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By Rachel Garfield
Pulbished in: Third Text, 'Ali G: Just Who Does He Think He Is', R.Garfield, vol. 54, Spring 2001,pp.63-70, ISSN 0952-8822
'both whiteness and blackness cover and conceal a host of ethnicities, of cultural backgrounds whose differences are leveled by the very concepts of white and black'1
Ali G began as a short slot in an 'alternative' comedy show called the 'Eleven o'clock show' on the UK's Channel 4. The usual format took the form of an interview in which the Ali G character (an imbecilic 'Wigger'2) would question a range of Establishment figures. The source of humour in his act was the clashing of worlds as the Establishment figures struggled to enter into the language of a 'street kid'. However whether the laughter was at the expense of the Establishment, the 'Wiggers', Black kids or a mixture of the three was unclear. Nonetheless within a few months Ali G was a hit, securing his own show and latterly appearing in the latest Madonna video.
In mainstream commentary on the phenomenon, much was made of the fact that no one apparently knew what either Ali G's purported ethnicity was, or that of the actor who was playing him. However, from the start it could be argued that many Jews would have already recognized the ethnicity of both, through such signs as his flashy attire and swagger (spruntz3), albeit through the coding of the ubiquitous Nike and Tommy Gear street wear.
So what relevance does this have? In this paper I want to argue that in considering the figure of Ali G as a problematizing agent (both his ethnic ambiguity and his historical/political imbecility are worthy of unpacking) wider questions can be reconsidered. I am ultimately aiming for a more open reading on race than those I have often encountered.
As a Jewish man taking on a Black persona Sacha Baron-Cohen seems to me to be problamitizing a simple reading on race and belonging. He flags up the flaws of the Black/White binary and the notion of ideological choice as common indicators of ethnicity. He also provides an opportunity to look at the shifting sands of the political construct of Blackness and the politics of appearance.
The suggestions in this paper are speculative and in some ways expose the difficulty of ethnic categorization. 4 This difficulty centres on ideology, not biology. With its privileging of maternal lineage, the Jewish notion of identity stands at odds with the secular post-colonial definitions of globalising neoliberalism, (centred upon a Black/White polarity). The concept of a Jewish man being unable to father Jewish children except with a Jewish woman, whilst on the other hand a non-Jewish man being able to sire Jewish children, is not only a thorn in the side of secular patriarchy (not least in its indexing of a pre-capitalist order) but also highlights the inseparable role of ideology in all categorisations of race and ethnicity.
. However. In this context I will be looking at the tradition of Jews 'Blacking Up'. Furthermore.3 In terms of historical contexts I will be looking for precursors. say.a phenomenon which cannot in any case be separated from the politics and racism of the time. In the final part of the paper I will be using some of Peggy Phelan's arguments in her book Unmarked: the politics of performance as a way of thinking through some of the issues implicit in Ali G's performance as well as the Press' attitude to Baron-Cohen's ethnicity. both historical and contemporary to provide a context for investigating Ali G as a performer. The whole phenomenon of 'Blacking Up' therefore is bound to the construction not only of Blacks themselves but to the construction of the Irish and Jews in the 'Blackface' heyday. The history of 'Blacking Up' in the US is an apposite place to begin this search as there were a disproportionate amount of Jews 'Blacking Up' in the early part of the twentieth century (The most famous of them were Jews also). Ali G can be considered as a problematized reconfiguration of that tradition. They took over from the Irish who were previously the largest group of performers in this field5. the persona of the Ali G figure is far more complex than the adoptive stage caricatures of. I will then briefly look at the initial Press responses as a vehicle for problematising the notion of race ownership. the UK 'Black and White Minstrel Show' of the 1970's .
