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SORIANO [GR L-22405, 30 June 1971] En Banc, Dizon (J): 8 concur, 2 took no part Facts: On 18 April 1958 Enrique Montinola sought to purchase from the Manila Post Office 10 money orders of P200.00 each payable to E. P. Montinola with address at Lucena, Quezon. After the postal teller had made out money orders numbered 124685, 124687-124695, Montinola offered to pay for them with a private check. As private checks were not generally accepted in payment of money orders, the teller advised him to see the Chief of the Money Order Division, but instead of doing so, Montinola managed to leave the building with his own check and the 10 money orders without the knowledge of the teller. On the same date, 18 April 1958, upon discovery of the disappearance of the unpaid money orders, an urgent message was sent to all postmasters, and the following day notice was likewise served upon all banks. instructing them not to pay anyone of the money orders aforesaid if presented for payment. The Blank of America received a copy of said notice 3 days later. On 23 April 1958 one of the above mentioned money orders numbered 124688 was received by Philippine Education Co. as part of its sales receipts. The following day it deposited the same with the Bank of America, and one day thereafter the latter cleared it with the Bureau of Posts and received from the latter its face value of P200.00. On 27 September 1961, Mauricio A. Soriano, Chief of the Money Order Division of the Manila Post Office, acting for and in behalf of Post-master Enrico Palomar, notified the Bank of America that money order 124688 attached to his letter had been found to have been irregularly issued and that, in view thereof, the amount it represented had been deducted from the bank's clearing account. For its part, on August 2 of the same year, the Bank of America debited Philippine Education Co.'s account with the same amount and gave it advice thereof by means of a debit memo. On 12 October 1961 Philippine Education Co. requested the Postmaster General to reconsider the action taken by his office deducting the sum of P200.00 from the clearing account of the Bank of America, but his request was denied. So was Philippine Education Co.'s subsequent request that the matter be referred to the Secretary of Justice for advice. Thereafter, Philippine Education Co. elevated the matter to the Secretary of Public Works and Communications, but the latter sustained the actions taken by the postal officers. In connection with the events set forth above, Montinola was charged with theft in the Court of First Instance of Manila (Criminal Case 43866) but after trial he was acquitted on the ground of reasonable doubt. On 8 January 1962 Philippine Education Co. filed an action against Soriano, et al. in the Municipal Court of Manila. On 17 November 1962, after the parties had submitted the stipulation of facts, the municipal court rendered judgment, ordering Soriano, et al. to countermand the notice given to the Bank of America on 27 September 1961, deducting from said Bank's clearing account the sum of P200.00 representing the amount of postal money order 124688, or in the alternative, to indemnify Philippine Education Co. in the said sum of P200.00 with interest thereon at the rate of 8-1/2% per annum from 27 September 1961 until fully paid; without any pronouncement as to costs and attorney's fees." The case was appealed to the Court of First Instance of Manila where, after the parties had resubmitted the same stipulation of facts, the appealed decision dismissing the complaints with costs, was rendered. Philippine Education Co. appealed. Issue: Whether the postal money order is a negotiable instrument. Held: Philippine postal statutes were patterned after similar statutes in force in the United States. For this reason, Philippine postal statutes are generally construed in accordance with the construction given in the United States to their own postal statutes, in the absence of any special reason justifying a departure from this policy or practice. The weight of authority in the United Status is that postal money orders are not negotiable instruments, the reason behind this rule being that, in establishing and operating a postal money order system, the government is not engaging in commercial transactions but merely exercises a governmental power for the public benefit. Some of the restrictions imposed upon money orders by postal laws and regulations are inconsistent with the character of negotiable instruments. For instance, such laws and regulations usually provide for not more than one endorsement; payment of money orders may be withheld under a variety of circumstances.
CALTEX v. CA 212 SCRA 489
FACTS: On various dates, Security Bank and Trust Co. (SEBTC), through its Sucat branch, issued 280
certificates of time deposit (CTD) in favor of one Angel dela Cruz who deposited with the bank the aggregate amount of P1.12 million. Anger de la Cruz delivered the CTDs to Caltex in connection with his purchase of fuel products from the latter. Subsequently, dela Cruz informed the bank that he lost all the CTDs, and thus executed an affidavit of loss to facilitate the issuance of the replacement CTDs. De la Cruz was able to obtain a loan of P875,000 from the bank, and in turn, he executed a notarized Deed of Assignment of Time Deposit in favor of the bank. Thereafter, Caltex presented for verification the CTDs (which were declared lost by de la Cruz) with the bank. Caltex formally informed the bank of its possession of the CTDs and its decision to preterminate the same. The bank rejected Caltex’ claim and demand, after Caltex failed to furnish copy of the requested documents evidencing the guarantee agreement, etc. In 1983, de la Cruz’ loan matured and the bank set-off and applied the time deposits as payment for the loan. Caltex filed the complaint, but it was dismissed. (1) Whether the Certificates of Time Deposit (CTDs) are negotiable instruments. (2)Whether the CTDs’ negotiation require delivery only. HELD: (1) The CTDs in question meet the requirements of the law for negotiability. Contrary to the lower court’s findings, the CTDs are negotiable instruments (Section 1). Negotiability or non-negotiability of an instrument is determined from the writing, i.e. from the face of the instrument itself. The documents provided that the amounts deposited shall be repayable to the depositor. The amounts are to be repayable to the bearer of the documents, i.e. whosoever may be the bearer at the time of presentment. (2) Although the CTDs are bearer instruments, a valid negotiation thereof for the true purpose and agreement between it (Caltex) and de la Cruz requires both delivery and indorsement; as the CTDs were delivered to it as security for dela Cruz’ purchases of its fuel products, and not for payment. Herein, there was no negotiation in the sense of a transfer of title, or legal title, to the CTDs in which situation mere delivery of the bearer CTDs would have sufficed. The delivery thereof as security for the fuel purchases at most constitutes Caltex as a holder for value by reason of his lien. Accordingly, a negotiation for such purpose cannot be effected by mere delivery of the instrument since the terms thereof and the subsequent disposition of such security, in the event of non-payment of the principal obligation, must be contractually provided for. FIRESTONE TIRE V. CA 353 SCRA 601
Fojas Arca and Firestone Tire entered into a franchising agreement wherein the former had the privilege to purchase on credit the latter’s products. In paying for these products, the former could pay through special withdrawal slips. In turn, Firestone would deposit these slips with Citibank. Citibank would then honor and pay the slips. Citibank automatically credits the account of Firestone then merely waited for the same to be honored and paid by Luzon Development Bank. As this was the circumstances, Firestone believed in the sufficient funding of the slips until there was a time that Citibank informed it that one of the slips was dishonored. It wrote then a demand letter to Fojas Arca for the payment and damages but the latter refused to pay, prompting Firestone to file an action against it. HELD: The withdrawal slips, at the outset, are non-negotiable. Hence, the rule on immediate notice of dishonor is non-applicable to the case at hand. Thus, the bank was under no obligation to give immediate notice that it wouldn't make payment on the subject withdrawal slips. Citibank should have known that withdrawal slips are not negotiable instruments. It couldn't expect then the slips be treated like
checks by other entities. Payment or notice of dishonor from respondent bank couldn't be expected immediately in contrast to the situation involving checks. In the case at bar, Citibank relied on the fact that LDB honored and paid the withdrawal slips which made it automatically credit the account of Firestone with the amount of the subject withdrawal slips then merely waited for LDB to honor and pay the same. It bears stressing though that Citibank couldn't have missed the non-negotiable character of the slips. The essence of negotiability which characterizes a negotiable paper as a credit instrument lies in its freedom to be a substitute for money. The withdrawal slips in question lacked this character. The withdrawal slips deposited were not checks as Firestone admits and Citibank generally was not bound to accept the withdrawal slips as a valid mode of deposit. Nonetheless, Citibank erroneously accepted the same as such and thus, must bear the risks attendant to the acceptance of the instruments. Firestone and Citibank could not now shift the risk to LDB for their committed mistake. SESBRENO VS. COURT OF APPEALS [GR 89252, 24 May 1993] Third Division, Feliciano (J): 4 concur Facts: On 9 February 1981, Raul Sesbreño made a money market placement in the amount of P300,000.00 with the Philippine Underwriters Finance Corporation (Philfinance), Cebu Branch; the placement, with a term of 32 days, would mature on 13 March 1981. Philfinance, also on 9 February 1981, issued the following documents to Sesbreno: (a) the Certificate of Confirmation of Sale, "without recourse," 20496 of 1 Delta Motors Corporation Promissory Note (DMC PN) 2731 for a term of 32 days at 17.0 % per annum; (b) the Certificate of Securities Delivery Receipt 16587 indicating the sale of DMC PN 2731 to Sesbreno, with the notation that the said security was in custodianship of Pilipinas Bank, as per Denominated Custodian Receipt (DCR) 10805 dated 9 February 1981; and (c) post-dated checks payable on 13 March 1981 (i.e., the maturity date of Sesbreno's investment), with Sesbreno as payee, Philfinance as drawer, and Insular Bank of Asia and America as drawee, in the total amount of P304,533.33. On 13 March 1981, Sesbreno sought to encash the post-dated checks issued by Philfinance. However, the checks were dishonored for having been drawn against insufficient funds. On 26 March 1981, Philfinance delivered to Sesbreno the DCR 10805 issued by Pilipinas Bank (Pilipinas). On 2 April 1981, Sesbreno approached Ms. Elizabeth de Villa of Pilipinas, Makati Branch, and handed to her a demand letter informing the bank that his placement with Philfinance in the amount reflected in the DCR 10805 had remained unpaid and outstanding, and that he in effect was asking for the physical delivery of the underlying promissory note. Sesbreno then examined the original of the DMC PN 2731 and found: that the security had been issued on 10 April 1980; that it would mature on 6 April 1981; that it had a face value of P2,300,833.33, with Philfinance as "payee" and Delta Motors Corporation (Delta) as "maker;" and that on face of the promissory note was stamped "NON-NEGOTIABLE." Pilipinas did not deliver the Note, nor any certificate of participation in respect thereof, to Sesbreno. Sesbreno later made similar demand letters, dated 3 July 1981 and 3 August 1981, again asking Pilipinas for physical delivery of the original of DMC PN 2731. Pilipinas allegedly referred all of Sesbreno's demand letters to Philfinance for written instructions, as had been supposedly agreed upon in a "Securities Custodianship Agreement" between Pilipinas and Philfinance. Philfinance never did provide the appropriate instructions; Pilipinas never released DMC PN 2731, nor any other instrument in respect thereof, to petitioner. Sesbreno also made a written demand on 14 July 1981 upon Delta for the partial satisfaction of DMC PN 2731, explaining that Philfinance, as payee thereof, had assigned to him said Note to the extent of P307,933.33. Delta, however, denied any liability to Sesbreno on the promissory note, and explained in turn that it had previously agreed with Philfinance to offset its DMC PN 2731 (along with DMC PN 2730) against Philfinance PN 143-A issued in favor of Delta. In the meantime, Philfinance, on 18 June 1981, was placed under the joint management of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Central Bank. Pilipinas delivered to the SEC DMC PN 2731, which to date apparently remains in the custody of the SEC. As Sesbreno had failed to collect his investment and interest thereon, he filed on 28 September 1982 an action for damages with the Regional Trial Court (RTC) of Cebu City, Branch 21, against Delta and Pilipinas. The trial court, in a decision dated 5 August 1987, dismissed the complaint and counterclaims for lack of merit and for lack of cause of action, with costs against Sesbreno. Sesbreno appealed to the Court of Appeals (CA GR CV 15195). In a Decision dated 21 March 1989, the Court of Appeals denied the appeal. Sesbreno moved for reconsideration of the above Decision, without success. Sesbreno filed the Petition for Review on Certiorari.
Issue: Whether the marking “non-negotiable” in DMC PN 2731 prohibited Philfinance from assigning or transferring the same to Sesbreno. Held: The negotiation of a negotiable instrument must be distinguished from the assignment or transfer of an instrument whether that be negotiable or non-negotiable. Only an instrument qualifying as a negotiable instrument under the relevant statute may be negotiated either by indorsement thereof coupled with delivery, or by delivery alone where the negotiable instrument is in bearer form. A negotiable instrument may, however, instead of being negotiated, also be assigned or transferred. The legal consequences of negotiation as distinguished from assignment of a negotiable instrument are, of course, different. A non-negotiable instrument may, obviously, not be negotiated; but it may be assigned or transferred, absent an express prohibition against assignment or transfer written in the face of the instrument: "The words 'not negotiable,' stamped on the face of the bill of lading, did not destroy its assignability, but the sole effect was to exempt the bill from the statutory provisions relative thereto, and a bill, though not negotiable, may be transferred by assignment; the assignee taking subject to the equities between the original parties." Herein, DMC PN No. 2731, while marked "non-negotiable," was not at the same time stamped "non-transferrable" or "non-assignable." It contained no stipulation which prohibited Philfinance from assigning or transferring, in whole or in part, that Note. Further, there is nothing in the letter of agreement dated 10 April 1980 between Delta and Philfinance which can be reasonably construed as a prohibition upon Philfinance assigning or transferring all or part of DMC PN 2731, before the maturity thereof. It is scarcely necessary to add that, even had this "Letter of Agreement" set forth an explicit prohibition of transfer upon Philfinance, such a prohibition cannot be invoked against an assignee or transferee of the Note who parted with valuable consideration in good faith and without notice of such prohibition. It is not disputed that Sesbreno was such an assignee or transferee. [The issue whether Delta is liable for the value of the promissory to Sesbreno was resolved through Articles 1279 and 1636 of the New Civil Code as to compensation, and Article 1285 of the same as to the assignment of creditor's rights. The Court held that since Sesbreno failed to notify Delta of the assignment of the creditor's (Philfinance) rights at any time before the maturity date of DMC PN 2731, and because the record is bare of any indication that Philfinance had itself notified Delta of the assignment to Sesbreno, the Court was compelled to uphold the defense of compensation raised by Delta. The Court, however, held that Philfinance remained liable to Sesbreno under the terms of the assignment made by Philfinance to Sesbreno. As to the issue of Pilipinas’ liability to Sesbreno, on the other hand, the Court held that Pilipinas must respond to Sesbreno for damages sustained by him arising out of its breach of duty. By failing to deliver the Note to Sesbreno as depositor-beneficiary of the thing deposited -- when Pilipinas purported to require and await the instructions of Philfinance, in obvious contravention of its undertaking under the DCR to effect physical delivery of the Note upon receipt of "written instructions" from Sesbreño -- Pilipinas effectively and unlawfully deprived Sesbreno of the Note deposited with it. – Civil Law II issues, MVG.] ANG TEK LIAN VS. COURT OF APPEALS [GR L-2516, 25 September 1950] En Banc, Bengzon (J): 6 concur Facts: Knowing he had no funds therefor, Ang Tek Lian drew on Saturday, 16 November 1946, a check upon the China Banking Corporation for the sum of P4,000, payable to the order of "cash". He delivered it to Lee Hua Hong in exchange for money which the latter handed in the act. On 18 November 1946, the next business day, the check was presented by Lee Hua Hong to the drawee bank for payment, but it was dishonored for insufficiency of funds, the balance of the deposit of Ang Tek Lian on both dates being P335 only. Ang Tek Lian was charged and was convicted of estafa in the Court of First Instance of Manila. The Court of Appeals affirmed the verdict. Issue: Whether indorsement is necessary for the presentation of a bearer instrument for payment. Held: Under Section 9(d) of the Negotiable Instruments Law, a check drawn payable to the order of "cash" is a check payable to bearer, and the bank may pay it to the person presenting it for payment without the drawer's indorsement. A check payable to the order of cash is a bearer instrument. Where a check is made payable to the order of “cash,” the word “cash “does not purport to be the name of any person, and hence the instrument is payable to bearer. The drawee bank need not obtain any indorsement of the check, but may pay it to the person presenting it without any indorsement." Of course, if the bank is not sure of the bearer's identity or financial solvency, it has the right to demand identification and/or assurance against
possible complications, — for instance, (a) forgery of drawer's signature, (b) loss of the check by the rightful owner, (c) raising of the amount payable, etc. The bank may therefore require, for its protection, that the indorsement of the drawer — or of some other person known to it — be obtained. But where the Bank is satisfied of the identity and/or the economic standing of the bearer who tenders the check for collection, it will pay the instrument without further question; and it would incur no liability to the drawer in thus acting. A check payable to bearer is authority for payment to the holder. Where a check is in the ordinary form, and is payable to bearer, so that no indorsement is required, a bank, to which it is presented for payment, need not have the holder identified, and is not negligent in failing to do so. Consequently, a drawee bank to which a bearer check is presented for payment need not necessarily have the holder identified and ordinarily may not be charged with negligence in failing to do so. If the bank has no reasonable cause for suspecting any irregularity, it will be protected in paying a bearer check, “no matter what facts unknown to it may have occurred prior to the presentment.” Although a bank is entitled to pay the amount of a bearer check without further inquiry, it is entirely reasonable for the bank to insist that the holder give satisfactory proof of his identity. Herein anyway, it is significant, and conclusive, that the form of the check was totally unconnected with its dishonor. It was returned unsatisfied because the drawer had insufficient funds — not because the drawer's indorsement was lacking. De Ocampo vs. Gatchalian [GR L-15126, 30 November 1961] En Banc, Labrador (J): 8 concur, 1 concurs in result Facts: On or about 8 September 1953, in the evening, Anita C. Gatchalian who was then interested in looking for a car for the use of her husband and the family, was shown and offered a car by Manuel Gonzales who was accompanied by Emil Fajardo, the latter being personally known to Gatchalian. Gonzales represented to Gatchalian that he was duly authorized by the owner of the car, Ocampo Clinic, to look for a buyer of said car and to negotiate for and accomplish said sale. Gatchalian, finding the price of the car quoted by Gonzales to her satisfaction, requested Gonzales to bring the car the day following together with the certificate of registration of the car, so that her husband would be able to see same. On this request of Gatchalian, Gonzales advised her that the owner of the car will not be willing to give the certificate of registration unless there is a showing that the party interested in the purchase of said car is ready and willing to make such purchase and that for this purpose Gonzales requested Gatchalian to give him a check which will be shown to the owner as evidence of buyer's good faith in the intention to purchase the said car, the said check to be for safekeeping only of Gonzales and to be returned to Gatchalian the following day when Gonzales brings the car and the certificate of registration. Relying on these representations of Gonzales and with this assurance that said check will be only for safekeeping and which will be returned to Gatchalian the following day when the car and its certificate of registration will be brought by Gonzales to Gatchalian, Gatchalian drew and issued a check that Gonzales executed and issued a receipt for said check. On the failure of Gonzales to appear the day following and on his failure to bring the car and its certificate of registration and to return the check on the following day as previously agreed upon, Gatchalian issued a "Stop Payment Order" on the check with the drawee bank. When Gonzales received the check from Gatchalian under the representations and conditions above specified, he delivered the same to the Ocampo Clinic, in payment of the fees and expenses arising from the hospitalization of his wife. Vicente R. De Ocampo & Co. for and in consideration of fees and expenses of hospitalization and the release of the wife of Gonzales from its hospital, accepted said check, applying P441.75 thereof to payment of said fees and expenses and delivering to Gonzales the amount of P158.25 representing the balance on the amount of the said check. The acts of acceptance of the check and application of its proceeds in the manner specified were made without previous inquiry by De Ocampo from Gatchalian. De Ocampo filed with the Office of the City Fiscal of Manila, a complaint for estafa against Gonzales based on and arising from the acts of Gonzales in paying his obligations with De Ocampo and receiving the cash balance of the check and that said complaint was subsequently dropped. De Ocampo subsequently filed an action for the recovery of the value of a check for P600 payable to De Ocampo and drawn by Gatchalian. The Court of First Instance of Manila, through Hon. Conrado M. Vasquez, presiding, sentenced Gatchalian and Gonzales to pay De Ocampo the sum of P600, with legal interest from 10 September 1953 until paid, and to pay the costs. Gatchalian, et al. appealed. Issue : Whether De Ocampo is a holder in due course. Held : NO. Section 52, Negotiable Instruments Law, defines holder in due course as "A holder in due course is a holder who has taken the instrument under the following conditions: (a) That it is complete and
placed upon it to show that notwithstanding the suspicious circumstances. The bank manager then had it kept for safekeeping by one of its employees. V. under the circumstances of the case. A case of interpleader was filed by the bank and Go moved to participate as intervenor in the complaint for damages. amounting to legal absence of good faith. and it may not be considered as a holder of the check in good faith. It was payee's duty to ascertain from the holder Gonzales what the nature of the latter's title to the check was or the nature of his possession. He executed also an affidavit of loss as well as reported it to the police. The burden was. the circumstances -. that the amount of the check did not correspond exactly with the obligation of Matilde Gonzales to Dr. IAC 145 SCRA 497 FACTS: Jose Go purchased from Associate Bank a Cashier’s Check. because the instrument is not payable to him or to bearer.show that holder's title was defective or suspicious. An information for theft was then filed against Lim. if such was the fact.regular upon its face. For these two times. R. Later. the name of Mesina was revealed. On the other hand. they dishonored the payment by saying that payment has been stopped. The employee was then in conference with one Alexander Lim. Mesina moved for the dismissal of the case but was denied.such as the fact that Gatchalian had no obligation or liability to the Ocampo Clinic. the stipulation of facts -. it acquired the check in actual good faith. a lawyer contacted it demanding payment. he said it was paid to him Lim. As holder's title was defective or suspicious.like the fact that the drawer had no account with the payee. which he left on top of the manager’s desk when left the bank. de Ocampo. it (payee) cannot be considered as a holder in due course. Having failed in this respect. to say the least. that the holder did not show or tell the payee why he had the check in his possession and why he was using it for the payment of his own personal account —. and for this reason the presumption that it is a holder in due course or that it acquired the instrument in good faith does not exist. which practice means that the check could only be deposited but may not be converted into cash —. The trial court ruled in the interpleader case ordering the bank to replace the cashier’s check in favor of Go. and why he used it to pay Matilde's account. Held : The rule that a possessor of the instrument is prima facie a holder in due course does not apply because there was a defect in the title of the holder (Manuel Gonzales). He left the check in his desk and upon his return. the same couldn't be found and Go was advised to request for the stoppage of payment which he did. When Go inquired about his check. and without notice that it had been previously dishonored. And having presented no evidence that it acquired the check in good faith. it cannot be stated that the payee acquired the check without knowledge of said defect in holder's title. MESINA V. De Ocampo was guilty of gross neglect in not finding out the nature of the title and possession of Gonzales. and that the check had two parallel lines in the upper left hand corner. After the second time." Although De Ocampo was not aware of the circumstances under which the check was delivered to Gonzales. He refused to disclose the name of his client and threatened to sue. The bank then received the check twice for clearing. (b) That he became the holder of it before it was overdue. When asked by the police on how he possessed the check. Issue : Whether the rule that a possessor of the instrument is prima facie a holder in due course applies. . Lim and the check were gone. (c) That he took it in good faith and for value. the fact is that it acquired possession of the instrument under circumstances that should have put it to inquiry as to the title of the holder who negotiated the check to it. instead of the presumption that payee was a holder in good faith. In other words. (d) That at the time it was negotiated to him he had no notice of any infirmity in the instrument or defect in the title of the person negotiating it. therefore.should have put De Ocampo to inquiry as to the why and wherefore of the possession of the check by Gonzales.
