4. C.C.

Romania Results obtained running a CJC V30 for 5.Kim Kjær – March 2005 41 . Bukarest.JENSEN A/S . 1970 The CJC V30 Vacuum Filter was started up on 26/2-2004. C.5 Months on a Power Transformer. no tap changer Produced by: Electroputere Craiova. Data for the transformer: Distribution transformer 40 MVA 110/10.000 kg Cooling system: OFAF Conservator: Open/Shared.C.5 kV Oil: TR 25 A Oil weight: 20.Transformer Lecture Filaret T3 Filaret.

060 0.JENSEN A/S .200 0. now it has been lowered to below 6%.Kim Kjær – March 2005 42 .320 0.Transformer Lecture Moisture This curve shows the saturation of the oil with terms of water.020 0.340 0.280 0.080 0.000 2004-02-13 2004-02-23 2004-03-04 2004-03-14 2004-03-24 2004-04-03 2004-04-13 2004-04-23 2004-05-03 2004-05-13 2004-05-23 2004-06-02 2004-06-12 2004-06-22 2004-07-02 2004-07-12 2004-07-22 2004-08-01 2004-08-11 2004-08-21 aw [%/100] 25 per.260 Water activity [%/100] 0. (aw [%/100]) Time When the CJC V30 was first installed (26/2-2004) the saturation of water in oil was about 18%. C. Avg.300 0.100 0.220 0.180 0.040 0.C. A curve which corresponds to “the relative humidity” in air.160 0. Mov. Water activity in oil [absolute water saturation of the oil] 0.120 0.140 0.240 0.

(ppm calculated) Time From startup values of about 14-18 ppm we have now reached values down to 6 ppm.00 Water in oil [ppm] 14. Mov.Transformer Lecture Water Content in ppm This curve shows when the saturation values have been converted into ppm.00 18.00 2004-02-23 2004-03-04 2004-03-14 2004-03-24 2004-04-03 2004-04-13 2004-04-23 2004-05-03 2004-05-13 2004-05-23 2004-06-02 2004-06-12 2004-06-22 2004-07-02 2004-07-12 2004-07-22 2004-08-01 2004-08-11 ppm calculated 20 per. Hence the initial rise in water content.JENSEN A/S . C.00 0.00 16.00 10.C. 20.Kim Kjær – March 2005 43 .00 4. Avg.00 6.00 8.00 12.00 2. When the unit was started the transformer had been shut down for a few days and the temperature was only 4 C.

00 0.00 4.00 25.00 15. Avg.00 10.00 6.00 30.Kim Kjær – March 2005 44 Water content [PPM] Oil Temperature [C] .00 2004-07-09 2004-07-11 ppm calculated 30 per.00 0. Avg.00 10.00 5. As can be seen from the curve the water content is still falling.C. C. (ppm calculated) 30 per.00 20. Mov.Transformer Lecture Water Concentration Water content in oil [ppm] and oil temperature [C] 50.00 12.00 45.JENSEN A/S . but since the values are very low the water removal rate has somewhat slowed. Note the daily fluctuations in oil temperature.00 40.00 Oil temperature [C] 16.00 2004-07-13 2004-07-15 2004-07-17 2004-07-19 2004-07-21 2004-07-23 2004-07-25 2004-07-27 2004-07-29 2004-07-31 2004-08-02 2004-08-04 2004-08-06 2004-08-08 2004-08-10 Time Water concentration during the latest month. (Oil temperature [C]) 2.00 35.00 8. Mov.00 14.

5 0.5 1.Kim Kjær – March 2005 45 2004-08-11 .0 1.5 4.0 3.0 Accumulated Removed Water [L] 2004-02-23 2004-03-04 2004-03-14 2004-03-24 2004-04-03 2004-04-13 2004-04-23 2004-05-03 2004-05-13 2004-05-23 2004-06-02 2004-06-12 2004-06-22 2004-07-02 2004-07-12 2004-07-22 2004-08-01 Time This curve is calculated based on the known efficiency of the V30.0 0.Transformer Lecture Accumulated Removed Water Accumulated amount of water removed from the transformer insulation [Liters] 5.JENSEN A/S .0 2. So far about 4.C.0 Removed Water (accumulated) [L] 4.5 2.5 3.5 Liters of water have been removed. C.

