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25-29 Juiy. 2004

25-29 Juiy. 2004 Budapest, Hungary A Generalized Vertex Method for Computing with Fuzzy Intervals Didier Dubois

Budapest, Hungary

A Generalized Vertex Method for Computing with Fuzzy Intervals

Didier Dubois


118, rte dc narbonne F-3 1062 Toulouse, France E-mail: dubois@,




118, rtc dc narbonne F-31062 Toulouse. France E-mail:

Jerijme Fortin

IRlT I UPS 118, rte dc narbonne F-3 1062 Toulouse, France E-mail:

Abstruct- We introduce a new method for computing func-

tions of fuzzy intervals under various monotonicity assumptions on the concerned functions. Our method makes exact computa- tion for all possibility degrees, without resorting to a-cuts. We formally present the notion of left and right profiles of fuzzy intervals as a tool for fuzzy interval computation. Several results show that interval analysis methods can be directly adapted to fuzzy interval computation where end point of intervals are changed into left and right profiles. Our approach is illustrated by numerous simple eKamples all along the paper, and a special section is devoted to the application of these concepts to different

known problems.


In interval computation, the basic problem is: given a func- tion f (XI ,xn) and w intervals [xz,x:], find the interval

range of the variable y = f(t)such that t E

[I]. Modeling possible values of variables by means of real intervals accounts for some uncertainty, but we can be more precise by modeling uncertainty on a variable z, by means of a fuzzy intend X,. Thcn onc way to compute the possible fuzzy rangc Y of g is to decompose thc problem in terms of o-cuts and then to apply a standard interval analysis method. This process has drawbacks: it computes only an approximation of Y, and for each a-cut, the interval algorithm has to be completely executed. The goal of interval computation is to find the minimum and the maximum of the function when the different possible values of the variables x7 range in their intervals [.E-,.:]. Some methods are based on finding a finite set of points (called configurations or poles) on which this minimum and maximum is attained [2]. This is the idea of the vertex method 131. We want to generalize this idea to the fuzzy casc without resorting to cr-cuts, and we give cxact results for all possibility degrees. In this paper, wc propose an approach to the fuzzy problem, based on a particular representation of fuzzy intenals. This rcprescntation cnablcs computation on fuzzy intervals under different monotonicity assumptions on the function. using the set of what we call fuzzy configurations.



Co~rUTA r10 N

With n intewals [x,, element of the sct X



wc call real configuration an

xL[.rf-.x:].Among configurations

0-7803-8353-2/04/$20.000 2004 IEEE

of X, let us distinguish the extreme ones. ie thc set H =

x {z;. XI'}.The notion of configuration has been proposed

but in the literature

extreme configurations arc also callcd poles [Z]. Under some assumption, the maximum of f over X is

actually equal to the maximum of f on 3.1. or on a subset

C C_ H. An element U? E H has the form UJ

with E, E (+;-}. To use this idea, we should write two propositions based on some assumed monotony of the con- sidered function. Before, let us give several definitions of monotony, useful for thcse propositions. In thcsc definitions,

by Buckley for the scheduling problem [4],

= (ri', . + . , x:;),

f is a function from R" to R. Dqfinition I: f is said to be increusing with re- spect to x, (respectively decreasing) if for all n-tuple

the restricted func-

tion from W to R f((zl.n2:


(al,u2 . ,~~-1,aI+l


E EX7'-'

increasing (respectively decreasing).

Definition 2: f

is said monotonic with respect fo euch .E,

if for cach variable .eL. f is eithcr incrcasing or decreasing according to r7. Dey'inition 3: f is said locally monotonic with respect


, CL,+^. s .afj)E E"-]the restricted func-

tion f(a1, u2 + . ,ut-1.x,.

In this last definition we should note that f can be increasing

for one tuple and decreasing for another. Therefore, a fimction locally monotonic with respect to each argument is not mono- tonic in thc usual sense (Definition 2). A function is locally monotonic with rcspcct to s, if the sign of its partial derivative $ does not depend on xt. We can now state a wcll-known proposition:



if for each variable xZ, for ail n-tuple

,tilz) is monotonic.