Upon questioning.. Not satisfied with the decision. in the amount of P15. since the bank was aware of the facts surrounding the loss of the check in question.. Villaruel pursuant to Section 21. It may be made by adding to the indorser's signature the words "without recourse" or any words of similar import. negotiated and indorsed the note in favor of Metropol Financing & Investment Corporation with the following indorsement: "Pay to the order of Metropol Bacolod Financing & Investment Corporation with recourse. the sum equivalent to 25% of P15. Dishonor. dishonor. the total principal sum then remaining unpaid shall become due and payable with an additional interest equal to 25% of the total amount due. so on 26 November 1969 Metropol filed a complaint for collection of a sum of money before the Court of First Instance of Iloilo. Dr. Asst. [GR L-39641. Sambok indorsed the note "with recourse" and even waived the notice of demand. 28 February 1983] Second Division. Facts: On 15 April 1969 Dr. It simply means that he has notice of the defect of his title over the check from the start. and under the same management as the former. Sambok failed to pay.. that being a qualified indorser. Javier Villaruel executed a promissory note in favor of Ng Sambok Sons Motors Co. so on 30 October 1969. However.HELD: Petitioner cannot raise as arguments that a cashier’s check cannot be countermanded from the hands of a holder in due course and that a cashier’s check is a check drawn by the bank against itself. Petitioner failed to substantiate that he was a holder in due course. or if there is some other reason why the payee is not entitled to collect the check. 1 on leave. Such an indorsement relieves the indorser of the general obligation to pay if the instrument is dishonored but not of the liability arising from warranties on the instrument as provided in Section 65 of the Negotiable Instruments Law. with interest at the rate of 1% per month. Villaruel died. If a payee of a cashier’s check obtained it from the issuing bank by fraud. on motion. He refused to disclose how and why it has passed to him. De Castro (J): 4 concur. that it only warrants the following pursuant to Section 65 of the Negotiable Instruments Law: (a) that the instrument is genuine and in all respects what it purports to be. protest and presentment. Villaruel. (d) that he has no knowledge of any fact which would impair the validity of the instrument or render it valueless. During the pendency of the case in the trial court.00 payable in 12 equal monthly installments. it becomes a qualified indorser. Samboc appealed. hence. A qualified indorsement constitutes the indorser a mere assignor of the title to the instrument. Sambok did not deny its liability but contended that it could not be obliged to pay until after its co-defendant Dr. The holder of a cashier’s check who is not a holder in due course cannot enforce payment against the issuing bank which dishonors the same. he admitted that he got the check from Lim who stole the check. "Recourse" means resort to a person who is secondarily liable after the default of the Held: . Dr. Branch I. It is further provided that in case on non-payment of any of the installments. the bank would of course have the right to refuse payment of the check when presented by payee. ordering Sambok to pay to Metropol the sum of P15. Dr. and to pay the cost of suit.939. has been declared insolvent. SAMBOK MOTORS CO. 1 concurs but articulating his observation that the appeal could have been treated as a petition for review under RA 5440 and dismissed by minute resolution. beginning 18 May 1969. Protest. and Presentment are hereby waived. Rule 3 of the Rules of Court. Ltd. (c) that all prior parties had capacity to contract. Notice of Demand. Villaruel failed to pay the promissory note as demanded. Sambok Motors Co. the trial court rendered its decision dated 12 September 1973. Villaruel defaulted in the payment of his installments when they became due. a sister company of Ng Sambok Sons Motors Co. Issue: Whether Sambok is a qualified indorser of the subject promissory note. dismissed the case against Dr.00 plus interest thereon until fully paid. Metropol formally presented the promissory note for payment to the maker." The maker. (BACOLOD) By: RODOLFO G. Metropol (Bacolod) Financing & Investment Corporation vs. it does not warrant that if said note is dishonored by the maker on presentment. Sambok argue that by adding the words "with recourse" in the indorsement of the note. On Metropol's motion for summary judgment. on 24 October 1972 the lower court.939.00 plus the legal rate of interest from 30 October 1969. it will pay the amount to the holder.939. Ltd. Sambok Motors Company.. (b) that he has a good title to it. On the same date. hence Metropol notified Sambok as indorsee of said note of the fact that the same has been dishonored and demanded payment. NONILLO. General Manager.
protest and presentment were all waived. the MTC. on November 11. June 1. MARALIT.00. P130.286. J.30. dated December 9. The facts are as follows: Petitioner Ester B. the holder need not even proceed against the maker before suing the indorser. the person secondarily liable thereon ceases to be such and becomes a principal debtor. and that upon being informed of the dishonor of the warrants she immediately contacted Aida Abengoza and signed an acknowledgment of debt promising to pay the total amount of the treasury warrants. ordered the enforcement of the civil liability against the accused arising from the criminal action. respondent. because by such indorsement. directed the sheriff as follows: NOW. The writ of execution. you are hereby commanded to cause the execution of the aforesaid judgment in the amount of THREE HUNDRED TWENTY THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED EIGHTY SIX & 46/100 (P320. through the Makati branch of the Citibank. The words added by Sambok do not limit his liability. after an instrument is dishonored by non-payment. JESUSA CORAZON L. 1996. dishonor. Imperial is ACQUITTED of all the charges against her. and that the treasury warrants were subsequently returned one after the other by the United States Treasury. dated August 26. but rather confirm his obligation as a general indorser. of the Regional Trial Court of Naga City (Branch 21) in Special Civil Case No. 1992 respondent Imperial separately deposited in her savings account at the PNB three United States treasury warrants bearing USTW Nos.46) . or both as the case may be. on the ground that the amounts thereof had been altered. 2034-91180047. and P130. vs.326.: This is a petition for review on certiorari of the decision. The accused however is civilly liable as indorser of the checks which is (sic) the subject matter of the criminal action.person who is primarily liable.216. Imperial. that she deposited the treasury warrants in her savings account and then withdrew their peso equivalent with the approval of petitioner. RTC ’973744. THEREFORE. 1996. After preliminary investigation. it agreed that if Dr.743.287. that she did not know that the amounts on the treasury warrants had been altered nor did she represent to petitioner that the treasury warrants were genuine. MENDOZA. respondent claimed that she merely helped a relative. Maralit claimed that. and July 1. In her counter-affidavit. and 2034-33330760 and on the same days withdrew their peso equivalent of P59. the note shall be accepted or paid. respectively. Metropol can go after Sambok. 1992. the Court finds no ground to hold the accused criminally liable for which she is charged. ESTER B. Aida Abengoza. she was held personally liable by the PNB for the total amount of P320. 2034-91254963. encash the treasury warrants.60. His liability becomes the same as that of the original obligor. 1997. that on May 20. 1997. dated September 29. by indorsing the note "with recourse" does not make itself a qualified indorser but a general indorser who is secondarily liable. Sambok's intention of indorsing the note without qualification is made even more apparent by the fact that the notice of demand. Further. as a consequence. Maralit filed three complaints for estafa through falsification of commercial documents through reckless imprudence against respondent Jesusa Corazon L.86. A person who indorses without qualification engages that on due presentment. The decision having become final and executory. 1996. he will pay the amount thereof to the holder. Maralit alleged that she was assistant manager of the Naga City branch of the Philippine National Bank (PNB). and the resolution. IMPERIAL. that she gave the money to Aida Abengoza. Consequently. and that if it be dishonored. in view of the foregoing considerations. judgment was rendered as follows: WHEREFORE. The effect of such indorsement is that the note was indorsed without qualification. hence Corazon Jesusa L. 1992. petitioner. the City Prosecutor of Naga City filed three informations against respondent in the Municipal Trial Court of Naga City (Branch 3). On September 26. Villaruel fails to pay the note. Sambok.
ONLY. The RTC issued a writ of preliminary injunction enjoining enforcement of the writ of execution issued by the MTC. which reads: “. which.. The RTC held that the decision of the MTC did not really find respondent liable for P320. when the MTC denied private respondent’s motion for reconsideration of the order denying her motion to quash the writ of execution. it rendered a decision. Whether there was substantial variance as between the dispositive portion of the civil judgment and the writ of execution issued thereunder. . However. 68697. Whether or not the MTC committed grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction.13. Whether or not a court exercising certiorari jurisdiction has the authority to modify or alter the final and executory decision of the lower court even by way of an obiter dictum. her motion was denied on September 28. or from April 7. 1997. except those which are exempt from execution and to make the sale thereat in accordance with the procedure outlined by Rule 39. Revised Rules of Court and such cases made and provided. On August 26. 1996. 1997. Whether or not the MTC merely adjudicated the criminal aspect but not the civil aspect of Criminal Cases 68697.” 4. Respondent at first moved to declare her savings account exempt from execution on the ground that the same represented her salary as an employee of the Commission on Audit. Hence.” 3. and to levy the goods and chattels of the defendant/s. i. together with all your lawful fees for the services of this writ. 1997. Petitioner moved for reconsideration alleging that respondent filed her petition for certiorari and prohibition more than three months after the MTC had ordered execution of its decision on November 11.e. Whether this case warrants the relaxation of the rule that “Certiorari is not a substitute for a lost or lapsed appeal. Accordingly. The accused however is civilly liable as indorser of the checks subject matter of the criminal action.46 because in fact it was petitioner who was found responsible for making the defraudation possible. that its decision was contrary to law and jurisprudence. the sheriff served a notice of garnishment on the PNB. Later. On April 14. 68698 and 68699. . The RTC likewise found the second ground of petitioner’s motion for reconsideration. Whether respondent’s Petition for Certiorari and Prohibition under Rule 65 of the Rules of Court was filed out of time. made permanent the injunction. dated February 24. respondent filed a petition for certiorari and prohibition in the Regional Trial Court of Naga City. when it issued the Order of Execution. 68698 and 68699. Accordingly. 1997. Writ of Execution and Alias Writ of Execution to implement its final and executory civil judgment in Criminal Cases No. among other things.” Both motions of respondent were denied by the MTC for lack of merit in its order.621. The RTC held that the three-month period should be counted from April 1. she moved to quash the writ of execution on the ground “that the judgment did not order the accused to pay [a] specific amount of money to a particular person as it merely adjudicated the criminal aspect but not the civil aspect hence there was no judgment rendered which can be the subject of execution. 1997. Petitioner raises the following issues: 1. . 1997. 5. this petition. devoid of merit. equivalent to the amount of the 3 three US$ checks amounting to $12. which was not even sufficient for her expenses and that of her family. 6. contending that the writ of execution issued by the MTC was at variance with the judgment in the criminal cases. when the alias writ of execution was issued.286. 2. an alias writ of execution was issued.
(page 5. . the RTC held that the MTC did not really find respondent liable. The [MTC’s] findings of facts and conclusions of law as expressed in the body of the decision do not support the dispositive portion of the judgment that [respondent herein] is civilly liable.286. equivalent to the amount of the 3 three US$ checks amounting to $12. therefore. Whereas. In short she took the risk of approving the withdrawal of the peso equivalent. .. It is the established procedure of banks that out of town checks and US Treasury Warrants should first be cleared before the same is to be paid. The accused could not have encashed and deposited the checks without her approval. in the affirmative. If the complainant was not remiss in her duty in imposing the banking rules strictly. .Petitioner contends that the phrase “civilly liable” in the judgment part of the MTC’s decision also connotes an order to pay on respondent’s part. .46. It may fairly be assumed that the decision of the MTC was an adjudication of both the criminal and civil liability of respondent inasmuch as it does not appear that petitioner instituted a separate civil action or reserved or waived the right to bring such action. If there is anyone who has disregarded banking laws.621. the Court stated in the body of its decision that it is [petitioner] Maralit herself who should be faulted and be held responsible for the payment of the dishonored US Dollar checks. In the first place the accused is not an employee of the bank. More specifically. (page 6. .. the RTC said: A mere reading of the dispositive portion of the judgment and the writ of execution will readily show that there is variance between the two. This is a generous statement. Judgment). The Court is of the opinion that there was negligence on both the complainant and the accused but greater responsibility should be borne by the private complainant. In reaching that conclusion. She knows the risk of approving encashment before clearing. it is the private complainant for approving withdrawals before the check were cleared. then these things could not have happened. but in the writ of execution. . nothing is mentioned about the amount for which [respondent herein] is liable as indorser. judgment). Hereunder quoted are portions of the body of the decision in question showing that [respondent] herein should not be held civilly liable and that it was [petitioner] Maralit who should be blamed and be held responsible: .13.46) ONLY.. . for how much. This portion of the decision of the MTC actually refers to respondent’s criminal liability and not her civil liability. the portion in question refers to the allegations in the three informations that respondent committed falsification of commercial documents through reckless imprudence by “1) taking . Mrs. The variance. She has no control nor supervision over its employees.” In the judgment. . . Maralit is more knowledgeable of the banking procedures of the bank of which she is the assistant manager. She took the risk therefore she should be responsible for the outcome of the risk she has taken. The Court however is quite intrigue[d] on why the accused was allowed to encash the peso equivalent despite the fact that the check was deposited for collection and clearing. Judgment). the judgment pronounced [respondent herein] to be “civilly liable as indorser of the checks which is the subject matter of the criminal action. the civil liability of the [respondent herein] has already been fixed at P320. As already stated. For three (3) times.” the writ of execution commanded the Sheriff “to cause the execution of the aforesaid judgment in the amount of THREE HUNDRED TWENTY THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED EIGHTY SIX & 46/100 (P320. between the judgment and the writ of execution is substantial because it consists of the addition of the amount of the civil liability of the [respondent herein]. without the check being cleared and if the same is dishonored she should be responsible. (page 7. On the contrary a reading of the body of the judgment in question will show that [respondent] is not civilly liable. The question is whether the decision of the MTC finds respondent civilly liable and. The information accuses the accused for disregarding the banking laws and procedure of the PNB.286. She likewise explained that she trusted the accused whom she knew is working in the same building and a depositor. . More so if the holder is a second indorser. The private complainant in this regard explained that [as assistant branch manager] she has the discretion and that there is no hold order appearing in the savings account of the accused.
while the MTC found petitioner partly responsible for the encashment of the altered checks. [her] negligence. in addition to the fact that respondent executed a notarized acknowledgment of debt promising to pay the total amount of said warrants. the decision of the Regional Trial Court of Naga City (Branch 21) is REVERSED. For another.R. but said loss is chargeable to the accused who upon her indorsements warrant that the instrument is genuine in all respect what it purports to be and that she will pay the amount thereof in case of dishonor. however. Bellosillo (Chairman). September 14. No. it would be to amend a final and executory decision of a court. After deducting the amount already collected by the latter as civil indemnity in the criminal cases against De Guzman. and paid for them with checks issued by one Arturo de Guzman.” To find therefore that there is no declaration of civil liability of respondent would be to disregard the judgment of the MTC. and imprudence [which] caused damage and loss to [petitioner]. Commercial Law Facts: On several occasions. it is clear that it can only be to petitioner that respondent was made liable as the former was the offended party in the case. WHEREFORE. and circulars of the PNB. January 29..” Nevertheless. to pay a specific amount of money to any particular person such that it could not be an adjudication of respondent’s civil liability. P150. 128927. and 4) . not tak[ing] the necessary precaution to determine the genuineness of the Treasury Warrants and the alteration of the amount[s] therein deposited and [in] encash[ing] the checks. 1999 Thursday. In this case. purchased from Monnico Mart certain grocery items. When presented for payment. SO ORDERED. Quisumbing.advantage of [her] position as state auditor of the Commission on Audit assigned at the PNB. . For one. SAPIERA vs CA G. . 2) disregard[ing] existing procedure. it found respondent civilly liable because of her indorsements of the treasury warrants. a sari-sari store owner. as accused in the case. (Sec. the opinion part. Doing so. . four (4) charges of estafa were filed against petitioner but consequently she was acquitted for insufficiency of evidence but the court a quo did not rule on whether she could be held civilly liable for the checks she indorsed to private respondent. Private respondent Roman Sua informed De Guzman and petitioner about the dishonor but both failed to pay the value of the checks. the respondent court ordered petitioner to pay private respondent the remaining P210. As for what amount respondent is liable. On appeal. These checks were signed at the back by the petitioner. Worse. 3) . bear analysis. It is argued that the decision of the MTC did not order respondent. the ambiguity can easily be clarified by a resort to the text of the decision or. banking laws. and Buena. However. . policies. Such reading of the MTC decision will not. in the decision of the MTC. mostly cigarettes. what is properly called. 66 Negotiable Instrument Law) Thus. Hence. Naga Branch. the MTC held that respondent was civilly liable as the penultimate paragraph of its decision makes clear: The Court symphatizes with the complainant that there was indeed damage and loss. . JJ. it can only be for the total amount of the treasury warrants subject of the case. determined according to their peso equivalent. 2009 Posted by Coffeeholic Writes Labels: Case Digests. the checks were dishonored because the drawer’s account was already closed. that respondent should pay petitioner the amounts of the altered treasury warrants is the logical consequence of the MTC’s holding that private respondent is civilly liable for the treasury warrants subject of the case. concur. carelessness. Puno. to affirm the RTC’s decision would be to hold that respondent was absolved from both criminal and civil liability by the MTC. the dispositive portion of the decision of the MTC expressly declares respondent to be “civilly liable as indorser of the checks which is [sic] the subject matter of the criminal action. petitioner Sapiera.
Varona was the only one who received the proceeds of the note. These checks were signed at the back by petitioner. Petitioner was acquitted in the charge of estafa filed against her but she was found liable for the value of the checks. this instant petition. Sapiera vs CA FACTS: Petitioner Remedios Sapiera. she is deemed to be an unqualified indorser thereof. which is right and just as the latter was the only one who received value for the note executed. therefore. warrants to all subsequent holders in due course that. --Where the language of the instrument is ambiguous. Consequently. Sevilla and Varona signed solidarily a promissory note in favor of the bank. Every indorser who indorses without qualification. Construction where instrument is ambiguous. Issue: Can petitioner be required to pay civil indemnity to private respondent after trial court had acquitted her of criminal charges? Held: Yes. she is deemed to be an indorser thereof. An accused acquitted of estafa may nevertheless be held civilly liable where the facts established by the evidence so warrant. the following rules of construction apply: x x x (f) Where a signature is so placed upon the instrument that it is not clear in what capacity the person making the same intended to sign. It is undisputed that the four (4) checks issued by De Guzman were signed by petitioner at the back without any indication as to how she should be bound thereby and. or there are admissions therein. Sadaya and Sevilla both signed as co-makers to accommodate Varona. according to its tenor. was issued by one Arturo de Guzman checks as payment for purchases he made at her store. She used said checks to pay for certain items she purchased from the grocery store of Ramon Sua. Thereafter. The NIL clearly provides – Sec. As she (petitioner) signed the subject checks on the reverse side without any indication as to how she should be bound thereby. Sadaya filed a creditor’s claim on his estate for the payment he made on the note. There is an implied contract of indemnity . it shall be accepted or paid or both. x x x The dismissal of the criminal cases against petitioner did not erase her civil liability since the dismissal was due to insufficiency of evidence and not from a declaration from the court that the fact from which the civil action might arise did not exist. and that if it be dishonored and the necessary proceedings on dishonor be duly taken. SEVILLA 19 SCRA 924 FACTS: Sadaya. he is deemed an indorser. The accused should be adjudged liable for the unpaid value of the checks signed by her in favor of the complainant. Sevilla died and intestate estate proceedings were established. When presented for payment the checks were dishonored because the drawer’s account was already closed. 17. RULING: Petitioner is liable for the value of the checks. on due presentment. ISSUE: Whether petitioner is liable for the value of the checks even if she signed the subject checks only for the identification of the signature of Arturo de Guzman.Hence. Sua informed Arturo de Guzman and petitioner about the dishonor but both failed to pay the value of the checks. The trial court admitted the claim of Sadaya though tis was reversed by the CA. a sari-sari store owner. Varona failed to reimburse. he will pay the amount thereof to the holder or to any subsequent indorser who may be compelled to pay it. SADAYA V. the bank collected from Sadaya. HELD: Sadaya could have sought reimbursement from Varona. The administrator resisted the claim on the ground that Sevilla didn't receive any proceeds of the loan.