C.178 0.21 0.178 TAN [mg KOH/g] 0.1 Organic acidity mg KOH/g oil 0.188 0.05 0 24-07-1998 06-12-1999 19-04-2001 Date 01-09-2002 14-01-2004 28-05-2005 From the curve it can be seen that the TAN has been lowered since startup of the CJC V30 vacuum filter.208 0.2 0.JENSEN A/S .C.Kim Kjær – March 2005 46 . The CJC V30 removes water from the oil.118 0. 0.Transformer Lecture Acid Organic acidity mg KOH/g oil.25 Startup of CJC V30 0. Since some acids are water soluble som acid is also removed from the transformer.148 0.204 0.15 0.

measurements taken each time the oil temperature was exactly 36 C. Romania.00 Water Content [ppm] 12. 16.00 6.00 10. i. transformer cooling down). Time Measurements taken at a temperature of 36 C.e.Transformer Lecture Water Removal on T3 Water removal on T3.Kim Kjær – March 2005 47 .e. Bucarest. A moisture reading at 36 C when the temperature is rising (positive gradient.00 2.JENSEN A/S .00 4.00 14.C. Variations are caused by daily temperature fluctuations. i.00 8.00 0. The graph shows the water content at 36 C. transformer heating up) tends to yield lower moisture contents than a reading when the temperature is falling (negative gradient. I. 40MVA. 20000L oil. Filaret. As can easily be seen from the curve the V30 has lowered the water content in the oil to roughly 6-7 ppm.00 2004-02-22 2004-03-07 2004-03-21 2004-04-04 2004-04-18 2004-05-02 2004-05-16 2004-05-30 2004-06-13 2004-06-27 2004-07-11 2004-07-25 2004-08-08 2004-08-22 The water content of the oil is highly temperature dependent due to the equilibrium with the transformer cellulose. C.e. Water Content in oil at T=36 C.

4904 at startup to 1.C.JENSEN A/S .4883 on 2004-05-06. From 1.9 at startup to 12.36 on 2004-05-06.887 g/mL at startup to 0. From deep low red at startup to low red on 2004-05-06. From 142 ˚C at startup to 144 ˚C on 2004-05-06. From 232 kV/cm at startup to 250 kv/cm on 2004-05-06. C. From 16.Kim Kjær – March 2005 48 .Transformer Lecture Water Removal on T3 Other parameters that have been improved though only slightly are: Density: Color: Inflammability: Breakdown voltage: Dissipation factor (tan d) at 90 C [%]: Index of refraction: From 0.884 g/mL on 2004-05-06 (relative density at 20 ˚C).

7 remaining.Transformer Lecture Water Removal on T3 Calculated data from the transformer degassing and drying monitoring: The average oil temperature is 36.02 mL/day (7.Kim Kjær – March 2005 49 . At the current rate of drying the CJC V30 will have removed 50% of the moisture in 3. 2.C.JENSEN A/S .92 L.1 years.48 L of water from the cellulosic insulation That corresponds to 27. water measurements and water in oil/water in cellulose equilibrium curves the total amount of water at startup was 61. C. • Now 57.4 C The CJC V30 has so far removed 4.2% of the total moisture) The output water content of the V30 is 3 ppm at the current input of 6 ppm Based on estimations of the insulation mass.4 L remain.

JENSEN A/S . Thus the payback time for a V30 is far lower than 166 days.5 mio.25 years life extension (achieved in 166 days) If we rate the price per MW at the Danish 1990 level (100. C.5 mio. EUROS. then a new transformer of 40MW would cost 4. Interest levels in Europe are roughly 4%.Transformer Lecture Water Removal on T3 The literature states that reducing the moisture by 50% will double the remaining life time of a transformer. assuming a linearity between water removal and life extension. Thus postponing an investment of 0.2% reduction = > 2.000.Kim Kjær – March 2005 50 . will extend the life time by: 50% reduction = > 15 years life extension 7.000 DKK or roughly 0.C.000 EUROS.000 DKK per 1MW).2 % of the moisture. If the remaining life time of the transformer at startup was 15 years then removing 7.25 years would mean a saving of 4% of 0.25 years. This corresponds to 45. EUROS by 2.000 EUROS. Thus by running only 166 days the V30 has saved the transformer owner 45.5 mio EUROS in 2.

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