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GPA Standard 2145-09

Table of Physical Properties for Hydrocarbons and Other Compounds of Interest to the Natural Gas Industry

Adopted 1942 Revised 1957,1962, 1966, 1971, 1975, 1977, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 Reprinted 1997, 1998

Gas Processors Association


6526 East 60th Street Tulsa, Oklahoma 74145

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FOREWORD The Table of Physical Properties for Hydrocarbons and Other Components of Interest to the Natural Gas Industry, GPA Publication Standard 2145, provides the gas processing industry with a convenient compilation of authoritative numerical values for the paraffin hydrocarbons and other compounds occurring in natural gas and natural gas liquids as well as for a few other compounds of interest to the industry. The physical properties selected are those considered most valuable for engineering and analytical computations in gas processing plants and laboratories. Most properties are based upon two NIST Standard Reference Databases: the Web Thermo Tables, WTT, (NIST SRSD-3) and the Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database, REFPROP, (NIST SRD-23). The data in this publication were checked, evaluated, and recalculated when necessary by Robert Chirico and Eric Lemmon of the Physical and Chemical Properties Division of the Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory at NIST in Boulder, Colorado. The listed flammability limits and octane numbers were not evaluated at NIST and sources for these properties are provided in the references. Some of the listed values result from other values in the tables by simple calculation. Numbers obtained from such related data may differ from the tabulated values in the last digit because of numerical round off, but the differences are within the standard uncertainty of the data. The value of the gas constant used in the tables is 8.314472 J/(Kmol). Numerous values were updated from the previous edition of GPA-2145 to provide full thermodynamic consistency between properties. This was accomplished through consistent use of properties derived with the equations of state underlying the NIST REFPROP database. Properties derived with these equations of state are inherently consistent. This publication represents the first time for which thermodynamic consistency is assured for all properties listed in GPA2145. Required enthalpies of combustion at 298.15 K were taken from the NIST Web Thermo Tables (WTT). These enthalpies of combustion are reprinted in the notes of this document. All adjustments of these values to the selected temperatures of GPA-2145 were completed using consistent thermophysical property values from the NIST REFPROP program. The values of the physical properties for the components in GPA 2145, as well as those for many more compounds, appear in the GPSA Engineering Data Book. Property values for compounds listed here in GPA 2145-09 supersede those listed in the GPSA Engineering Data Book. For components not listed in GPA 2145, the property values in GPA TP-17 may be used. DISCLAIMER GPA publications necessarily address problems of a general nature and may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every effort has been made by GPA to assure accuracy and reliability of the information contained in its publications. With respect to particular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed. It is not the intent of GPA to assume the duties of employers, manufacturers, or suppliers to warn and properly train employees or others exposed, concerning health and safety risks or precautions. GPA makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this publication and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting from its use or for the violation of any federal, state, or municipal regulation with which this publication may conflict, or for any infringement of letters of patent regarding apparatus, equipment, or method so covered.

"Copyright 2008 by Gas Processors Association. All rights reserved. No part of this Report may be reproduced without written consent of the Gas Processors Association."
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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED HYDROCARBONS


GPA STANDARD 2145-09 (FPS) becomes effective January 1, 2009
Component Molar Mass Boiling Temperature *
at 14.696 psia, F

Methane 16.0425 -258.66 -296.42 5000

Ethane 30.0690 -127.44 -297.01 800

Propane 44.0956 -43.80 -305.72 188.62

i-Butane 58.1222 10.85 -254.96 72.644

n-Butane 58.1222 31.12 -216.85 51.567

i-Pentane 72.1488 82.09 -256.90 20.474

n-Pentane 72.1488 96.91 -201.42 15.576

Triple Point Temperature


F

Vapor Pressure *
at 100 F, psia

Density of Liquid *
at 60 F, 14.696 psia Relative density at 60 F/60 F API Gravity Absolute density, lbm/gal

0.3 340 2.5

0.35628 265.66 2.9704

0.50719 147.49 4.2285

0.56283 119.91 4.6925

0.58420 110.71 4.8706

0.62514 94.848 5.2120

0.63071 92.850 5.2584

Density of Ideal Gas


at 60 F, 14.696 psia Relative density, air = 1.0 Density lbm/(1000 ft3)

0.5539 42.27 0.0116

1.0382 79.24 0.0238

1.5225 116.20 0.0347

2.0068 153.16 0.0441

2.0068 153.16 0.0470

2.4911 190.12 0.0576

2.4911 190.12 0.0606

Summation Factor
at 60 F, psia-1

Volume *
at 60 F, 14.696 psia Liquid, gal/lbmol Ft3 ideal gas/gal liquid Ratio, ideal gas/liquid

