Charaterization of Unsaturated Zone Susceptible to Landslides in Tropical Volcanic Residual Soil with In-Situ Tests
P. P. Rahardjo
Catholic University of Parahyangan Bandung, Indonesia
Islamic University of Sultan Agung Semarang, Indonesia
ABSTRACT: Tropical residual soil has unique characteristics due to the influence of the weather. The intensity of the rainfall is much higher than it’s soil permeability, and landslide become a serious threat. The number of landslides in West Java is numerous, more than 100 events yearly. Landslide is produced if the unsaturated zone on the upper side of a slope becomes saturated, hence it is necessary to characterize the unsaturated zone phrone to landslide on a slope. A research of weathering zone on residual soil were conducted with Scan Electron Microscopy (SEM) and XRay Diffraction (XRD) methods to gain the physical and geo-chemical characteristic of slopes, then a suction measurement of Filter Paper Method were conducted. This resulted in a conclusion that the weathering zone is a major reason to define the depth of unsaturated zone. A zone called zone 4 (the term from Little,1969) is defined as a zone where weathering process change between disintegration of base rock to lateritation process. The profile above the zone 4 is a zone where unsaturated zone highly influenced by weather and potential to slide. A series of in-situ tests (CPT-u and Dilatometer Test) and drilling for undisturbed samples and laboratory tests were conducted, to confirm the characteristic of this zone 4. The in-situ test were proved to be effective to define and characterize this zone, and consequently proved to be successful to define the unsaturated zone for landslide analysis. Keywords : Unsaturated Zone, Tropical residual soil, weathering zone, SEM, XRD, Filter Paper, CPT-u, Dilatometer 1 INTRODUCTION The water table lay deep below surface, this means that soil is under unsaturated condition. Besides of the weight of water, landslide occurs as the result of decreasing the shear strength of soils when soils become saturated from unsaturated condition. As an initial effort for define and anticipated the landslide, it is important to first define the characteristic of the unsaturated zone. Weathering process from base rock to residual soils is the independent variable to define another residual soils characteristics. Therefore as a first step, it is necessary to define the mineralogy of the residual soils. Weathering process than become the main influence factor to define physical properties characteristics, shear strenght, compressibility, insitu stress, and slope hidrology characteristics of residual soils. In dry condition, a slope of tropical volcanic residual soils has a high shear strength characteristics. The slope commonly stand up with steep slope, the angle of slope is higher than it’s shear angle. This is commonly the effect of two factors, the soil structure 1
Indonesian territory has a specific characteristic geology, it is lay on tropical zone and influence by tectonic or volcanic forces. This condition shapes the soil characteristics, and categorized the soils as tropical volcanic residual soil. Residual soils is a soil exist from weathering process of rock, as a result of exposure to weather and still lay above it’s base rock. Tropical soil is a soil located between Tropic of Cancer (23.50 N) in North dan Tropic of Capricorn (23.50S) in South. Volcanic soils is a soils derived from volcanic activity, directed from volcanic ash or as a weathering product of volcanic base rock (magma). Tropical volcanic residual soil of West Java in this research, has a weathering process consist of high temperature, high rain fall and good drainage condition. Landslide in West Java region is numerous, more than 100 cases each year. Almost every landslide cases, induced by rainfall (rainfall induced lanslide).
and the contribution of matrix suction to shear strength (Fredlund & Rahardjo, 1993; Melinda, 2004). How this two factors work on slope is a problem that need more study. Tuncer & Lohnes (1977) published a profile of mineralogy, physical properties and shear strength parameters of Hawaiian and Puerto Rico tropical volcanic residual soil. This profile is very interesting, it is show a different condition over weathering zone. Using the same method of profiling, we intent to study further, in purpose to have a depth knowledge and define the mechanism of the two factors, the soil structure and the matrix suction controlling the shear strength of slope. 2 MINERALOGY OF TROPICAL VOLCANIC RESIDUAL SOILS Based on mineralogy of tropical volcanic residual soils from Older Volcanic Products Formation (Qob) it is known, that the weathering process occur in stages as follow (Fig 2-1) :
a. The Beginning of Weathering Process.
