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Atom is the smallest particle of an element that has the chemical characteristic of that element
Molecule is formed when two or more atoms chemically combine to form a structure that behaves as an independent unit. The atoms that combine to form a molecule can be of the same type such as two hydrogen atoms combining to form a hydrogen molecule - A molecule is a particle composed of at least 2 atoms. - Two or more atoms joined together. Certain atoms, such as Carbon (C ), hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P ), Calcium ( Ca), and Sulfur (S) are essential for maintaing life.
Cell the structural and functional unit of all living things, is a very complex entity. Cells do have common anatomical features, and all cells must carry out certain functions to sustain life. Main Function Basic unit of life cell is the smallest part to which an organism can be reduced that still retains the characteristics of life Protection and support cells produce and secrete various molecules that provide protection and support of the body Movement Communication Cell metabolism and energy release Inheritance
Tissues are groups of cells that work together to perform specific function. Specialized cells and the extracellular matrix surrounding them form all the different tissue types found at the tissue level of organization Four primary tissues Epithelial tissue protective and glandular Connective tissue supports Muscle tissue allows for movement Nervous tissue Regulation
which are used as a source of energy and raw materials to synthesize the organism¶s own molecules Catabolism reactions that breakdown complex organic compounds into simple ones. produce smaller molecules from larger ones. Anabolic reactions use energy (Endergonic) within cells these anabolic reactions often take place in the cytoplasm. they provide energy (exergonic) within cells these catabolic reactions often occur in the cytoplasm and mitochondria Example: Breaks down of glucose Consists of energy-releasing decomposition reactions. Glycogen from glucose . whether composed of one cell such as a bacterium or of trillions of cells such as a human. It consist of Catabolism (breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones) and Anabolism (synthesis of larger molecules) The ability of an organism to breakdown food molecules. ribosomes or ER Example: synthesis of proteins from amino acids. heart. Homeostasis is the existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body prevent disease the physiological equilibrium is homeostasis it is a very dynamic equilibrium and the body systems have to continuously adapt to is a condition in which the body¶s internal environment remains within certain physiological limits What is the function of DNA? Forms the genetic code inside each cell and thereby regulates most of the activities that take place in our cell throughout a lifetime. and eyes Organism is any living thing considered as a whole. Such reactions break covalent bonds. and release energy that can be used for other physiological work. Each gene is a segment of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). skin.Organ is composed of two or more tissue types that perform one or more common functions Example: Urinary bladder. EXERGONIC Anabolism a series of synthesis reactions in which small molecules are built up into more complex ones that form the body¶s structural and functional components. DNA contains the information that determines the structure of protein Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions in the body.
spleen. and mediastinum Cervical Area pertaining to the neck region Abdominopelvic cavity extends from the diaphragm to the groin and is encircled by the abdominal wall and bones and muscles of the pelvis Divided into two: Abdominal cavity.like space that surrounds the heart Protons within the nucleus are positively charged protons (p )+ . the sternum(breastbone and thoracic portion of the vertebral column (neckbone) within Thoracic Cavity are the pericardial cavity a fluid-filled space that surrounds the heart and 2 fluid filled spaces called pleural cavities is divided into right and left parts by a median partition called the mediastinum. liver. portion of LI and internal organs of reproductive system.stomach. SI and most LI Pelvic cavity.Transverse Plane (horizontal) divides the body into superior and inferior portions Frontal Plane (coronal) divides the body into anterior and posterior parts Example: would divide it into one portion bearing the face and another bearing the back of the head. Axillary area pertaining to armpit Pericardial cavity a fluid. Midsagittal Plane (median) divides the body into equal left and right halves Thoracic Cavity or chest cavity is formed by the ribs.Urinary bladder. the muscles of the chest. Pleural cavity. pericardial cavity. gall bladder.
