The 2010 Haiti earthquake was a catastrophicmagnitude 7.

0 Mwearthquake, with an epicentre near the town of Léogâne, approximately 25 km (16 miles) west of Port-auPrince, Haiti's capital. The earthquake occurred at 16:53 local time (21:53 UTC) on Tuesday, 12 January 2010.[8][9] By 24 January, at least 52 aftershocks measuring 4.5 or greater had been recorded.[10] An estimated three million people were affected by the quake;[11] the Haitian government reported that an estimated 316,000 people had died, 300,000 had been injured and 1,000,000 made homeless.[12][13] International agencies, including the United States Agency for International Development, have suggest that the death toll is much lower at somewhere between 46,000 and 92,000,[14][15][6] and 220,000, with around 1.5 million[16] to 1.8 million homeless.[17] The government of Haiti also estimated that 250,000 residences and 30,000 commercial buildings had collapsed or were severely damaged.[18] The magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake occurred inland, on 12 January 2010 at 16:53 UTC-5, approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) WSW from Port-au-Prince at a depth of 13 kilometres (8.1 mi)[8] on blind thrust faults associated with the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault system.[32] There is no evidence of surface rupture and based on seismological, geological and ground deformation data it is thought that the earthquake did not involve significant lateral slip on the main Enriquillo fault.[33] Strong shaking associated with intensity IX on the Modified Mercalli scale (MM) was recorded in Port-au-Prince and its suburbs. It was also felt in several surrounding countries and regions, including Cuba (MM III in Guantánamo), Jamaica (MM II in Kingston), Venezuela (MM II in Caracas), Puerto Rico (MM II±III in San Juan), and the bordering Dominican Republic (MM III in Santo Domingo).[1][34] According to estimates from the USGS, approximately 3.5 million people lived in the area that experienced shaking intensity of MM VII to X,[1] a range that can cause moderate to very heavy damage even to earthquake-resistant structures. GENERAL INFRASTRUCTURE In February 2010 Prime Minister Jean-Max Bellerive estimated that 250,000 residences and 30,000 commercial buildings were severely damaged and needed to be demolished.[18] The deputy mayor of Léogâne reported that 90% of the town's buildings had been destroyed.[64] Many government and public buildings were damaged or destroyed including the Palace of Justice, the National Assembly, the Supreme Court and Port-au-Prince Cathedral.[65][66] The National Palace was severely damaged,[67][68] though PresidentRené Préval and his wife Elisabeth DelatourPréval escaped injury.[69][70] The Prison Civile de Port-au-Prince was also destroyed, allowing around 4,000 inmates to escape.

U.S. President BarackObama announced that former presidents Bill Clinton, who also acts

S. to help Haiti recover. dollars). The total damage from Katrina is estimated at $81. as well as one of the five deadliesthurricanes. making Katrina the most destructive and costliest natural disaster in the history of the United States.S. and the deadliest hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane.[2] Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes. and George the UN special envoy to Haiti. Katrina's storm surge caused 53 different levee breaches in greater New Orleans. The tropical storm continued to move towards Florida. A June 2007 report by the American Society of Civil Engineers indicated that two-thirds of the flooding were caused by the multiple failures of the city's floodwalls. submerging eighty percent of the city. President Préval stated that the highest priorities in Haiti's recovery were establishing a working government.[215] HURRICANE KATRINA Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the costliest natural disaster. and ensuring the streets were cleared of bodies to improve sanitary conditions.S. clearing roads. when adjusted for inflation. The system was upgraded to tropical storm status on the morning of August 24 and at this point. making it the deadliest U. total property damage was estimated at $81 billion (2005 USD). nearly double the cost of the previously most expensive storm.[2] IMPACT On August 29. and became a hurricane only two hours before it made landfall between Hallandale Beach and Aventura on the morning of August 25.[2] nearly triple the damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992. but it regained hurricane status about one hour after entering the Gulf of Mexico. hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane.[33] Not mentioned were the flood gates that were not closed.[2][34] . Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Haiti on 16 January to survey the damage and stated that US$48 million had been raised already in the U. it was the sixth strongest overall.[214] Following the meeting with Secretary Clinton. Hurricane Andrew. 2005 as the result of an interaction of a tropical wave and the remains of Tropical Depression Ten. The storm weakened over land. The storm surge also devastated the coasts of Mississippi and Alabama. At least 1. in the history of the United States. the storm was given the name Katrina.2 billion (2005 U.836 people died in the actual hurricane and in the subsequent floods. Bush would coordinate efforts to raise funds for Haiti's recovery.[3] GEOLOGY Hurricane Katrina formed as Tropical Depression Twelve over the southeastern Bahamas on August 23.