other ethnicities are included/excluded in the debates along these lines. exclusive to itself. simply along the Black/White divide. The Jewish writings on 'Otherness' are therefore excluded from the Black debates (with the notable exception of Paul Gilroy) and vice versa. This construct omits Jews of colour. The debate over who sits under the banner of Black is framed by the history of Colonialism. There is an Irish community…There is a German community…There is a Jewish community…. Asian is considered Black (or at least included in the Black debates) and Jewish is White. as James Baldwin wrote in Essence in 1984. for example.4 The Politics of Appearance My questions regarding Ali G stem from my frustration at ethnicity being defined. so that. This affects the Jewish Communities particularly. In my experience.Jews came here from countries where they were not . who are generally seen to belong to the former and therefore decidedly White. conservatism and a setting up of victim hierarchies where each ethnic group has a special relationship with the diaspora and oppressive histories. It is also a recent construct. Whereas arguments for a non-essentialised subject are common currency in Cultural Studies research. This encourages an entrenched. "No one was white before he/she came to America. It took generations and a vast amount of coercion before this became a white country. on the most part. the membership to the class of oppressor or oppressed is over-determined. who are the majority of Jews in the world (and a significant minority within the Jewish Community in Britain).
some 'Other'. To further complicate matters.8 the lived reality is more complex. (or a host of others. moreover. such as 'Crossfire' and 'Gentlemen's Agreement'. and.6 Even when Jews arrived in the US they were not considered White. the price was to become 'white'". description and self description at this historical juncture. However. and they came here in part because they were not white… Everyone who got here. which pleaded for tolerance towards Jews. In the West Neo-Liberalist employment laws frequently pay lip-service to the ethnic diversity of the workforce. none of the categories offered should include 'Jewish'. This passage to Whiteness took until the 1950's and is still problematic particularly within Europe (US films of the immediate post WWII period. attest to this first point). for example Romany). some consider themselves White. In such bureaucratic documentation the purported emphasis is on self definition. Yet according to the Commission for Racial Equality Guidelines. there are many different positions within the Ashkenazi 7Jewish Community itself. I would . the 'choice' of readings presented by the ambiguities of the Ali G character flag up the multifarious roles that 'choice' plays in all ethnic categorisation. I want to argue here that whilst it is often held that the opportunity to choose one's position removes Jews from the frame of the oppressed. if only (!) for 'monitoring purposes'. This is another context in which the Ali G character can well (and probably hilariously) be imagined: the context of the DSS office. and paid the price of the ticket. or the job application form.5 white.
9 looks specifically at the Jewish players within the history of 'Blacking up' and what the investment may have been for those actors to have played such an important role within this niche of acting. of course. The notion that Jews have a 'choice' in their identity invariably hinges upon assumptions that all Jews are White or can 'pass'. they have brought upon themselves". observe immediately that all such assumptions are (a) defined by voices other than Jews and (b) are closely related to the anti-Semitic. Jews Playing Black: A potted history Michael Rogin in his book Blackface. or even the Ali G as-person-of-indeterminate-racial-origin is pointedly vivid in this context. I am less interested in answering this kind of chauvinism at this point than examining the ways in which such thinking is highlighted by a phenomenon such as Ali G but one could. the normative view is of choice as something (yet)to be conferred by benign authority. "any problems the Jews have. He suggests that 'Blacking up' was a way of representing Blackness in a containable and benign form for the White audiences10 and that it was taken up by Jews as a way of identifying Blackness as the 'Other' and themselves . or don't experience oppression any more. The character of Ali G-as-Jew-playing-a-racial-other. whereas for others. or are simply a religious group/ideological cabal.6 suggest this is because the notion of self definition for Jews has long been portrayed as one of a choice that Jews already have . White Noise: Jewish Immigrant in the Hollywood Melting Pot.