They do not follow a fixed path or orbit but instead form a negatively charged ³cloud´ that envelops the nucleus. Single.soluble Vitamin D necessary for bone growth and repair. stability can be achieved by sharing electrons between 2 or more atoms Sharing can be equal this is called a non-polar covalent bond Sharing can be unequal this is called polar covalent bond Ionic bonds when two atoms loose or gain electrons they may ATTRACT ( no sharing) each other forming an ionic bond Sometimes one atom donates one or more electrons to another atom The atom that donates (loses) electrons then becomes an Ion: Cation ( +) The atom that accepts the electrons becomes negatively charged: Anion (-) Steroids have four rings of carbon atoms Example: Cholesterol an important component of cell membranes and as the starting material for synthesis of other steroids derivative Bile salts substances that assist fat digestion and absorption (liver-steroid derived) Fat. Covalent Bonds when two atoms share one. two or three pairs of electrons. Insoluble in water . it is a cholesterol Adrenocortical hormones: cortisol. Sex hormones estrogen and progesterone (female hormones) and testosterone (male hormone) stimulate reproductive functions and sexual characteristics.helps in inflammation.Neutrons uncharged. neutral Electrons the tiny negatively charged electrons (e-) move about in a large space surrounding the nucleus. without gaining or losing them. Polysaccharides monosaccharide joined through dehydration synthesis. Stability of atoms is influenced by the number of electrons in the outermost orbits For some atoms. double or triple covalent bonds. then they form covalent bonds. aldosterone: helps regulate salt and water balance in the body.
When the blood glucose level goes down. hydrogen. which can then serve as sources of energy. Some proteins also contain sulfur. Keratin in skin.(Not sweet) the largest carbohydrates and may contain hundreds of monosaccharide. glycogen. lipase and lactase Carbohydrates (2 to 3% of the body weight) Examples: sugars. which are used to build structures and to generate ATP (source of chemical energy) . oxygen and nitrogen. Functions: Structural they give structure to the body Example: collagen in bone. Starch( the stored form of carbohydrate in plants and main carbohydrate in food) Cellulose( part of cell walls in plants that cannot be digested by humans but aids movement of food through intestines). The principal polysaccharide in the human body is glycogen which is composed of glucose units linked to each other and is stored in the liver or skeletal muscles. and cellulose Functions: provide most of the energy necessary for life (sugars) Some carbohydrates are converted to other substances. hair and fingernails Regulatory regulate processes Example: Insulin(regulates blood glucose level). From tens to hundreds of monosaccharides joined by DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS Example: Glycogen( the stored form of carbohydrates in animals). substance P (regulates pain) Immunological provide protection against foreign substances Example: antibodies and interleukins Contractile help muscles contract Example: myosin and actin Transport transport substances Example: hemoglobin which transports O2 and CO2 in the blood Catalytic serve as enzymes Example: salivary amylase. glycogen from the liver is hydrolyzed to produce extra molecules of glucose. Proteins (12-18% of the body weight) are large molecules that contain carbon.
Glycogen the main polysaccharide in the human body which is made entirely of glucose monomers linked to one another in branching chains. Humans do not digest cellulose. olive oil. They are solid and occur mostly in animal tissues. etc.only SINGLE covalent bonds between fatty acid C atoms. Examples: oleic acid. The acidity or alkalinity of a solution is expressed as its pH. Polyunsaturated contain more than one DOUBLE covalent bond between carbons in fatty acids. peanut oil. Corn oil. A triglyceride consists of two types of building blocks. Other carbohydrates function as food reserves(glycogen) Cellulose: most abundant organic substance on earth. it helps move the food and waste down the gastrointestinal track. Glucose is the ³blood sugar´ that provides energy to most of our cells. pH body fluids must constantly maintain balanced quantities of acids (acidity) and bases(alkalinity). carbohydrates function mainly as a source of chemical energy for generating ATP needed to drive metabolic reactions. insulation and energy. soybean oil. a single glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules. Examples: palmitic and stearic acids. Monosaccharide simplest carbohydrates conatin from 3 (triose) to 7 (heptose) carbon atoms. Plants: coconut oil and palm oil Monosaturated contain one DOUBLE covalent bond between two Catoms in the fatty acid and therefore the C atoms are not fully saturated with H atoms. But it creates bulk. Triglycerides the most abundant lipids in the body Provide protection. The pH scale runs from O(most acidic) to 14(most alkaline or basic) 7= Neutral Below 7= acidic H+ > OH- . sunflower oil. Examples: linoleic acid. Body¶s most highly concentrated form of chemical energy Composed of one molecule of glycerol (three carbons) and three molecules of fatty acids each attached to a C atom of the glycerol by dehydration synthesis The type of covalent bond found in fatty acids determines whether the triglyceride is Saturated. Glycogen is made up of glucose monomers and is the stored form of carbohydrates in human body. Each carbon atom is saturated with H atoms. In humans and animals.
Above7 = alkaline OH.> H+ .