The feared 'second wave' of fatalities from disease and lack of relief efforts never materialized.000 fatalities.[81] Government response Within the United States and as delineated in the National Response Plan.577) and Mississippi (238). The storm surge caused substantial beach erosion.[1] The cyclone made landfall in the country on May 2.[92] CYLCONE NARGIS Cyclone Nargis (JTWC designation: 01B. which made it the most damaging cyclone ever recorded in this basin. The request process proceeds similarly from the county to the state to the federal government as additional resource needs are identified.[4] Damage was estimated at over US$10 billion.[2][3] The Labutta Townshipalone was reported to have 80.000 dead. was a strong tropical cyclone that caused the worst natural disaster in the recorded history of Myanmar. In Dauphin Island.The confirmed death toll (total of direct and indirect deaths) is 1. it then requests specific additional resources from the county level. also known as Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Nargis). which had been affected by Hurricane Ivan the previous year.836. 2008.[1][35] However. and there have been allegations that they stopped updating the death-toll after 138.000 to minimize political fallout. with about 10. Many of the problems that arose developed from inadequate planning and back-up communications systems at various levels. When local government exhausts its resources. 135 people remain categorized as missing in Louisiana.[1] and many of the deaths are indirect. although the Burmese government's official death toll may have been underreported.[80] The US Geological Survey has estimated 217 square miles (560 km2) of land was transformed to water by the hurricanes Katrina and Rita. the sand that comprised the barrier island was transported across the island into the Mississippi Sound. pushing the island towards land. in some cases completely devastating coastal areas. but it is almost impossible to determine the exact cause of some of the fatalities ENVIRONMENTAL EFECTS Katrina also had a profound impact on the environment. approximately 90 miles (150 km) to the east of the point where the hurricane made landfall. causing catastrophic destruction and at least 138. International relief . disaster response and planning is first and foremost a local government responsibility.000 more deaths in Bogale. mainly from Louisiana (1.[79] The storm surge and waves from Katrina also obliterated the Chandeleur Islands. There were around 55.000 people missing and many other deaths were found in other towns and areas.