Proposition I: Let .c = (:Q



a tuple

of n

[U-.ys]. If f is locally monotonic with respect to each argu-

ment, then y-

Proposition I enables computations on functions to be per- formed under a condition of local monotony. This proposition is the ba+s of the (FWA) Algorithm [3] which computes the fuzzy weightcd averagc. We recall another result which decreases the number of fuzzy configmations used for the computation of a function f with stronger monotony condi- tions:

variables such that xt E [.;,.E:], and y = f(z~,

= rni7idE~(f(



= nz~tx,~.~(f (U))


Proposition 2: Under the assumption of Proposition I, if f is locally monotonic with respect to each argument. and Yj E El, f is incrcasing according to :cf and Vj E E2, f is decreasing according to xJ, then

Fig. 3.

Maxinium of A and B


In this paper, wc' gencralizc the &ion bf 'configuration to fuzzy interval problems, and we give counterparts to the previous propositions.

the horizontal dit'ference of the left profile of A and the right profile of B (respectively the right profile of A and the left profile of B) (see Figure 4). In the first example



Fuzzy intervals are defined as follow [SI:

Dt$nitian 4: A fuzzy interval I, defined by its membership function PI(.) is a fuzzy set such that:

V(z,y.z) E R3 z E [.r.y] ==. prfz) 2 ~,z~(,~.r(~~}./~[(~~)

1 is said normalized iff 3y E R such that pr(y)

In this paper we only work with normal fuzzy intervals and

with upper semi-continuous (USC) membership functions. Note that the cr-cut of a fuzzy interval (I, = {x/p~(r)L

a}) is a classical interval. A decomposition by a-cuts can be used to compute the function on fuzzy intervals.

= 1

Fig. 4.

Diffcrencc A - B

(C = m=(A, D)),we have obtained the left profile of C from

([f (XI:



.Xn)la =




.[X,l]a)).For example.


both left profiles because the function

increasing with respect to both s and y. We have computed the right profile of C with the right profiles of A and B for the

same reason. Thc function g(x. y) = II'- g being increasing in

x and decreasing in U,we get the left profile of D subtracting


.I/) = w"(x. y) is
















B+ from A-.

and the right profile I)+ subtracting A+ from


Fig. 1.

Possibility distribtition of two fuzzy intervals A and B

let A and B the fuzzy intervals on Figure 1. Let C be the

maximum of A and I3 (C


operator maximum on classical intervals (=([U. b].[c.d])=

[nsas(n.c). TTLUL(~,d)]).

Now, we call left profile (this notion will be formally defined in the next Section) the increasing part of a fuzzy interval

I (denoted I-)? and right profile its decreasing part (I+). To obtain the left-profile (respectively right-profile) of C, we make a horizontal comparison, taking the maximum, of the lee-profiles (respectively right-profiles) of A and B (Figure 2). Thcn C is coniplctely dcfincd by C- and C+ (Figure

3). Similarly from the same fuzzy intervals A


riZk(A.B)). C is defined

level ct



= mol.(&. Ba),where 9n(Ls is thc

and B,


Fig. 2.

right) of A and H

tfonmntal comparison of left profi les (on left) and right profi les (on

let us compute thc differencc D = A 8 l3. To obtain the Icft profile (respectively right profilc) of I), wc can cotnputc

Let us now formalise this intuitive approach rigorously.


We need to define an object (called profile) to handle the increasing or decreasing part of a fuzzy interval. and also operations between such objects. DeBnition 5: A pr011e is a function Cf, from [O. 11 to R. Note that a profile is not requested to be monotonic. In the following, [s-, s+] will represent the support of I. Definifion 6: Let 1 be an USC fuzzy interval. We call lefl projSle of I (dcnoted I-) the profile defined as follows:



[O, 11




x I-(/!) = tnf{.?:l,lJ(2)2 A. 2; 2 .-}

We call right profile qfl (denoted I+)the profile defined as following:

If : [O,11 - - I4

x I+(A) = .sup{rlp[(x) 2 x.s 5 sf}

This definition seems complex, but it permits to preserve USC properties across computations, and is simple to use in practice. With this definition, an USC fuzzy interval can be

entirely defined by its Icft profilc and its right profile (this is not the case for all fuzzy sets, sincc two profiles only define a convex membership function): From I, we can obtain I+ and

I- by construction (see Definition 6). and conversely, given

I+ and I-, we derive pl as follow:

irheorenz I: Let I be a USC fuzzy interval, I- and I+ its Icft and right profiles, then thc membership function ~LIof I


25-29 Juiy. 2004-Budapest. Hungary

Now. let us give the definition of a fuzzy extreme configu- ration.