In this stage a disintegration of base rock is occuring. In the layer of soils a feldspar minerals were found in a significant number. Feldspar mineral were found as a common mineral in base rock. In microscopic (from SEM), it is observed that the grain of the soil is still in some chrystal shapes and in a non pararel structure. Feldspar mineral which found in example is Oligoclase, Na0.8Ca0.2Al1.2Si2.8O8, and Orthoclase KAlSi3O8. Feldspar mineral than broke by rainfall’s water and composed a carbonat and chlorit mineral. b. The Washing of Carbonat and Chlorit Process. In this stage a wash of carbonat and chlorit mineral is occuring. This washing process made the soil behave dispersively. The soil
become lighter in colour, it is white or yellowish. c. Oxidation Process. In this stage, an oxidation process is occuring. Mineral from oxide and hydroxide group, which produced by an oxidation process of iron were found, such as Goethite (FeO(OH)) and Hematite (Fe2O3). The soil become reddish in present of iron mineral. In the influence of drying-wetting weather condition, the soil become flocculate, the mineral grain clump together into floc, with a pararel structure. Based on these three specific process the profile of tropical volcanic residual soils, then can be divided into three different zone. The three specific zone are The Beginning of Weathering Zone, The Washing of Carbonat and Chlorit Zone, and Oxidation Zone. Based on Tuncer & Lohness,1977 profile, this three zones categorized into a four zones as follow: a. Zone 2, as the beginning of weathering zone b. Zona 3, as the washing of carbonat and chlorit zone c. Zona 4, as the beginning of oxidation zone d. Zona 5, as the end of oxidation zone 3 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES CHARACTERISTIC OF TROPICAL VOLCANIC RESIDUAL SOILS Based on Tuncer & Lohnes diagram, the physical properties of tropical volcani residual soils were evolve as follow : Stage 1 and stage 2 were categorized as the beginning of weathering zone (where the base rock start to break), stage 3 was categorized as the washing of alkaline mineral zone where clay percentage start to increase, and stage 4 -
Figure 3-1. Weathering zones of tropical volcanic residual soils
5 categorized as the oxidation zone, where the sesquioxides (Fe203 dan Al2O3) were present. In the stage 3 the broken mineral, the alkalin, is a dispersive agent, it makes the soil grain become finer. As result the void ratio reduce and soil’s permeability decrease.
decreasing on micro void ratio. The void ratio increase on zone 2, decreasing on zone 3 and increasing back on zone 4, it’s achieve a maximum value at the border of zone 4-5. Void ratio decrease again on zone 5 because of the relatively high decreasing of degree of saturation as described in equation 1.
Figure 3-3.(a) Specific gravity of minerals and l Gs profile, (b) Void diameter and void ratio profile Figure 3-2. The variation of physical properties of Basalt rock in weathering to laterite (Tuncer and Lohnes, 1977)
In the stage 4, the increase on sesquioxides (Fe2O3 dan Al2O3), means the increase on specific gravity because the iron mineral have a relatively high specific gravity. The clay particle cemented in flocculation process of sesquioxides. The void ratio increase because higher specific gravity means decrease on solid volume (Vs). In stage 5 a decrease on degree of saturation (Sr) occured, the soil become unsaturated. In unsaturated soil the index relation become as follow :
G Se s w 1 e
The high magnitude of void ratio in the zone 4 towards the border of zone 4-5 consequence on a higher permeability, this zone become a collecting place of water (water trap zone). The degree of saturation and water content in this zone become higher.