Benares prevailed upon Santos to sign the aforesaid check as an alternate signatory.000. Inc. a solidary accommodation maker—who made payment—has the right to contribution. Sadaya cannot proceed against Sevilla for reimbursement. the spouses Jaime and Clarita Ong. For indeed. However. Quezon City. On principle.00. A principal debtor is insolvent. Varona couldn't had reason to seek reimbursement from either Sadaya or Sevilla. the treasurer of Mover Enterprises was not available. in accommodation of his clients. Crisologo-Jose refused to receive the cashier's check in payment of the dishonored check in the amount of P45. Santos encashed the aforesaid cashier's check and subsequently deposited said amount of P45. issued Check 093553 drawn against Traders Royal Bank. Atty. Benares.00. dated 14 June 1980. It was never shown that there was a judicial demand on Sadaya to pay the obligation and also. was the vice-president of Mover Enterprises. Oscar Z. in-charge of marketing and sales. The check was issued to Crisologo-Jose in consideration of the waiver or quitclaim by Crisologo-Jose over a certain property which the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) agreed to sell to the clients of Atty. the proceeds of the loan went to Varona alone. On 30 April 1980. Inc. since the compromise agreement was not approved within the expected period of time. in the amount of P45. the check will be encashed accordingly. Benares. subject to conditions imposed by law.. Court of Appeals [GR 80599.000. Meanwhile. The following are the rules: 1. and the treasurer of the said corporation. Benares. in the same amount of P45. Crisologo-Jose vs. This right springs from an implied promise to share equally the burdens thay may ensue from their having consented to stamp their signatures on the promissory note.between Sadaya and Varona upon the former’s payment of the obligation to the bank. However. Regalado (J): 3 concur.000. Ricardo S. He made the payment by virtue of a judicial demand b. the cashier's check adverted to above was purchased by Atty. Hence. Atty. Benares and Santos The investigating Assistant City Fiscal. Atty. had payment been made by Varona. After all. 15 September 1989] Second Division. A subsequent redepositing of the said check was likewise dishonored by the bank for the same reason. Oscar Z.000. during the preliminary investigation of the criminal charge against Benares and Santos. Jr. Hence. Benares with another Traders Royal Bank check bearing 379299 dated 10 August 1980. also payable to Crisologo-Jose. . Surely enough. 1 took no part Facts: In 1980. the obligations of Varona and Sevilla to Sadaya cannot be joint and several. the same was to be signed by its president. from his co-accomodation maker. Incidentally. This replacement check was also signed by Atty.00 with the Clerk of Court on 14 August 1981. in the absence of agreement to the contrary between them. Thus. A joint and several accommodation maker of a negotiable promissory note may demand from the principal debtor reimbursement for the amount that he paid to the payee 2. and the president of the said corporation was Atty. Santos did sign the check. Santos. accordingly filed an amended information with the court charging both Benares and Santos for violation of BP 22 (Criminal Case Q-14867) of then Court of First Instance of Rizal. CrisologoJose through counsel was constrained to file a criminal complaint for violation of Batas Pambansa 22 (BP22) with the Quezon City Fiscal's Office against Atty. the complainant in that criminal case.000. Mayon Branch. before Assistant City Fiscal Llamas. Alfonso Llamas. since at that time. the spouses Ong.000. the aforesaid check for P45. it was dishonored for insufficiency of funds. Since the check was under the account of Mover Enterprises. it was never proven that Varona was insolvent.00 payable to Ernestina Crisologo-Jose. A joint and several accommodation maker who pays on the said promissory note may directly demand reimbursement from his co-accommodation maker without first directing his action against the principal debtor provided that a. Benares and by Santos When Crisologo-Jose deposited this replacement check with her account at Family Savings Bank. with the understanding that upon approval by the GSIS of the compromise agreement with the spouses Ong. Santos tendered cashier's check CC 160152 for P45. Benares.00 dated 10 April 1981 to Crisologo-Jose.00 was replaced by Atty.
may be held liable on the accommodation instrument. (2) not receive value therefor. the inescapable conclusion in law and in logic is that the signatories thereof shall be personally liable therefor. Based on the foregoing requisites. Corollarily. undertaking or purpose and the creditor was aware thereof. the check issued in favor of Crisologo-Jose. who signed the check in question in a representative capacity as vicepresident of Mover Enterprises Inc. signing as maker. Held : Section 29 (Liability of accommodation party) of the Negotiable Instruments Law provides that "An accommodation party is one who has signed the instrument as maker. or the nature of the transaction. drawer. Issue : Whether Mover Enterprises. Inc. although such holder at the time of taking the instrument knew him to be only an accommodation party. it is not a valid defense that the accommodation party did not receive any valuable consideration when he executed the instrument. he is liable to a holder for value as if the contract was not for accommodation. or indorser. acceptor. Held : An officer or agent of a corporation shall have the power to execute or indorse a negotiable paper in the name of the corporation for the accommodation of a third person only if specifically authorized to do so. have no power to execute for mere accommodation a negotiable instrument of the corporation for their individual debts or transactions arising from or in relation to matters in which the corporation has no legitimate concern. holding that it was "not persuaded to believe that consignation referred to in Article 1256 of the Civil Code is applicable to this case. but should render personally liable. Such a person is liable on the instrument to a holder for value. Issue : Whether the lack of capacity of the corporation absolved the signatories of the instrument. Benares who merely prevailed upon Santos to act as co-signatory Held : . the appellate court reversed and set aside said judgment of dismissal and revived the complaint for consignation. the signatories of said instrument where the facts show that the accommodation involved was for their personal account. as an accommodation party. especially since it is not involved in any aspect of the corporate business or operations. Nevertheless.. one who has taken the instrument with knowledge of the accommodation nature thereof cannot recover against a corporation where it is only an accommodation party. and (3) sign for the purpose of lending his name for the credit of some other person. it has been held that in lending his name to the accommodated party. he differs from the ordinary concept of a debtor therein in the sense that he has not received any valuable consideration for the instrument he signs. Crisologo-Jose was evidently charged with the knowledge that the check was issued at the instance and for the personal account of Atty. Issue : Whether Santos. On appeal and on 8 September 1987. at the time of taking the instrument." Consequently. Held : The provision of the Negotiable Instruments Law which holds an accommodation party liable on the instrument to a holder for value. i. Issue : Whether Santos. is liable thereon under the Negotiable Instruments Law. Hence." rendered judgment dismissing Santos' complaint for consignation and Crisologo-Jose's counterclaim. or indorser. does not include nor apply to corporations which are accommodation parties. the court a quo. Thus. is such as to charge the indorsee with knowledge that the issue or indorsement of the instrument by the corporation is for the accommodation of another. acceptor. is liable thereon under the Negotiable Instruments Law. to be considered an accommodation party. Crisologo-Jose filed the petition. This is because the issue or indorsement of negotiable paper by a corporation without consideration and for the accommodation of another is ultra vires. as well as the consequences arising from their acts in connection therewith. The fact that for lack of capacity the corporation is not bound by an accommodation paper does not thereby absolve. corporate officers. Since such accommodation paper cannot thus be enforced against the corporation. without receiving value therefor. knew him to be only an accommodation party. in whatever capacity such accommodation party signed the instrument. drawer. he cannot recover against the corporation thereon. such as the president and vice-president. After trial. whether primarily or secondarily. and for the purpose of lending his name to some other person. directing the trial court to give due course thereto.e. From the standpoint of contract law. notwithstanding such holder.Benares and given to Santos to be applied in payment of the dishonored check. a person must (1) be a party to the instrument. the accommodation party is in effect a surety for the latter. If the form of the instrument.
president and vice-president. Travel-On was payee of all six (6) checks. 1981. The check was issued by Limson at the behest . Travel-On obviously was not an accommodated party. it presented these checks for payment at the drawee bank but the checks bounced. Benares and Santos.61. claimed that he had already fully paid and even overpaid his obligations and that refunds were in fact due to him. In the case at bar. That check was a company check of another corporation. Inc. RULING: There was no accommodation transaction in the case at bar. Steelweld Corporation of the Philippines. private respondent is still liable thereunder considering that petitioner is a holder for value. therefore. Although the corresponding invoices issued by STELCO stipulated that RYL would pay "COD" (cash on delivery). by issuing or indorsing a check which is held by a payee or indorsee as a holder in due course. who gave full value therefor to the accommodated party. who gave full value therefor to the accommodated party. ISSUE: Whether Miranda is liable on the postdated checks he issued even assuming that said checks were issued for accommodation only. There should be no legal obstacle. These bars and wire were delivered at different places at the indication of RYL Construction. wire. it presented these checks for payment at the drawee bank but the checks bounced. In accommodation transactions recognized by the Negotiable Instruments Law. respectively. Court of Appeals [GR 96160. Travel-On was the payee of all six (6) checks. Inc.859. Travel-On vs CA FACTS: Petitioner Travel-On Inc. 17 June 1992] Second Division. On 7 different occasions in September and October 1980. vs.in accordance with the arrangement of the corporation with its depository bank. it realized no value on the checks which bounced. she actually had no transaction directly with said corporation. the latter made no payments for the construction materials thus ordered and delivered despite insistent demands for payment by the former. to Crisologo-Jose's claims being directed personally against Atty. quantities of steel bars of various sizes and rolls of G. numbered 765380 and dated 4 April 1981. receives or realizes full value which the accommodated party then must repay to the accommodating party. signed by its President. and its Vice-President. by issuing or indorsing a check which is held by a payee or indorsee as a holder in due course. Peter Rafael Limson. **In accommodation transactions recognized by the Negotiable Instruments Law. Travel-On obviously was not an accommodated party. Miranda was sued by petitioner to collect on the six postdated checks he issued which were all dishonored by the drawee banks. it realized no value on the checks which bounced. Narvasa (J): 3 concur. an accommodating party lends his credit to the accommodated party. Inc. Artemio Torres. The aggregate price for the purchases was P126. as he had in the past accorded similar favors to petitioner.129. is a travel agency from which Arturo Miranda procured tickets on behalf of airline passengers and derived commissions therefrom. Stelco Marketing Corp. an accommodating party lends his credit to the accommodated party. Miranda must be held liable on the checks involved as petitioner is entitled to the benefit of the statutory presumption that it was a holder in due course and that the checks were supported by valuable consideration. Petitioner however urges that the postdated checks are per se evidence of liability on the part of private respondent and further argues that even assuming that the checks were for accommodation. In the case at bar. in other words. The latter. however.86. of Mover Enterprises. He argued that he had issued the postdated checks not for the purpose of encashment to pay his indebtedness but for purposes of accommodation. while it was the corporation's check which was issued to her for the amount involved. RYL gave to Armstrong Industries — described by STELCO as its "sister corporation" and "manufacturing arm" — a check drawn against Metrobank in the amount of P126. On April 4. it sold to RYL Construction. Miranda. That it was a personal undertaking of said corporate officers was apparent to Crisologo-Jose by reason of her personal involvement in the financial arrangement and the fact that.I. But the accommodating party is bound on the check to the holder in due course who is necessarily a third party and is not the accommodated party. 1 on leave Facts: Stelco Marketing Corporation is engaged in the distribution and sale to the public of structural steel bars.
Y. Lim. a bearer instrument within the contemplation of the Negotiable Instruments Law. Lim indorsed the check to Armstrong in payment of an obligation." Eleven months later — and some 4 years after issuance of the check — in May. or indorsed to it in any manner or form in payment of an obligation or as security for an obligation. knew him to be only an accommodation party. There is no evidence whatever that STELCO's possession of Check 765380 ever dated back to any time before the instrument's presentment and dishonor. for a holder in due course is applicable to an accommodation party. STELCO came into possession of it in some way. was given by R." Issue : Whether STELCO ever became a holder in due course of Check 765380. STELCO never became a holder for value and that "(n)owhere in the check itself does the name of Stelco Marketing appear as payee. if such was the fact. plus 18% interest from 20 August 1980 and 25% of the total amount sought to be recovered as and by way of attorney's fees." What the record shows is that: (1) the STEELWELD company check in question was given by its president to R. lack of notice of any infirmity in the instrument or defect in title of the persons negotiating it. 1985." As regards an accommodation party (such as STEELWELD). They were acquitted in a decision rendered on 28 June 1984 "on the ground that the check in question was not issued by the drawer 'to apply on account for value. indorsee or depositor thereof.Y. (5) the check was dishonored. The record does not show any intervention or participation by STELCO in any manner or form whatsoever in these transactions. i. Held : "A holder in due course. It never appeared." followed by that of "Armstrong Industries.86. the check bore two (2) indorsements. President of RYL.129. (2) it was given only by way of accommodation. STELCO appealed. STELCO's motion for reconsideration was denied by the Appellate Tribunal's resolution dated 13 November 1990." On account of the dishonor of Metrobank Check 765380. as to notice.129.Y.e. at the time of taking the instrument. that of "RYL Construction. and without notice that it had been previously dishonored.86 with legal rate of interest from 9 May 1985. when the case was instituted until fully paid. and on complaint of Armstrong Industries (through a Mr. has no application.of his friend." When so deposited. it was dishonored because "drawn against insufficient funds. or between either of them and Armstrong Industries. (b) That he became the holder of it before it was overdue.86 is not explained. This is because Section 29 of the law above quoted preserves the right of recourse of a "holder for value" against the accommodation party notwithstanding that "such holder. Industries. STELCO filed with the Regional Trial Court of Caloocan City a civil complaint against both RYL and STEELWELD for the recovery of the value of the steel bars and wire sold to and delivered to RYL in the amount of P126. Lim. (c) That he took it in good faith and for value. to be "used as collateral for another obligation. A preliminary attachment was issued by the trial court on the basis of the averments of the complaint but was shortly dissolved upon the filing of a counter-bond by STEELWELD. or for any other purpose before it was presented for payment. Judgment was rendered on 26 June 1986." Why the check was made out in the amount of P126. The record does show that after the check had been deposited and dishonored. Romeo Y. R. and was able. plus another sum equivalent to 25% of the total amount due as and for attorney's fees. and as already stated. several years after the dishonor of the check.129. Rafael Limson and Artemio Torres were charged in the Regional Trial Court of Manila with a violation of Batas Pambansa Bilang 22. (d) That at the time it was negotiated to him. he had no notice of any infirmity in the instrument or defect in the title of the persons negotiating it. When the latter deposited the check at its bank. to give it in evidence at the trial of the civil case it had . There is no evidence whatsoever that the check was ever given to it. under date of 16 July 1985. 29 of the Negotiable Instruments Law for having issued it for the accommodation of Romeo Lim.129. "is a holder who has taken the instrument under the following conditions: (a) That it is complete and regular upon its face." says the law. "only as guaranty but not to pay for anything. Held : NO. The check was actually issued in said amount of P126.' it being merely for accommodation purposes. Issue: Whether the fourth condition. On the contrary. Only STEELWELD filed an answer. Young). in payment of an obligation. or any communication of any sort between STEELWELD and STELCO." That judgment however conditioned the acquittal with the pronouncement that "this is not however to release Steelweld Corporation from its liability under Sec. at any time before the dishonor of the check.86." (3) in breach of the agreement.e. The judgment sentenced Steelweld to pay to Stelco the amount of P126. It never did. Romeo Lim had asked Limson for financial assistance.. and the latter had agreed to give Lim a check only by way of accommodation. (4) Armstrong deposited the check to its account. after indorsing it. i. however. Lim to Armstrong. the fourth condition. RYL could no longer be located and could not be served with summons.
Burgos [GR 111190. until delivered to him.. de la Victoria as City Fiscal of Mandaue City where Mabanto. De la Victoria filed the petition. After trial Judgment was rendered ordering Mabanto. Possession of a negotiable instrument after presentment and dishonor. Under Section 16 of the Negotiable Instruments Law. under penalty of law. funds. finding no more legal obstacle to act on the motion for examination of the garnishees. Sesbreno filed a complaint for damages against Assistant City Fiscal Bienvenido N. 12. With regard to the contempt charge. to pay P11.000. 27 June 1995] First Division." Neither is there any evidence whatever that Armstrong Industries. they did not belong to him and still had the character of public . within 15 days from receipt taking into consideration the provisions of Sec. Young) who instituted the criminal prosecution of the drawers. conformably with the last sentence of Section 16 of the Negotiable Instruments Law. or payment. Jr. Lim negotiated the check. directed De la Victoria on 4 November 1992 to submit his report showing the amount of the garnished salaries of Mabanto. and as agent of STELCO. transfer. the indications are that Armstrong was really the intended payee of the check and was the party actually injured by its dishonor.instituted against the drawers of the check (Limson and Torres) and RYL. (f) and (i). it was after all its representative (a Mr. release or convey to any other person except to the deputy sheriff concerned the salary checks. Inasmuch as said checks had not yet been delivered to Mabanto. et al. On the other hand. the case and the trial court hereby acquired jurisdiction to bind him to its orders and processes with a view to the complete satisfaction of the judgment. Issue: Whether a check still in the hands of the maker or its duly authorized representative is owned by the payee before physical delivery to the latter. or cash due or belonging to Mabanto. monies. However. It does not meet two of the essential requisites prescribed by the statute. is utterly inconsequential. As ordinarily understood. On 25 May 1992 the petition pending before the Court of Appeals was dismissed.00 to Sesbreno. and without notice that it had been previously dishonored. De la Victoria vs. delivery means the transfer of the possession of the instrument by the maker or the drawer with intent to transfer title to the payee and recognize him as the holder thereof. et al. credit. Jr. On the contrary. Rule 39 of the Rules of Court. or a forced intervenor in. on 19 January 1993 De la Victoria moved to quash the notice of garnishment claiming that he was not in possession of any money. This order was questioned by Mabanto. Jr. De la Victoria as custodian of the checks was under obligation to hold them for the judgment creditor. On 20 April 1993 the motion for reconsideration was denied. et al. It did not become "the holder of it before it was overdue. Held: Garnishment is considered as a species of attachment for reaching credits belonging to the Judgment debtor owing to him from a stranger to the litigation. 1 concurs in separate opinion to which 1 joined Facts: Raul H. The decision having become final and executory. On 4 February 1992 a notice of garnishment was served on Loreto D. before the Court of Appeals. the trial court was not morally convinced of De la Victoria's guilt. Jr.. before the Regional Trial Court of Cebu City.. on motion of the latter.. On 10 March 1992 Sesbreno filed a motion before the trial court for examination of the garnishees. Jr. It opined that the checks of Mabanto. is public funds. Limson and Torres. to whom R. accepted the instrument and attempted to encash it in behalf. The Notice directed De la Victoria not to disburse. On 9 March 1993 the trial court denied both motions and ordered De la Victoria to immediately comply with its order of 4 November 1992. He receives his compensation in the form of checks from the Department of Justice through De la Victoria as City Fiscal of Mandaue City and head of office.. Jr. As Assistant City Fiscal. On 24 November 1992 Sesbreno filed a motion to require De la Victoria to explain why he should not be cited in contempt of court for failing to comply with the order of 4 November 1992. they were still public funds which could not be subject to garnishment. the source of the salary of Mabanto. He further claimed that. it does not make the possessor a holder for value within the meaning of the law. was then detailed. it gives rise to no liability on the part of the maker or drawer and indorsers. property or anything of value belonging to Mabanto. It is clear from the relevant circumstances that STELCO cannot be deemed a holder of the check for value. every contract on a negotiable instrument is incomplete and revocable until delivery of the instrument for the purpose of giving effect thereto. as such. Jr. pars.. the trial court ordered its execution. on 15 January 1992 a writ of execution was issued.. had already been released through De la Victoria by the Department of Justice duly signed by the officer concerned. and that additionally there was no sufficient reason for De la Victoria to hold the checks because they were no longer government funds and presumably delivered to the payee.. Jr. Mabanto. that De la Victoria became a virtual party to." and it did not take the check "in good faith and for value. albeit unsuccessfully.Y. that upon service of the writ of garnishment. Thus the trial court. Bellosillo (J): 2 concur.
Herein." The trial court exceeded its jurisdiction in issuing the notice of garnishment concerning the salary checks of Mabanto. The rationale behind this doctrine is obvious consideration of public policy. Held: The normal parties to a check are the drawer. to pay the balance due on the promissory note. Sima Wei issued two crossed checks payable to DBR drawn against China Banking Corporation. Asian Industrial Plastic Corporation and the Producers Bank of the Philippines. For reasons not shown. A negotiable instrument. the checks may not be garnished to satisfy the judgment. for the amount of P500. et al.820. these checks came into the possession of Lee Kian Huat. is not only a written evidence of a contract right but is also a species of property. of which a check is. on two causes of actionL (1) To enforce payment of the balance of P1. the mere fact that he has done these does not give rise to any liability on his part. to which DBR. has a cause of action against any or all of the defendants. (J): 4 concur Facts: In consideration for a loan extended by the Development Bank of Rizal (DBR) to Sima Wei.00." Thus. represented by its Legal Liquidator. Without the delivery of said checks to DBR. actual or constructive. the name of the payee. numbered 384934 and 384935. and drawn against the China Banking Corporation. Accordingly. The Court succinctly stated in Commissioner of Public Highways v. filed their separate Motions to Dismiss alleging a common ground that the complaint states no cause of action. The Court of Appeals affirmed the decision. On 18 November 1983. As held in Tiro v. Except for Lee Kian Huat. which governs checks. DBR filed the complaint for a sum of money against Sima Wei and/or Lee Kian Huat. All the drawer has to do when he wishes to issue a check is to properly fill up the blanks and sign it. Sima Wei made partial payments on the note. These two checks were not delivered to DBR or to any of its authorized representatives. in the alternative or otherwise. for the amount of P550. "the salary check of a government officer or employee such a s a teacher does not belong to him before it is physically delivered to him. the payee and the drawee bank. Branch Manager of the Balintawak Branch of Producers Bank. Sima Wei. Section 16 of the Negotiable Instruments Law. of the Producers Bank. Courts have long recognized the business custom of using printed checks where blanks are provided for the date of issuance. there can be no liability on the instrument. Sima Wei [GR 85419. Mary Cheng Uy.funds. Until that time the check belongs to the government.450. at the Balintawak branch.032. DBR. and (2) To enforce payment of two checks executed by Sima Wei.00 on or before 24 June 1983 with interest at 32% per annum.000. However. the payee of a negotiable instrument acquires no interest with respect thereto until its delivery to him.032. inspite of the fact that the checks were crossed and payable to DBR and bore no indorsement of the latter.02 on a promissory note executed by Sima Wei on 9 June 1983.000. instructed the cashier of Producers Bank to accept the checks for deposit and to credit them to the account of said Plastic Corporation. President of Plastic Corporation. Delivery of an instrument means transfer of possession. Without the initial delivery of the instrument from the drawer to the payee. The said checks were allegedly issued in full settlement of the drawer's account evidenced by the promissory note. he cannot assign it without the consent of the Government. payable to DBR.. that the transaction was legal and regular. engaging to pay DBR or order the amount of P1. Caloocan City. provides in part that "Every contract on a negotiable instrument is incomplete and revocable until delivery of the instrument for the purpose of giving effect thereto. were not delivered to the payee. Cheng Uy. Development Bank of Rizal vs. the amount payable and the drawer's signature. Hontanosas.450. The trial court granted the Motions to Dismiss. as appropriated by law. the latter executed and delivered to the former a promissory note. Just as a deed to a piece of land must be delivered in order to convey title to the grantee.000. On 5 July 1986. the former did not acquire any right or interest therein and cannot therefore assert any . who deposited the checks without DBR's indorsement (forged or otherwise) to the account of the Asian Industrial Plastic Corporation. 9 March 1993] Second Division. Moreover. from one person to another. so must a negotiable instrument be delivered to the payee in order to evidence its existence as a binding contract. Issue: Whether DBR. leaving a balance of P1. the two (2) China Bank checks. bearing respectively the serial numbers 384934. Jr. filed the Petition for Review by Certiorari. Campos Jr. until and unless the check is delivered to the payee or his representative. before there is actual delivery of the check. as the intended payee of the instrument. Samson Tung. relying on the assurance of Samson Tung. the payee has no power over it.00 and 384935. San Diego that "the functions and public services rendered by the State cannot be allowed to be paralyzed or disrupted by the diversion of public funds from their legitimate and specific objects. such delivery must be intended to give effect to the instrument." As a necessary consequence of being public fund. in the possession of De la Victoria.02.