(It is interesting to note that according to Rogin. unjust. leaving behind their ethnic difference (Using the example of The Jazz Singer .e. to immerse themselves in Black culture was a way of being able to be '"more Jewish"'. argues that for some Jewish men. He explains that as 'Blacking up' 'essentialises' blackness so it 'liberates'11 Jewishness to be mainstream and White (all these terms essentialise.) Jews wanted to be White. unaesthetic. who posits Blacks as honorary Jews. Maria Damon in her paper Jazz-Jews. Phil Spector desires the trappings of Blackness and Lenny Bruce. Jolson's films were very popular until he tried to bring his Jewish identity into the films at which point they flopped. post-war America) an Otherness that has been supplanted by the African-American. Furthermore. as three paradigms for the 'assimilating down' as she puts it (this term in itself speaks volumes of the power relations between the two groups) . she states.Mezz Mezrow becomes Black in his own mind. Jive. and Gender. Any investigation into the Jewish-Black relationship in the West has to take into account that the 'Grand Alliance' of the Jewish involvement in the Black . hierarchic. it was part of the great post-war push for Jews to be fully emancipated at the expense of Blacks. however). ' a number of Jews found in African American culture the resources for resisting absorption into a dominant culture they found stultifying. and unJewish'12 she cites Mezz Mezrow. he explains how Al Jolson escapes his 'Old World' ethnicity through 'Blacking up'). Damon notes a distinct nostalgia in these figures for a time when the Jew was more 'Other' than he is in today (i. But that is not the whole picture. Phil Spector and Lenny Bruce.7 as fully integrated Americans.
at best it was fueled by an ethical position of empathy. is the allure for some Jewish artists and performers of identifying with Black culture." Gender and Jewish Bodies'.16 I will select a few of her points useful to an analysis of Ali G. as suggested in Blackface/White Noise. a case of identifying with a group who are more 'more "us" than "we" have become'?14 Sandra Bernhard in her film Without You I'm Nothing explores and plays with this theme15. my hair is woolly and my back is strong. dressed in African dress she sings 'my skin is black. Anne Pellegrini in her essay 'Whiteface Performances: "Race. without putting themselves at risk' 13 So. she continues to mimic a whole series of Black singers as part of her 'show'. where. at worst it was somewhat paternalistic. Much of the tension within the film is created by the relationship between Bernhard and her observers. thereby critiquing the ability of any White person to truly understand what it feels like to be Black. that is the Black audience who 'don't "get" Bernhard' and Bernhard who 'does not "get" her audience' 17.' . The film opens with the song from Nina Simone 'Four Women'.. 'Those with the insignias of power can play at giving them up. . In some ways she is the closest parallel to Ali G. Jews have gained a much greater economic base in the US and have largely been accepted as 'White' along that aforementioned great divide. analyses this film in detail. my arms are long. Except that Bernhard is not White.8 Civil Rights movement in the United States (which Baron-Cohen himself has researched for his BA thesis. according to the Jewish Chronicle) was much better for the Jews than Blacks.
and refers to her piano player who is Black as ' me and my Jewish piano player. She refers to her father's gentile girlfriend sneeringly as having 'no lips'. but also. As Anne Pellegrini states 'this destabilization occurs through the introduction of an excluded middle term. while concurrently critiquing that position. 'Is it 'cos I is Black'19 when clearly his skin is not. Like Lenny Bruce she suggests that Black and Jewish are one and the same thing. we get along so well'.9 she does not identify as being White but as a Jew. He is also questioning what makes a Black male black. destabilizing the Black/White dichotomy. (Much like Adrian Piper questions what being Black means in some of her work20) He indicates that he may be a 'Wigger' by identifying himself as part of the 'Staines massive' and therefore a suburban boy (for suburban read white) . he also makes explicit a tension between what is seen and what is perceived. Her passage from blackness to Jewishness takes place through a caricatured whiteness.'18 Perhaps Baron-Cohe's passage is from Whiteness to Jewishness through a caricatured Blackness? Ali G makes himself look ridiculous. Bernhard appears to align herself with blackness not so much over and against whiteness as conceived through it. By stating. She describes her liberal Jewish background and posits White as Christian as she describes a childhood fantasy family to which she "belonged" who had gentile. He is parodying the desire to be Black. but is identical to neither: Jewishness' and continuing with' In posing herself as the question of race. which resembles both sides. allAmerican names and celebrated a 'white' Christmas. like .