On equation 1, if an increasing of density and specific gravity occured, in decrease of degree of saturation will result on decrease of void ratio. Specific gravity and void ratio become a main parameters in controlling another soil parameters. In conclusion, this two parameters profile are describe as follow: Specific Gravity. A difference on type of minerals in each zone results on a difference of specific gravity, as an example the minerals resulted from oxidation process as Geothite and Hematite has a higher specific gravity of 3.3 – 3.5 and 4.9 - 5.3. So the profile of specific gravity has a unique shape as shown in figure 2-2. Void ratio. The difference of minerals behaviour as dispersive in zone 3 and flocculative in zone 4 and 5 resulted on the difference on void ratio (Figure 2-2). Dispersive behaviour resulted on a decreasing of void ratio, meanwhile flocculative behaviour resulted on increasing of macro void ratio and
To define the matrix suction profile an instrumentation on Cijengkol Slope, a slope of tropical volcanic residual soil, was conducted with the instalation of 1 set Jetfill Tensiometer for monitoring matrix suction and 1 set ADR Thetaprobe for monitoring volumetric water content. The depth of instalation are 0.6 m, 1.2 m and 2.1 m. Meanwhile a Filter Paper method of measuring matrix suction was conducted at laboratorium. Figure 3-3 below show all the measuring matrix suction profile. In conclusion, the profile of matrix suction was describe as follow : suctions on soils consist of two type of suction, matrix suction and osmotic suction. Osmotic suction is a suction related to a specific mineral on soils, as an example a soil with high carbonat and chlorite has a high value of osmotic suction. Matrix suction is a suction related only to soil structure, the value of void ratio between soil grain, micro or macro void. The magnitude of macro and micro soils are dependent to the type of mineral in soils, so the matrix suction also influence by the type of mineral in soils indirectly. In this research the matrix suction profile is defined as follow : on zone 3 matrix suction is low because the grain size of soil categorized as silty or sandy clay. On zone 5 matrix suction relatively higher because the grain size of soil categorized as 3
clay. The condition of matriz suction on site is as follow, matrix suction on zone 4 is the lowest because the water trap condition, on zone 5 matrix suction varied over degree of saturation, in general because of the high rainfall intensity, matrix suction fell below the soil’s air entry value .
slope, so the weathered zone is thicker. The soil profile is homogen from silty clay to clay, without any other insertion of different type of soil (sand). A Sta 109+500 (Figure 4-1) zone 4 located at 10 to 16 m, it is marked by a value of FR from 2 to 4. Besides the value of FR, the value of u2 and the value of Bq could also be as an indicator of zone 4. The value of u2 at zone 4 is between 0.2 to 0.6 MPa, while the value of Bq is around 0.2 to 0.6 %. The same range of values were obtain from other bore holes as shown on table 4-1 below.
Table 4-1. Values of FR , u2 and Bq from CPTu test at Kalijati residual slope
Sta Sta 109+500 Sta 113+650 Sta 116+900 Zone 4 (depth) 10 - 16 m 13 – 18.5 m 6.5 - 9.5 m FR 2–4 2–6 2- 6 u2 (MPa) 0.2 - 0.6 0.2 - 0.4 0.0 - 0.4 Bq (%) 0.2 – 0.6 0.2 – 0.4 0.0 - 0.4
Figure 3-4. Matrix suction profile of BH02 Cijengkol Slope
IN-SITU CHARACTERISTICS OF TROPICAL VOLCANIC RESIDUAL SOILS CPT-u Test
CPT-u test was conducted at residual soil of Kalijati, West Java. This residual soils is a weathered result from a base rock of Qos formation, a sediment formation of Older Volcanic Product (Qob). This area is located at a lower elevation than Cijengkol
Inconclusion, zone 4 is a position where positive water pressure present (u2 present). Schneider,Peuchen & Mayne, 2001 in their paper of Piezocone Profiling of Residual Soils, concluded that positive water pressure u2 profile indicate clearly the different in stratigraphy of residuals soils that related to weathering profile. As an example in Schneider profile of CPT-u test result on Singapore residual soils as follow (Figure 4-2), zone 4 is indicate at 12-13 m depth, because u2 is at 0.2-0.4 MPa and FR is around 2 to 4 %. This same conclusion were produced from this research, moreover this conclusion also confirm by the results of characteristics profile of mineral and physical properties. With knowledge to define zone 4 location, then it will be possible to predict the unsaturated behaviour of the soil profile, because the residual soil undergo the same weathering process.