.08 at the main office of the Republic Bank at Escolta. Ebrada filed a Third-Party complaint against Adelaida Dominguez who. the bank also required Aruego to execute a trust receipt in favor of the bank wherein Aruego undertook to hold in trust for the bank the periodicals and to sell the same with the promise to turn over to the bank the proceeds of the sale to answer for the payment of all obligations arising from the draft. the drawer.”. the Bank made verbal and formal demands upon Ebrada to account for the sum of P1. ISSUES: Whether Aruego can be held liable by the petitioner although he signed the supposed bills of exchange only as an agent of Philippine Education Foundation Company. So the Bank sued Ebrada before the City Court of Manila.08. "Martin Lorenzo" was a forgery since the latter had allegedly died as of 14 July 1952. but the mere addition of words describing him as an agent or as filing a representative character. obtained a credit accommodation from the Philippine Bank of Commerce. Republic Bank vs. Ebrada [G. encashed Back Pay Check 508060 dated 15 January 1963 for P1. the City Court of Manila rendered judgment for the plaintiff Bank against Ebrada. Since DBR never received the checks on which it based its action against said respondents.08. For every printing of the periodical. in the alternative or otherwise.246. its publisher.246. On 11 July 1966. or so negligent as not to be entitled to recover anything from her. The bank instituted an action against Aruego to recover the cost of printing of the latter’s periodical. said draft being sent later to Aruego for acceptance. To recover what it had refunded to the Bureau of Treasury. It had no right or interest in the checks which could have been violated by said respondents. RULING: Aruego did not disclose in any of the drafts that he accepted that he was signing as representative of the Philippine Education Foundation Company. On 21 March 1967. She also alleged that the Bank has no cause of action against her. it never owned them (the checks) nor did it acquire any interest therein. On the same day. If at all. For failure to disclose his principal. Aruego. or at the very least. in turn. he is not liable on the instrument if he was duly authorized. The check was issued by the Bureau of Treasury. The Bank was then requested by the Bureau of Treasury to refund the amount of P1. Aruego however argues that he signed the supposed bills of exchange only as an agent of the Philippine Education Foundation Company where he is president. Justina Tinio. July 31. pursuant to Section 20 of the NIL which provides that when a person adds to his signature words indicating that he signs for or on behalf of a principal or in a representative capacity. if the allegations in the complaint are found to be true.R. Aruego is personally liable for the drafts he accepted.246. As an added security for the payment of the amounts advanced to the printer. 1975. does not exempt him from personal liability. DBR has therefore no cause of action against said respondents. and for Fourth-Party plaintiff against Fourth-Party defendant. The Bank was later advised by the said bureau that the alleged indorsement on the reverse side of the check by the payee. founded on said checks. Ebrada filed her answer denying the material allegations of the complaint and as affirmative defenses alleged that she was a holder in due course of the check in question. it is Sima Wei. Manila.cause of action. Thus. that it is in estoppel. L-40796. Ebrada. Martin (J): 4 concurring Facts: On 27 February 1963 Mauricia T. for Third-Party plaintiff against Third-Party defendant. has acquired her rights from a holder in due course and therefore entitled to the proceeds thereof. anything which the respondents may have done with respect to said checks could not have prejudiced DBR. No.] First Division. PBCom vs Aruego FACTS: To facilitate payment of the printing of a periodical called “World Current Events. without disclosing his principal. but Ebrada refused to do so. filed on 14 September 1966 a Fourth-Party complaint against Justina Tinio. the printer collected the cost of printing by drawing a draft against the bank. whether against the drawer Sima Wei or against the Producers Bank or any of the other respondents. Adelaida Dominguez. who would have a cause of action against her co-respondents.
the second indorser.08 with interest as the legal rate from the filing of the complaint on 16 June 1966. State vs. Where check has several indorsement. that the check was delivered to Ebrada by the Third-Party defendant and Fourth-Party plaintiff Adelaida Rodriguez.246. the original payee. the negotiation of the check is without force or effect The signature of the original payee of the check. 113 N. Based on the stipulation of facts and the documentary evidence presented. Section 5 of NIL The check in question was delivered to Ebrada by Adelaida Dominguez for the purpose of encashment and that her signature was affixed on said check when she cashed it with the Bank. Martin Lorenzo was a forgery because he was already dead almost 11 years before the check in question was issued by the Bureau of Treasury. it is wholly inoperative. can be acquired through or under such signature unless the party against whom it is sought to enforce such right is precluded from setting up the forgery or want of authority. 1.08. the trial court rendered a decision on 6 June 1969." 3.From the judgment of the City Court. who in turn handed the said amount to the fourth-party defendant Justina Tinio on the same date. it was held that the drawee of a check can .W. (b). (b) That she has good title to it. 135 Iowa 670. "Every indorser who indorses without qualification warrants to all subsequent holders in due course: (a) The matters and things mentioned in subdivisions (a).08 from the plaintiff Bank. The right of Ebrada to file whatever claim she may have against Adelaida Dominguez in connection with the case was reserved. Applying the principle to the present case. Indorser warrants all subsequent holders in due course Under Section 65 of the Negotiable Instruments Law. Broadway Mut. Where the signature on an instrument is forged. and no right to retain the instruments. or to give a discharge thereof against any party thereto. 4. should be declared of no effect. Lorenzo. stipulating that they admit their respective capacities to sue and be sued. that immediately after Ebrada received the cash proceeds of said check in the sum of P1. 197. the appeal on a question of law. 196. Ramon R. she immediately turned over the said amount to the third-party defendant and fourth-party plaintiff Rodriguez." It is clear from the provision that where the signature on a negotiable instrument if forged. she was supposed to have warranted that she has good title to said check. (b) That the instrument is at the time of his indorsement valid and subsisting. in the sum of P1. only negotiation based on forged or unauthorized signature which is inoperative In the case of Beam vs. Drawee of check can recover from the holder the money paid to him on a forged instrument In the case of State v. The Supreme Court affirmed the judgment appealed from in toto with costs against Ebrada. Bank. that on 15 January 1963 the Treasury of the Philippines issued its Check BP-508060. plus the costs in both instances against Ebrada. to Ramon R. and drawn on the Republic Bank. Indorser warrants that he/she has good title to the check. Ebrada was the last indorser of the said check. for under Section 5 of the Negotiable Instruments Law. 282 S. Farrel. it can be safely concluded that it is only the negotiation predicated on the forged indorsement that should be declared inoperative. it is provided that "Every person negotiating an instrument by delivery or by qualified indorsement. barring any claim of forgery. Lorenzo to Adelaida Dominguez. where a check has several indorsements on it. that the signature of Ebrada was affixed on said check on 27 February 1963 when she encashed it with the Bank.W. Ebrada. As such indorser. Beam vs. the third indorser. for the purpose of encashment. warrants: (a) That the instrument is genuine and in all respects what it purports to be. Farrel. Bank. the negotiation of the check is without force or effect. until fully paid. The right of the estate of Dominguez to file the fourth-party complaint against Justina Tinio was also reserved. and Mauricia T. This means that the negotiation of the check in question from Martin Lorenzo. ordering Ebrada to pay the bank the amount of P1246." 2.246. should be considered valid and enforceable. and (c) of the next preceding sections. Under Section 23 of the Negotiable Instruments Law (Act 2031): "When a signature is forged or made without the authority of the person whose signature it purports to be. as evidenced by the receipt signed by her. 5. that the back side of aforementioned check bears the signatures of Martin Lorenzo. and from Dominguez to the Ebrada who did not know of the forgery. but the negotiation of the check from Ramon R. Delia Dominguez. 590. Ebrada took an appeal to the CFI Manila (Branch XXIII in Civil Case 69288) where the parties submitted a partial stipulation of facts. payable to the order of one Martin Lorenzo. it was held that it is only the negotiation based on the forged or unauthorized signature which is inoperative. in such order. Hence. Broadway Mut. Lorenzo.
In such cases the recovery is permitted because although the drawee was in a way negligent in failing to detect the forgery. Rationale why drawee bank allowed to recover from encasher The reason for allowing the drawee bank to recover from the encasher is that "every one with even the least experience in business knows that no business man would accept a check in exchange for money or goods unless he is satisfied that the check is genuine. was duty-bound to ascertain whether the check in question was genuine before presenting it to the Bank for payment. yet as last indorser of the check. in all probability the forgery would have been detected and the fraud defeated. without actual negligence on his part. Her failure to do so makes her liable for the loss and the Bank may recover from her the money she received for the check. vs. 6.246. Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corp. warranty not extending only to holders in due course. was liable to the insurance company for the amount of the check and that the PNB was in turn liable to the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corp. upon the drawee. and then personally indorsed and presented the check to the PNB where the amount of the check was placed to his (Maasin's) credit. in negligence. A certain E. liable to the bank Ebrada. This is because the indorser is supposed to warrant to the drawee that the signatures of the payee and previous indorsers are genuine. the forgery would in all probability. drew its check for P2000 on the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corp. Duty of bank to know that the check was duly indorsed by original payee In the Great Eastern Life Insurance case. His own credulity or recklessness. she acted as an accommodation party in the check for which she is also liable under Section 29 of the Negotiable Instruments Law (Act 2031). but it has the remedy to recover from the latter the amount it paid to her. Great Eastern Life Insurance Co." 10.. yet if the encasher of the check had performed his duty. One who purchases a check or draft is bound to satisfy himself that the paper is genuine and that by indorsing it or presenting it for payment or putting it into circulation before presentation he impliedly asserts that he has performed his duty and the drawee who has paid the forged check. It is not supposed to be its duty to ascertain whether the signatures of the payee or indorsers are genuine or not. On the next day. Facts In Great Eastern Life Insurance Co. Had she performed the duty of ascertaining the genuineness of the check. vs. Why should he be permitted to shift the loss due to his own fault in assuming the risk. Great Eastern Life Insurance Co. she has warranted that she has good title to it even if in fact she did not have it because the payee of the check was already dead 11 years before the check was issued. who has forged the signature of the payee. have been detected and the fraud defeated.. Ebrada duty-bound to ascertain check to be genuine. which paid it and charged the amount of the check to the insurance company.. upon receiving the check in question from Dominguez. Bank should suffer loss but has remedy to recover from last indorser The Bank should suffer the loss when it paid the amount of the check in question to Ebrada. Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corp. the loss falls upon the bank who cashed the check. vs. the PNB indorsed the check to the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corp. If he is deceived he has suffered a loss of his cash or goods through his own mistake. The Court held that the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corp. or because he has sufficient confidence in the honesty and financial responsibility of the person who vouches for it. simply because of the accidental circumstance that the drawee afterwards failed to detect the forgery when the check was presented?" 7. He accepts it only because he has proof that it is genuine. payable to the order of Lazaro Melicor.recover from the holder the money paid to him on a forged instrument. . M. the Great Eastern Life Insurance Co. and its only remedy is against the person to whom it paid the money. or misplaced confidence was the sole cause of the loss. 9. and where the Bank pays the amount of the check to a third person. Ebrada immediately turned over said amount to Adelaida Dominguez (Third-Party defendant and the Fourth-Party plaintiff) who in turn handed the amount to Justina Tinio on the same date would not exempt her from liability because by doing so.08 from the Bank. The fact that immediately after receiving the cash proceeds of the check in question in the amount of P1. it was held that “where a check is drawn payable to the order of one person and is presented to a bank by another and purports upon its face to have been duly indorsed by the payee of the check. as an indorser. Although the Ebrada to whom the Bank paid the check was not proven to be the author of the supposed forgery. 8. Maasin fraudulently obtained the check and forged the signature of Melicor. Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corp. it is the duty of the bank to know that the check was duly indorsed by the original payee. may recover the money paid from such negligent purchasers.
The amount of P4. . Said second payment of Ford in the amount of P4.114. Upon advice of Ford's lawyers. ordering IBAA/PCIB to pay Ford the amount of P4. and for the purpose of lending his name to some other person.s Citibank N.114. Ford filed on 20 January 1983 its original complaint before the court. among others.A. On 24 December 1985. with interest thereon at the legal rate starting 20 January 1983. In separate letters dated 26 October 1979.11. filed a third-party complaint before the trial court impleading PBC and Rivera. then Ford shall hold Citibank and IBAA liable for reimbursement of the face value of the same." Philippine Commercial International Bank (PICB. The court likewise dismissed the third-party complaint against Rivera because he could not be served with summons as the NBI declared him as a "fugitive from justice".e Court.746.41 was not paid to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. Citibank and PCIB. Not satisfied with the said decision.114.746. formerly Insular Bank of Asia and America) vs. the Commissioner of Internal Revenue.746. [GR 128604] Second Division: Quisumbing (J): 4 concur Facts: [GRs 121413 and 121479] On 19 October 1977.746. Section 29 of the Negotiable Instruments Law Section 29 of the Negotiable Instrument Law provides that “an accommodation party is one who has signed the instrument as maker.114. or indorser. The aforesaid check was deposited with the Insular Bank of Asia and America (IBAA) and was subsequently cleared at the Central Bank.41 was debited in Ford's account with Citibank and the check was returned to Ford. with costs against Citibank and IBAA. The proceeds of the same Citibank check of Ford was never paid to or received by the payee thereof. Upon verification. the date when the original complaint was filed until the amount is fully paid. Court of Appeals [GR 121479]. It was learned during an investigation by the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) that Citibank Check SN-04867 was recalled by Godofredo Rivera. Ford.41 was duly received by the BIR. petitions for review by certiorari under Rule 45. 29 January 2001].41 representing the face value of Ford's Citibank Check SN-04867. plus costs. On 15 June 1989.746. with costs against IBAA/PCIB.41 representing the face value of Ford's Citibank Check SN-04867. Ford has to pay the said amount within 15 days from receipt of the letter. notwithstanding such holder at the time of taking the instrument knew him to be only an accommodation party. Separately.746. with leave of court. in favor of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue as payment of Ford's percentage or manufacturer's sales taxes for the third quarter of 1977. elevated their respective petitions for review on certiorari to the Court of Appeals. Ford discovered that its Citibank Check SN-04867 in the amount of P4.." Both motions were denied for lack of merit. with interest thereon at the legal rate starting 20 January 1983. without receiving value therefor.41 was not paid to the government or its authorized agent and instead encashed by unauthorized persons. IBAA and Citibank denied liability and refused to pay. while Ford filed a "Motion for Partial Reconsideration.a crossed check in that.41.in the amount of P4. on its face were two parallel lines and written in between said lines was the phrase "Payee's Account Only" -. PCIBank and Ford filed before the Supre. the trial court rendered its decision.746. Ford Philippines drew and issued its Citibank Check SN-04867 -.41. that its check in the amount of P4. Such a person is liable on the instrument to a holder for value.746. paid to the BIR the amount of P4. hence. dismissing the complaint in Civil Case 49287 insofar as Citibank was concerned. Accommodation party defined.114. PCIB moved to reconsider the decision of the Court of Appeals. drawer.114. addressed to Citibank and IBAA. PCIB replaced the check with two of its own Manager's Checks (MCs). On 27 March 1995. acceptor. on 11 March 1982. as third party defendants.A. Ford notified the latter that in case it will be re-assessed by the BIR for the payment of the taxes covered by the said checks. Ford.114. the date when the original complaint was filed until the amount is fully paid. With Rivera's instruction. the proceeds of the check was paid to IBAA as collecting or depository bank. Court of Appeals [GR 121413. ordering IBAA/PCIB to reimburse Citibank for whatever amount the latter has paid or may pay to Ford.114. IBAA was merged with the Philippine Commercial International Bank (PCIB) with the latter as the surviving entity. also Ford Philippines vs. representing payment of its percentage tax for the third quarter of 1977. Alleged members of a syndicate later deposited the two MCs with the Pacific Banking Corporation (PBC). ordering Citibank and IBAA/PCIB to solidarily pay Ford the amount of P4. As a consequence of Citibank's refusal to reimburse Ford of the payment it had made for the second time to the BIR of its percentage taxes. In a letter dated 28 February 1980 by the Acting Commissioner of Internal Revenue addressed to Ford officially informing the latter. the General Ledger Accountant of Ford. But the court dismissed the complaint against PBC for lack of cause of action. the appellate court issued its judgment affirming the trial court's decision with modifications. Upon presentment with Citibank N. and Ford Philippines v. He purportedly needed to hold back the check because there was an error in the computation of the tax due to BIR.
Furthermore. the decision of the trial court. CIR.  GRs 121413 and 121479 Issue [a]: Whether the forgery committed by the drawer-payor’s confidential employees precludes Ford from recovering the amount of its checks. Rivera's instruction to replace the said check with PCIB's Manager's Check was not in the ordinary course of business which could have prompted PCIB to validate the same. Thereafter PCIB. On record. Held [b]: YES. Thus. This anomaly was confirmed by the NBI upon the initiative of the BIR." The checks never reached the payee. Regional Trial Court of Makati. IBAA/PCIB should receive instructions only from its principal BIR and not from any other person especially so when that person is not known to IBAA/PCIB. demanded for the said tax payments the corresponding periods above-mentioned. Region 4-B. These checks were apparently turned around by Ford's employees. in the absence of some circumstance raising estoppel against the drawer.73. the said two BIR Revenue Tax Receipts were considered "fake and spurious". The degree of Ford's negligence. in toto. PCIB is duty bound to consult its principal regarding the unwarranted instructions given by the payor or its agent. Given these circumstances.311. Held [a]: NO. could not be characterized as the proximate cause of the injury to the parties. the petition for review. PCIB failed to verify the authority of Mr. Issue [b]: Whether the collecting bank (PCIB) was negligent in preparing two manager’s check to replace Citibank Check SN-04867. Both checks were "crossed checks" and contain two diagonal lines on its upper left corner between which were written the words "payable to the payee's account only.37 representing the percentage tax due for the second quarter of 1978 payable to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. in a letter dated 28 February 1980. it was admitted that PCIB is authorized to collect the payment of taxpayers in behalf of the BIR. does not entitle the bank to shift the loss to the drawer-payor. On 20 April 1979." and was presented to Citibank for payment. their actions were not the proximate cause of encashing the checks payable to the CIR. A BIR Revenue Tax Receipt 28645385 was issued for the said purpose. prepared two of its Manager's checks and enabled the syndicate to encash the same.  GR 128604 . if any. instead of remitting the proceeds to the CIR. Rivera to negotiate the checks. representing the payment of percentage tax for the first quarter of 1979 and payable to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. This rule likewise applies to the checks fraudulently negotiated or diverted by the confidential employees who hold them in their possession. the BIR.591. who by virtue of his position had unusual facilities for perpetrating the fraud and imposing the forged paper upon the bank. As an agent of BIR. Although the employees of Ford initiated the transactions attributable to an organized syndicate.[GR 128604] Ford drew Citibank Check SN-10597 on 19 July 1978 in the amount of P5. The neglect of PCIB employees to verify whether his letter requesting for the replacement of the Citibank Check SN-04867 was duly authorized. Both Ford and Citibank appealed to the Court of Appeals which affirmed. It was coursed through the ordinary banking transaction. on orders of persons besides the CIR.851. who were acting on their own personal capacity. The Board of Directors of Ford did not confirm the request of Godofredo Rivera to recall Citibank Check SN-04867. held drawee-bank Citibank liable for the value of the two checks while absolving PCIB from any liability.706. Hence. while an action was filed against Citibank and PCIBank for the recovery of the amount of Citibank Check Numbers SN-10597 and 16508. On 9 December 1988. showed lack of care and prudence required in the circumstances. Citibank Check SN-04867 was deposited at PCIB through its Ermita Branch. sent to Central Clearing with the indorsement at the back "all prior indorsements and/or lack of indorsements guaranteed. Ford drew another Citibank Check SN-16508 in the amount of P6. Again a BIR Revenue Tax Receipt A-1697160 was issued for the said purpose. As agent of the BIR. As far as the BIR is concerned. Branch 57. As to the preparation of Citibank Checks SN-10597 and 16508. The findings forced Ford to pay the BIR anew. Both were crossed checks. It is very imprudent on the part of IBAA/PCIB to just rely on the alleged telephone call of one (Rivera) and in his signature to the authenticity of such signature considering that the Ford is not a client of IBAA/PCIB. it was established that these checks were made payable to the CIR. the mere fact that the forgery was committed by a drawer-payor's confidential employee or agent.
because of the contractual relationship existing between the two. Had this been duly examined. For the general rule is that a bank is liable for the fraudulent acts or representations of an officer or agent acting within the course and apparent scope of his employment or authority. The clearing stamps at the back of Citibank Check SN 10597 and 16508 do not bear any initials. in his official capacity. Series of 1977 provides that any theft affecting items in transit for clearing. that the switching operation (involving the checks while in transit for "clearing") were the clandestine or hidden actuations performed by the members of the syndicate in their own personal. Concepcion Emergency Hospital. The fact that the drawee bank did not discover the irregularity seasonably constitutes negligence in carrying out the bank's duty to its depositors. Moreover. Issue [b]: Whether Citibank can raise the defenses that it has no knowledge of any infirmity in the issuance of the checks in question amd that the endorsement of the Payee or lack thereof was guaranteed by IBAA/PCIB and thus. The allotment checks for said government hospital are drawn to the order of "Concepcion Emergency Hospital. also Philippine National Bank vs. receives money to satisfy an evidence of indebtedness lodged with his bank for collection. Checks issued by the Province are signed by the Provincial Treasurer and countersigned by the Provincial Auditor or the Secretary of the Sangguniang Bayan. Citibank should have scrutinized Citibank Check Numbers SN 10597 and 16508 before paying the amount of the proceeds thereof to the collecting bank of the BIR. a banking corporation is liable for the wrongful or tortuous acts and declarations of its officers or agents within the course and scope of their employment. For this reason. Citibank as drawee bank was likewise negligent in the performance of its duties. Citibank failed to establish that its payment of Ford's checks were made in due course and legally in order. even though no benefit may accrue to the bank therefrom. covert and private capacity and done without the knowledge of PCIB. Tarlac" or "The Chief. Court of Appeals [GR 107382. although a situation exist where the PCIB appears also to be the victim of the scheme hatched by a syndicate in which its own management employees had participated. Concepcion. among others. a bank holding out its officers and agents as worthy of confidence will not be permitted to profit by the frauds these officers or agents were enabled to perpetrate in the apparent course of their employment. as the drawee bank breached its contractual obligation with Ford and such degree of culpability contributed to the damage caused to the latter. Citibank must likewise answer for the damages incurred by Ford on Citibank Checks Numbers SN 10597 and 16508. shall be for the account of sending bank. because PCIB did not actually receive nor hold the two Ford checks at all. Court of Appeals [GR 107612] Second Division. Citibank had indeed failed to perform what was incumbent upon it. Tarlac. the bank is under obligation to treat the accounts of its depositors with meticulous care. A bank will be held liable for the negligence of its officers or agents when acting within the course and scope of their employment. however. always having in mind the fiduciary nature of their relationship. A portion of the funds of the province is allocated to the Concepcion Emergency Hospital. which is to ensure that the amount of the checks should be paid only to its designated payee. It may be liable for the tortuous acts of its officers even as regards that species of tort of which malice is an essential element. Associated Bank vs. Held [a]: YES. it has the obligation to honor and pay the same. Held [b]: NO.Issue [a]: Whether PCIB is liable for fraud (embezzlement) committed by PCIB employees while the checks were in transit for clearing. And if an officer or employee of a bank. as a general rule. nor will it be permitted to shirk its responsibility for such frauds. the switching of the worthless checks to Citibank Checks 10597 and 16508 would have been discovered in time. the bank is liable for his misappropriation of such sum. which in this case is PCIB. Citibank failed to notice and verify the absence of the clearing stamps. Even if PCIB had no official act in the ordinary course of business that would attribute to it the case of the embezzlement of Citibank Check Numbers SN-10597 and 16508. Herein." The checks are released by the Office of the Provincial Treasurer and received for the hospital by its administrative officer . 31 January 1996]. Concepcion. As ruled by the Court of Appeals. The point is that as a business affected with public interest and because of the nature of its functions. Section 5 of Central Bank Circular 580. Romero (J): 3 concur Facts: The Province of Tarlac maintains a current account with the Philippine National Bank (PNB) Tarlac Branch where the provincial funds are deposited. Citibank.