but the last word is given to a Black women who writes 'fuck you Sandra Bernhard' on the table' alerting the viewer to the fact that whatever Sandra Bernhard thinks she feels. who does not 'get' him either. The people he interviews are the wielders of . not only does she critique the parody within the fabric of the film by having an indifferent and often hostile Black audience as a 'reality' check. Ali G pretends (possibly) to be a 'Wigger' who is not being understood by the white establishment except he is not white either (possibly). In the final analysis Ali G's position is more ambiguous than Sandra Bernhard. Like Bernhard. Baron-Cohen is a Jew so maybe he is also implying a gulf between White and Jewish. Baron Cohen/Ali G does not have this selfreflexivity. For Ali G. He is not there merely to entertain or make White people feel safe within their view of Blackness.10 Bernhard operates within the gulf of not 'getting' the audience. the audience is the interviewee. Does this cross-dressing mark the Jew as liminal or does it reinforce his Whiteness? What saves Ali G from the position taken up by Rogin .is the political stance he takes up. Bernhard is identifying with but not being understood by her objects of desire. Minstrels played straight. In Without You I'm Nothing. the White establishment. Baron-Cohen is constructing himself as an object of laughter. The question is could a male gentile have played the Ali G character. however. Although in his most recent series he has a Black DJ who disses him as an ignorant whitey. she does not know what it feels like to actually be Black. too tokenistic.of benign minstrelsy as an assimilationist tactic . it is too staged to be convincing.
race and sexual orientation. the audience think we are laughing at.' 22 The public discussion regarding Ali G began with the New Nation report in January 200023. Curtis Walker. gay/lesbian and postcolonial theories have often rejected essentialist articulations of identity. which is also a political move on Baron-Cohen's part. who had fought in World War II. implicitly premised on the very categories elsewhere rejected as essentialist. for "speaking for oneself" and while poststructualist feminist. exposes the thinly veiled bigotry. For example in the now much quoted interview of George Patten. Ali G forces Patten to admit that he would never even consider 'going out' with a Catholic woman and watched Major General Perkins. they have at the same time supported 'affirmative action' politics. branded Baron-Cohen racist while all the other (Black) comedians interviewed in this report. flounder. of these figures.21 (He is also a bridge between generations as he 'explains' politics to a young audience). Furthermore by keeping the audience guessing about the true identity of the character. we are forced to question what we.11 power. expressed differing . Identity Anxiety 'The Politics of identity call for the "self-representation" of marginalised communities. and biologistic and transhistorical determinations of gender. the Chief of the Grand Lodge of Orangeman. while feigning ignorance he teases out the inconsistencies. having asked him if he ever thought of changing sides.
view suggests 'that no one can speak for anyone' the 'identity politics' view is that only 'delegated representatives can speak' . while admitting he was funny. in their article 'The Politics of Multiculruralism in the Postmodern Age' that while the 'constructionist'. 'culture is analyzed as property rather than process' 26.of dress. As Ella Shohat and Robert Stam observe.: New Nation poll where 80% thought Ali G was very funny and hadn't . The rest seemed premised upon the position where. The only attempt at intelligent comment was the Gary Younge article in The Guardian25. These two positions. Anecdotal evidence (i. music and speech have been so widely adopted that they have become positively mainstream. However over the following week a flurry of articles in the national press asked the question 'Is Ali G racist?' ignoring some of the finer points of the Black comedians' statements in the New Nation report. Felix Dexter even suggested that the 'interviews do expose a patronising deference from the great and the good to a man saying totally ridiculous things and that reaction borders on racism'24. Anecdotal evidence would suggest that Ali G transcends the colour divide amongst young people.e. sets up the trap of both Gilroy's 'ethnic insiderism' and of wondering how to 'not prolong the colonial legacy of misappropriation and insensitivity towards so-called minorities without silencing potential allies?'27 So is Ali G the bridge between camps. the figure who takes us out of the place where skin colour denotes which group you belong to and who you speak for. maybe because many of the codes of Blackness . they state. Black street culture is no longer black and you no longer have to be Black to be black.12 degrees of ambivalence about the character.