Figure 4-1. Parameters profile from CPT-u test
Table 4-2 The values of maximum po and p1 from dilatometer tests Lokasi DMT01 BH-02 Neg DMT02 BH-03 Neg DMT03 BH-04 Neg DMT04 BH-05 Neg DMT01 BH-03 Cij Kedalaman (m) 12 10 13 12 10.6 po max 1100 1000 1200 600 460 p1 max (kPa) 1600 1600 1500 1000 1600
Figure 4-2. CPTu profile of residual soil (weathered product from clay stone and breksi ) below marine clay layer of Singapore, from Schneider, et all
Insitu test with dilatometer were conducted at four location at Neglajaya slope and one location at Cijengkol slope. One of the results was shown in Figure 4-3 below. Based on corrected first reading (po) and coreccted second reading (p1), an intermediate parameters of ID (material index), KD (horisontal stress index) and ED (dilatometer modulus) were obtained. From this intermediate parameters then derived by empirical formula another parameters : Ko, OCR and MDMT (Vertical Drained Constrained Modulus). Different from sediment soils, OCR value obtained from this dilatometer test was not correlated with the thick of fill ever happen in past, but more correlated to the present or not a structures in soils. Because of those different perception Fonseca,et all, 2008, proposed a change of term to vOCR or virtual OCR. From the research, in general p1 profile is almost the same as po profile with a maximum value as follow :
KD, Ko and vOCR profile in general is almost in the same shapes. The dilatometer parameters in each zone were discussed in order as follow. 4.2.1 Dilatometer parameters of zone 4 The value of KD at this zone shown a relatively the same value between 2 to 4. Marchetti states KD equal 2, as a Normally Consolidated (NC) condition on sediment soil, so for residual soils, based on characteristics of mineral and physical properties, it is concluded that KD < 4 as an indicator of lost of structure soil’s zone.
Table 4-3 Parameters value from Dilatometer Test at zone 4
Location D01-2 Neg D02-3 Neg D03-4 Neg DMT04 BH-05 DMT01B-03 Cj Location D01-2 Neg D02-3 Neg D03-4 Neg DMT04 BH-05 DMT01 B-03 Cj po (kPa) 100-500 400-500 200-500 200-400 200-400 p1 (kPa) 700-1000 700-1000 500-1000 400-1000 500-900 Ko 0.5 0.5 0.5-0.8 0.5 0.5-0.8 ID 1-3.75 (sand) 0.6-1.6(silt) 0.6-1.8(silt) 0.6-1.0(silt) 1-4(sand) vOCR 1-2 2 1-2.5 1 1-2.5 MDMT (MPa) 10-25 18-22 10-30 2-13 10-40 KD 2-4 2-4 2-4 1-2 2-4
ED (MPa) 10-20 10-20 10-22 5-13 10-30
Figure 4-3. Parameters profiles from dilatometer tests
The value of Ko is around 0.5, a common value for NC soil. The valur of vOCR is between 1 to 2, indicated the soil as an NC to lightly Over Consolidated (OC). The ID parameter shown uncorelated to the result of index properties test at laboratory. ID parameter is a function of po, p1 and u0 as folow :
BH-03 Neg DMT03 BH-04 Neg DMT01 BH-03 Cij Location
1000 4001200 100600
1600 5001550 4501600 Ko 0.751.25 0.5-1.30 0.5-1.25 0.4-0.75
(Silt) 0.2-0.8 (Clay to silt) 1.8-7.0 (Sand) vOC R 2-6 1-4.5 1-4.5 1-2
MDMT(MPa) 10-50 5-25 5-25 25-70
DMT01 BH-02 Neg
(2) It is shown that the ID value is higher than the ID value of the index properties type of soils, which is clay and silt. This is possible because of the unsaturated condition. If the water pressure become negative (in unsaturated soil), therefore the ID will be lower and in suitable range of value, of clay and silt type of soils.