6.417 59.138 442.38 -116.66 667.1

10.123 37.488 280.43 89.91 706.7

10.428 36.391 272.22 206.13 616.6

12.386 30.637 229.18 274.39 526.3

11.933 31.801 237.89 305.56 550.6

13.843 27.414 205.07 368.96 489.9

13.721 27.658 206.89 385.79 488.8

Critical Conditions
Temperature, F Pressure, psia

Gross Heating Value *


at 60 F, ideal reaction Btu/lbm, fuel as liquid Btu/gal, fuel as liquid Btu/lbm, fuel as ideal gas Btu/ft 3, fuel as ideal gas Btu/gal, fuel as ideal gas

23892 1010.0 59729

22185 65897 22334 1769.7 66340

21491 90875 21654 2516.1 91563

21081 98924 21232 3251.9 99630

21137 102950 21300 3262.3 103740

20891 108880 21044 4000.9 109680

20923 110020 21085 4008.7 110870

Net Heating Value


at 60 F, ideal reaction Btu/ft 3, fuel as ideal gas

909.4 9.548

1619 16.710

2315 23.871

3000 31.032

3011 31.032

3699 38.193

3707 38.193

Volume of Air to Burn One Volume of Ideal Gas Heat of Vaporization *


at 14.696 psia, F Btu/lbm at the boiling point

219.6

210.4

183.0

157.0

165.8

147.6

153.7

Specific Heat *
at 60 F, 14.696 psia C P , Btu/(lbm F), ideal gas C V , Btu/(lbm F), ideal gas k = C P /C V , ideal gas C S , Btu/(lbm F), sat. liq.

0.5266 0.4028 1.3073

0.4079 0.3418 1.1932 0.9664

0.3873 0.3423 1.1316 0.6183

0.3866 0.3525 1.0969 0.5641

0.3949 0.3608 1.0947 0.5692

0.3828 0.3553 1.0775 0.5311

0.3879 0.3603 1.0764 0.5427

Flammability Limits
at 100 F, 14.696 psia Lower, volume % In air Upper, volume % in air

5.0 15.0

2.9 13.0 0.05 1.6

2.0 9.5 97.1 1.8

1.8 8.5 97.6 0.1

1.5 9.0 89.6 93.8

1.3 8.0 90.3 92.3

1.4 8.3 62.6 61.7

Octane Number
Motor clear Research clear

* For some compounds, values within this property group are for conditions different from those given in the row heading. See the notes on pages 6 through 8 for details. Values in boldface type are different from those in the previous version of GPA-2145.
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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED HYDROCARBONS


GPA STANDARD 2145-09 (FPS) becomes effective January 1, 2009
Component Molar Mass Boiling Temperature *
at 14.696 psia, F

n-Hexane 86.1754 155.68 -139.58 4.961

n-Heptane 100.2019 209.08 -131.08 1.619

n-Octane 114.2285 258.12 -70.20 0.5349

n-Nonane 128.2551 303.37 -64.21 0.1809

n-Decane 142.2817 345.42 -21.37 0.06148

Ethylene 28.0532 -154.79 -272.49

Propylene 42.0797 -53.72 -301.35 227.3

Triple Point Temperature


F

Vapor Pressure *
at 100 F, psia

Density of Liquid *
at 60 F, 14.696 psia Relative density at 60 F/60 F API Gravity Absolute density, lbm/gal

0.66406 81.582 5.5364

0.68823 74.101 5.7379

0.70655 68.768 5.8907

0.72224 64.418 6.0215

0.73458 61.127 6.1244

0.52260 139.260 4.3571

Density of Ideal Gas


at 60 F, 14.696 psia Relative density, air = 1.0 Density lbm/(1000 ft3)

2.9754 227.09 0.0776

3.4597 264.05 0.0951

3.9440 301.01 0.1128

4.4283 337.97 0.1307

4.9126 374.93 0.1556

0.9686 73.92 0.0207

1.4529 110.89 0.0327

Summation Factor
at 60 F, psia-1

Volume *
at 60 F, 14.696 psia Liquid, gal/lbmol Ft3 ideal gas/gal liquid Ratio, ideal gas/liquid

15.565 24.380 182.38 453.8 436.9

17.463 21.730 162.56 512.56 396.8

19.391 19.570 146.39 564.22 360.7

21.300 17.816 133.28 610.52 330.8

23.232 16.334 122.19 652.19 305.0 48.56 731.3

9.6578 39.293 293.93 195.91 660.6

Critical Conditions
Temperature, F Pressure, psia

Gross Heating Value *


at 60 F, ideal reaction Btu/lbm, fuel as liquid Btu/gal, fuel as liquid Btu/lbm, fuel as ideal gas Btu/ft 3, fuel as ideal gas Btu/gal, fuel as ideal gas

