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CNG & Its Benefits

CNG or Compressed Natural Gas is the most viable alternate fuel for automobile companies in the near future. CNG is an alternated fuel which makes the use of compressed natural gas as a clean alternative to other fuels. Throughout the world there are 9.6 million vehicles running on CNG. CNG is viable or preferable because it has a host of advantages as against traditional fuels. CNG is environment friendly; economic, availability is in abundance and high in calorific value. An increasing number of vehicles a worldwide are being designed to run on CNG. Even existing vehicles can be converted to run on CNG just with the switch of a button. CNG's can also be very easily refueled from any of the existing gas stations. The central government has also stressed the importance of using CNG enabled vehicles. According to the government all public transports including buses and autos would be running on CNG. Transports fitted with a CNG kit are already running in cities like New Delhi, Mumbai and Hyderabad. CNG cars are said to be safer than LPG cars also because LPG is very highly combustible whereas CNG is very light in property and dissipates easily into the air. The life of the engine of the vehicle is also enhanced by CNG due to the fact that this gas is dry and does not leave behind any residue when engaged in the combustion process to propel the car. Further more it restricts tuning of the engine drastically as compared to other fuel engines. CNG and LPG are slowly and steadily gaining ground in the automobile industry. They surely seem to be the fuel of the future. With the continuous rise in the price of petrol and diesel alternated fuels are becoming the preference of Indian consumers. CNG/LPG has been used on many commercial vehicles for years and now it is starting to filter down to regular commuter vehicles. CNG enables buses and three vehicles are already doing the rounds in some of the major metropolitans of India and they are soon to touch the roads of the other two tier cities in the country as well due to the alarming environmental damages caused by gasoline . Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline (petrol),diesel, or propane/LPG. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill (natural gas is lighter than air, and disperses quickly when released). CNG may also be mixed with biogas, produced fromlandfills or wastewater, which doesnt increase the concentration of carbon in the atmosphere. CNG is made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly composed of methane[CH4]), to less than 1% of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure. It is stored and distributed in hard containers at a pressure of 200248bar (29003600 psi), usually in cylindrical or spherical shapes. CNG is used in traditional gasoline internal combustion engine cars that have been converted into bi-fuel vehicles (gasoline/CNG). Natural gas vehicles are increasingly used in the Asia-Pacific region, Latin America, Europe, and America due to rising gasoline prices.[1] In response to high fuel prices and environmental concerns, CNG is starting to be used also in tuk-tuks and pickup trucks, transit andschool buses, and trains. CNGs volumetric energy density is estimated to be 42% of LNGs (because it is notliquefied), and 25% of diesels.

Compressed natural gas vehicles require a greater amount of space for fuel storage than conventional gasoline powered vehicles. Since it is a compressed gas, rather than a liquid like gasoline, CNG takes up more space for each gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). Therefore, the tanks used to store the CNG usually take up additional space in the trunk of a car or bed of a pickup truck which runs on CNG. This problem is solved in factory-built CNG vehicles that install the tanks under the body of the vehicle, thanks to a more rational disposition of components, leaving the trunk free (e.g. Fiat Multipla, New Fiat Panda, Volkswagen Touran Ecofuel,Volkswagen Caddy Ecofuel, Chevy Taxi (sold in countries such as Peru)). Another option is installation on roof (typical on buses), requiring, however, solution of structural strength issues. CNG-powered vehicles are considered to be safer than gasoline-powered vehicles.

CNG Advantage
Due to the absence of any lead or benzene content in CNG, the lead fouling of spark plugs is eliminated. CNGpowered vehicles have lower maintenance costs when compared with other fuel-powered vehicles. CNG fuel systems are sealed, which prevents any spill or evaporation losses. Another practical advantage observed is the increased life of lubricating oils, as CNG does not contaminate and dilute the crankcase oil. CNG mixes easily and evenly in air being a gaseous fuel. CNG is less likely to auto-ignite on hot surfaces, since it has a high auto-ignition temperature (540 C) and a narrow range (5%-15%) of flammability.