with the Associated Bank acting as collecting bank. the Province brought suit against PNB which." Jesus David. As both banks resisted payment. All the checks bore the stamp of Associated Bank which reads "All prior endorsements guaranteed Associated Bank. the lower court rendered its decision on 21 March 1988. PNB. who was the administrative officer and cashier of payee hospital until his retirement on 28 February 1978. On 26 February 1981. as well as for 28 other checks of various amounts and on various dates. in favor of PNB and against Associated Bank ordering the latter to reimburse to the former the amount of P203. The drawee bank's duty is but to verify the genuineness of the drawer's signature and not of the indorsement because the drawer is its client. collected the checks from the office of the Provincial Treasurer. Adena Canlas who was chief of the payee hospital. The last check negotiated by Pangilinan was for P8. PNB and Associated Bank appealed to the Court of Appeals. Moreover. On 19 February 1981. the payee hospital) is essential to transfer title to the same instrument. Checks having forged indorsements should be differentiated from forged checks or checks bearing the forged signature of the drawer. is such an indorser.300. in favor of the Province and against PNB.and cashier. the books of account of the Provincial Treasurer were post-audited by the Provincial Auditor. on the basic complaint.00 and dated 20 April 1978. When the holder's indorsement is forged. the sum of P203. Pangilinan followed the same procedure for the second check. the checks were order instruments. Pangilinan was able to withdraw the money when the check was cleared and paid by the drawee bank. all parties prior to the forgery may raise the real defense of forgery against all parties subsequent thereto. In January 1981. An indorser of an order instrument warrants "that the instrument is genuine and in all respects what it purports to be. After forging the signature of Dr. that he has a good title to it.00 with legal interests thereon from 20 March 1981 until fully paid. ordering the latter to pay to the former. and that the instrument is at the time of his indorsement valid and subsisting. known as the drawee bank.300. the Provincial Treasurer requested the manager of the PNB to return all of its cleared checks which were issued from 1977 to 1980 in order to verify the regularity of their encashment. is under strict liability to pay the check to the order of the payee. the manager denied having given Pangilinan preferential treatment on this account. third-party complaint and fourth-party complaint. In turn. He claimed to be assisting or helping the hospital follow up the release of the checks and had official receipts. It turned out that Fausto Pangilinan. such as the checks in the case. It was then discovered that the hospital did not receive several allotment checks drawn by the Province.00 with legal interest thereon from 20 March 1981 until fully paid. The drawee bank is not similarly situated as the collecting bank because the former makes no warranty as to the genuineness of any indorsement. the collecting bank is bound by his warranties as an indorser and cannot set up the defense of forgery as against the drawee bank. Pangilinan sought to encash the first check with Associated Bank.000. After trial on the merits. the same was ordered dismissed for lack of cause of action as against Adena Canlas and lack of jurisdiction over the person of Fausto Pangilinan as against the latter. alleged that Pangilinan made it appear that the checks were paid to him for certain projects with the hospital. Hence the consolidated petitions which seek a reversal of the appellate court's decision." He cannot interpose the defense that signatures prior to him are forged. Held: The present case concerns checks payable to the order of Concepcion Emergency Hospital or its Chief.300.00 and dated 10 February 1981. Where the instrument is payable to order at the time of the forgery. A collecting bank where a check is deposited and which indorses the check upon presentment with the drawee bank. The appellate court affirmed the trial court's decision in toto on 30 September 1992. The latter then filed a fourth-party complaint against Adena Canlas and Fausto Pangilinan. The court also dismissed the counterclaims on the complaint. in the amount of P5. Issue: Whether PNB was at fault and should solely bear the loss because it cleared and paid the forged checks. impleaded Associated Bank as third-party defendant. in turn.000. the Provincial Treasurer wrote the manager of the PNB seeking the restoration of the various amounts debited from the current account of the Province. the signature of its rightful holder (here. He did not find as irregular the fact that the checks were not payable to Pangilinan but to the Concepcion Emergency Hospital. the Provincial Treasurer learned that 30 checks amounting to P203. the Province of Tarlac. The infirmity in the questioned checks lies in the payee's (Concepcion Emergency Hospital) indorsements which are forgeries. The bank on which a check is drawn. After the checks were examined. for lack of merit. the collecting bank is made liable because it is privy to the . the manager of Associated Bank refused and suggested that Pangilinan deposit the check in his personal savings account with the same bank. the PNB manager demanded reimbursement from the Associated Bank on 15 May 1981. on the fourth-party complaint. So even if the indorsement on the check deposited by the banks' client is forged. At the time of their indorsement. They were properly issued and bear the genuine signatures of the drawer. on the third-party complaint. that all prior parties had capacity to contract. However.00 were encashed by one Fausto Pangilinan. the manager of Associated Bank. While he admitted that his wife and Pangilinan's wife are first cousins.
was no longer connected with the hospital. With the exception of the first check (dated 17 January 1978). the drawee bank can recover the amount paid on the check bearing a forged indorsement from the collecting bank. the drawee bank. However. Hence.300. Dr. The Court finds that the Province of Tarlac was equally negligent and should. CA 257 SCRA 578 FACTS: A promissory note was issued by petitioner together with 2 others jointly and severally. thereby depriving said presentor of the right to recover from the forger. the court decided in its favor. as follows: . Thereafter was a default on the payment of the note.300. If PNB negligently delayed in informing Associated Bank of the forgery. hold the forger. shall be liable to PNB for 50% of P203. fraud or irregularity in the indorsement.00 from PNB. It is liable on its warranties as indorser of the checks which were deposited by Fausto Pangilinan. PNB. all the checks were issued and released after Pangilinan's retirement on 28 February 1978.00. The bank knows him. to make them liable to PBC.300. the former is deemed negligent and can no longer recover from the presentor. having already retired from government service. his address and history because he is a client. liable. thus depriving the latter of the opportunity to recover from the forger. a drawee bank has the duty to promptly inform the presentor of the forgery upon discovery. Associated Bank was also remiss in its duty to ascertain the genuineness of the payee's indorsement. share the burden of loss from the checks bearing a forged indorsement. in allowing the retired hospital cashier to receive the checks for the payee hospital for a period close to three years and in not properly ascertaining why the retired hospital cashier was collecting checks for the payee hospital in addition to the hospital's real cashier. the Province contributed to the loss amounting to P203. due to the negligence of the Province of Tarlac in releasing the checks to an unauthorized person (Fausto Pangilinan). There is also evidence indicating that the provincial employees were aware of Pangilinan's retirement and consequent dissociation from the hospital. Fausto Pangilinan. Associated Bank.00 and shall be liable to the PNB for 50% thereof. Hence. The Province of Tarlac permitted Fausto Pangilinan to collect the checks when the latter. Herein. The loss incurred by drawee bank-PNB can be passed on to the collecting bank-Associated Bank which presented and indorsed the checks to it. any one or some or all of them may be proceeded against for the entire obligation— the choice is left to the solidary creditor to determine against whom he will enforce collection. Associated Bank can. some of the aid allotment checks were released to Pangilinan and the others to Elizabeth Juco. If both drawee bank-PNB and drawer-Province of Tarlac were negligent.depositor who negotiated the check. J. Branch 18. The collecting bank. it forfeits its right to reimbursement and will be made to bear the loss. the Treasurer's office was still releasing the checks to the retired cashier. Adena Canlas.: This is a petition for review on certiorari of the decision of the Court of Appeals affirming that of the Regional Trial Court of Misamis Oriental. In addition. including that of the chief of the payee hospital. INCIONG V. cannot debit the current account of the Province of Tarlac because it paid checks which bore forged indorsements. then the drawee bank PNB can charge its account. After nearly three years. In effect. HELD: Where the promissory note expressly states that the three signatures therein are jointly and severally liable. If the drawee bank delays in informing the presentor of the forgery. the new cashier. DECISION ROMERO. It has taken a risk on his deposit. 10507 for collection of a sum of money and damages. in turn. therefore. having guaranteed the genuineness of all prior indorsements. the Province of Tarlac can only recover 50% of P203. However. if the Province of Tarlac as drawer was negligent to the point of substantially contributing to the loss. The fact that there were now two persons collecting the checks for the hospital is an unmistakable sign of an irregularity which should have alerted employees in the Treasurer's office of the fraud being committed. PBC proceeded against Inciong and in the action filed by the bank. which disposed of Civil Case No. The bank is also in a better position to detect forgery. the loss should be properly apportioned between them.
The lower court added that it was "rather odd" for petitioner to have indicated in a copy and not in the original. Naybe and Gregorio D. private respondent sent petitioner telegrams demanding payment thereof. Meanwhile. he was approached by his friend. it was by trickery. Naybe was interested in the business and would contribute a chainsaw to the venture. he filed the instant petition for review on certiorari. under Sec.00 which he signed with Rene C. Cagayan de Oro City. the amount of FIFTY THOUSAND PESOS (P50. on November 14. Hence. his supposed obligation in the amount of P5. 1983 and on June 8. in the falcata logs operation business. However. Petitioner appealed the said decision to the Court of Appeals which. Pio Tio denied having participated in the alleged business venture although he knew for a fact that the falcata logs operation was encouraged by the bank for its export potential. fraud and misrepresentation that he was made liable for the amount of P50. 1983 at 16% per annum until fully paid. defendant BALDOMERO L. therefore. and that. he indicated that he bound himself only for the amount of P5.000. affirmed that of the lower court. 1984 private respondent also sent by registered mail a final letter of demand to Rene C.with interest thereon from May 5. Consequently. He added that. SO ORDERED. Cagayan de Oro City branch. On January 27. in its decision of August 31. Thus. Naybe. 1984. only the summons addressed to petitioner was served as the sheriff learned that defendant Naybe had gone to Saudi Arabia.00. are dismissed for lack of merit."WHEREFORE. The counterclaim. Rudy Campos. Campos then persuaded petitioner to act as a "co-maker" in the said loan. Finally. Since both obligors did not respond to the demands made. Campos also intimated to him that Rene C. plus 10% of the total amount due for expenses of litigation and attorney's fees. private respondent filed on January 24. The lower court also noted that petitioner was a holder of a Bachelor of Laws degree and a labor consultant who was supposed to take due care of his concerns. He affixed his signature thereto but in one copy.00).000.00.00 against the three obligors. on the witness stand.000-" clearly appears directly below the admitted signature of the petitioner in the promissory note. and 6% per annum on the total amount due.000. the same would have been merely collateral between him and Naybe and. His motion for reconsideration of the said decision having been denied.000.000. the lower court reconsidered the dismissal order and required the sheriff to serve the summonses. 5 (q) of Rule 131. of the promissory note.000. On November 25. petitioner alleged that sometime in January 1983. the latter's uncorroborated testimony on his limited liability cannot prevail over the presumed regularity and fairness of the transaction. the lower court dismissed the case against defendant Pantanosas as prayed for by the private respondent herein. In the aforementioned decision of the lower court. it noted that the typewritten figure "P50. who told him that he was a partner of Pio Tio. 1983. not binding upon the private respondent as creditor-bank. is adjudged solidarily liable and ordered to pay to the plaintiff Philippine Bank of Communications. and to pay the costs.00 only. as liquidated damages or penalty from May 5. 1983. on January 9. The promissory note was due on May 5. as well as the cross claim.000.00. . 1986. although Naybe had no money to buy the equipment Pio Tio had assured Naybe of the approval of a loan he would make with private respondent. Petitioner alleged further that five (5) copies of a blank promissory note were brought to him by Campos at his office. holding themselves jointly and severally liable to private respondent Philippine Bank of Communications. Said due date expired without the promissors having paid their obligation. 1986 a complaint for collection of the sum of P50. 1983 until fully paid. 1987. Pantanosas on February 3. 1987. the complaint was dismissed for failure of the plaintiff to prosecute the case. the lower court held that even granting that said limited amount had actually been agreed upon. Petitioner allegedly acceded but with the understanding that he would only be a co-maker for the loan of P5. On December 11. the branch manager of private respondent in Cagayan de Oro City. INCIONG." Petitioner's liability resulted from the promissory note in the amount of P50. 1990. JR. In his answer.
the promissory note stated the amount of P50. adding that it was Campos who caused the amount of the loan to be increased to P50.1991. The first paragraph of the parol evidence rule states: "When the terms of an agreement have been reduced to writing. on August 7. he asserted that he had attached Registry Receipt No. or be signed by both parties. an MTCC judge and petitioner's co-maker in the promissory note. In the latter motion. no evidence of such terms other than the contents of the written agreement. (d) the loan was not approved by the board or credit committee which was the practice. Had he presented Judge Pantanosas' affidavit before the lower court. when parties have expressed the terms of their contract in writing. the rule does not specify that the written agreement be a public document. It supports petitioner's allegation that they were induced to sign the promissory note on the belief that it was only for P5. petitioner filed a motion for leave to file a motion for clarification. (e) the loan had no collateral. (b) the loan was incurred for the purpose of buying a second-hand chainsaw which cost only P5.. notes and other instruments of a similar nature are not subject to be varied or contradicted by parol or extrinsic evidence. 1-88. Nonetheless. to admit weaker evidence to control and vary the stronger and to show that the parties intended a different contract from that expressed in the writing signed by them. Finally. petitioner may no longer be accorded the same opportunity in the absence of grave abuse of discretion on the part of the court below." Clearly.000. 1991. 1991. petitioner contends that in signing the promissory note." Thus. Annexed to the petition is a copy of an affidavit executed on May 3.500. the Court denied the petition for failure of petitioner to comply with the Rules of Court and paragraph 2 of Circular No. and to sufficiently show that respondent court had committed any reversible error in its questioned decision. The affidavit is clearly intended to buttress petitioner's contention in the instant petition that the Court of Appeals should have declared the promissory note null and void on the following grounds: (a) the promissory note was signed in the office of Judge Pantanosas. we find the petition unmeritorious.00. and (g) notices of default are sent simultaneously and separately but no notice was validly sent to him. the Court ordered the entry of judgment in this case. that it would be unsafe. 00. by Gregorio Pantanosas. outside the premises of the bank. What is required is that agreement be in writing as the rule is in fact founded on "long experience that written evidence is so much more certain and accurate than that which rests in fleeting memory only. Unfazed. his consent was vitiated by fraud as. Nor is there merit in petitioner's assertion that since the promissory note "is not a public deed with the formalities prescribed by law but x x x a mere commercial paper which does not bear the signature of x x x attesting witnesses.00. bills. for the parol evidence rule to apply. it is considered as containing all the terms agreed upon and there can be. 1988. 3268 to page 14 of the petition in compliance with Circular No. Having lost the chance to fully ventilate his factual claims below. at it exceeded P5.000. or after the rendition of the decision of the lower court. In the same Resolution. 1-88. a written contract need not be in any particular form.00. in the Resolution of May 27. .On February 6. contrary to their agreement that the loan was only for the amount of P5.00. Thus. between the parties and their successors-in-interest.00. petitioner filed a motion for leave to file a second motion for reconsideration which. (c) even a new chainsaw would cost only P27.1991.000.000." parol evidence may "overcome" the contents of the promissory note.000. Thereafter. As a general rule. the Court denied. it would have strengthened his claim that the promissory note did not reflect the correct amount of the loan.00.000. The above-stated points are clearly factual. Petitioner is to be reminded of the basic rule that this Court is not a trier of facts. the Court granted his prayer that his petition be given due course and reinstated the same. (f) petitioner and Judge Pantanosas were not present at the time the loan was released in contravention of the bank practice. Jr. His motion for the reconsideration of the denial of his petition was likewise denied with finality in the Resolution of April 24.
There is a solidarity liability only when the obligation expressly so states. and a fiador in solidum (surety). called the guarantor. Book IV of the Civil Code. the liability of a guarantor is different from that of a solidary debtor. There is a difference between a solidary co-debtor. the presumption is that the obligation is joint so that each of the debtors is liable only for a proportionate part of the debt. they cannot be subrogated to the rights.000. He cites as basis for his argument. therefore. may only have recourse against his co-makers. JOINTLY and SEVERALLY promise to pay to the PHILIPPINE BANK OF COMMUNICATIONS at its office in the City of Cagayan de Oro. fail as it was evidenced only by his own uncorroborated and. suffice it to say that the court never acquired jurisdiction over him. any one. This is patent even from the first sentence of the promissory note which states as follows: "Ninety one (91) days after date. as provided by law. Thus. not even being adequate. Article 2047 of the Civil Code states: "By guaranty a person. Book IV of the Civil Code states the law on joint and several obligations. therefore. some or all of them may be proceeded against for the entire obligation. fraud must be established by clear and convincing evidence. when there are two or more debtors in one and the same obligation. where a parol contemporaneous agreement was the inducing and moving cause of the written contract. when the law so provides or when the nature of the obligation so requires.By alleging fraud in his answer. binds himself to the creditor to fulfill the obligation of the principal debtor in case the latter should fail to do so. Title I. In such a case the contract is called a suretyship. the provisions of Section 4.) While a guarantor may bind himself solidarily with the principal debtor. Philippines the sum of FIFTY THOUSAND ONLY (P50. and each creditor is entitled to demand the whole obligation. self-serving testimony. constituted a release of his obligation. Title I of this Book shall be observed. Chapter 3." Section 4. together with interest x x x at the rate of SIXTEEN (16) per cent per annum until fully paid. I/we. while a solidary co-debtor has no other rights than those bestowed upon him in Section 4. his co-maker. The later. Under Art. the dismissal of the case against Judge Pontanosas may not be deemed as having discharged petitioner from liability as well. actions and benefits which pertain to him by reason of the fiansa. expectedly. However." A solidary or joint and several obligation is one in which each debtor is liable for the entire obligation.00 only considering that. outside of the liability he assumes to pay the debt before the property of the principal debtor has been exhausted. Consequently. Article 2080 of the Civil Code which provides that: "The guarantors. are released from their obligation whenever by some act of the creditor. On the other hand. for value received. Petitioner's attempt to prove fraud must. and preferences of the latter. Chapter 3. . Chapter 3. the principal debtor. Because the promissory note involved in this case expressly states that the three signatories therein are jointly and severally liable. especially because the dismissal of the case against Pantanosas was upon the motion of private respondent itself. mere preponderance of evidence.000. that petitioner signed the promissory note as a solidary co-maker and not as a guarantor. 1207 thereof. If a person binds himself solidarily with the principal debtor. petitioner was actually in the right direction towards proving that he and his co-makers agreed to a loan of P5. As regards Naybe." (Italics supplied. even though they be solidary. Petitioner. The choice is left to the solidary creditor to determine against whom he will enforce collection. retains all the other rights. title I. Petitioner also argues that the dismissal of the complaint against Naybe. 00) Pesos. however. mortgages. it may be shown by parol evidence. and against Pantanosas. Philippine Currency." It is to be noted. Tolentino explains: "A guarantor who binds himself in solidum with the principal debtor under the provisions of the second paragraph does not become a solidary co-debtor to all intents and purposes.
Two of these drafts were accepted by Philippine Rayon Mills while the others were not. Petitioner however claims that the drafts were sight drafts which did not require presentment for acceptance to Philippine Rayon. Philippine National Bank vs. and Torres. There was in fact no need for acceptance as the issued drafts are sight drafts. the MSCI. Obviously then. To effect payment for said machineries. Mendoza.L. the drawee was necessarily the herein petitioner. The PNB then found out that the purported signatures of J. Inc. against the Philippine National Bank (PNB) and in favor of the International Auto Repair Shop..L. of Japan for the importation of textile machineries under a five-year deferred payment plan. Presentment for acceptance is necessary only in the cases expressly provided for in Section 143 of the Negotiable Instruments Law (NIL). or (c) Where the bill is drawn payable elsewhere than at the residence or place of business of the drawee. Petitioner instituted an action for the recovery of the sum of money it paid to Nissho as Philippine Rayon Mills was not able to pay its obligations arising from the letter of credit.. or P144. ISSUE: Whether presentment for acceptance of the drafts was indispensable to make Philippine Rayon liable thereon. On April 8 and 10. Puno. SO ORDERED. Manager and Treasurer'. 1933. believing at the time that the signatures of J. JJ. Inc. Klar. Klar. as Manager and Treasurer of Pantranco were forged when so informed by the said Company. purporting to have been issued by the 'Pangasinan Transportation Co. Respondent court ruled that with regard to the ten drafts which were not presented and accepted. The said section provides that presentment for acceptance must be made: (a) Where the bill is payable after sight. no valid demand for payment can be made. an unknown person or persons negotiated with Motor Service Company.. Said checks were indorsed by said unknown persons in the manner indicated at the back thereof. two checks in payment for automobile tires purchased from MSCI's stores. Manager and Treasurer of Pantranco on both checks were genuine. where presentment for acceptance is necessary in order to fix the maturity of the instrument. (Pantranco) by J. that the payee is an existing entity and the endorsements at the bank thereof regular and genuine.50 and P215. Costs against petitioner. which were all paid by the Prudential Bank through its correspondent in Japan.75. Ltd. Regalado (Chairman). Recto (J): 6 concur Facts: On April 7 and 9. for P144.50 and P215. the instant petition for review on certiorari is hereby DENIED and the questioned decision of the Court of Appeals is AFFIRMED.WHEREFORE. National City Bank of New York [GR 43596. Klar. sight drafts do not require presentment for acceptance. 31 October 1936] En Banc. Philippine Rayon Mills opened a commercial letter of credit with the Prudential Bank and Trust Company in favor of Nissho. 1933. RULING: In the case at bar. or (b) Where the bill expressly stipulates that it shall be presented for acceptance.L. Prudential Bank vs IAC FACTS: Philippine Rayon Mills. the said checks were cleared at the clearing house and PNB credited the National City Bank for the amounts thereof. Against this letter of credit. It was to the latter that the drafts were presented for payment.. believing at the time that the signatures of the drawer were genuine.75. (MSCI). concur. Inc. entered into a contract with Nissho Co. Jr. drafts were drawn and issued by Nissho. In no other case is presentment for acceptance necessary in order to render any party to the bill liable. and it accordingly demanded . The checks were then indorsed for deposit by MSCI at the National City Bank of New York and the former was accordingly credited with the amounts thereof. or in any other case.
or by the desire to oblige customers. according to section 185 of the Negotiable Instruments Law. the certification is equivalent to an acceptance". and on the other hand. Issue : Whether the law or business practice prevents the presentation of checks for acceptance before they are paid. in effect. the bank can fulfill its duty to the depositor only by paying the amount demanded. in which case there is a "certification" equivalent to "acceptance" according to section 187. The most ordinary form which such an act assumes is the acceptance by the bank of the check. by the exigencies of business. and continue to refuse.from the National City Bank and MSCI and the reimbursement of the amounts for which it credited the National City Bank at the clearing house and for which the latter credited MSCI. "acceptance" means "an acceptance completed by delivery or notification" and this concept is entirely incompatible with payment. the cycle of negotiation is terminated. He can present for payment. consequently. and there is no such thing as delivery or notification to the party receiving the payment. subsequent negotiation of the instrument. Held : A check is a bill of exchange payable on demand and only the rules governing bills of exchange payable on demand are applicable to it. before they are paid. A decision was thereafter rendered giving PNB judgment for the total amount of P360. Issue : Whether the payment of the checks in question made by the drawee bank constitutes an "acceptance". to do anything but pay it.25. it follows that the provisions relative to "acceptance" are without application to checks. issued . is however. PNB filed the case in the municipal court of Manila against National City Bank and MSCI. and only for payment. except for its constructive fault in now knowing the signature of the drawer and detecting the forgery. in like manner and with like effect as a bill of exchange or draft may be accepted. is in favor of holders of the instrument after its acceptance. whether PNB was not itself negligent. Held : Check number 637023-D was dated 6 April 1933. the later check. Pantranco objected to have the proceeds of said check deducted from their deposit. In view of the fact that acceptance is a step unnecessary in so far as bills of exchange payable on demand are concerned. whereas check number 637020-D and is dated 7 April 1933. The warranty established by section 62. Held : There is nothing in the law or in business practice against the presentation of checks for acceptance. When the drawee bank cashes or pays a check. This certification or acceptance consists in the signification by the drawee of his assent to the order of the drawer. which is not true in case of the payment of a check because from the moment a check is paid it is withdrawn from circulation. and it is frequently induced by convenience. and it is then that the warranty under section 62 exists. When the holder of a check procures it to be accepted or certified. Upon PNB's motion. Issue : Whether MSCI's negligence in purchasing the checks in question is such as to give PNB the right to recover upon said checks. When the holder of a check procedures it to be accepted or certified. Moreover. according to section 191. and the bank has no right. as against the drawer. the drawer and all indorsers are discharged from liability thereon. but MSCI and National City Bank refused. and then the check operates as an assignment of a part of the funds to the credit of the drawer with the bank. or some act from which the law will imperatively imply such valid promise or undertaking. because when payment is made the check is retained by the bank. with interest and costs. The bank may accept if it chooses. Therefore. the certifying of the check. voluntarily to incur the obligation. There is nothing in the nature of the check which intrinsically precludes its acceptance. The act by which the bank places itself under obligation to pay to the holder the sum called for by a check must be the expressed promise or undertaking of the bank signifying its intent to assume the obligation. The holder has no right to demand from the bank anything but payment of the check. or. and it is illogical thereafter to speak of subsequent holders who can invoke the warranty provided in section 62 against the drawee. A check being payable immediately and on demand. to make such reimbursements. the case should be governed by the provisions of section 62 of the Negotiable Instruments Law. as it is perhaps more often called. Acceptance implies. the drawer will perform his promise by any other means than the payment of money. There can be no such thing as "acceptance" in the ordinary sense of the term. which provides that "where a check is certified by the bank on which it is drawn. which is prior in number to the former check. which must not express that the drawee will perform his promise by any other means than the payment of money. A check is not an instrument which in the ordinary course of business calls for acceptance. The holder can never claim acceptance as his legal right. the case was dismissed before trial as to the National City Bank. From this decision MSCI appealed. and.