20783 115060 20943 4755.9 115950

20680 118660 20839 5502.6 119570

20601 121350 20760 6249.0 122290

20543 123700 20701 6996.3 124650

20494 125510 20651 7742.9 126480

21640 1599.7

20875 90954 21040 2333.0 91672

Net Heating Value


at 60 F, ideal reaction Btu/ft 3, fuel as ideal gas

4404 45.355

5100 52.516

5796 59.677

6493 66.839

7190 74.000

1499 14.323

2182 21.484

Volume of Air to Burn One Volume of Ideal Gas Heat of Vaporization *


at 14.696 psia, F Btu/lbm at the boiling point

144.0

136.2

129.9

124.1

118.8

207.4

188.7

Specific Heat *
at 60 F, 14.696 psia C P , Btu/(lbm F), ideal gas C V , Btu/(lbm F), ideal gas k = C P /C V , ideal gas C S , Btu/(lbm F), sat. liq.

0.3857 0.3626 1.0635 0.5285

0.3841 0.3643 1.0544 0.5268

0.3829 0.3655 1.0476 0.5240

0.3820 0.3665 1.0423 0.5192

0.3813 0.3673 1.0380 0.5155

0.3573 0.2865 1.2471

0.3567 0.3095 1.1525 0.6020

Flammability Limits
at 100 F, 14.696 psia Lower, volume % In air Upper, volume % in air

1.1 7.7 26 24.8

1.0 7.0

0.8 6.5

0.7 5.6

0.7 5.4

2.9 32.0

2.1 11.1

Octane Number
Motor clear Research clear

All values in this table are on the International Temperature Scale 1990 (ITS-90).

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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED HYDROCARBONS


GPA STANDARD 2145-09 (FPS) becomes effective January 1, 2009
Component Molar Mass Boiling Temperature *
at 14.696 psia, F

Carbon Dioxide 44.0095 -109.24 -69.81

Hydrogen Sulfide 34.0809 -76.54 -121.81 395.0

Nitrogen 28.0134 -320.43 -346.00

Oxygen 31.9988 -297.33 -361.82

Helium 4.0026 -452.06 -455.75

Air 28.9625 -317.64 -352.12

Water 18.0153 211.95 32.018 0.95050

Triple Point Temperature


F

Vapor Pressure *
at 100 F, psia

Density of Liquid *
at 60 F, 14.696 psia Relative density at 60 F/60 F API Gravity Absolute density, lbm/gal

0.81716 41.660 6.8129

0.79886 45.628 6.6602

0.80687 43.868 6.7271

1.1423 -7.630 9.5238

0.12486 1002 1.041

0.87586 30.055 7.3022

1.00000 10.000 8.3372

Density of Ideal Gas


at 60 F, 14.696 psia Relative density, air = 1.0 Density lbm/(1000 ft3)

1.5195 115.97 0.0195

1.1767 89.81 0.0239

0.9672 73.820 0.00442

1.1048 84.322 0.0072

0.1382 10.547

1.0000 76.321 0.00537

0.62202 47.473 0.06510

Summation Factor
at 60 F, psia-1

Volume *
at 60 F, 14.696 psia Liquid, gal/lbmol Ft3 ideal gas/gal liquid Ratio, ideal gas/liquid

6.4598 58.746 439.45 87.76 1070.0

5.1171 74.16 554.76 211.91 1305.3

4.1643 91.128 681.69 -232.53 492.5

3.3599 112.95 844.89 -181.43 731.4

3.8451 98.693 738.27 -450.32 33.0

3.9663 95.678 715.72 -221.12 549.1

2.1608 175.62 1313.7 705.11 3200.1


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Critical Conditions
Temperature, F Pressure, psia

Gross Heating Value *


at 60 F, ideal reaction Btu/lbm, fuel as liquid Btu/gal, fuel as liquid Btu/lbm, fuel as ideal gas Btu/ft 3, fuel as ideal gas Btu/gal, fuel as ideal gas

6892.4 45905 7094.0 637.10 47248

1059.8 50.310 8835.4

Net Heating Value


at 60 F, ideal reaction Btu/ft 3, fuel as ideal gas

586.79 7.1613

Volume of Air to Burn One Volume of Ideal Gas Heat of Vaporization *


at 14.696 psia, F Btu/lbm at the boiling point

246.5

234.9

85.63

91.60

8.922

88.07

970.12

Specific Heat *
at 60 F, 14.696 psia C P , Btu/(lbm F), ideal gas C V , Btu/(lbm F), ideal gas k = C P /C V , ideal gas C S , Btu/(lbm F), sat. liq.