"coloured" in South Africa and "mulatto" in Brazil. "white" in Haiti. Performing Black Peggy Phelan in her book Unmarked: the politics of performance28. aiming to undermine the assumption that visibility equals power. More than indicating that racial markings are read differently cross-culturally. these variations underline the psychic potential and philosophical . The point is however that Ali G is not generally seen to be representing Blackness . She is looking at the relationship between representation and politics. 'The same physical features of a person's body may be read as "black" in England.but representing a character who is an object of fun for many different reasons. depending on who's looking.not that this sanctions his act. Talking of some of the issues arising out of Adrian Piper's work Phelan states that. She suggests that there is much power in the 'unmarked' and that the politics of appearance is misleading and counterproductive. explores the politics of representation using Freud and Lacan to understand some of the failings (as she argues) of contemporary debates on gender and race.13 thought about whether he was offensive or not) also suggests that many of his supporters are Black .
e. possibly. that in order for the subject to adopt heterosexuality they must reject homosexuality or in order for the subject to adopt 'female' behaviour they must reject 'male' behaviour. No one mentioned Jewish either. there was much speculation (according to the press analysis) as to what his ethnicity actually was. His name seemed to be Islamic. If Adrian Piper identifies as an African American yet she 'looks' white enough to 'pass' then what is it that makes her black.14 impoverishment of linking the colour of the physical body with the ideology or race"29 She also draws on Judith Butler’s position of gender being constituted through performativity. all is a copy of a copy. Is an American of African derivation who 'passes' white? Or does the 'one drop' policy still apply? And what does this imply? Before Ali G was identified as Jewish. He was identified as. North African. there is therefore no originary. Butlers position outlines how gendered behaviour and sexuality is learned. This suggests that he was seen as neither White nor Black (north African is considered Black within the Post-Colonial debates) and corroborates with Pellegrini's30 argument of a third. mixed race (i. unacknowledged position. possibly Asian. . having one black parent) but no one seemed to suggest he was White (or maybe no one considered that anyone white would take up the position he does).
This image has been absorbed within Jewish selfimage. . It would not be too far fetched to consider that maybe these young men are the models for Ali G. the need to know his 'real' identity says much about the politics of ownership of race. every article described him as 'White Jewish'. Phelan suggests that 'The focus on skin as the visible marker of race is itself a form of feminizing those races which are not White. Jews 'Blacking up' was a symptom desiring Whiteness. If.and therefore Other. (Felix Dexter. desiring a Blackness that has mainstream currency amongst the youth.33 Maybe Baron-Cohen's adoption of Ali G is a bid to find a different image of manhood than this. the Jewish male was feminized.Black is conflated as one. a comic of Carribbean derivation has created a character to lampoon who is Nigerian.' 32 It is interesting to note here that in European anti-Semitic discourse. in post-war America in 21st Century Britain it seems young Jewish men are turning their back on Whiteness. Many North-West London Jewish boys have been mimicking street codes of Blackness for years34. as identified by Rogin. 31 Furthermore. the friction between different Black groups is often unacknowledged). Reading the body as the sign of identity is the way men regulate the bodies of women. after all it is the community in which he grew up. This is an interesting juxtaposition Citing him as White Jewish identifies him as non Black yet citing him as White Jewish. identifies him as different from the normative White .15 Once it was 'discovered' Sacha Baron-Cohen was Jewish. thereby acknowledging Jews as non-White. which often sees the Jewish mother as all powerful and the father as ineffectual. but the politics there is different .