[36] As of May 7.[23][24] Subsequently.On May 6. At the same time. most of their officials. "willing to accept international assistance." The biggest challenge was obtaining visas for entry into the country.[18] The cyclone developed a concentric eye feature. 2008. as a result. convection had begun to rebuild. the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) launched the Myanmar HIC website. the cyclone was forecast to strike Bangladesh or southeastern India.[19] with warm waters aiding in further intensification. the cyclone became disorganized and weakened due to subsidence and drier air.[37] in the afternoon (Bangkok time) of 7 May 2008. as the Burmese junta declined to issue visas for many of those individuals.[26] By late on April 29.[22] Initially. the government of Burma had not officially endorsed international assistance. to land in Burma. but stated that they were. preferably bilateral. government to government.[21] and at the same time the IMD classified the system as a very severe cyclonic storm. Based in Bangkok. According to Thai Rath Newspaper of Thailand on 8 May 2008. even before the Burmese junta officially accepted the international relief effort. which is an eyewall outside the inner dominant eyewall. many nations and organizations hoped to deliver assistance and relief to Burma without delay. the storm began a motion to the northeast around the periphery of a ridge to its southeast. supplies and stores were waiting in Thailand and at the Yangon airport. but in other ways it remained resistant to the most basic assistance.[20] Early on April 29. 2008. the JTWC estimated Nargis reached winds of 160 km/h (100 mph).[25] The circulation remained strong despite the diminishing convection. the equivalent of a minimal hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale. the HIC was providing support to the Humanitarian Partnership Team . the IMD upgraded Nargis to a severe cyclonic storm. However.[28] Other relief efforts On 15 May. the Burmese junta permitted Italian flights containing relief supplies from the United Nations. METEOROLOGICAL EFFORTS On April 28 Nargis became nearly stationary while located between ridges to its northwest and southeast. These political tensions raised the concern that some food and medical supplies might become unusable. That day the JTWC upgraded the storm to cyclone status.[17] Around the same time. The purpose of the site was to improve information exchange and collaboration between operational agencies responding to Cyclone Nargis. and twenty-five tonnes of consumable goods. though satellite intensity estimates using the Dvorak technique indicated the cyclone could have weakened to tropical storm status. deep convection near the center markedly decreased. the Burmese government representation in New York formally asked the United Nations for help.[27] though immediate restrengthening was prevented by increased wind shear.

[15][16] Geology This earthquake occurred where the Pacific Plate is subducting under the plate beneath northern Honshu. The break caused the sea floor to rise by several meters. As of May 8. 11 March 2011. relatively straight fault surface. the Foundation for the People of Burma had a team on the ground in Rangoon and beyond providing direct assistance to thousands of refugees. which also created a large tsunami. which moves at a rate of 8 to 9 cm (3.[27][39] The Pacific plate. and one of the five most powerful earthquakes in the world overall since modern record-keeping began in 1900.[12][13] In some cases traveling up to 10 km (6 mi) inland.6. This motion pulls the upper plate down until the stress builds up enough to cause a seismic event. it is unusual for the magnitude of an earthquake to exceed 8. the magnitude of this earthquake was a surprise to some seismologists. Since this organization was administered by Buddhist volunteers and already had tacit permission from the Burmese government.[40] The hypocentral region of this earthquake extended from offshore Iwate Prefecture to offshore Ibaraki Prefecture.5 metres (133 ft) in Miyako.and other humanitarian partners in Yangon. . and the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents.0 (Mw) underseamegathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday.[where?][14] In addition to loss of life and destruction of infrastructure. which plate is a matter of debate amongst scientists. Because the plate boundary and subduction zone in the area of the rupture is not very straight.[41] The Japanese Meteorological Agency said that the earthquake may have ruptured the fault zone from Iwate to Ibaraki with a length of 500 km (310 mi) and a width of 200 km (120 mi). also known as the Great East Japan Earthquake. 2008.5 in) per year.[2][9] It was the most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan.5. 2011 tohuku earthquake The 2011 T hoku earthquake. T hoku. as well as those based in Bangkok.[8][10][11] The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 40. the tsunami caused a number of nuclear accidents. dips under Honshu's underlying plate releasing large amounts of energy.[42][43] Analysis showed that this earthquake consisted of a set of three events.[6][7] (Japanese: "Eastern Japan Great Earthquake Disaster" (Higashi Nihon Daishinsai)[fn 1]) was a magnitude 9.[2][3][8] with the epicenter approximately 70 kilometres (43 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of T hoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 32 km (20 mi).[39] A quake of this magnitude usually has a rupture length of at least 480 km (300 mi) and generally requires a long. all donations went directly for supplies. primarily the ongoing level 7meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant complex.[44] The earthquake may have had a mechanism similar to that of another large earthquake in 869 with an estimated surface wave magnitude (Ms) of 8.[45] Other major earthquakes with tsunamis struck the Sanriku Coast region in 1896 and in 1933.1 to 3. Iwate.