0.1992 0.1541 1.2929 0.6857

0.2383 0.1800 1.3236 0.5088

0.2483 0.1774 1.3996

0.2189 0.1569 1.3956

1.2404 0.7442 1.6667

0.2399 0.1714 1.4002

0.44478 0.33455 1.3295 1.0003

Flammability Limits
at 100 F, 14.696 psia Lower, volume % In air Upper, volume % in air

4.3 45.5

Octane Number
Motor clear Research clear

* For some compounds, values within this property group are for conditions different from those given in the row heading. See the notes on pages 6 through 8 for details. Values in boldface type are different from those in the previous version of GPA-2145.

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TABLE FOR NOTES AND REFERENCES


GPA STANDARD
Component
Molar Mass Boiling Temperature
at 14.696 psia, F

All
1 2 2 2

C1

C2

C3

i-C4

n-C4

i-C5

n-C5

n-C6

n-C7

Triple Point Temperature


F

Vapor Pressure
at 100 F, psia

Density of Liquid
at 60 F, 14.696 psia Relative density at 60 F/60 F API Gravity Absolute density, lbm/gal

2 2 2

b b b

Density of Ideal Gas


at 60 F, 14.696 psia Relative density, air = 1.0 Density lbm/(1000 ft3)

f 2

Summation Factor
at 60 F, psia-1

Volume
at 60 F, 14.696 psia Liquid, gal/lbmol Ft3 ideal gas/gal liquid Ratio, ideal gas/liquid

g g g

b b 2 2

d d 2 2

d d 2 2

d d 2 2

d d 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2

Critical Conditions
Temperature, F Pressure, psia

Gross Heating Value


at 60 F, ideal reaction Btu/lbm, fuel as liquid Btu/gal, fuel as liquid Btu/lbm, fuel as ideal gas Btu/ft3, fuel as ideal gas Btu/gal, fuel as ideal gas

i g 3

d d 3

d d 3

d d 3

d d 3

Net Heating Value


at 60 F, ideal reaction Btu/ft3, fuel as ideal gas

Volume to Burn One Volume of Ideal Gas Heat of Vaporization


at 14.696 psia, F Btu/lbm at the boiling point

Specific Heat
at 60 F, 14.696 psia C P , Btu/(lbm F), ideal gas C V , Btu/(lbm F), ideal gas k = C P /C V , ideal gas C S , Btu/(lbm F), sat. liq.

Flammability Limits
at 100 F, 14.696 psia Lower, volume % In air Upper, volume % in air

Octane Number
Motor clear Research clear

Copyright Gas Processors Association Not for Resale, 09/30/2008 07:48:50 MDT

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4 4 5 5 l l, m m m m m

l, m

l, m

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2145-09 (FPS)
n-C8 n-C9 n-C10 C 2= C3 = CO2 H2S N2 O2 He Air
a

H2O

c c c

d,e

d,e

d,e

d,e

d d 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

d d 2 2

e h h 2 2

e h h 2 2

e h h 2 2

e h h 2 2 2 2

c c 3

d d 3

d d 3

j j j

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NOTES FOR GPA STANDARD 2145-09 (FPS) a ''The Molar Mass of Air is fixed by GPA to be 28.9625 in order to harmonize with ISO 6976-95 'Natural gas -- Calculation of calorific value, density, relative density and Wobbe index from composition' and AGA 5-07 'Fuel Gas Energy Metering'. Individual components in Air may change over time based on empirical data but the Molar Mass of Air, calculated from the table shown below, will remain constant within this document for the purposes of, but not limited to, the calculation of Gas Relative Density. The information in the table below should not be used for individual component calculations. For information on individual components refer to the appropriate Component Data Table.'' AGA 5-07 TABLE 7.17.1 follows.
Molar Mass of Dry Atmospheric Air (g) Mole Fraction (x i) Molar Mass (M ) Component nitrogen 0.78102 28.0134 0.20946 31.9988 oxygen argon 0.00916 39.948 carbon dioxide 0.00033 44.0095 neon 0.0000182 20.1797 0.0000052 4.0026 helium methane 0.0000015 16.0425 0.0000011 83.798 krypton 0.0000005 2.01588 hydrogen nitrous oxide 0.0000003 44.0128 carbon monoxide 0.0000002 28.0101 0.0000001 131.293 xenon AIR x iM 21.87903 6.70247 0.365924 0.014523 0.000367 0.000021 0.000024 0.000092 0.000001 0.000013 0.000006 0.000013 28.9625
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b c d e