the drawee had the right to believe he had taken. even without former acceptance. or by failure of any precaution which. If there were injury to MCSI said injury was caused not by the failure of PNB to detect the forgery but by the very negligence of MCSI in purchasing commercial papers from unknown persons without making inquiry as to their genuineness. It had no valid title to them. The facts of case do not make it one between two equally innocent persons. it will encourage and demand prudent business methods on the part of those receiving such mediums of . can be acquired through or under such signature. Forgeries often deceived the eye of the most cautions experts. Issue : Whether the drawee bank should be allowed recovery. Yet MSCI accepted the check in payment for merchandise. (The court held in the case (1) That where a check is accepted or certified by the bank on which it is drawn. Furthermore. drafts and checks. MSCI is not entitled to retain the amount of the forged check paid to it by PNB. And when MCSI pays back the money it has received it will be entitled to have restored to it the forged papers it parted with. unless the party against whom it is sought to enforce such right is precluded from setting up the forgery or want of authority. or to enforce payment thereof against any party thereto. nor did it perform any act which would have induced MSCI to believe in the genuineness of said instruments before MSCI purchased them for value. Section 23 of the Negotiable Instruments Act provides that "when a signature is forged or made without the authority of the person whose signature it purports to be. MSCI further accepted the two checks from unknown persons. (8) That while the foregoing rule. (7) That one who purchases a check or draft is bound to satisfy himself that the paper is genuine. International Auto Repair Shop. MSCI could not have compelled the drawee to pay them. It had in its hands some forged worthless papers. and that the constructive negligence of such drawee in failing to detect the forgery was not affected by any disregard of duty on the part of the holder. (2) That if a drawee bank pays a forged check which was previously accepted or certified by the said bank it cannot recover from a holder who did not participate in the forgery and did not have actual notice thereof. By making a refund. aside from having been indorsed by a supposed agent of the International Auto Repair Shop is crossed generally. by its acceptance thereof. the drawee bank and the holder. It did not purchase or acquire these papers because of any representation made to it by the drawee. check 637023-D was indorsed by a subagent of the agent of the payee. The existence of two parallel lines transversally drawn on the face of this check was a warning that the check could only be collected through a banking institution. It purchased them from unknown persons and under suspicious circumstances. therefore. MSCI would only be returning what it had received without any title or right. and when a bank has been so deceived. because the persons from whom it received them did not have such title. (5) That to entitle the holder of a forged check to retain the money obtained thereon. (6) That in the absence of actual fault on the part of the drawee. There is no good reason why the accidental payment made by PNB should inure to the benefit of MSCI. This circumstance must have aroused at least the curiosity of MSCI. and the drawee could have refused payment had it been able to detect the forgery. Held : A drawee of a check. will not hinder the circulation of two recognized mediums of exchange by which the great bulk of business is carried on. (4) That in the case of the payment of a forged check. it is a harsh rule which compels it to suffer although no one has suffered by its being deceived. it can not be said that PNB is precluded from setting up the forgery and. (3) That the payment of a check does not include or imply its acceptance in the sense that this word is used in section 62 of the Negotiable Instruments Law." It not appearing that PNB did not warrant to MCSI the genuineness of the checks in question. MSCI made no inquiry whatsoever as to the extent of the authority of these unknown persons. and no right to retain the instrument. and that by indorsing it or presenting it for payment or putting it into circulation before presentation he impliedly asserts that he performed his duty. Herein. it is wholly inoperative. who is deceived by a forgery of the drawer's signature may recover the payment back. on the other hand. Check 637020-D. or whose conduct has been such as to mislead the drawee or induce him to pay the check without the usual scrutiny or other precautions against mistake or fraud. chosen from a welter of decisions on the issue as the correct one. namely. the drawee can not recover from a holder in due course not chargeable with any act of negligence or disregard of duty. there must be a showing that the duty to ascertain the genuineness of the signature rested entirely upon the drawee. unless his mistake has placed an innocent holder of the paper in a worse position than he would have been in if the discover of the forgery had been made on presentation. MSCI has lost nothing by anything which the drawee has done. the bank is estopped to deny the genuineness of the drawer's signature and his capacity to issue the instrument. as MSCI's position would not become worse than if the drawee had refused the payment of these checks upon their presentation. his constructive fault in not knowing the signature of the drawer and detecting the forgery will not preclude his recovery from one who took the check under circumstances of suspicion and without proper precaution.on a later date. from his implied assertion in presenting the check as a sufficient voucher. or to give a discharge therefor.
and (11) that under the circumstances of the case.000. and cannot ordinarilycharge the amount so paid to theaccount of the depositor whose namewas forged”. T h e p r i n c i p a l e m p l o y e e in the Manila Office wasJoseph Wilson who had a general power of attorney but w i t h o u t p o w e r o f s u b s t i t u t i o n . Dolores also returned witha f o r g e d c h e c k f o r P 1 c o v e r i n g t h e c o s t o f packing the money. It had a rightt o r e l y u p o n t h e e n d o r s e m e n t o f B P I when it gave the latter bank credit forits own cashier’s check.After a year. In connection with thecashier’s check.organized under the laws of the Territory of Hawaii was authorized toe n g a g e i n b u s i n e s s i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s .exchange.The trial court held that the deposit of P201. e v e n i f s o m e o f t h e m w e r e a l s o t h o s e o f t h e depoistors in that bank. BPI. in this case. The endorsement to which the nameof Newland Baldwin was affixed was spurious. .) SAN CARLOS MILLING CO.000 (exchanger a t e t h e n ) . BPI received a letter purported tobe signed by Newland Baldwin. San Carlosappealed its case to the Supreme Court. the relation of the depositor andbanker did not exist. but the bank was only agratuitous bailee. the presumption that a drawee bank is bound to know more than any indorser the signature nature of its depositor does not hold. Cooper went on a vacation and gave a generalp o w e r o f a t t o r n e y t o N e w l a n d B a l d w i n a n d r e v o k e d t h e p o w e r o f W i l s o n r e l a t i v e t o t h e dealings with BPI. Since themoney was in fact paid by CBC to BPI. 1933 FACTS: San Carlos milling.000 and after it was cleared. Chinabank was also impleaded as defendant. C h i n a Bank is not liable since the responsibilityof verifying all endorsements on thec h e c k i s w i t h t h e b a n k t h a t c a s h e s t h e check. A bank that cashes a check must knowto whom it pays. amessenger-clerk and sent a cable gram in codeto the company in Honolulu requesting atelegraphic transfer to the China BankingCorporation of Manila for $100. ISSUE: WON BPI is guilty of negligence and isliable to pay San Carlos Milling for the amountit had cashed out HELD: Judgment absolving BPI was reversed. The moneyw a s t r a n s f e r r e d b y c a b l e t o C h i n a b a n k a n d u p o n r e c e i p t . It further askedChinabank to s e n d a c e r t i f i e d c h e c k i n S a n Carlos Milling’s favor. this duty was thereforeu p o n t h e B P I a n d t h e C B C w a s n o t bound to inspect and verify alle n d o r s e m e n t s o f t h e c h e c k . LTD vs. U p o n t h e p e t i t i o n o f B P I .BPI credited the current account of plaintiff inthe sum of P201. Shortly thereafter.J. that BPI acted in good faithin the ordinary course of business and was notguilty of negligence and that San Carlos Millingcould not recover since the loss was due to thecriminal actions of its employees. if PNB is allowed to recover. BANK OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS AND CHINABANKING CORPORATION G. No. thecrime was discovered but BPI refused to creditSan Carlos Milling with the amount withdrawnby the two forged checks and brought the caset o t h e T r i a l C o u r t . s e n t t o S a n C a r l o s M i l l i n g a n exchange contract for P201. that PNB is no more chargeable with the knowledge of the drawer's signature than MCSI is. L-37467December 11. 683) . as the drawer was as much the customer of MSCI as of PNB. (1) that according to the undisputed facts of the case MSCI in purchasing the papers in question from unknown persons without making any inquiry as to the identity and authority of the said persons negotiating and indorsing them. Wilson conspired with Dolores.R. payable for deposit onlywith BPI. there will be no change of position as to the injury or prejudice of MCSI. B P I i s g u i l t y o f n e g l i g e n c e b e c a u s e i t should have taken care in ensuring thatt h e s i g n a t u r e s w e r e n o t f o r g e d . S u c h contract was forged in thename of Newland Baldwin. T h e business in the Philippines was in the hands of Alfred Cooper. itwas paid by China Banking CorporationThe next day. it must beconsidered as making the payment outof its own funds. (7 C. “A bank is bound to know thes i g n a t u r e s o f i t s c u s t o m e r s . its agent under general power of a t t o r n e y w i t h a u t h o r i t y o f s u b s t i t u t i o n . acted negligently and contributed to PNB's constructive negligence in failing to detect the forgery..000 in the BPI being the result of a forgedendorsement.CBC is not indebted to San CarlosMilling or BPI. (9) That it being a matter of record in the present case. directing thatthe money be paid in certain denominations.T h e c o u t i n g a n d p a c k i n g o f t h e m o n e y w a s witnessed by Dolores who in turn returned witha check purporting to be signed by NewlandBaldwin as agent. a n d i f i t pays a forged check.
is the depository bank of MWSS and its predecessor-ininterest NWSA. Thru the Central Bank Clearing. the CFI Manila rendered judgment in favor of the MWSS.455. Mendoza P18. these checks were presented for payment by PBC and PCIB to the PNB. and paid. The respective balances in their current account with the PBC and/or PCIB stood as follows: Dizon P3. The authorized signature for said Account 6 were those of MWSS treasurer Jose Sanchez. its auditor Pedro Aguilar. On appeal and on 29 October 1982. Mesina Enterprises. also in the months of March. On 6 February 1976.00 as of 30 April 1969.903. On 11 June 1969.457. ordering the PNB to restore the total sum of (P3.457.” Subsequent investigation however. of the total sum of P3. Sison and Mendoza were all fictitious persons. No. April and May 1969. and its acting General Manager Victor L. conducted by the NBI showed that Dizon.457. F. located at 1775 Rizal Extension.] Second Division.92 as of 30 June 1969. Gutierrez Jr. Hence. without pronouncement as to costs. Their respective specimen signatures were submitted by the MWSS to and on file with the PNB. During the months of March. July 14.00 corresponding to the total amount of the 23 checks claimed by NWSA to be forged and/or spurious checks. Section 24 of the Negotiable Instruments Law The appellate court applied Section 24 of the Negotiable Instruments Law which provides "Every negotiable instrument is deemed prima facie to have been issued for valuable consideration and every person whose signature appears thereon to have become a party thereto for value. 1986. L-62943. 14 July 1986) MWSS vs. The Philippine National Bank (PNB).182. Court of Appeals (GR L-62943. 1. April and May 1969. During the same months of March. otherwise known as Account 381-777 and which is presently allocated 010-500281.00) to MWSS's Account 6 with legal interest thereon computed from the date of the filing of the complaint and until as restored in the said account. Therefore. the MWSS used personalized checks in drawing from this account. and dismissing the counterclaims of the third party defendants for lack of evidence. dismissing the third-party complaint. Its employees shouldhave used care. CA [G. Arturo Sison and Antonio Mendoza in their respective current accounts with the Philippine Commercial and Industrial Bank (PCIB) and Philippine Bank of Commerce (PBC) in the months of March.R." .00 MWSS filed the present complaint on 10 November 1972 before the CFI Manila (Civil Case 88950). all of which were paid and cleared by PNB and debited by PNB against NWSA Account 6. processed. A motion for reconsideration filed by the MWSS was denied by the appellate court in a resolution dated 3 January 1983. The Supreme Court dismissed the petition for lack of merit. April and May 1969. on the other hand.the proximate cause of lossw a s d u e t o t h e n e g l i g e n c e of tBPI in honoring andcashing two forged checks(P201. 1 took no part Facts: The Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS) is a government owned and controlled corporation created under RA 6234 as the successor-in-interest of the defunct NWSA. issued and released by NWSA. without pronouncement as to costs. The checks were deposited by the payees Raul Dizon. the Court of Appeals reversed the decision of the CFI Manila and rendered judgment in favor of the respondent Philippine National Bank. 23 checks were prepared.o No act of San Carlos Milling ledBPI to go astray. 23 checks bearing the same numbers as the NWSA checks were likewise paid and cleared by PNB and debited against NWSA Account 6. NWSA addressed a letter to PNB requesting the immediate restoration to its Account 6. At the time of their presentation to PNB these checks bear the standard indorsement which reads “all prior indorsement and/or lack of endorsement guaranteed. The bank paidout its money because it reliedupon the genuiness of thep u r p o r t e d s i g n a t u r e s o f Baldwin. (J): 3 concurring. These checks were printed for MWSS by its printer. Recio. the petition for review on certiorari. In view of the refusal of PNB to credit back to Account 6 the said total sum of P3.000 and P1).00 as of 23 May 1969. By special arrangement with the PNB.903. MWSS vs.903. April and May 1969.398. Among the several accounts of NWSA with PNB is NWSA Account 6. Caloocan City. and affirmed the decision of the Court of Appeals. and Sison P1.
v. Hongkong and Shanghai Bank (43 Phil. A. the MWSS cashier whose signatures were allegedly forged was unable to tell the difference between the allegedly forged signature and his own genuine signature. the MWSS officials admitted that these checks could easily be passed on as genuine. the owner of the printing press which . BPI. There must be conclusive findings that there is a variance in the inherent characteristics of the signatures and that they were written by two or more different persons. MWSS committed gross negligence in the printing of its personalized checks The records show that at the time the 23 checks were prepared. In the exercise of this special privilege. (3) provide any control regarding the paper used in the printing of said checks. 10 SCRA 8) 7. specific instructions relative to the safekeeping and disposition of excess forms. Intermediate Appellate Court. negotiated. positive. The memorandum of Mr." because it was guilty of negligence not only before the questioned checks were negotiated but even after the same had already been negotiated. On the contrary. or to enforce payment thereof against any party thereto can be acquired through or under such signature unless the party against whom it is sought to enforce such right is precluded from setting up the forgery or want of authority. Villatuya. Tolentino. it is wholly inoperative. and encashed. The report merely mentions the alleged differences in the typeface. 59) and Great Eastern Life Ins.. 678) relied upon by the petitioner are inapplicable in this case because the forgeries in those cases were either clearly established or admitted while in the present case. the questioned Documents Report 159-1074 dated 21 November 1974 of the NBI does not declare or prove that the signatures appearing on the questioned checks are forgeries. et al. Hongkong & Shanghai Bank not applicable The cases of San Carlos Milling Co. et al. instead of the official PNB Commercial blank checks. et al. T. Indeed. checkwriting. Executive Vice-President of MWSS dated 9 June 1969 cites an instance where even the concerned NWSA officials could not tell the differences between the genuine checks and the alleged forged checks. Forgery is not presumed Forgery cannot be presumed (Siasat. 139 SCRA 238). the findings of the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) in its Report dated 2 November 1970 show that the MWSS fraud was an "inside job" and that MWSS's delay in the reconciliation of bank statements and the laxity and loose records control in the printing of its personalized checks facilitated the fraud. This was not done in the present case. 5. MWSS failed to provide the needed security measures. (59 Phil. and printing characteristics appearing in the standard or submitted models and the questioned typewritings. (See Republic v. Mesina Enterprises. MWSS barred from setting up defense of forgery under Section 23 NIL MWS is barred from setting up the defense of forgery under Section 23 of the Negotiable Instruments Law which provides that "when the signature is forged or made without authority of the person whose signature it purports to be. 4. that MWSS failed to (1) give its printer. v. check writing. Carlos Milling vs. It must be established by clear. This gross negligence of MWSS is very evident from the sworn statement dated 19 June 1969 of Faustino Mesina Jr. MWSS was using its own personalized checks. Likewise.. On the other hand. That there was gross negligence in the printing of its personalized checks is shown by the following uncontroverted facts. Co. and (5) send a representative to the printing office during the printing of said checks. and safety papers. Checks could easily be passed on as genuine Considering the absence of sufficient security in the printing of the checks coupled with the very close similarities between the genuine signatures and the alleged forgeries. the allegations of forgery were not clearly established during trial. These reports did not touch on the inherent qualities of the signatures which are indispensable in the determination of the existence of forgery. 3. or to give a discharge therefor. No evidence that checks were forged There is no express and categorical finding in these documents that the 23 questioned checks were indeed signed by persons other than the authorized MWSS signatories. (4) furnish the respondent drawee bank with samples of typewriting. Ltd. the 23 checks in question could have been presented to the MWSS's signatories without their knowing that they were bogus checks. The NBI Chemistry Report C-74-891 merely describes the inks and pens used in writing the alleged forged signatures. Equitable Banking Corporation. Assistant Chief Accountant of the drawee PNB to Mr. and convincing evidence. E. v.2. however. and print used by its printer in the printing of its checks and of the inks and pens used in signing the same. check vouchers. 6. Bank of the Philippine Islands. Great Eastern Life Insurance vs. The 3 NBI Reports relied upon by MWSS are inadequate to sustain its allegations of forgery. (2) retrieve from its printer all spoiled check forms. and no right to retain the instrument.
the fraudulent encashments of the first checks should have been discovered. Richmond Electric Co. For reasons known only to Mr. in its report submitted to their General Manager underscored this laxity of records control. the negotiation of practically all of the remaining checks on May. The drawer would therefore have a complete record of the checks he issues.736. a comparison between them and the cancelled checks will reveal any forged check not taken from his checkbook. Bank of Richmond v. Ongtengco (Cashier VI of the Treasury Department at the NAWASA) is quite open to any person known to him or his staff members and that the check writer is merely on top of his table. First Nat. Failure of MWSS to reconcile the bank statements with its own records proximate cause of failure to discover the fraud Another factor which facilitated the fraudulent encashment of the 23 checks was the failure of MWSS to reconcile the bank statements with its own records. See also Leather Manufacturers' Bank v. he was unreasonably delayed in taking prompt deliveries of the said bank statements and credit and debit memos. the name of the payee and the amount thereof. 56 SE 152. Zaporteza had not been remiss in his duty of taking the bank statements and reconciling them with MWSS's records. 10. he is given blank checks which he may fill out and use whenever he wishes. 347. It is the duty of a depositor to carefully examine the bank's statement. 6 S. If his negligence should cause the bank to honor a forged check or prevent it from recovering the amount it may have already paid on such check. MWSS's own Fact Finding Committee. Ongtengco. 1971. pp. 162. None of these checks. he cannot later complain should the bank refuse to recredit his account with the amount of such check. . It observed that the "office of Mr. an outsider without information from the inside can not possibly pinpoint which of NAWASA's various accounts has sufficient balance to cover all these fraudulent checks.00 could have been prevented. 106 Va. Zaporteza however. 117 US 96. his check stubs and other pertinent records within a reasonable time. Campos and Campos. together with all the cancelled checks which have been cashed by their respective holders. If Mr. It is accepted banking procedure for the depository bank to furnish its depositors bank statements and debt and credit memos through the mail. Notes and Selected Cases on Negotiable Instruments Law. While knowledge as to such facts may be obtained through the possession of a NAWASA check of current issue.printed MWSS's personalized checks. he should also fill out the check stub to which the check is usually attached. 657 . Bank of Biloxi. The NBI Report dated 2 November 1970 was more explicit in stating that laxity exists as NAWASA had no representative at the printing press during the process of the printing and no particular security measure instructions adopted to safeguard the interest of the government in connection with printing of this accountable form. v. cancelled checks. aside from the fact that these fraudulent checks were found to be of the same kind and design as that of NAWASA's own checks..224. Morgan. Zaporteza failed to reconcile the bank statements with MWSS's records. 9. 267268). Ct. 116 ). Emiliano Zaporteza. This stub. (First Nat. Circumstances led NBI to believe that the fraudulent encashment as an “inside job” The records likewise show that MWSS failed to provide appropriate security measures over its own records thereby laying confidential records open to unauthorized persons. was dishonored for insufficiency of funds. the NBI concluded in its Report dated 2 November 1970 that the fraudulent encashment of the 23 checks in question was an "inside job". and further frauds prevented. Duty of depositor to examine bank statements. will contain the number of the check. MWSS requested the drawee bank to discontinue the practice of mailing the bank statements. It is the custom of banks to send to its depositors a monthly statement of the status of their accounts. it should be noted. Deer Island Fish and Oyster Co. As a consequence. Relying on the foregoing statement of Mr. NS 744 . therefore. MWSS failed to provide appropriate security measures over its own records. if properly kept. 166 Miss. 1969 totalling P2. and to report any errors without unreasonable delay. The serial numbers of the checks in question conform with the numbers in current use of NAWASA. but instead to deliver the same to a certain Mr. 146 So. the date of its issue. The NBI Report dated 2 November 1970 stated that had the NAWASA representative come to the PNB early for the statements and had the bank been advised promptly of the reported bogus check. check stubs within reasonable time and to report any error without unreasonable delay When a person opens a checking account with a bank. 7 LRA. This negligence was. Mr. his cancelled checks. Each time he issues a check. If the depositor has filled out his check stubs properly. the proximate cause of the failure to discover the fraud. 8. Thus the NBI believe that the fraudulent act was an inside job or one pulled with inside connivance at NAWASA.