2010. It was felt strongly in six Chilean regions (from Valparaíso in the north to Araucanía in the south). According to Chile's Seismological Service Concepción experienced the strongest shaking at MM IX (Violent).Tsunami The earthquake which was caused by 5 to 8 meters upthrust on a 180-km wide seabed at 60 km offshore from the east coast of T hoku[74] resulted in a major tsunami which brought destruction along the Pacific coastline of Japan's northern islands and resulted in the loss of thousands of lives and devastated entire towns. Aid organizations both in Japan and worldwide also responded.[1] Tremors were felt in many Argentine cities. while the tsunami was felt in many of these places.[78] but still was struck by tsunami waves 2 m (6. The tsunami resulted in over 300. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS) the cities experiencing the strongest shaking²VIII (Destructive) on the Mercalli intensity scale (MM)²were Arauco and Coronel. and warnings were issued and evacuations carried out.[75][76][77] however.9 meters (128 ft) was estimated at Omoe peninsula.8 on the moment magnitude scale. medicine and fuel for survivors. Miyako city.[1][2] with intense shaking lasting for about three minutes. water.6 ft) high. at about 17. Córdoba.000 km (11. rating a magnitude of 8. whilst many countries sent search and rescue teams to help search for survivors. shelter.[79][80] A wave height of 38. at 03:34 local time (06:34 UTC). including the entire Pacific coast of North and South America from Alaska to Chile. including Buenos Aires. 2010 CHILE EARTHQUAKE The 2010 Chile earthquake occurred off the coast of either the Maule Region[2] or the Biobío Region[1] of Chile[5] on February 27. The tsunami propagated across the Pacific. Mendoza and La Rioja. Chile's section of Pacific coast is one of the furthest from Japan. In response the Japanese government mobilized the Self-Defence Forces. Iwate prefecture.[6] It ranks as the sixth largest earthquake ever to be recorded by a seismograph.000 refugees in the T hoku region. 2400 km) SEISMOLOGY AND GEOLOGY The earthquake took place along the boundary between the Nazca and South Americantectonic plates. that together make up about 80 percent of the country's population.000 mi) away.[13] AFTERMATH The aftermath of the earthquake and tsunami included both a humanitarian crisis and a major economic impact.[7][8] Tremors were felt as far north as the city of Ica in southern Peru (approx. This earthquake was characterized by a thrust-faultingfocal . it caused only relatively minor effects. at a location where they converge at a rate of eighty millimeters (about three inches) a year. with the Japanese Red Cross reporting $1 billion in donations. In many countries bordering the Pacific.[1] The earthquake was felt in the capital Santiago at MM VII (Very Strong)[3] or MM VIII. and shortages of food.

February 28. and a dozen more south of the capital also suffered significant damage.[67] An apartment building's two-story parking lot collapsed. which is the 1960 Valdivia earthquake.[68] . including the strongest earthquake ever measured.mechanism. According to an Associated Press Television News cameraman. mostly under buildings and inside cars. According to one health official. Ricardo Ortega.[5] On Sunday. Most injuries were reported in Santiago and Maule.[66] Santiago's national Fine Arts Museum was badly damaged and did not reopen until 9 March 2010. Many people were also seriously injured.[2] Chile has been at a convergent plate boundary that generates megathrust earthquakes since the Paleozoic era (500 million years ago). Most recently. some buildings collapsed in Santiago and there were power outages in parts of the city. DAMAGE AND CASUALITIESPeople were found dead after the earthquake struck. wrecking 68 cars. the boundary ruptured in 2007 causing the 2007 Antofagasta earthquake in northern Chile.[25] Santiago's International Airport seems to have been damaged and the airport authority has closed off all flight operations for the next 24 hours from around 12:00 UTC. caused by the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American. In historical times the Chilean coast has suffered many megathrust earthquakes along this plate boundary. three hospitals in Santiago collapsed. said commercial airline services had been partially re-established and aircraft were being allowed to land in Santiago.[65] A fire was reported in a chemical plant on the outskirts of Santiago and caused the evacuation of the neighborhood. head of the Chilean Air Force.

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