Shaded values were estimated by GPA for the hypothetical liquid state and were not re-evaluated The referenced temperature is above the critical temperature. The property is that of the liquid component at saturation pressure rather than at 14.696 psia. Densities of liquid at the normal boiling temperature

f Gas constant R = 8.314472 J mol-1 K-1. [10.7316 psia ft3/(lbmol oR)] and 1 Btu = 1055.056 J g Algebraically derived from the absolute density of the liquid h Gas at 60 F and liquid at the normal boiling point i The basis for gross heating value is dry gas at 60 F and 14.696 psia based upon the ideal reaction, see GPA 2172 for conversion to other bases. Conversion of enthalpies of combustion at T = 298.15 K given in reference 3 were converted to the conditions specified here with the property values from reference 2. Heating values for H2S are based on SO2(g) and H2O as products. j Enthalpy of vaporization to the ideal-gas state k Values are based on an oxygen mole fraction of 0.20946 for air. l The + sign and number specify the number of cm3 of TEL (tetraethyl lead) added per gallon to achieve the ASTM octane number of 100, corresponding to that of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane. m Average value from octane numbers using more than one sample n Enthalpy of sublimation o For components not listed in GPA-2145, the property values listed in TP-17 may be used.

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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED HYDROCARBONS


GPA STANDARD 2145-09 (SI) becomes effective January 1, 2009
Component Molar Mass Boiling Temperature *
at 101.325 kPa(abs), K

Methane 16.0425 111.67 90.69 35000

Ethane 30.0690 184.57 90.37 5500

Propane 44.0956 231.04 85.53 1369.4

i-Butane 58.1222 261.40 113.73 531.21

n-Butane 58.1222 272.66 134.90 378.49

i-Pentane 72.1488 300.98 112.65 151.51

n-Pentane 72.1488 309.21 143.47 115.67

Triple Point Temperature


K

Vapor Pressure *
at 313.15 K, kPa(abs)

Density of Liquid *
at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Relative density at 15 C/15 C Absolute density, kg m-3

0.3 300

0.35817 357.85

0.50796 507.50

0.56346 562.95

0.58478 584.25

0.62564 625.08

0.63119 630.62

Density of Ideal Gas


at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Relative density, air = 1.0 Density kg m-3

0.5539 0.67848 0.00442

1.0382 1.2717 0.00910

1.5225 1.8649 0.0132

2.0068 2.4581 0.0168

2.0068 2.4581 0.0179

2.4911 3.0514 0.0220

2.4911 3.0514 0.0232

Summation Factor
at 288.15 K, kPa -1

Volume *
at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Liquid, cm3 mol-1 Ratio, ideal gas/liquid

53.475 442.17 190.56 4599

84.027 281.40 305.32 4872.2

86.888 272.13 369.89 4251.2

103.25 229.02 407.81 3629

99.482 237.68 425.13 3796

115.42 204.85 460.35 3378

114.41 206.67 469.70 3370

Critical Conditions
Temperature, K Pressure, kPa(abs)

Gross Heating Value *


at 288.15 K, ideal reaction MJ kg-1, fuel as liquid MJ m-3, fuel as liquid MJ kg-1, fuel as ideal gas MJ m-3, fuel as ideal gas

55.575 37.706

51.604 18467 51.951 66.066

49.990 25370 50.369 93.934

49.038 27606 49.388 121.40

49.166 28725 49.546 121.79

48.593 30375 48.950 149.36

48.668 30691 49.045 149.65

Net Heating Value


at 288.15 K, ideal reaction MJ m-3, fuel as ideal gas

33.95 9.548

60.43 16.710

86.42 23.871

112.0 31.032

112.4 31.032

138.1 38.193

138.4 38.193

Volume of Air to Burn One Volume of Ideal Gas Heat of Vaporization *


at 101.325 kPa(abs) kJ kg-1 at the boiling point

510.8

489.4

425.6

365.1

385.7

343.3

357.6

Specific Heat *
at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) C P , kJ kg-1 K-1, ideal gas C V , kJ kg-1 K-1, ideal gas k = C P /C V , ideal gas C S , kJ kg-1 K-1, sat. liq.
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2.2036 1.6853 1.3075

1.7054 1.4289 1.1935 4.0050

1.6191 1.4305 1.1318 2.5840

1.6162 1.4731 1.0971 2.3586

1.6511 1.5080 1.0949 2.3805

1.6003 1.4851 1.0776 2.2208

1.6216 1.5064 1.0765 2.2698

Flammability Limits
at 310.93 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Lower, volume % In air Upper, volume % in air

5.0 15.0

2.9 13.0 0.05 1.6

2.0 9.5 97.1 1.8

1.8 8.5 97.6 0.1

1.5 9.0 89.6 93.8

1.3 8.0 90.3 92.3

1.4 8.3 62.6 61.7

Octane Number
Motor clear Research clear

* For some compounds, values within this property group are for conditions different from those given in the row heading. See the notes on pages 12 through 14 for details. Values in boldface type are different from those in the previous version of GPA-2145.