in identifying some of the flaws in what she describes as 'representation' politics.if the viewer cannot make a clear assessment of who he is. "not about me" becomes meaningless. one can never truly satisfy the desire to see oneself in the . Phelan continues 'or worse. he confronts us with the impossibility of the 'real-Real' and breaks down the barrier between 'one who is and one who sees'37 His popularity undermines the conventions of 'representational politics' and moves the conversation away from who has a right to speak for whom into the realms of the failure of representation to really represent. states that 'unable to see oneself reflected in a corresponding image of the Same. the spectator can reject the representation as "not about me"' 35. This "not about me" becomes complex with Ali G . Ali G sidesteps this issue by failing to reflect anyone's likeness. lack (of the phallus) is met with lack and so desire is born and despite the 'psychic paradox: one always locates one's own image in an image of the other and one always locates the other in one's own image'38. the spectator can valorize the representation which fails to reflect her likeness as one with "universal appeal" or "transcendent power"'36. Phelan argues that within the discourse of the gaze the desire for a reciprocal gaze has been inadequately examined. The earlier suggestion that the desire for the Jew to be seen as 'Other' within a culture that does not openly acknowledge the 'Otherness' of Jews may be simplistic. Peggy Phelan. She uses Lacan to suggest that in the gaze between Mother and child.16 In his act Baron-Cohen (unlike Bernhard) remains invisible as a Jew but visible as desiring to be an 'other'.
The press responses to Ali G show what a transgressive move his character is and how much investment remains in the entrenched Black/White dichotomy. By being a Jew 'playing' a Black man he acknowledges the failure of the reciprocal gaze between Jews and Blacks . nonetheless. (and one has to take into account the huge amount of money being injected into the music industry which is currently dominated by black musicians). Conclusion Much work has been done on the representation of the Black male body as a means of control of that manhood by the White wielders of power. It asks questions regarding how one is seen as well as who can speak for whom. Baron-Cohen. (The lack of attention given to Felix Dexter's Nigerian character or Harry Enfield's Cypriot character also collaborates in an essentialised Black/White positioning). yet (some) Jews continue to nostalgically desire the closeness of the 'Grand Alliance' where they imagine Jews and Blacks were seen as one. The only obvious models here seem to be those of either .one can never be the other.17 other. it seems to be a liberating identification for many other young men not of African descent (including Asian and Jewish). The question Ali G may be proposing for young British Jews is that of how to be Jewish. by 'playing' a Black man acknowledges that the failure to meet the gaze of the other is what incites desire in an endless replay of deferral. While it is confining for Black men.
3 This is a yiddish term meaning 'flashy'. more seemingly visible ethnicities. Blackface. Whereas the usual springboard for discussing race in this country is racial violence. Anne." Gender. 12 7 Ashkenazi Jews are those of European derivation. Jews and Other Differences. usually male who 'acts Black'. Jewish is not.Garfield 2001 1 Pellegrini. This otherness is magnetic but need not be exotic. There are still conflicts but there is also a savvy. 1996 pg 56. Michael. Black is sexy. and Jewish Bodies' from. Through the awkward laughter may come a new discussion. a seemingly marginal activity (according to the Press). These two terms are not necessarily mutually exclusive but I have not scope in this paper to discuss what a Jew is or may be. 'Whiteface Performances: "Race. 5 Rogin. 1997. White Noise: Jewish Immigration and the Hollywood Melting Pot. University of Minnesota Press. BaronCohen's character acknowledges how mainstream black culture has become and has forced the issue onto the public agenda with humour. Or maybe Ali G just reflects the contemporary London where it's 'post-colonial character means that difference is routine. Cit. 4 I will refer to Black as a person or people of African descent and Jew as someone born to a Jewish mother. agonistic humanism around' 39 R. there is a lack of self-formed external identity If you reject the two already mentioned options.18 assimilation or religious orthodoxy. Rogin pg. California University Press. 141 2 A 'Wigger' is a term for a White person. . Daniel and Jonathan Boyarin (eds). 6 op.pg. where is there to go except for other.