An example of this was the Memorandum of the Assistant Vice-President and Chief Accountant of the PNB dated 17 February 1966 enjoining all current account depositors to be more careful in examining said checks especially those coming from the clearing. the bank gave guidelines to its depositors. Jr. private respondent claimed that he deposited the check "for clearing purposes" only to accommodate Chan. *When BPI demanded the return of $2. pens.541. MWSS was in a better position to detect and prevent the fraudulent encashment of its checks.. to wit: (1) Signatures of drawers should be properly scrutinized and compared with those the bank has on file. it is barred from setting up the defense of forgery under Section 23 of the Negotiable Instruments Law. ISSUE:** Whether or not respondent Napiza is liable under his warranties as a general indorser. Private respondent acceded.. Long before the encashment of the 23 checks in question. (5) Alteration in amount both in figures and words should be carefully examined even if signed by the drawer. therefore. considering MWSS's gross negligence. There is no evidence on record indicating that because of the private printing. Napiza thus endorsed the check and deposited it in a Foreign Currency Deposit Unit (FCDU) Savings Account he maintained with BPI. and inks or took other precautionary measures with the PNB to safeguard its interests. Drawee bank had taken necessary measures in detection of forged checks and prevention of their fraudulent encashment The drawee bank had taken the necessary measures in the detection of forged checks and the prevention of their fraudulent encashment. 13. Drawee bank cannot be faulted for not detecting the fraudulent encashment of the checks The drawee Bank for not having detected the fraudulent encashment of the checks because the printing of MWSS's personalized checks was not done under the supervision and control of the Bank. ISSUE:* Whether private respondent is obliged to return the money paid out by BPI on a counterfeit check even if he deposited the check "for clearing purposes" only to accommodate Chan. having affixed his signature at the dorsal side of the check. Using the blank withdrawal slip given by private respondent to Chan. was able to withdraw the amount of $2. 12.500. one Ruben Gayon.500. mails and window transactions. Even if the checks are forgeries. 66). (3) The texture of the paper used and the printing of the checks should be compared with the sample the bank has on file with the Cashier's Dept. and agreed to deliver to Chan a signed blank withdrawal slip. It turned out that said check deposited by private respondent was a counterfeit check.67 from Napiza's FCDU account. (4) Checks bearing several indorsements should be given a special attention. (6) Checks issued in substantial amounts particularly by depositors who do not usually issue checks in big amounts should be brought to the attention of the drawer by telephone or any fastest means of communication for purposes of confirmation. MWSS barred from setting up defense of forgery Even if the 23 checks in question are considered forgeries.11. the Bank had issued constant reminders to all Current Account Bookkeepers informing them of the activities of forgery syndicates. RULING: . (2) The serial numbers of the checks should be compared with the serial numbers registered with the Cashier's Dept. **Petitioner claims that private respondent. with the understanding that as soon as the check is cleared. and attention of depositors were also invited to keep abreast of previous circulars and memo instructions issued to bookkeepers. As a reminder. Chan went to the office of Benjamin Napiza and requested him to deposit the check in his dollar account by way of accommodation and for the purpose of clearing the same. BPI vs CA FACTS: A certain Henry Chan owned a Continental Bank Manager’s Check payable to "cash" in the amount of Two Thousand Five Hundred Dollars ($2. should be liable for the amount stated therein in accordance with the provision of the Negotiable Instruments Law on the liability of a general indorser (Sec. MWSS furnished the Bank with samples of checks. both of them would go to the bank to withdraw the amount of the check upon private respondent’s presentation to the bank of his passbook.00. Under the circumstances.00).
is not an essential requisite for negotiability under Section 1 of the Negotiable Instruments Law. This check was drawn against Philippine National Bank (PNB). on its part. Held: The present case is unique in the sense that what was altered is the serial number of the check in question. Since the demands of Capitol were not heeded. PBCom followed suit by requesting an explanation and re-crediting from PNB. Capitol sought clarification from PBCom and demanded the re-crediting of the amount.00 was issued by the Ministry of Education Culture (now Department of Education. PBCom credited Capitol's account for the amount stated in the check. Capitol could not in turn.500. filed a third-party complaint against PNB for reimbursement/indemnity with respect to the claims of Capitol.00 on BPI's part was its personnel’s negligence in allowing such withdrawal in disregard of its own rules and the clearing requirement in the banking system. Abante Marketing to reimburse and indemnify PNB for whatever amount PNB pays to PBCom. which modified the appealed judgment by exempting PBCom from liability to Capitol for attorney's fees and ordering PNB to honor the check for P97. with interest as declared by the trial court. Abante Marketing. PNB returned the check to PBCom and debited PBCom's account for the amount covered by the check. a client of Capitol City Development Bank (Capitol).650. in turn. sent the check to PNB for clearing. as collecting agent of Capitol. petitioner BPI. The court dismissed the counterclaims of PBCom and PNB. in allowing the withdrawal of private respondent’s deposit. Capitol deposited the same in its account with the Philippine Bank of Communications (PBCom) which. the court ordered PBCom to re-credit Capitol's account with it the amount.00. The proximate cause of the eventual loss of the amount of $2. Abante Marketing. the trial court ordered PBCom to pay Capitol attorney's fees in the amount of P10. Issue: Whether the change in the serial number of the check may be considered a change that alters the effect of the instrument. The aforementioned alteration did not change the relations between the parties. without pronouncement as to costs. Court of Appeals [GR 107508. The check's serial number is not the sole indication of its origin. An appeal was interposed before the Court of Appeals which rendered its decision on 29 April 1992. ordering PBCom to re-credit or reimburse Capitol the amount of P97. The identity of the issuing government office or agency was not changed thereby . However. PNB. If the purpose of the serial number is merely to identify the issuing government office or agency.650. Culture and Sports [DECS]) payable to F. but that PBCom is entitled to reimburse/indemnify from PNB. its alteration had no material effect whatsoever on the integrity of the check. On 3 October 1989. and thus is a material alteration. Philippine National Bank vs. and subsequently. and pay Capitol attorney's fees of P10. PNB. it can readily be observed. debit Abante Marketing's account since the latter had already withdrawn the amount of the check as of 15 October 1981.000. The sum of money due to the payee remained the same. then proceeded to debit the latter's account for the same amount. The name of the government agency which issued the subject check was prominently printed therein. PNB filed the petition for review on certiorari. plus interest of 12% thereto from 19 October 1981 until the amount is fully paid. and PNB to be. After the check shall have been honored by PNB. A motion for reconsideration of the decision was denied by the appellate Court in its resolution dated 16 September 1992 for lack of merit. an item which. PNB cleared the check as good and thereafter. F. In turn. returned the check to PBCom. the Regional Trial Court rendered its decision. PBCom.000. however. Abante Marketing for the same amount. the reason being that there was a "material alteration" of the check number. BPI assumed the risk of incurring a loss on account of a forged or counterfeit foreign check and hence. The check's issuer was therefore insufficiently identified. On attorney's fees. rendering the referral to the serial number redundant and inconsequential. without pronouncement as to costs. PNB to reimburse and indemnify PBCom for whatever amount PBCom pays to Capitol. BPI violated its own rules by allowing the withdrawal of an amount that is definitely over and above the aggregate amount of private respondent’s dollar deposits that had yet to be cleared. on 19 October 1981. The name of the drawer and the drawee were not altered.00. On the other hand. Kapunan (J): 4 concur Facts: A check with serial number 7-3666-223-3.Ordinarily private respondent may be held liable as an indorser of the check or even as an accommodation party. On 11 August 1981. 25 April 1996] First Division. In so doing. reimbursed or indemnified by F. it should suffer the resulting damage. in turn. deposited the questioned check in its savings account with said bank. dated 7 August 1981 in the amount of P97.00.650. sent the check back to petitioner. failed to exercise the diligence of a good father of a family. it filed a civil suit with the Regional trial Court of Manila against PBCom which in turn. However. filed a fourth-party complaint against Abante Marketing. The intended payee was the same.00.
and the amount of the check was not charged against the account of the another government office or agency which had no liability under the check.000 in shares of stock. the same being an immaterial or innocent one. During that time.000.000. AGRO CONGLOMERATES V." and below the name of the payee are the rubber-stamped words: "Ministry of Educ. They stipulated under a Memorandum of Agreement that the terms of payment would be P1. therefore. This loan was to cover for the payment of P1. SORIANO 348 SCRA 450 FACTS: Petitioner sold to Wonderland Food Industries two parcels of land. an addendum was executed between them. since the relation between them has in effect became one of principal and surety. the alteration in the number of the check did not affect or change the liability of the Ministry of Education and Culture under the check and. However. Quisumbing (J): 4 concur ." These words are not alleged to have been falsely or fraudulently intercalated into the check. & Culture. With the rescission. P2. The trial court held in favor of the bank. Instead of cash payment. The owner issuer of the check is boldly and clearly printed on its face. This addendum was not notarized. Petitioner Soriano signed as maker the promissory notes payable to the bank. They have the right after paying the instrument to seek reimbursement from the party accommodated. PNB. HELD: First. Neither is there any proof that the amount of the check was erroneously charged against the account of a government office or agency other than the Ministry of Education and Culture. and the balance would be payable in monthly installments. there was no contract of sale that materialized. the bank was in financial distress and this prompted it to endorse the promissory notes for collection. It didn't find merit to the contention that Wonderland was the one to be held liable for the promissory notes. as it turned out. The genuineness of the amount and the signatures therein of then Deputy Minister of Education Hermenegildo C. Court of Appeals [GR 117857. Penomio C. The bank gave ample time to petitioners then to satisfy their obligations. Furthermore. The addendum thereon likewise lost its efficacy. The original agreement was that Wonderland would pay cash and petitioner would deliver possession of the farmlands. Thereafter. second line from the top: "MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND CULTURE. the petitioners failed to pay the obligations as they were due. thus cannot refuse to accept the check in question on the ground that the serial number was altered. The ownership of the check is established without the necessity of recourse to the serial number. is immaterial. the vendee authorized the vendor to obtain a loan from the financier on which the vendee bound itself to pay for.000.000 in cash. there was confusion in the persons of the principal debtor and surety.000. that petitioner would instead secure a loan and the settlement of the same would be shouldered by Wonderland. Dumlao and of the resident Auditor. qualifying the cash payment. Petitioners became liable as accommodation parties. 2 February 2001] Second Division. the contract of surety between Woodland and petitioner was extinguished by the rescission of the contract of sale of the farmland. Alvarez are not challenged. But this was changed through an addendum. Neither is the authenticity of the different codes appearing therein questioned. Wong vs. Hence.
Rather. or 180 days. the agents would come around to collect the payments.500. Wong was an agent of Limtong Press Inc.375. LPI refused to accept the checks as guarantees. LPI would print sample calendars.500.00. These checks were initially intended to guarantee the calendar orders of customers who failed to issue post-dated checks. Held: Section 2 (Evidence of knowledge of insufficient funds) of BP 22 provides that "The making. On 6 November 1987. After printing the calendars. LPI deposited the checks with Rizal Commercial Banking Corporation (RCBC).00. On 28 October 1994. In early December 1985. following company policy. but such knowledge could still be proven by direct or circumstantial evidence. all dated 30 December 1985 and drawn payable to the order of LPI.00 (Criminal Case CBU-12055. The checks were returned for the reason "account closed. On 20 June 1986.410.07. to pay Limtong the sums of P5. Wong pleaded not guilty. LPI deposited the checks 157 days after the date of the check. on 5 June 1986.00. Issue: Whether the presumption of knowledge of lack of funds under Section 2 of BP 22 should not apply to Wong.Facts: Luis S. However. and that he should not be expected to keep his bank account active and funded beyond the 90-day period. Before the maturity of the checks. nowhere in said provision does the law require a maker to maintain funds in his bank account for only 90 days.00. Upon arraignment. 66143464 and 660143463 all issued on 30 December 1985 together with the legal rate of interest from the time of the filing of the criminal charges in Court and pay the costs. however. Wong prevailed upon LPI not to deposit the checks and promised to replace them within 30 days. Contrary to Wong's assertions. LPI did not deposit the checks because of the reassurance of Wong that he would issue new checks. The agents would get the purchase orders of customers and forward them to LPI. a check becomes stale after more than 6 months.00 and P3.375. Instead." To mitigate the harshness of the law in its application. it affirmed the trial court's decision in toto. Wong issued 6 postdated checks totaling P18. and (2) the dishonor of the check and failure of the maker to make arrangements for payment in full within 5 banking days after notice thereof. (LPI)." By current banking practice. 12057. the trial court issued its decision. the maker or drawer makes arrangements for payment of the check by the bank or pays the holder the amount of the check. Wong was charged with 3 counts of violation of BP 22 under three separate Informations for the three checks amounting to P5.025. had a history of unremitted collections.077. as he avers that LPI deposited the checks 157 days after the 30 December 1985 maturity date. or makes arrangements for payment in full by the drawee of such check within five (5) banking days after receiving notice that such check has not been paid by the drawee. Wong failed to make arrangements for payment within 5 banking days. then give them to agents to present to customers.07 difference. Trial ensued. finding Wong guilty beyond reasonable doubt of the offense of Violations of Section 1 of BP 22 in 3 Counts and sentencing Wong to serve an imprisonment of 4 months for each count. "a check must be presented for payment within a reasonable time after its issue or the drawer will be discharged from liability thereon to the extent of the loss caused by the delay. Wong reneged on his promise. On 30 August 1990. P6. Hence said checks cannot be considered stale.410. After the . Hence. when presented within ninety (90) days from the date of the check. LPI would ship the calendars directly to the customers. Under Section 186 of the Negotiable Instruments Law. P3. It is not an element of the offense. a manufacturer of calendars. Wong. That the check must be deposited within 90 days is simply one of the conditions for the prima facie presumption of knowledge of lack of funds to arise. Hence. Thereafter. Upon his failure to do so. which he duly acknowledged in a confirmation receipt he co-signed with his wife. Since this involves a state of mind difficult to establish. shall be prima facie evidence of knowledge of such insufficiency of funds or credit unless such maker or drawer pays the holder thereof the amount due thereon. drawing and issuance of a check payment of which is refused by the drawee because of insufficient funds in or credit with such bank. Wong filed the petition for review on certiorari. and P6. the clear import of the law is to establish a prima facie presumption of knowledge of such insufficiency of funds under the following conditions (1) presentment within 90 days from date of the check. and 12058.00 corresponding to the amounts indicated in Allied Banking Checks 660143451. LPI waived the P52. the parties agreed to apply the checks to the payment of Wong's unremitted collections for 1984 amounting to P18. the statute provides that such presumption shall not arise if within 5 banking days from receipt of the notice of dishonor. Only the presumption of knowledge of insufficiency of funds was lost." An essential element of the offense is "knowledge" on the part of the maker or drawer of the check of the insufficiency of his funds in or credit with the bank to cover the check upon its presentment. LPI through counsel notified Wong of the dishonor. the statute itself creates a prima facie presumption of such knowledge where payment of the check "is refused by the drawee because of insufficient funds in or credit with such bank when presented within 90 days from the date of the check. Wong's customers were required to issue postdated checks before LPI would accept their purchase orders. LPI was constrained to deposit the said checks. However. Wong appealed his conviction to the Court of Appeals. Neither does it discharge Wong from his duty to maintain sufficient funds in the account within a reasonable time thereof." The dishonor of the checks was evidenced by the RCBC return slip.
Said check was given to Mr. Wong was duly notified of such fact but failed to make arrangements for full payment within 5 banking days thereof. presentment must be made within a reasonable time after its issue. Jefferson Rivera. Gueco anytime. counterclaims or suits for damages. International Corporate Bank (now Union Bank of the Philippines) vs. Francis Gueco was served summons and was fetched by the sheriff and representative of the bank for a meeting in the bank premises. In consideration thereof. the car was detained inside the bank's compound.000. presentment is sufficient if made within a reasonable time after the last . the Bank. the Spouses executed promissory notes which were payable in monthly installments and chattel mortgage over the car to serve as security for the notes. The case was elevated to the Court of Appeals. Branch 45. Branch 227. in a letter addressed to Ms. There is sufficient evidence that Wong had knowledge of the insufficiency of his funds in or credit with the drawee bank at the time of issuance of the checks.00. the RTC held that there was a meeting of the minds between the parties as to the reduction of the amount of indebtedness and the release of the car but said agreement did not include the signing of the joint motion to dismiss as a condition sine qua non for the effectivity of the compromise. Subsequently. however.000. Branch 227 of Quezon City. an instrument not payable on demand must be presented for payment on the day it falls due.00 as moral damages.checks were dishonored.00 as attorney's fees. A stale check is one which has not been presented for payment within a reasonable time after its issue. issued the decision. Gueco obtained a loan from petitioner International Corporate Bank (now Union Bank of the Philippines) to purchase a car — a Nissan Sentra 1600 4DR. the Bank's Assistant Vice President demanded payment of the amount of P184. After several demand letters and meetings with bank representatives.00 which represents the unpaid balance for the car loan.000. On 29 August 1995. Gueco went to the bank and talked with its Administrative Support Auto Loans/Credit Card Collection Head. denying the petition for review on certiorari and affirming the Decision of the RTC of Quezon City. Consequently. Gueco need not sign the motion for joint dismissal considering that they had not yet filed their Answer. vice president of the bank.00. in toto. On 28 August 1995. Kapunan (J): 4 concur Facts: Spouses Francis S. therefore. The Metropolitan Trial Court dismissed the complaint for lack of merit. In other respect. should not be paid. However. dated 4 September 1995.000. When the instrument is payable on demand. Gueco instructed the bank to disregard the "hold order" letter and demanded the immediate release of his car.00 as exemplary damages. Under the negotiable instruments law. and P25. While there is controversy as to whether the document evidencing the order to hold payment of the check was formally offered as evidence by the bank. It is the contention of the Gueco spouses and their counsel that Dr. In its decision. the Gueco spouses initiated a civil action for damages before the Metropolitan Trial Court of Quezon City. Gueco and Ma. The Spouses defaulted in payment of installments.000. insisted that the joint motion to dismiss is standard operating procedure in their bank to effect a compromise and to preclude future filing of claims. Branch 33.000. Dr. in Civil Case Q-97-31176. Gueco delivered a manager's check in the amount of P150. It is valueless and. On appeal to the Regional Trial Court. Rivera. with costs against the bank.000. The negotiations resulted in the further reduction of the outstanding loan to P150. 12 February 2001] First Division. the court affirmed the decision of the Metropolitan Trial Court Branch 33.00. which on 17 February 2000. The bank filed the petition for review on certiorari with the Supreme Court. Dr. Dr. On 25 August 1995. (Short facts: In the meeting of 29 August 1995. Desi Tomas. to which the former replied that the condition of signing the joint motion to dismiss must be satisfied and that they had kept the check which could be claimed by Dr. After some negotiations and computation. 1989 Model. Held: NO. Desi Tomas. it appears from the pleadings that said check has not been encashed. Luz E. Gueco refused to sign the joint motion to dismiss. the Bank filed on 7 August 1995 a civil action (Civil Case 65895) for "Sum of Money with Prayer for a Writ of Replevin" before the Metropolitan Trial Court of Pasay City. the amount was lowered to P154. and to pay the spouses the sum of P50. he was made to execute a statement to the effect that he was withholding the payment of the check.) Issue: Whether the bank was negligent in opting not to deposit or use the manager’s check. In the case of a bill of exchange. since Dr. Spouses Gueco [GR 141968.00 but the car was not released because of his refusal to sign the Joint Motion to Dismiss. Dr.000. and to pay the cost of suit. as a result of the non-payment of the reduced amount on that date. the decision of the Metropolitan Trial Court was reversed. Gueco delivered a manager's check representing the reduced amount of P150. The court further ordered the bank to return immediately the subject car to the spouses in good working condition. P25. Dr. a representative of the bank However.
ordering them to pay jointly and severally to SIHI P 229. The latter agreed to grant the same subject to the condition that the former should wait until December 1980 when he would have the money. NSWII entered into an agreement with State Investment House. Herein. Section 52(d) provides that in order . The total value of the postdated checks amounted to P 299.047. the bank held on the check and refused to encash the same because of the controversy surrounding the signing of the joint motion to dismiss. it becomes imperative that the circumstances that caused its non-presentment be determined. failure to present for payment within a reasonable time will result to the discharge of the drawer only to the extent of the loss caused by the delay. The Court saw no bad faith or negligence in this position taken by the Bank. Subsequently.450. Inc. If treated as promissory note. Held : NO. the lower court rendered judgment against the spouses. Failure to present on time. these checks were dishonored by reason of "insufficient funds". Thus. respectively. (NSWII) requested for a loan from Harris Chua. In a case. In this case. Even assuming that presentment is needed." regard is to be had to the nature of the instrument. New Sikatuna Wood Industries. A check must be presented for payment within a reasonable time after its issue. The spouses Chua filed a third party complaint against NSWII for reimbursement and indemnification in the event that they be held liable to SIHI. Herein.91 under a deed of sale. does not totally wipe out all liability. SIHI claimed that despite demands on Peña Chua to make good said checks.00. Inc. On the third party complaint. even a delay of 1 week or two (2) days. For failure of NSWII to answer the third party complaint despite due service of summons. and in determining what is a "reasonable time. It is really the bank's own check and may be treated as a promissory note with the bank as a maker. much less shown that they or the bank which issued the manager's check has suffered damage or loss caused by the delay or non-presentment. Fernan (CJ): 3 concur. In fact. the former assigned and discounted with SIHI 11 postdated checks including the 3 postdated checks issued by Peña Chua to NSWII. and accepted in advance by the act of its issuance. Intermediate Appellate Court [GR 72764. the latter was declared in default. Issue : Whether SIHI is a holder in due course as to entitle it to proceed against the spouses Chua for the amount stated in the dishonored cross checks.00 with interest at the rate of 12% per annum from 24 February 1981 until fully paid. dismissing the complaint. Failure of a payee to encash a check for more than 10 years undoubtedly resulted in the check becoming stale. it is a bill of exchange drawn by the cashier of a bank upon the bank itself. and the facts of the particular case. The check becomes the primary obligation of the bank which issues it and constitutes its written promise to pay upon demand. if the check had become stale.945. NSWII was ordered to pay the spouses all amounts said spouses may pay to SIHI on account of the case. 13 July 1989] Third Division. It has been held that. Anita Pena Chua (Harris Chua's wife) issued 3 crossed checks payable to NSWII all postdated 22 December 1980. the Gueco spouses have not alleged.402. under the specific circumstances of the certain cases constituted unreasonable time as a matter of law. A manager's check is one drawn by the bank's manager upon the bank itself. It is similar to a cashier's check both as to effect and use. Branch XXXVII (Civil Case 82-10547). The test is whether the payee employed such diligence as a prudent man exercises in his own affairs. On 30 April 1984. "stop payment" and "account closed". the check involved is not an ordinary bill of exchange but a manager's check. In effect. (SIHI) whereby for and in consideration of the sum of Pl. the usage of trade or business with respect to such instruments. Definitely. On the other hand. State Investment House Inc. the drawer would be the maker and in which case the holder need not prove presentment for payment or present the bill to the drawee for acceptance. This is because the nature and theory behind the use of a check points to its immediate use and payability. 1 on leave Facts: Shortly before 5 September 1980. the latter failed to pay the same necessitating the former to file an action for collection against the latter and her husband before the Regional Trial Court of Manila.450. the Intermediate Appellate Court (now Court of Appeals) reversed the lower court's judgment in its decision. A cashier's check is a check of the bank's cashier on his own or another check. In view of this agreement. with costs against SIHI. The mere issuance of it is considered an acceptance thereof.negotiation thereof. thus. and the costs of suit.00 as and for attorney's fees. Section 52(c) of the Negotiable Instruments Law defines a holder in due course as one who takes the instrument "in good faith and for value". a check payable on demand which was long overdue by about two and a half (2-1/2) years was considered a stale check. the original obligation to pay certainly has not been erased. On appeal filed by the spouses (AC-GR CV 04523). P 29. SIHI filed the petition for review. (SIHI) vs. When the three checks issued by Pena Chua were allegedly deposited by SIHI. the legal situation amounts to an acknowledgment of liability in the sum stated in the check.