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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED HYDROCARBONS


GPA STANDARD 2145-09 (SI) becomes effective January 1, 2009
Component Molar Mass Boiling Temperature *
at 101.325 kPa(abs), K

n-Hexane 86.1754 341.86 177.83 37.292

n-Heptane 100.2019 371.53 182.55 12.326

n-Octane 114.2285 398.77 216.37 4.1263

n-Nonane 128.2551 423.91 219.70 1.414

n-Decane 142.2817 447.27 243.50 0.4867

Ethylene 28.0532 169.38 103.99

Propylene 42.0797 225.53 87.95 1648.5

Triple Point Temperature


K

Vapor Pressure *
at 313.15 K, kPa(abs)

Density of Liquid *
at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Relative density at 15 C/15 C Absolute density, kg m-3

0.66452 663.92

0.68864 688.02

0.70693 706.30

0.72262 721.97

0.73496 734.30

0.52346 522.99

Density of Ideal Gas


at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Relative density, air = 1.0 Density kg m-3

2.9754 3.6446 0.0296

3.4597 4.2378 0.0364

3.9440 4.8310 0.0431

4.4283 5.4242 0.0500

4.9126 6.0174 0.0595

0.9686 1.1864 0.0079

1.4529 1.7797 0.0125

Summation Factor
at 288.15 K, kPa -1

Volume *
at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Liquid, cm3 mol-1 Ratio, ideal gas/liquid

129.80 182.17 507.50 3012

145.64 162.35 540.13 2736

161.73 146.20 568.83 2487

177.65 133.10 594.6 2281

193.77 122.03 617.7 2103 282.35 5042

80.46 293.9 364.21 4555

Critical Conditions
Temperature, K Pressure, kPa(abs)

Gross Heating Value *


at 288.15 K, ideal reaction MJ kg-1, fuel as liquid MJ m-3, fuel as liquid MJ kg-1, fuel as ideal gas MJ m-3, fuel as ideal gas

48.342 32095 48.715 177.55

48.103 33096 48.474 205.42

47.919 33845 48.290 233.29

47.784 34498 48.152 261.19

47.671 35004 48.037 289.06

50.337 59.721

48.557 25395 48.941 87.097

Net Heating Value


at 288.15 K, ideal reaction MJ m-3, fuel as ideal gas
--`,```,`,`,,``,,`,`,,,,,`,,,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

164.39 45.355

190.39 52.516

216.38 59.677

242.40 66.839

268.39 74.000

55.96 14.323

81.46 21.484

Volume of Air to Burn One Volume of Ideal Gas Heat of Vaporization *


at 101.325 kPa(abs) kJ kg-1 at the boiling point

334.9

316.9

302.2

288.6

276.4

482.4

439.0

Specific Heat *
at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) C P , kJ kg-1 K-1, ideal gas C V , kJ kg-1 K-1, ideal gas k = C P /C V , ideal gas C S , kJ kg-1 K-1, sat. liq.

1.6125 1.5160 1.0636 2.2104

1.6057 1.5227 1.0545 2.2038

1.6008 1.5280 1.0476 2.1918

1.5967 1.5319 1.0423 2.1719

1.5938 1.5354 1.0381 2.1562

1.4941 1.1977 1.2475

1.4916 1.2940 1.1527 2.5161

Flammability Limits
at 310.93 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Lower, volume % In air Upper, volume % in air

1.1 7.7 26 24.8

1.0 7.0

0.8 6.5

0.7 5.6

0.7 5.4

2.9 32.0

2.1 11.1

Octane Number
Motor clear Research clear

All values in this table are on the International Temperature Scale 1990 (ITS-90).

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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED HYDROCARBONS


GPA STANDARD 2145-09 (SI) becomes effective January 1, 2009
Component Molar Mass Boiling Temperature *
at 101.325 kPa(abs), K

Carbon Dioxide 44.0095 194.69 216.59

Hydrogen Sulfide 34.0809 212.85 187.70 2863

Nitrogen 28.0134 77.355 63.151

Oxygen 31.9988 90.188 54.361

Helium 4.0026 4.230 2.177

Air 28.9625 78.90 59.75

Water 18.0153 373.12 273.16 7.3849

Triple Point Temperature


K

Vapor Pressure *
at 313.15 K, kPa(abs)

Density of Liquid *
at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Relative density at 15 C/15 C Absolute density, kg m-3

0.82195 821.2

0.8001 799.4

0.80680 806.1

1.1422 1141.2

0.1248 124.7

0.87579 875.0

1.0000 999.102

Density of Ideal Gas


at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Relative density, air = 1.0 Density kg m-3

