# Moment / Torque Torque What is it about a force that determines how effective it is in causing or changing rotational motion?

The magnitude and direction of the force are important, but so is the position of the point where the force is applied. When you try to open a heavy door, it·s a lot more effective to push farther away from the axis of rotation (near knob) than close to the axis (near the hinges.) In the figure a wrench is being used to loosen a tight bolt.

T

T

Force Fb , applied near the end of the handle, is more effective than an equal force Fa

T

applied near the bolt. Force Fc doesn·t do any good at all; it·s applied at the same point and

T

has the same magnitude as Fb , but it·s directed along the length of the handle. The quantitative measure of the tendency of a force to cause or change the rotational motion of a body is called torque. Torque and Angular Acceleration Consider a particle of mass M1 at a distance r from the axis of rotation of a rigid body. By Newton·s 2nd Law

F ! m1 a Fr1 ! m1

Moment / Torque .r1 E
r1 Fr1 ! mr12 E
The torque acting on particle 1 is:
X 1 ! I1 E
The total torque on all particles in the rigid body
X 1 X 2 X 3 .! I1 E I 2 E I 3 E The torque on the rigid body is:
7X ! I E
where I is the moment of inertia of the rigid body.

.The ability of a force to rotate a body or system about an axis.
X ! F yd
Where: F = force or applied force d = moment arm or lever arm X = moment or torque Moment arm or lever arm (d)
1
.Mathematically.
X . it is the product of the force and it is lever arm or moment arm.

Sign Convention: Clockwise rotation (+)
Counter clockwise rotation (-) Diagram
F1 d1
M F1 ! F1 d 1
F3
Axis of Rotation
d2 F2
M F ! F2 d 2
2
M F3 ! 0
Note: If the line of action of the applied force passes through the axis of rotation. Therefore.. it is the vector product of the vector position and the force acting on a particle. X ! r v F (N-m) . F Sin = Ftan. Mathematically. Torque. X ! rF Sin . torque due to that force is zero.Shortest perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the axis of rotation. 1)
X
= rFtan
Equation 1 shows that only the component of F perpendicular to a body. (eqn. Torque is the ability of force to rotate a particle.
X F X Ftan X r X Frad
X X
X
T r is effective in rotating
2
. But from Figure 1. That is.

´a
2
tan
dm . for a particle acted on by net force F .angular acceleration (rad/sec2). Ftan = But.Figure 1
X
Considering a net force F acting on a differential mass. E . Therefore.
3
.
X X X X dL .angular speed (rad/sec). dt d[ .
E=
d[ .
Therefore.
(eqn.
(eqn. L ² angular momentum (kg-m2/sec)
X
Therefore. X = r vF = dt
For several forces acting on a body. 2)
Equation 2 shows that torque is directly proportional to the angular acceleration or the rate of change of angular speed of a body.
Therefore. dm.
X
= IE . 4)
Equation 4 shows that the sum of torques of several forces is equal to the rate of change of angular momentum of a particle.
atan = r E .
´r
2
dm is the moment of inertia I of a body about an axis of rotation with the unit kg-m2.
(eqn.
X =
´r
dmE . 3)
X X d § X = dt . dt
[ .
X =I
dL ! Id[ . But we know that.

If it is not rotating. This leads us to the second condition for static equilibrium. § X . then its angular X X momentum is zero.A body that is in equilibrium must not rotate. Summarizing the two conditions for static equilibrium. for a body to be in equilibrium. that is L = 0 and d L /dt is also equal to zero. must be equal to zero. First condition:
§F ! 0 §F ! 0
x
X
§F
y
!0
§F
x
!0
Second condition:
§X
X
=0
(about any axis)
4
. the sum of all the X torques on a body.