F igure 7 Configuration in the Delta Circuit Instead of the arrangement in the motor line or mains supply line, the

overloadrelay can be placed in the delta circuit. When heavy, long-starting procedures areinvolved (e.g. for centrifuges) the F2 relay, rated for relay current = rated motor current × 0.58, can also be connected in the connecting lines between deltacontactor Q15 and star contactor Q13. In the star circuit no current then flowsthrough relay F2. This circuit is used wherever exceptionally heavy and longstarting procedures are involved and when saturable core current transformer-operated relays react too quickly. F igure 8

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When the timer operates (set normally from 5-10 seconds). The Star Delta starter employs three contactors to initially start themotor in a star connection. ' / ' 3) [1 divided by root three]. but in a large number of applications. . This results in astart-current reduction to (1 /. While in the star connection. ' / ' 3) [1 divided by root three] of the DOL start currentand a start torque reduction to one third of the DOL start torque. the performance achieved is less thanideal. resulting in full linevoltage running currents and torque. the motor isdisconnected from the supply and then reconnected in delta. the voltage across eachwinding is reduced by a factor of (1 /. If there is insufficient torque available while connected in star. then after a period of time. the motor can onlyaccelerate to a partial speed compared to the full speed it would reach if connectedin delta. The Star/Delta starter requires a six terminal motor that is delta connected at thesupply voltage.ADVA N TA G ES : * Low cost and simple D I SADVA N TA G ES : * Torque too high ± causes snatch* Torque too low ± motor stalls* Transition peak up to 20 x In* Motor can stall in transition APPL I CAT I O N S : The Star/Delta starter is probably the most commonly used reduced voltagestarter. the damage and interference is much worse than thatcaused by a Direct on Line starter. and in some cases. to reconnect the motor to thesupply in a delta connection.

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there is a large current and torque transient produced at the poi. If there is insufficient torque produced by the motor when running in star. there isno way to accelerate the load to full speed without switching to delta and causingthose severe current and torque transients. unlessproper protection methods are used. These must be allowed-for in the designof the motor and its starting system if they are to have an economic useful life. This is termed "Open Transition Switching"and with an induction motor operating at a partial speed compared to full loadspeed.The transition from star connection to delta connection requires that the currentflow through the motor is interrupted. can cause severe damage to the supplyservice's infrastructure and to other connected equipment. .