1.5195 1.8613 0.00745

1.1767 1.4414 0.00913

0.9672 1.1848 0.00170

1.1048 1.3533 0.00275

0.1382 0.1693

1.0000 1.2249 0.00206

0.62202 0.76191 0.02495


No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Summation Factor
at 288.15 K, kPa -1

Volume *
at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Liquid, cm3 mol-1 Ratio, ideal gas/liquid

53.59 441.2 304.1 7377

42.63 554.6 373.1 9000

34.753 680.4 126.19 3396

28.040 843.3 154.58 5043

32.089 736.9 5.195 227.46

33.10 714.3 132.53 3786.0

18.031 1311.3 647.10 22064

Critical Conditions
Temperature, K Pressure, kPa(abs)

Gross Heating Value *


at 288.15 K, ideal reaction MJ kg-1, fuel as liquid MJ m-3, fuel as liquid MJ kg-1, fuel as ideal gas MJ m-3, fuel as ideal gas

16.031 12815 16.501 23.784

2.4662 1.8790

Net Heating Value


at 288.15 K, ideal reaction MJ m-3, fuel as ideal gas

21.905 7.161

Volume of Air to Burn One Volume of Ideal Gas Heat of Vaporization *


at 101.325 kPa(abs) kJ kg-1 at the boiling point

573.3

546.4

199.2

213.1

20.75

204.9

2256.5

Specific Heat *
at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) C P , kJ kg-1 K-1, ideal gas C V , kJ kg-1 K-1, ideal gas k = C P /C V , ideal gas C S , kJ kg-1 K-1, sat. liq.

0.8334 0.6445 1.2931 2.8376

0.9976 0.7536 1.3237 2.1277

1.0395 0.7427 1.3996

0.9166 0.6568 1.3956

5.1931 3.1158 1.6667

1.0045 0.7174 1.4002

1.8620 1.4005 1.3295 4.1888

Flammability Limits
at 310.93 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Lower, volume % In air Upper, volume % in air

4.3 45.5

Octane Number
Motor clear Research clear

* For some compounds, values within this property group are for conditions different from those given in the row heading. See the notes on pages 12 through 14 for details. Values in boldface type are different from those in the previous version of GPA-2145.

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TABLE FOR NOTES AND REFERENCES


GPA STANDARD
Component Molar Mass Boiling Temperature
at 101.325 kPa(abs), K

All 1 2 2 2

C1

C2

C3

i-C4

n-C4

i-C5

n-C5

n-C6

n-C7

Triple Point Temperature


K

Vapor Pressure
at 313.15 K, kPa(abs)

Density of Liquid
at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Relative density at 15 C/15 C Absolute density, kg m-3

2 2

b b

Density of Ideal Gas


at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Relative density, air = 1.0 Density kg m-3

f 2

Summation Factor
at 288.15 K, kPa -1

Volume
at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Liquid, cm3 mol-1 Ratio, ideal gas/liquid

g g

b b 2 2

d d 2 2

d d 2 2

d d 2 2

d d 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2

Critical Conditions
Temperature, K Pressure, kPa(abs)
--`,```,`,`,,``,,`,`,,,,,`,,,```-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Gross Heating Value


at 288.15 K, ideal reaction MJ kg-1, fuel as liquid MJ m-3, fuel as liquid MJ kg-1, fuel as ideal gas MJ m-3, fuel as ideal gas

i g 3

d d 3

d d 3

d d 3

d d 3

Net Heating Value


at 288.15 K, ideal reaction MJ m-3, fuel as ideal gas

Volume of Air to Burn One Volume of Ideal Gas Heat of Vaporization


at 101.325 kPa(abs) kJ kg-1 at the boiling point

Specific Heat
at 288.15 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) C P , kJ kg-1 K-1, ideal gas C V , kJ kg-1 K-1, ideal gas k = C P /C V , ideal gas C S , kJ kg-1 K-1, sat. liq.

Flammability Limits
at 310.93 K, 101.325 kPa(abs) Lower, volume % In air Upper, volume % in air

4 4 5 5 l l, m m m m m

Octane Number
Motor clear Research clear

l, m

l, m

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2145-09 (SI)
n-C8 n-C9 n-C10 C 2= C3 = CO2 H2S N2 O2 He Air
a