DMT02 BH-03 Neg DMT03 BH-04 Neg DMT01 BH-03 Cij
Dilatometer parameters of zone 5 The parameters from dilatometer test of zone 5 is shown in the table 4-4 below.
Table 4-4 Parameters from Dilatometer tests of zone 5 Location DMT01 BH-02 Neg DMT02 BH-03 Neg DMT03 BH-04 Neg DMT04 BH-05 Neg DMT01 BH-03 Cij po(kPa) 0-100 p1(kPa) 0-300 ID 0.6-2.8 (Silt to sand) 0.3-4.0 (Clay to sand) 0.5-1.8 (Silt) 0.7-3.0 (Silt to sand) 0.8-4.0 (Silt to sand) vOCR 2 - >8 4 - >20 1 - >10 1 – 1.5 1 - >10 KD 2-8 ED (MPa) 0-10
200800 200400 100350 100200
5001200 250750 400650 250500
4>20 2-10 1.52.5 2>8
Zone 4, where water trap condition occured, becomes an indicator zone to devide the tropical volcanic residual soil into weathering zones. With knowledge to define the zone 4 location, then it will be possible to predict the unsaturated behaviour of the soil profile, because the residual soil undergo the same weathering process. This research proved the effectiveness of insitu tests to define the zone 4 location. The Dilatometer and CPT-u test are among the best insitu tets to define the weathering zone. The insitu parameters from each different zone of weathering, have its specific range of values. The Index Material parameter ID from Dilatometer test is required to redefine because it is not yet included the effect of matrix suction on soils. REFERENCES
Blight, G.E., 1988, Keynote Paper : Construction in Tropical Soils, Proceedings Geomechanics in Tropical Soils Seminar, NTU-ISSMFE-SEAGS, Singapore. Fonseca, A.V, Coutinho, R.Q. , 2008, Characterization of residual soils, Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterization – Huang & Mayne (eds), Taylor & Francis Group, London. Fredlund, D.G. and Rahardjo, H. ,1993, Soil Mechanics for Unsaturated Soils, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Karlinasari, R., 2009, Study of Characteristics of Tropical Volcanic Residual Soil From Older Volcanic Products Formation (Qob), West Java, PhD Dissertation at Catholic University of Parahyangan, Bandung. Marchetti, Monaco, DMT Course Notes (2001), 77 p, Insitu 2001, Bali. Melinda, F., Rahardjo, H.,Han, K.K., and Leong,E.C.,2004, Shear Strength of Compacted Soil under Infiltration Condition, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 8, August 1, 2004,ASCE. Schneider, J.A., Peuchen, J., Mayne, J., and McGillivray, A.V. (2001) Piezocone profiling of residual soils, Proceedings, International Conference on In Situ Measurements of Soil Properties and Case Histories, Bali, Indonesia, May 2124,2001, pp. 593 – 598,GEC, Bandung.
Location DMT01 BH-02 Neg DMT02 BH-03 Neg DMT03 BH-04 Neg DMT04 BH-05 Neg DMT01 BH-03 Cij
Ko 0.5-1.6 1-3 0.5-2 0.5-0.7 0.5- > 2
MDMT(MPa) 0-10 10-80 8-30 2.5-15 8-30
Dilatometer parameters of zone 3 The parameters from dilatometer test of zone 3 is shown in the table 4-5 below.
Table 4-5 Parameters from Dilatometer tests for zone 3 Location DMT01 BH-02 Neg DMT02 po(kPa) 5001000 300p1(kPa) 6001500 650ID 0.3-1.0 (Clay to silt) 0.6-0.8 KD 3-6 ED (MPa) 10-30