Daniel and Jonathan Boyarin (eds). 37 ibid. Peggy. Joined-Up Politics and Post-Colonial Melancholia. 11 The term liberate is Rogin's term. pg. 1997. 35 Op cit. op cit.139 31 Reminds me of Griselda Pollock's statement 'Western white men produce art. 'Jazz-Jews.34 14 Damon.8 30 Pellegrini. 139 19 The Ali G Video. 5 No. ' The Politics of Multiculturalism in the Postmodern Age' in Art & Design. 6-7 24 ibid.. A&D 1995. 1997. 'Should we laugh at Ali G'. pg. pg. 10 In a way reminiscent of Homi Bhabha's exploration of the beginnings of mimicry. Art & Cultural Difference. 130143 17 ibid. 157 13 Rogin. pp. the rest of us produce art which must be qualified by an adjective' Pollock. 2000. Channel 4. A&D 1995. University of Minnesota Press... Without You I'm Nothing. Paul.10 23 Slater. Ross. 1993 pg. 93-107 34 Thanks to Ruth Novaczek for this insight. Robert. ' The Politics of Multiculturalism in the Postmodern Age' in Art & Design.18 39 Gilroy. ICA Publications 1999. Femininity and Art' from Issues in Architecture. ICA Diversity Lecture. Art & Cultural Difference. pg. 1999. 135 18 ibid. 1.. pg. Textuality' from The Jew In the Text. Jive and Gender: The Ethnic Politics of Jazz Argot' from. see Tamar Garb's introduction Garb. Phelan. J Boskovitch. Art & Design." Gender." Gender. pp. Jews and Other Differences. and Jewish Bodies' from. Pg.10 28 Phelan. Griselda. Norman L Kleeblatt. pg. Vicki. Gary. pp2-3 26 Gilroy. Ella & Stamm. New Nation. University of Minnesota Press. 1997. Daniel and Jonathan Boyarin (eds. ICA Publications 1999. ed. Joined-Up Politics and Post-Colonial Melancholia.8 29 ibid. ed by Linda Nochlin and Tamar Garb.17 27 Shohat. Cit.. pg. 1990. and Jewish Bodies' from. pp. 'Modernity.pg 42 32 op cit. Paul. dir. Routledge. Anne. 1996. Performativity and Belonging..10 33 For an in depth look at this subject see 'The Mouse That Never Roars:Jewish Masculinity on American Television' the catalogue Too Jewish? Challenging Traditional Identities. 38 ibid. The Guardian G2. pg. Unmarked: the Politics of Performance. Jews and Other Differences. Sage. January 12. 10 January 2000. University of East London 1997. University of Minnesota Press. The Jewish Museum New York and Rutgers University Press. 1999. Robert. 'Mimesis as Cultural Survival: Judith Butler and Anti-Semitism' from Vicki Bell (ed). pg. 1995 12 Damon Maria. pg. Tamar. 25 Younge. pg. 'Is Feminism to Judaism as Modernity is to Tradition? Critical Questions on Jewishness. 'Whiteface Performances: "Race. Daniel and Jonathan Boyarin (eds).). Gender and Ethnicity. 1999 22 Shohat. Thames and Hudson. where Indians were educated as minor officials for the British Colonial power as mediator and acceptable face of the Indian. pg.19 8 9 Adrian Piper's position problematises the argument that Black people can't choose and Jews can.. 'Whiteface Performances: "Race. 'Is it 'cos I is black?'. 1999 20 There is not room in this paper to explore this more fully. 17 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bell. although I hope to expand on this point in future work 21 The Ali G Video. I would argue that it is a false liberty. Rogin. Anne. Channel 4. ICA Diversity Lecture. Vol. US 16 Pellegrini.11 36 ibid. Identity.168 15 Sandra Bernhard. New Brunswick New Jersey. 1999 . Phelan. op.pg. Jews and Other Differences. Ella & Stamm. op cit.