Dcfirrition 7:






, .c,,)





independent variables, restricted by the fuzzy intervals

.E=,,. A jiizzy atrenze cotzfigtrrution I2 is a n-tuple

of left or right profiles: I2 -= (X~'.X~2,1 ,Xhft),where

et E {+. -}. W- e denote 71 the set- of all fuzzy configurations: 3.1 = X, {Xc-,x'} (1x1= 2")


XI ~



the ath profile of configuration 61. For any

f1 E 71, let I1(A) denote the classical configwrition obtained at

level A. $](A) = (fl1(A),f22(A):-. ,fl,?(A)) E R"

of the hyper-rectangle x ,[X,,]x.

The definition of a fuzzy interval as a pair of profiles is akin to the so-called graded numbers of Herencia [6]. This author also considers fuzzy numbers as mappings from the unit interval to the set of real intervals. instead of the usual USC mapping from the reals to the unit interval. However. profiles are more general because they are not necessarily monotonic. Only monotonic profiles are useful to define fuzzy intervals. however, as shown in the sequel. computations with fuzzy intervals may lead to non-monotonic profiles as intermediary rcsults. That is why profiles are defined as functions from [0,1] to R. which associates for each possibility level A E [0,1] a single abscissa @(A). For example the result of the maximum of A+ and B- (A and B defined by Figure I) is not a function from R to [U, I] (see Figure 5).

is a vertex

Fig. 5.

Maximum of A'

and R-

Non-monotonic profiles can thus appear in the intemiidiate computations, but hopefully, the final result is always a classi- cal fuzzy interval. The above example is meant for illustration of non-monotonic profiles.

If the membership function of an upper semi-continuous fuzzy interval has some discontinuity points, it can be useful to display its profiles on separate graphs. See the profiles of I (Figure 6) respect Definition 6, and therefore, the membership function of I can be exactly recovered from I- and If according to Theorem I. Note that the left and right profiles of an USC fuzzy interval are both left-continuous.

Fig. 6.



Examples of profi les of a non continuous fuzq interval



A. Muin Residts

We have defined notions of profiles and configurations for fuzzy variables. We can see now how to use these concepts for our purpose. which is to provide some tools for computing the range of a function under fuzzy interval arguments. Dtlfinition 8: Let f be a function of arity n. Let us denote

f the extension off applicable to profiles: for any n-tuple of profiles s1 = (621.02 . ,Cl,), f(Q) is the profile defined as follo\vs: YA E [U. 11

f(QW =



f (Q, (A). Q,( A),


3 Qn(A>>

For instance, the extension of maximum and subtraction has been used to obtain the profiles of Figures 2, 4 and 5.

Now, let us define a set I: 5 {-. +}" such that for all inter- vals x = x &[x;,,E].: defines a set of configurations 3i.U,< asfollows:&E = ((1.;' .se- ,J$)/(CI ,en)E E} Ifthere

+ .X,L.5 also defines a set of fitzzy

configurations: iFtc = {(X;Lt-.+,S;,ri)l(el.- ,fa) E t}.

With these notations we can state the following theorem:

Theorem 2: Lct ~f = (TI,.CZ, .xn) be a tuple of

are n fuzzy interv2ls


rx independent variables, restricted by the fuzzy intcr-

vals X1

all USC. f is a function from Rn to R, and Y is the fuzzy set of the possible values of the variable y = f(z). If there is a set E C {(e1: .E,).E, E {-.+}}, such that for all a-cuts f attains its maximum and minimum on X, = x,[.Xt], for a configuration in 7-l

then Y+ = P~LU.~~~~~~{f(O)}

and Y- = m&Qcg,(f(62))

I . ,-Y,, defined by their membership functions

&jot: Let X E [O. 11 he a possibility degree. By definition of thc right pmfi le, WO know that'

Y + (A)



rum-{?jl/~y(g)2 lFX)


yly = f(z,,

.'rIL)>2, E X,X}

And then, under the hypothesis of the theorem. we can write that: >'+(A)

rnna{yly = j(z;'

which exactly meam Y+(X) = mn~,,~fi,(f(S2)iA))

,.&"), (~1

, c,)

E t},


This equation is true Toor all X

Y+= wihznc,-, {j(~))