CNG emits significantly less pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO2),hydrocarbons (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides(SOx) and particulate matter (PM), compared to petrol. For example, an engine running on petrol for 100 km emits 22,000 grams of CO2, while covering the same distance on CNG emits only 16,275 grams of CO2. [CNG is essentially methane, i.e. CH4 with a calorific value of 900 Kj/mol. This burns with Oxygen to produce 1 mol of CO2 and 2 mol of H2O. By comparison, petrol can be regarded as essentially Benzene or similar, C6H6 with a calorific value of about 3,300 Kj/mol and this burns to produce 6 mol of CO2 and 3 mol of H2O. From this it can be seen that per mol of CO2 produced, CNG releases over 1.6 times as much energy as that released from petrol (or for the same amount of energy, CNG produces nearly 40% less CO2).] The corresponding figures are 78 and 25.8 grams respectively, for nitrogen oxides. Carbon monoxide emissions are reduced even further. Due to lower carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions, switching to CNG can help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

The ability of CNG to reduce greenhouse gas emissions over the entire fuel

lifecycle will depend on the source of the natural gas and the fuel it is replacing. The lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for CNG compressed from Californias pipeline natural gas is given a value of 67.70 grams of CO2equivalent per megajoule (gCO2e/MJ) by the California Air Resources Board (ARB), approximately 28% lower than the average gasoline fuel in that market (95.86 gCO2e/MJ). CNG produced from landfill biogas was found by ARB to have the lowest greenhouse gas emissions of any fuel analyzed, with a value of 11.26 gCO2e/MJ (over 88% lower
[7 than conventional gasoline) in the low-carbon fuel standard that went into effect on January 12, 2010.

A Taxicab in New Delhi. A 1998 court order requires local buses and autos in Delhito run on Compressed Natural Gas Pakistan currently has the highest number of vehicles running on CNG in the world followed by Argentina, Brazil and Iran. Pakistan also has the highest number of CNG stations in the world numbering more than 2600. Majority of private vehicles have converted to CNG because of cheaper price as compared to petrol. Only luxury cars and official vehicles now run on petrol. Recently, new CNG Buses had been introduced by CDGK in Karachi. Almost all car manufacturers in Pakistan (except Honda) now produce company fitted CNG kit versions. Recent hikes in CNG

prices has downplayed the ambitious ventures of some of the stakeholders in this sector. It is expected that price of the CNG and Kits will come down as competition among manufacturers grows. LandiRenzo Pakistan is also exporting CNG kits to various countries including China, Brazil and Italy. Almost 2 million vehicles on the countrys roads have dual fuel options with Suzuki having the highest in quantity. CNG has grown into one of the major fuel sources used in car engines in India andBangladesh as well. The use of CNG is mandated for the public transport system of Indias capital New Delhi as well as for the city of Ahmedabad in the state ofGujarat. The Delhi Transport Corporation operates the worlds largest fleet of CNG buses. Today many rickshaws as well as personal vehicles in India and Bangladesh are being converted to CNG powered technology, the cost of which is in the range of $800$1000. In the Bangladesh capital of Dhaka not a single auto rickshaw without CNG has been permitted since 2003.

In India CNG costs are at Rs. Rs 31.47 per kg (US$0.68 ) per kg compared with Rs. 63.00 (US$ 1.721) per liter of petrol (prices as of Jan. 2011 in Mumbai, India). CNG is quite notable at a cost savings of 60% along with reduced emissions and its usability by environmentally friendlier cars.