'Nuff Respect?'. Anne. 1996 Rogin. Joined-Up Politics and Post-Colonial Melancholia. Peggy. Diaspora: Generation and the Ground of Jewish Identity. Jews and Other Differences. Jive and Gender: The Ethnic Politics of Jazz Argot' from. 1991 Gilroy. Polity Press. 'The greatest homosexual? Camp pleasure and the performative body of Larry Rivers' from Performing the Body Performing the Text. Vicki. The Jewish Chronicle. K. Tamar. ICA Diversity Lecture. Identity. University of Minnesota Press. Sander. 1996 Butt. Paul.. California University Press.20 Bell. Gavin. Routledge. Bryan Cheyette and Laura Marcus. 1996 . 'On Speech. 1993 Piper. University of Minnesota Press. Critical Enquiry. University of Chicago. 1999 Damon Maria. Vol 19 Summer 1993 pp. ed. Daniel & Jonathan.. Performativity and Belonging. Routledge. 'Whiteface Performances: "Race. Adrian. K." Gender. Jews and Other Differences. ICA Publications 1999 Jacobus. White Noise: Jewish Immigration and the Hollywood Melting Pot. Blackface. Thinking in Jewish. 1997 Phelan. 1997 Gilman. and Jewish Bodies' from. Race and Melancholia: An interview with Judith Butler' from Vicki Bell (ed). 1999. 'Jazz-Jews. 1995 Pellegrini. Routledge 1994 Bhabha. Michael. Jonathan. 'Of Mimicry & Man: the ambivalence of Colonial discourse' from the locations of culture. 693-725 Boyarin. Daniel and Jonathan Boyarin (eds). MIT Press. 1968-92. 'Foreword: Joking Aside: The Idea of a Self-Critical Community' from Modernity Culture and 'the Jew'. Out of Sight. Out of Order. January 14 2000 Mirzoeff Nick ed. Unmarked: the Politics of Performance. Volume I : Selected Writings in Meta-Art. Textuality' from The Jew In the Text ed by Linda Nochlin and Tamar Garb. 1999 Bhaba. The Jews Body.Diaspora and Visual Culture. 'Modernity. 1999 Boyarin. Homi. Thames and Hudson. Daniel and Jonathan Boyarin (eds). Sage. Homi. Helen. Routledge2000 Garb. Routledge. (eds) Andrew Stephenson & Amelia Jones.
The Guardian Medua. Evening Standard. New Nation. Tony. The Guardian. Without You I'm Nothing. 10 January 2000 Stuart. 28 March 2000 Various. A&D 1995 Newspaper Articles Aaron. ' The Politics of Multiculturalism in the Postmodern Age' in Art & Design. Justin. 31 January 2000 Shannon. January 11 2000 Onyeka. April 1 2000 Laville. 'getting' jiggy wid Da Staines Massive'. 13 March 2000 Film. Julia. Video Bernhard. 'Channel Surfing'. interview with Geoff Shumann. 1990. Charles. 'Hold on to your hats'. March 30 2000 Collins. January 11 2000 Jeffries. Sarah. The Guardian. March 27 2000 Gibson. The Guardian. Ross. 'Ali G rapped for being "racially offensive".21 Shohat. Stuart. The Daily Telegraph. innit'. 'Comics find Ali G is an alibi for racism'. letters to The Guardian. Ella & Stam. Sandra. Art & Cultural Difference. 2000 . Robert. 'Should we laugh at Ali G'. J Boskovitch. 'How I tamed Ali G'. New Nation. 'What the White Boy Means When He Says Yo' Benn. 29 March Slater. The Independent Tuesday Review. US The Ali G Tape The Ali G Series. 'It's me and Naomi in a bath. Janine. 'All G-ed up about Ali'. Michael.. Sandra. dir. Channel 4. TV. 'Thinking Big'.
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