[O,11, therefore. we can conclude that U

As in the interval case, we can state two corollaries based on the monotony of f:

Corollqy I: Under the assumption of Theorem 2, if f is locally monotonic with respect to each argument.


then Y- = ?~~m~,n(f(fi))

and E'+ = nzuxn,~(f(Q))

Prd. This 1% Tlieeorem 2, where [ = {(rl:


.i,).c* E {-.+}}

Corollary 2:

Under the assumption of Theorem 2, if f

Corollary 2: Under the assumption of Theorem 2, if f is locally monotonicwith respect to each


locally monotonicwith respect to each argument, and Vj E Et, f is increasing according to .E, and Vj E E2. f is dccrcasing

according to -c7, then

Proof: Obvious with Thcokm 2 and Definition 6 of profiles.'


This last corollary was in fact known for strictly increasing


f from its cxtcnsion applicable to the profiles f.

B. Why This Approach Is Uwfurl In Practice

[SI.In the remainder of this paper, we will not tell

The above theory looks complex, but lots of applications are really simple. Let us imagine some computations on piecewise linear fuzzy intervals (such fuzzy sets are not hard to implement [7] [SI). The profiles of such fuzzy sets are ob- viously piecewise linear and can be implemented in the same way. Somc operations on such profiles prescrve the piccc- wise lincarity propcrty: for example the maximum, minimum, addition. subtraction. Moreover. for addition and subtraction, no new break-points are generated, and for the minimum or maximum, the number of break-points may double in the worst case. Then we can deduce that the complexity of a computation on piecewise linear profiles with these operators is polynomial according to the number of break-points. The implementation of our computation mcthod on functions defined from thcsc operations is easy and can be generalized to other operations.

C. Example Of Coinputation Using PrC?film

Let us see a simple example of application of Corollary I. Let h be the function defined by h,(r, y) = mn'n.(s.y) - y. h is locally monotonic with respect to each aryment. Let a and b be two independent variables with values in the fuzzy intervals A and B, defined by the mcmbership functions of Figure 7.




rig. 7.












Memhership function of the fimy intervals A and B

We denote by c the variable defined by c = h (U. ti). Now. we can compute thc fuzzy set C of possible values of c from the expression where .y appears twice. - The set of fuzzy extreme configurations is

HI = {(A-, B-), (A+.B-).(.A+. L3-). (-A+. Bf)}.

Acc_ording to Corollary 1, we can apply /E on each element of 7-1, (Figure S), put all the results of these computations on thc same grdph. and compute thcir fuzzy convex hull (Figure 9). Note that we gct a non-monotonic profile on Figure 8 as


0 *






11, II



Fig. 9.

Details of the computation of h applied on


il F"


m"h til ).

Superposition of the result of h applied on fil

partial result. In fact, the function h is increasing according to x, and decreasing according to y. This is obvious since: h(z,y) = mox(r - y,O). If we had noticed it earlicr, the computation would have been Easier: Corollary 2 recommends to use only


configuration on 3-12 = (A+, B-), (.4+, B-). Therefore

the second and the third line of the Figure 8 would have been useful to determine C complctely. Howevcr. it is not always possible to rewrite the function in such a way that each variable appears once only.


The previous computation method can be easily applied to more difficult problems. Our motivation first came from the scheduling problem, but during our work on this domain. we saw other problcms to which this theory can be applied.

A. Multiplicntion

A very simple application of this method can be the multiplication of two fuzzy numbers overlapping 0. For this application, we can take two fuzzy intend given by their L-R parametrized representations [SI. Let L be any USC from [0,+E) to [O,11. satisfying the following rcquircmcnts:

V'n. > 0. L(.c) < 1; Yr < 1. L(.c) > 0; L(0) = 1; either

L(.c) > 0. and lirr~.c4+mL,(x) = 0. Under

L( 1) = 0 or (Vx.

these rcquircments,L is said to be a shape function. Two shape functions L and R and a Four-tuple (m.E,s, t) such that a.