H2O

c c

d, e

d, e

d, e

d, e

c c 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

d d 2 2

d d 2 2

h h 2 2

h h 2 2

h h 2 2

h h 2 2 2 2
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

c c 3

d d 3

d d 3

j j

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NOTES FOR GPA STANDARD 2145-08 (SI) a The Molar Mass of Air is fixed by GPA to be 28.9625 in order to harmonize with ISO 697695, 'Natural gas -- Calculation of calorific value, density, relative density and Wobbe index from composition' and AGA 5-07, 'Fuel Gas Energy Metering'. Individual components in Air may change over time based on empirical data but the Molar Mass of Air, calculated from the table shown below, will remain constant within this document for the purposes of, but not limited to, the calculation of Gas Relative Density. The information in the table below should not be used for individual component calculations. For information on individual components refer to the appropriate Component Data Table. AGA 5-07 TABLE 7.17.1 follows.
Molar Mass of Dry Atmospheric Air (g) Component Mole Fraction (x i) nitrogen 0.78102 0.20946 oxygen argon 0.00916 carbon dioxide 0.00033 neon 0.0000182 0.0000052 helium methane 0.0000015 0.0000011 krypton 0.0000005 hydrogen nitrous oxide 0.0000003 carbon monoxide 0.0000002 0.0000001 xenon AIR Molar Mass (M ) 28.0134 31.9988 39.948 44.0095 20.1797 4.0026 16.0425 83.798 2.01588 44.0128 28.0101 131.293 x iM 21.87903 6.70247 0.365924 0.014523 0.000367 0.000021 0.000024 0.000092 0.000001 0.000013 0.000006 0.000013 28.9625
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

b Shaded values were estimated by GPA for the hypothetical liquid state, and were not reevaluated in this revision of GPA-2145. c The referenced temperature is above the critical temperature. d The property is that of the liquid component at saturation pressure rather than at 101.325 Densities of liquid at the normal boiling temperature e k f Gas constant R = 8.314472 J mol-1 K-1 g Algebraically derived from the absolute density of the liquid h Gas at T = 288.15 K and liquid at the normal boiling point i The basis for gross heating value is dry gas at T = 288.15 K and p = 101.325 kPa based upon the ideal reaction. See GPA 2172 for conversion to other bases. Conversion of enthalpies of combustion at T = 298.15 K from reference 3 were converted to the conditions specified here with the property values from reference 2. Heating values for H2S are based on SO2(g) and H2O as products. j Enthalpy of vaporization to the ideal-gas state k Values are based on an oxygen mole fraction of 0.20946 for air. l The + sign and number specify the number of cm3 of TEL (tetraethyl lead) added per gallon to achieve the ASTM octane number of 100, corresponding to that of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane. m Average value from octane numbers using more than one sample n Enthalpy of sublimation o For components not listed in GPA-2145, the property values listed in TP-17 may be used.

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References 1 2 M.E. Wieser, Pure Appl. Chem., 78, 2051-2066, 2006. All molar masses are listed with 4 decimal places without consideration of their uncertainties past the third decimal point. E.W. Lemmon, M.L. Huber, and M.O. McLinden, Reference Fluid and Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP), NIST Standard Reference Database 23 (Version 8, 2007). NIST Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg, MD. This database includes the "The IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data , 31(2), 387-535, 2002. A.F. Kazakov, C.D. Muzny, R.D. Chirico, V. Diky, R.A. Stevenson, and M. Frenkel, NIST/TRC Web Thermo Tables (WTT) - Professional Edition, NIST Standard Reference Subscription Database 3 (Version 1, 2007). NIST Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg, MD. The critically evaluated enthalpies of combustion from WTT are all for T = 298.15 K with liquid water as a product, in accord with how the values are determined experimentally. Enthalpies of combustion for the hydrocarbon gases are based upon the following general reaction: Hydrocarbon(gas) + oxygen(gas) = carbon dioxide(gas) + water(liquid) Values (in J/g of hydrocarbon) used to derive the quantities listed in GPA-2145 are: methane (-55517), ethane (-51903), propane (-50325), i-butane (-49347), n-butane (-49505), ethylene (-50303), and propylene (-48907). Enthalpies of combustion for the hydrocarbon liquids are based upon the following general reaction: Hydrocarbon(liquid) + oxygen(gas) = carbon dioxide(gas) + water(liquid) Values (in J/g of hydrocarbon) used to derive the quantities listed in GPA-2145 are: i-pentane (-48560), n-pentane (-48635), n-hexane (-48310), n-heptane (-48071), n-octane (-47888), n-nonane (-47753), and n-decane (-47640). The enthalpy of combustion for hydrogen sulfide is based upon the following reaction: Hydrogen sulfide(gas) + 1.5 oxygen(gas) = sulfur dioxide(gas) + water(liquid) The value (in J/g of hydrogen sulfide) is -16490.5. 4 Engineering Sciences Data Unit, "Fire Hazard Properties: Flash Points, Flammability Limits and Autoignition Temperatures," ESDU 82030, September 1983. E.F. Obert, "Internal Combustion Engines and Air Pollution," Harper & Row: NewYork, 1973.

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