According to International Association of Natural Gas Vehicles, as of December 2008, Pakistan has the worlds highest number of vehicles running on compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The number is 2 million. Pakistan also has the Worlds highest numer of CNG refuelling stations. i.e. 2941(updated as of July 29, 2009). This growth has been phenomenal noting that CNG as a fuel was made available in Pakistan, only in 1992. For many years, Argentina and Brazil used to be the world leaders in terms of number of vehicles using CNG. Pakistan overtook Brazil in 2006 and Argentina in 2008 to become the worlds largest consumer of CNG in vehicles

Why Pakistan has got so many vehicles running on CNG? I believe, main reason is because gasoline (Petrol) prices in Pakistan are among the highest in the region as well as natural gas is found abundant and locally in Pakistan. The use of CNG in vehicles brings an added blessing that it is much less polluting than regular gasoline (petrol). The emissions coming out of CNG vehicles consists of water vapors and carbon monoxide (CO). The CO content in CNG exhaust is also 90% less than CO found in gasoline (petrol) exhausts. In Pakistan, car companies are now offering vehicles which come factory-fitted with CNG kits. These vehicles sell for a premium of approx 30000 rupees (US$ 375) as compared to gasoline (petrol) vehicles. With Pakistan going full ahead with making CNG as the primary fuel source for transport, one concern is that Pakistan is depleting its Natural Gas reserves faster than ever before.
CNG in Pakistan: Toyota, Hyundai, Suzuki, Ki

Maruti Suzuki India Unveils CNG Technology in Five Cars

y y y Friday, August 13, 2010 7:26 PM by CarWale Team 4retweet

Maruti Suzuki India Limited today unveiled its flagship CNG engine technology, intelligent-Gas Port Injection or i-GPI on five popular models. With Independence Day around the corner, Maruti Suzuki India Limited sure has taken a giant leap to spread the message of 'Go Green' in the country. The CNG vehicles were unveiled by Mr. Jairam Ramesh, Honble Minister of State (Independent Charge) Environment and Forests. The models include the Maruti Suzuki SX4, Eeco, WagonR, Estilo and Alto and are being launched in Delhi NCR, Mumbai and Gujrat.

Maruti Suzuki India Chairman RC Bhargava said, "We are happy to bring contemporary CNG technology to the Indian customer. We are confident customers would value our i-GPI technology that is safe, reliable, clean, responsive and environment friendly." Having launched the Alto K10, there was a brief moment when everybody thought if the production of the old version of the Alto would be stopped, but with this cracker of an idea, we come to know how strong a grip on the nerve of the Indian car market.

The i-GPI or Intelligent Gas Port Injection bi-fuel technology ensures more power through retro-fitted CNG vehicles and offer a peppier ride experience similar to that of a petrol-fuelled engine, while achieving high fuel efficiency at the same time. The factory fitted CNG vehicles passed through all the quality checks, processes and systems

similar to a regular car manufactured at Maruti Suzuki plants. The i-GPI technology uses separate injectors for each cylinder. Based on inputs from the ECU, metered CNG quantity is injected to the engine through gas ports. The quantity of CNG required for different driving conditions is controlled by the dedicated ECU, leading to more efficient fuel usage. Shinzo Nakanishi Managing Director & CEO Maruti Suzuki India said, "The development is significant on multiple counts. This is the first instance when a car manufacturer has developed and launched factory-fitted technologically superior CNG engines in India." Maruti has literally attacked the cars in all the segments, right from the 7-seater to the small cars to its much loved sedan. With the CNG versions out, Maruti Suzuki India have taken a step closer not only to save the environment but also has made things tougher for the rest of the manufacturers in India. The cost of the models are as follows: Name Alto Lxi Estilo Lxi WagonR Lxi SX4 Vxi Petrol (Rs Lakh) CNG (Rs Lakh) 2.78 3.55 3.61 6.92 3.23 4.05 4.11 3.64 7.47

Eeco (AC + 5 seater) 3.09

The Alto will prove to be a competition to the newly launched Nissan Micra. The Estilo and the Wagon R would fall in the same category. As regards the SX4, it will compete with the recently launchedChevrolet Aveo CNG. The manufacturers sure are taking care that global warming does not reach the next level but they are intensifying the heat as regards the competition.