?tL E R U { -m, +K}, s, t E [O, +m), define a fuzzy intcnal

A by the following equation:


25-29 July, 2004

25-29 July, 2004 Sudapest, Hungary The left profile of A is the function A- defined by

Sudapest, Hungary

The left profile of A is the function A- defined by A- (A) = -7n - ,Y -e L-'(A), and the right-profile Ac of A is the function A+(A) = t * R-I (A) 4-E. The multiplication of two L-R parametrized fuzzy inter- vals A and 13 defined by their four-tuple (~.E.s.t)and @:V,U,7): can then bc done by Corollary 1. Indeed, The function /7(x,.tj) = .x; * ?j is locally monotonic on R'. Thcn we can conclude that the following equations are valid:

(A*B)-=mzn(A- *&.A+


(A*B)+=mnx(A- *B-.A+ *B-.A- *B+.A+*B+)

It extends a well-known formula of interval arithmetics [I] (page 12). Note that for two profiles @, Q. mzn(ik.P) # Q, and mi77(@,9) # 9 (see for exemple Figure 5). This computation is easy with the usual tools in the case of non- negative fuzzy interval. but our result can be applied to all fuzzy intcrvals. For examplc, consider the two fuzzy intervals A and B, defined by Figure 10. A (respectively B) is a L-L

Fig. 10.

Possibility disrribution of two fuzzy intervals A and B

parametrized fuzzy interval for L(x) = 1 - IZ' VJ: E [O, 11 and L(.c) = 0 Vx > 1, and the four-tuple (4,& $,+) (respectively

(-4,-5. $, 1)). Now, L-l

= L, therefore the profiles of A

and B are defined as follows:


$. A+(A)

= 1 - 5,

B-(A) = 5 - 1, B+(X)= 1 - x


Then we get: (A- * B-)jA)







= 3 * (4 -

B-)(A) = (1 - hj * ($


* B+)(X)= ;* (-? - A)

* B-)(A)

= (1 - ?+) * ($ - A)


The computed profile and the result C,'= A * B are shown on figure 11. The above calculations are in the style of graded numbers [6] but some profiles obtained as partial results are not monotonic.


1 1,


CJ = 11 * U and the computed profi las

0.Scheduling Prohiem

For a general description of schedulingproblems, the reader should refer to 193.

1) Problem Definition: A scheduling problem can bc dc- fined by a set of tasks (or activitics) which represents the different parts of a project, and a sct of precedence constraints cxpressing that some tasks cannot start before others are completed. In this context, the goal of a project manager is generally to minimize the makespan of the project. Three quantities are computed for each task of the project (they allow to identify the critical tasks): the eariiest starring dute et of a task 1 is the date before which we cannot start the task without violation of a precedence constraint. The Entest starting date I, is the date after which we cannot start the task without delaying the end of the project. The-float fl is the difference bctwcen the latest starting date and the earliest starting date. A task is then critical it'f its fioat is null. These three quantities are computed by the PERT Algorithm based on thrce equations which only use rnira. rrr - operators:




mtr.r{tV&)lp E PI.%}

mu.c{eJ +(1'313 E prd(z)}



mzx{tV(p)ly E

- max{I4,'(p)Ip E


T~LIPL{/~- dJlj E s~Lc((L)}



1, - e,

where dJ is the duration of the task 3. pred(i) is the set of tasks preceding i. succ(i) is the set of tasks following i. We note Ptq3the set of all path from task i to task 3. and W'(p,,J) the length of path P,.~E P7,7. e, is the length of the longest path from the starting task (noted 1) to task 2. I, is the length of the longest path from the starting task to the ending task (noted n) minus the longest path from task t to the ending task. In scheduling problems under uncertainty (on fuzzy PERT)

a task duration can be modeled by an interval, crisp or hzzy.

2) Application Of The Profile Method: The expressions of t', and 1, obcy monotony properties and a set of configurations can be pointed out where the bounds of thc quantities are attained [lo] 11 1). From these results and the theorems of the last section, it is now easy to work on the fuzzy version of the problem. D, is the fuzzy interval reprcsenting the possible valuations of the duration of task i. E, L, and F, are rcspectively the fuzzy earlier starting date, latest starting date, and float of 1. The problem defines for each task i three functions comput-

ing the earliest starting dates cl(.>,the latest starting dates I<(.)

and the floats f,(.). Thcsc

are 72 tasks in the problem) take a n-tuple of task durations as parameter. First e,(.> is increasing according to each argunxnt. So

applying Corollary 2. we directly get two expressions that compute the fuzzy earlier starting date:

functions of ri variables (if there


= rnu.r,{E,

+ D,-lj

E prcd(z)}

E: 1 ma~{E,f+ DJ+13E pred(~)) Similarly, for the fuzzy latest starting date L, and float

F,, we know that the ftinctions l'(.) and fit.) are locally monotonic with respect to each argument. Moreover, we can find a subset of variabics according to which It(.) and fl(.)

are increasing [lo]: /,{SI,

is incrcasing with respect



to all r1 such that .j I$ svcc(i) U

is incrcasing with respect to all :cI such that z pred(i)U {z} U succ(i). Thcrcforc we can apply Corollary 2. No morc configurations are necessary in thc fuzzy case than in the interval case.

we have develloped another al-

(i}, and .f,,(q:


From the results in [IO],

gorithm (the Path-Algorithm) for the interval-valued problem [12]. in which, thc computations of Iz(.) and fz(.) can bc done on a sinall set of configurations. This set is the basis of the application of Thcorem 2 in the fuzzy version of the problem. The minimum of I$(.) is attained on a configuration LJ = [zf ,.I$;)where the set of task assigned to their

maximum ({ilcl = +}) is exactly a path from task 4 to the

endding task n. The maximum of I, (.) and fi (.) and the mini-

mum off, (.) is attained on a configuration 13 = (xi’,

where the set of tasks assigncd to their maximum ((il~~= +}) is exactly a path from the starting task 1 to the endding task 71. With Theorcm 2, wc obtain the exact fuzzy profiles of the latest starting dates and floats with the same time coniplcxity as in the crisp case.



C. Fwqi Weighted .4verug@

The fuzzy weighted average problem is: givcn rh fuzzy

weights i21,7g and n fuzzy &, how to obtain the fuzzy weighted

average of the variable y = fu~a(.rcl, .zcn,SI.8




‘fht(FWA) Algorithm [3] decomposes the problem into M interval problems (corrcspondingto Al a-cuts). Then for each

a-cut, it computes

vertcx of the hyper-rectanglc (Wi),x

(Xnja7where (Z), is the cu-cut of Z at level a. The maximal (respectivelyminimal) possible value of 2 at possibility level a

is then the greatest (respectively the lowest) computed value. This is due the the fact that the function fwn(.)is locally monotonic with respect to each argument:

Proposition 3: The function f iua( .) is locally monotonic with respect to each argument (according to Definition 3)

Applying Corollary i to the fuzzy weighted atrerage yields a gcncralized (FWA) Algorithm, which gives an exact value of the avcragc. for cach possibility level, with a time complexity in 0(P).On the contrary. the classical (FWA) Algorithm gives the exact value of the average only for a restricted number (say Afl)of possibility degrees (the rest of the result

is approximated) with complexity

polynomial algorithms have been recently developed for the real interval problem [13], but these algorithms can not be extended to the present profile theory. Their extension is left to hrther research.

In the case where all x, are precisely defined. we can order

the x, such that for

is decreas-

ing with respect to 7~4,and for all i > k. f7ua(.) is increasing with respect to w~.So we can apply Theorem 2 with the set

.wn, .q,+

.xn) on cach

(XI), x


O(M * 2*). Note that

all j < i, .cj 5 xz.With this order, there

exists k E [i.11, - 11 such that for all I 5 k. fzun(.)

E =

{(- .-ti

.+>.(-,-.+,-.- ,+)

.(-,.-- .-,+)}.

and so we obtain a linear algorithm to computc the fuzzy



weighted average

one of Lcc and Park [ 141.

= ~?J:CL(~!~,x), extcnding to profiles the


I I.

Cn N c I>IJ sION s

We have designed a new approach for fuzzy computations problem. We have seen on scvcral problems under uncertainty how our method can be applied. This list is of course not cxhaustive and lots of problems should find answers with this

coinputationmethod. We have shown that for locally monotonic functions, intcr- val analysis techniques are easily extended to fuzzy intervals using profiles. In particular it can bc applied to arithmetic operations which are not monotonic on the whole real line (multiplication, division), to FWA and scheduling. The profile method was developed for functions which reach their maximum and minimum values on the bounds of interval entries. In basic problems of intewd computation, this is of course not always the case. For example with a differentiable

function of

z, E [xt’,,x:]

where partial derivatives off equal to 0. So it seems possible to model the third possibility in the case of fuzzy problem by

adding a constant profile X;(A) = s,” for all A. But this is a topic for further research.

,xn),for each variable .r, extrema off for reached on .CF.or 211, or can be on a point 2,”


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