Top 5 LPG Cars in India

Depletion of crude oil has arise the need to search for alternative fuels to run vehicles. The scarcity of fossil fuels around the globe has resulted in fuel prices hike which has further compelled car manufacturers to come up with cars that run on energy other than conventional fuels. In addition, the growing environmental awareness and the proactive measures taken by the Government to promote fuel-efficient and environment friendly cars have also fuelled to increase the demand of cars that runs on alternative fuel. Recently, the fast growing car industry has witnessed many advanced and innovative technologies that support the use of energy other than conventional fuels. The world of automobile now has alternatives like LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), CNG (compressed natural gas), hybrid cars, electric cars, bio-fuel (ethanol, bio-diesel), hydrogen-and air-powered cars. LPG cars have gained significance in India among other alternative fuels as it gives low running cost. Moreover, any petrol car can be transform into LPG by fitting a LPG kit. LPG is a clean-burning (emits less

air pollutants) fossil fuel that is a by-product of petroleum refining. It is mainly composed of propane and butane and can be effectively used to power internal combustion engine. LPG comes in the form of factory produced kits that are positioned in high-pressure fuel tanks. Today, many LPG-fitted cars are available around the world. However, in India, the trend of using LPG in cars is gradually taking pace with CNG.

Here is a list of some of the most popular LPG cars in India:

Maruti Suzuki Omni Cargo Maruti Suzuki introduced a new Omni fitted with LPG kit in the year 2004. Christened as Omni Cargo, this LPG car is India's first clean fuel vehicle set out on Indian roads for transportation. Though LPG is one of the cheapest fuels available in India, no car manufacturer introduced LPG across their respective car models. Maruti Suzuki was the first to introduce this economical fuel in its leading MUV, Omni. Even the Government encouraged the use of LPG by offering excise rebate on LPG-run vehicles. The Omni Cargo comes with an authorized LPG kit that is certified for quality and safety. This is further associated with a superior suspension that improves steering control and road stability. Today, the LPG-fitted Maruti Suzuki Omni has become one of the most demanding cars for diverse range of businesses including courier, logistics, electronics, garments and textiles, and beverage businesses.

Maruti Suzuki WagonR Duo Two years after the launch of Omni Cargo, Maruti Suzukionce again introduced LPG in one of its leading hatchbacks in India, Maruti Suzuki WagonR. At a time when Maruti Suzuki Swift was overpowering all small cars in the country, the company launched two re-designed versions of the WagonR in 2006. One among these was a re-designed Wagon-R with a factory-fitted LPG kit. The LPG-fitted WagonR, known as WagonR Duo, has become one of the most popular LPG cars in India. Although, this brilliant dual fuel car is priced about Rs 20,000 extra, it worth the price as the overall running cost of the car is tremendously reduced. WagonR Duo has successfully made its position in the small car segment due the fluctuating fuel prices and increasing demand of economical cars. The LPG kits fitted in the Duo are certified by the department of explosives as well as the Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) and imported from USA and Poland. The LPG cylinder has a toroidal design to optimize the luggage space in the car. It can easily switch between petrol and LPG and once completely topped up, the Duo can easily travel about 800 kilometres. Maruti Suzuki 800 Duo Maruti Suzuki 800 Duo was introduced on the occasion of Worlds Environment Day in 2008. It works on Gas Mixer System completely based on Integrated Gas Technology and is the third generation of 800. The LPG variant of the 800 delivers a power of 35 bhp and emits 10% lower carbon dioxide than the petrol variant. It was designed in-house by 24 skilled engineers to deliver optimum performance equivalent to injection systems. It can easily be switched over between petrol and LPG mode. The LPG kit in the 800 Duo is approved by Department of Explosives, tested and certified by ARAI, India's premier automobile testing and certifying authority. All the components have undergone stringent checks to ensure quality and reliability.