The Negotiable Instruments Law does not provide that a holder who is not a holder in due course may not in any case recover on the instrument. the three subject checks had been crossed generally and issued payable to NSWII which could only mean that the drawer had intended the same for deposit only by the rightful person. crossing a check is done by placing two parallel lines diagonally on the left top portion of the check. the Intermediate Appellate Court (now Court of Appeals). that such instruments are mentioned in Section 541 of the Code of Commerce. Herein.. Consequently. it was not the payee who presented the same for payment and therefore. if the payment was not correctly made. Herein. Bataan Cigar and Cigarette Factory vs. It does not follow that simply because SIHI was not a holder in due course as found by the appellate court for having taken the instruments in question with notice that the same is for deposit only to the account of payee named in the subject checks.e. such as lack of consideration between the spouses and NSWII (no deposits were made. Apparently. Issue : Whether SIHI is a proper party authorized to make presentment of the cross checks in question. Under usual practice. Thus. or by some person authorized to receive payment on his behalf. or crossing may be general wherein between two parallel diagonal lines are written the words "and Co. under Section 59 every holder is deemed prima facie to be a holder in due course. Nocon (J): 3 concur . Held : YES. Consequently. But the Court has taken cognizance of the practice that a check with two parallel lines in the upper left hand corner means that it could only be deposited and may not be converted into cash. does not mention "crossed checks". that NSWII negotiated the three checks in breach of faith in violation of Section 55. which is a personal defense available to the drawer of the check. 3 March 1994] Second Division. correctly elucidated that the effects of crossing a check are: the check may not be encashed but only deposited in the bank. and that tThe payment made to a person other than the banker or institution shall not exempt the person on whom it is drawn. Failing in this respect. SIHI was subject to personal defenses. prevents him from being considered in good faith and thus he is not a holder in due course. the Negotiable Instruments Law regulating the issuance of negotiable checks as well as the lights and liabilities arising therefrom. hence the three checks are without consideration as per Section 28. Gatchalian (GR L-15126. the drawer did not become liable. NSWII. SIHI could not recover on the checks. in which case the drawee should not encash the same but merely accept the same for deposit. presentment for payment to be sufficient must be made (a) by the holder. and the liability did not attach to the drawer. Held : NO. otherwise he is not a holder in due course.that one may be a holder in due course. that his failure to inquire from the holder. in the absence of due presentment. Relying on the ruling in Ocampo v. the check may be negotiated only once to one who has an account with a bank. The effect therefore of crossing a check relates to the mode of its presentment for payment. Issue : Whether SIHI can still recover even if it is not a holder in due course. Admittedly. the payee named therein. hence no loan was made. the purpose for which the three checks were cross despite the warning of the crossing. Under Section 72 of the Negotiable Instruments Law. the payee is declared guilty of gross negligence amounting to legal absence of good faith and as such the consensus of authority is to the effect that the holder of the check is not a holder in good faith." However. Further. in which case the drawee should pay only with the intervention of that bank or company. that being not a holder in due course. The only disadvantage of a holder who is not in due course is that the negotiable instrument is subject to defenses as if it were non-negotiable. Negotiable Instruments Law. such circumstance should put the payee on inquiry and upon him devolves the duty to ascertain the holder's title to the check or the nature of his possession. Court of Appeals [GR 93048. i. there was no proper presentment. it is necessary that "at the time the instrument was negotiated to him he had no notice of any defect in the title of the person negotiating it. 30 November 1961). SIHI may recover from NSWII if the latter has no valid excuse for refusing payment. The Supreme Court agreed with the appellate court. As to who the holder or authorized person will be depends on the instructions stated on the face of the check. the appellate court said that when SIHI rediscounted the check knowing that it was a crossed check he was knowingly violating the avowed intention of crossing the check. Pena Chua. The crossing may be special wherein between the two parallel lines is written the name of a bank or a business institution. and the act of crossing the check serves as a warning to the holder that the check has been issued for a definite purpose so that he must inquire if he has received the check pursuant to that purpose. considering that SIHI is not the proper party authorized to make presentment of the checks in question. no right of recourse is available to SIHI against the drawer of the subject checks. NIL)." or none at all as in the case at bar.
The trial court pronounced SIHI as having a valid claim being a holder in due course. (Note: It does not mean. post dated 31 March 1979. (SIHI) On 19 July 1978. BCCFI. On December 19 and 26. the burden is on the holder to prove that he or some person under whom he claims.00). Hence. Issue: Whether SIHI.500.000.00. a corporation involved in the manufacturing of cigarettes. King Tim Pua George (George King). is not an indispensable party. respectively.000 bales of tobacco leaf starting October 1978. contrary to Sec. post dated September 15 & 30. Consequently. It further said that the non-inclusion of King Tim Pua George as party defendant is immaterial in the case. acquired the title as holder in due course. However.On 15 May 1980.00.100. respondents. Herein. BCCFI agreed to purchase additional 2.) CITYTRUST BANKING CORPORATION. it instituted the case for collection on three unpaid checks. George King was simultaneously dealing with State Investment House. Relying on the supplier's representation that he would complete delivery within three months from 5 December 1978. 52(c) of the Negotiable Instruments Law. In as much as George King failed to deliver the bales of tobacco leaf as agreed despite BCCFI's demand." Section 59 of the NIL further states that every holder is deemed prima facie a holder in due course. The Court of Appeals affirmed the decision of the trial court. despite the supplier's failure to deliver in accordance with their earlier agreement. stop payment was also ordered on checks TCBTs 608967 & 608968 on September 14 & 28. he again sold to SIHI checks TCBT 608967 & 608968. in order to amply cover six (6) postdated checks she issued.000. payable sometime in September 1979. a second indorser. with the petitioner at its Burgosbranch in Calamba. Private respondentaverred that she. drawn by BCCFI. SIHI is not a holder in due course. since he. naming only BCCFI as party defendant. Again BCCFI issued postdated crossed checks in the total amount of P1. really.000. petitioner. a businesswoman. Efforts of SIHI to collect from BCCFI having failed. BCCFI's defense in stopping payment is as good to SIHI as it is to George King. George King. the checks were issued with the intention that George King would supply BCCFI with the bales of tobacco leaf.Facts: Bataan Cigar & Cigarette Factory. when it is shown that the title of any person who has negotiated the instrument was defective. is a holder in due course. (b) That he became the holder of it before it was overdue. he sold at a discount check TCBT 551826 bearing an amount of P164. both in the amount of P100. a holder of crossed checks. she deposited with petitioner the amount of Thirty One Thousand Five Hundred Pesos (P31. on 13 July 1978 issued crossed checks post dated sometime in March 1979 in the total amount of P820.vs. Because. naming George King as payee to SIHI. "A holder in due course is a holder who has taken the instrument under the following conditions: (a) That it is complete and regular upon its face. BCCFI cannot be obliged to pay the checks.00. a stop payment order on all checks payable to George King. BCCFI filed the petition for review. engaged one of its suppliers. including check TCBT 551826. i. SIHI can collect from the immediate indorser. BCCFI. 1979 respectively. if such was the fact. (c) That he took it in good faith and for value. Crossing of checks should put the holder on inquiry and upon him devolves the duty to ascertain the indorser's title to the check or the nature of his possession. to be able to collect from the drawer.000. however. The .e. Subsequently. incash. In consideration thereof. to deliver 2. drawn by BCCFI in favor of George King. (d) That at the time it was negotiated to him he had no notice of any infirmity in the instrument or defect in the title of the person negotiating it. BCCFI issued on 30 March 1979. THE INTERMEDIATE APPELLATE COURT and EMME HERRERO. that SIHI could not recover from the checks. starting September of 1979. Inc.00. the holder is declared guilty of gross negligence amounting to legal absence of good faith. and as such the consensus of authority is to the effect that the holder of the check is not a holder in due course. Held: The Negotiable Instruments Law states what constitutes a holder in due course. The only disadvantage of a holder who is not a holder in due course is that the instrument is subject to defenses as if it were nonnegotiable. During these times. made regular deposits. 1979. 1978. There being failure of consideration. due to George King's failure to deliver the tobacco leaves. Inc. (BCCFI). and without notice that it had been previously dishonored. When presented for payment all these checks weredishonored due to insufficient funds. Laguna.500 bales of tobacco leaves. as payee. Failing in this respect. FACTS: A complaint was filed by private respondent Emme Herrero for damages against petitioner Citytrust.
The petitioner in its answer. Herrero. Thisis so because it is not likely to commit an error in one's name than merely relying on numbers which are difficult toremember. however. Intermediate Appellate Court. in her deposit slip. . We are not persuaded that defendant bank was not free from blame for the fiasco.down to the last centavo. any delay in crediting their account can be embarrassing to them as inthe case of plaintiff. was erroneous because. that Having accepted a deposit in the course of its business transactions. defendant's tellershould not have fed her deposit slip to the computer knowing that her account number written thereon was wrong as it contained only seven (7) digits. asserted that it is due to Emmes fault why the checks were dishonored.In the case before Us. 03639. the complete name of plaintiff depositor appears in bold letters on the deposit slip (Exh. Plaintiff's account is a "current account" which should immediately be posted. Second. reiterated in Bank of Philippine Islands vs. 183 SCRA 360. As it happened. It is also its obligation to see to it that all funds invested with it are properly accounted forand duly posted in its ledgers.e. For then she could have readily detected that the account number in the name of "Emma E. prom.RTC rendered judgment in favor of Citytrust and against Emme Herrero.We have already ruled in Mundin v. who are supposed to be always "on-the-go".. We view the useof numbers as simply for the convenience of the bank but was never intended to disregard the real name of its depositors. "Emma E. In the first place. wesimilarly said. efficient and satisfactory service. and withdrawing therefrom.R. as pointed out by defendant. or should be. the forbearance should becommensurated with prompt. For. This.Before the SC. the depositor expects the bank to treat his account with utmost fidelity.part of the training and standard operating procedure of the bank's employees. especially a number with eight (8) digits as the account numbers of defendant's depositors. the depositors are not concerned with banking procedure. and as promptly as possible. it contained only seven (7) digits instead of eight (8). contained in its "brochures" governingcurrent account deposits. Among such rules. the ruling of the RTC was reversed bythe CA. At least. That is the responsibility of the bank and its employees. could have been avoided at the first instance had the teller of defendant bank performed her duties efficiently and well. That is. like plaintiff. This has to be done if the account is to .Bank clients are supposed to rely on the services extended by the bank. It should not be a matter of the bank alone receiving deposits. Court of Appeals. earning interest thereon. The bank must record every single transaction accurately. private respondent has also the duty to use her account in accordance with therules of petitioner bank to which she has contractually acceded. CV No. ISSUE: Is the petitioner bank liable for damages? YES RULING: We cannot uphold the position of defendant. "B"). lending out money and collecting interests. vs. obviously. and that the deposit was made in her name. is clearly written on saiddeposit slip (Exh. Herrero" was erroneous and would be rejected by the computer. that In every case. Citytrust assertedthat instead of stating her correct account number. In Simex International (Manila). yet. the petitioner bank concedes that it is its obligation to honor checks issued by private respondent whichare sufficiently funded. Depositors are only concerned with the facility of depositing their money. 007400. it is a fact that her name. it does not earn interest. whether such account consists only of a few hundred pesos or of millions." In fact. if any.particularly businessmen. indeed. i.last check No. However. quoting thecourt a quo in an almost identical set of facts. even if it be true that there was error on the part of the plaintiff inomitting a "zero" in her account number. was personally redeemed by privaterespondent in cash before it could be redeposited. There could beno mistaking in her name. 2. plaintiff's deposit had to be consigned to thesuspense accounts pending verification. 29000823. AC-G.We subscribe to the above disquisitions of the appellate court. On the other hand. according to defendant. Nov. "B").. including the assurance that their deposits will beduly credited them as soon as they are made. she inaccurately wrote 2900823. it contends. Inc. 1985. Far East Bank & Trust Co. . and it is its duty to protect in return its many clients anddepositors who transact business with it. To post a deposit in somebodyelse's name despite the name of the depositor clearly written on the deposit slip is indeed sheer negligence whichcould have easily been avoided if defendant bank exercised due diligence and circumspection in the acceptanceand posting of plaintiff's deposit. This is controlling in determining in whose account the deposit is made or should be posted.The bank is engaged in business impressed with public interest. kindly insure accuracy in filing said deposit slip forms as we hold ourselves freeof any liability for loss due to an incorrect account number indicated in the deposit slip although thename of the depositor is correctly written. the teller should not have accepted plaintiff's deposit without correcting the account number on the deposit slipwhich. After all. it behooved upon defendant bank to see toit and without recklessness that the depositor was accurately credited therefor. in cautioning depository banks on their fiduciary responsibility. Herrero". 206 SCRA 408. but. "Emme E. is the following printed provision:In making a deposit . For.
it is a fact that her name. Tan issued 2 personal checks both dated March 18.000. IAC in point In a most recent case decided by the Court. 2. RCBC debited the amount covered by the same cashier's check from the account of Tan. The trial court further held that for having failed to prove by any receipt or writing to underpin it. Kapunan (J): 4 concurring Facts: Ramon Tan. Check 040719 in the name of Go Lac for P5.000. The Intermediate Appellate Court. temperate and moderate damages of P5. March 16.000. Emma E. vs. City Trust Corp.00.00 which is 15% of the sum awarded to Tan.00 she issued were dishonored for insufficiency of funds. Puerto Princesa branch. when he received the bank's debit memo. reversing the decision of the lower court and dismissing the complaint without pronouncement as to cost.000. City Trust case: Name and not account number controlling where deposit is made and should be posted Even if it be true that there was error on the part of the depositor in omitting a zero in her account number. RCBC erroneously sent the same cashier's check for clearing to the Central Bank which was returned for having been "missent" or "misrouted. CA [G. had maintained since 1976 Current Account 109058068 with Rizal Commercial Banking Corporation (RCBC)'s Binondo branch. more than 30 days from Tan's deposit date of the cashier's check.000 pesos as attorney's fees. Tan vs. This is so because it is not likely to commit an error in one's name that merely relying on numbers which are difficult to remember. six postdated checks amounting to P20. payable to his order.00. yet. as attorney's fees and to pay costs of suit.00 and attorney's fees of P4. found the appeal meritorious and ordered the bank to pay nominal damages of P2.000 pesos as moral damages and the sum of P50. December 20. can cause the depositor not a little embarrassment if not also financial loss and perhaps even civil andcriminal litigation. 108555. the depositor. especially a number with 8 digits as the account numbers of the bank's depositors. 4 Tan. The Court of Appeals." The next day.R.000. The use of . 22 days after the day the cashier's check was deposited for insufficiency of funds. The Regional Trial Court dismissed the complaint for lack of merit.000.00 as moral damages. RCBC at this time had not informed Tan of its action which the latter claims he learned of only 42 days after. in the amount of P30.00 as exemplary damages.035. to avoid carrying cash while enroute to Manila. The Court of Appeals on 12 January 1993 rendered a decision. a trader-businessman and community leader in Puerto Princesa. instead of stating her correct account number 29000823 inaccurately wrote 2900823. ordering RCBC Binondo Branch to pay Tan damages and attorney's fees in the total amount of P1. This is controlling in determining in whose account the deposit is made or should be posted. Herrero. Check 040718 in the name of MS Development Trading Corporation for P6. alleging to have suffered humiliation and loss of face in the business sector due to the bounced checks. specifically on March 16.209. involving damages against City Trust Banking Corporation. 1. The trial court rendered a decision on 28 December 1990 in Tan's favor. he secured a Cashier's Check L 406000126 from the Philippine Commercial Industrial Bank (PCIB). plus costs. and the fact that the cashier's check was accepted. confident that the bank will deliver it as and to whomever he directs.053.] First Division.000. On the same day. such as the dishonor of a check without goodreason. Civil Case 2101). 1994.5000 was presented on April 25. filed a complaint against RCBC for damages in the RTC Palawan and Puerto Princesa (Branch 47. No. The Supreme Court reversed the decision of the Court of Appeals and ordered RCBC Binondo Branch to pay Tan the amount of P100. Relying on the common knowledge that a cashier's check was as good as cash. Because of this error. that the usual banking practice that local checks are cleared within 3 working days and regional checks within 7 working days. On 11 March 1988. City Trust Corporation v. P200. P135.000. A blunder on the part of the bank.70 was returned twice on March 24. nine (9) days from his deposits date and again on April 26. RCBC appealed to the Court of Appeals (CA-GR CV 31083). He deposited the check in his account with RCBC Binondo on March 15 (by filing a local check deposit slip). broken down as follows: P700. is clearly written on said deposit slip. Tan's claim for actual damage is denied for lack of merit. however.reflect at anygiven time the amount of money the depositor can dispose of as he sees fit.
as a business affected with public interest and because of the nature of its functions. was erroneous because. First. it contained only 7. indeed. Depositors are only concerned with the facility of depositing their money. For. That is. lending out money and collecting interests. if any. 7. Pilipinas Bank case: Use of wrong deposit slip not proximate cause of clearing fiasco The bank is not expected to be infallible but. they wholly repose trust in the bank personnel's mastery of banking. much more of clearing procedures.numbers is simply for the convenience of the bank but was never intended to disregard the real name of its depositors. Bank cannot exculpate itself from liability RCBC cannot exculpate itself from liability by claiming that its depositor "impliedly instructed" the bank to clear his check with the Central Bank by filling a local check deposit slip. 3. This. efficient and satisfactory service. still. In the first place. any delay in crediting their account can be embarrassing to them. This gave RCBC more than ample time to have cleared the cashier's check had it corrected its "missending" the same upon return from Central . why would RCBC follow a patently erroneous act born of ignorance or inattention or both. In the instant case. City Trust case: Depositors not concerned with banking procedures Depositors are not concerned with banking procedure. For then she could have readily detected that the account number in the name of Emma E. Where the conclusion is inevitable that the bank had been remiss in the performance of its duty and obligation to its client. The depositor's account is a current account which should immediately be posted. As soon as their deposits are accepted by the bank teller. After all. the bank is under obligation to treat the accounts of its depositors with meticulous care. or should be. including the assurance that their deposits will be duly credited them as soon as they are made. In fact. and it is its duty to protect in return its many clients and depositors who transact business with it. and withdrawing therefrom. it does not earn interest. the deposit had to be consigned to the suspense accounts pending verification. Herrero. the complete name of the depositor appears in bold letters on the deposit slip. obviously. Thus. City Trust case: Duty of banks Bank clients are supposed to rely on the services extended by the bank. Check 040719 and Check 040718 were presented for payment more than 45 days from the day the cashier's check was deposited. Second. the teller should not have accepted the deposit without correcting the account number on the deposits slip which. Herrero was erroneous and would be rejected by the computer. Second. always having in mind the fiduciary nature of their relationship. 5. Neither should everyone else down the line who processed the same check for clearing have allowed the check to be sent to Central Bank. teller negligent The bank was not free from blame for the fiasco. City Trust case: Bank not free from blame. There could be no mistaking in her name. At least. particularly businessmen. could have been avoided at the first instance had the teller of the bank performed her duties efficiently and well. It should not be a matter of the bank alone receiving deposits. digits instead of 8. That is the responsibility of the bank and its employees. the forbearance should be commensurated with prompt. 4. It is also its obligation to see to it that all funds invested with it are properly accounted for and duly posted in its ledgers. 8. The bank is engaged in business impressed with public interests. Emma E. who are supposed to be always onthe-go. bank transactions pass through a succession of bank personnel whose duty is to check and countercheck transactions for possible errors. as well as to itself. their and the bank's sworn profession of diligence and meticulousness in giving irreproachable service. 6. earning interest thereon. it must bear the blame for not discovering the mistake of its teller despite the established procedure requiring the papers and bank books to pass through a battery of bank personnel whose duty it is to check and countercheck them for possible errors. the bank's teller should not have fed her deposit slip to the computer knowing that her account number written thereon was wrong as it contained only 7 digits. and that the deposit was made in her name. the officials and employees tasked to do that did not perform their duties with due care. Depositors do not pretend to be past master of banking technicalities. part of the training and standard operating procedure of the bank's employees. Bank had ample time to correct the cashier’s check “missending” The two dishonored checks issued by Tan. Apparently. As it happened. the teller should not have accepted the local deposit slip with the cashier's check that on its face was clearly a regional check without calling the depositor's attention to the mistake at the very moment this was presented to her.
on exemplary or corrective damages Article 2225 of the New Civil Code states that “Exemplary damages or corrective damages are imposed. liquidated or compensatory damages. 9. located at corner Retiro and Cadiz Streets. — 6118/T-28993. what was presented for deposit was not just an ordinary check but a cashier's check payable to the account of the depositor himself.000. 23 January 1998] First Division. integrity and honor behind the check. PCIB by issuing the check created an unconditional credit in favor of any collecting bank..60 square meters. Assurance of payment in ordinary check An ordinary check is not a mere undertaking to pay an amount of money. Inc. temperate. as it is rooted in practice. for which he is entitled to recover. Papa. PE. 10. La Loma. but before the title to the subject property had been released.00 against Tan's account and left it at that. its negligence caused the private respondent to suffer mental anguish.” 14.U. Butte passed away. The basis of the perception being confidence. a cashier's check is the bank's order to pay drawn upon itself. Valencia [GR 105188. Branch 151. Valencia and Co. 2217. had been mortgaged by her to the Associated Banking Corporation (now Associated Citizens Bank). Butte. American Express International vs. IAC. Myron C. By its very nature. Papa vs. v. acting as attorney-in-fact of Angela M. tradition. embarrassment and humiliation. on moral damages Article 2220 of the New Civil Code provides that “Willful injury to property may be a legal ground for awarding moral damages if the court should find that. Papa. that prior to the alleged sale. such damages are justly due. Nature of Cashier’s check A cashier's check is a primary obligation of the issuing bank and accepted in advance by its mere issuance. it was held that “while petitioner was not in bad faith. A cashier's check by its peculiar character and general use in the commercial world is regarded substantially to be as good as the money which it represents. through Valencia. by way of example or correction for the public good.” 13. that despite representations made by Valencia to the bank to release the title to the property sold to Peñarroyo. and covered by Transfer Certificate of Title 28993 of the Register of Deeds of Quezon City. Inc. 11. that after the alleged sale. the bank refused to release it unless and until all the mortgaged properties of the late Butte were also redeemed.Bank using the correct slip this time so it can be cleared properly. Kapunan (J): 3 concur Facts: Sometime in June 1982. A. reasonable moral damages (Art. sold to Peñarroyo. and principle. The complaint further alleged that it was only upon the . IAC Tan has the right to recover moral damages even if the bank's negligence may not have been attended with malice and bad faith. consisting of 286. The same rule applies to breaches of contract where the defendant acted fraudulently or in bad faith. Article 2220 Civil Code. Instead. that in order to protect his rights and interests over the property. and Felix Peñarroyo. serious anxiety. Article 2225 Civil Code. Butte. filed with the Regional Trial Court of Pasig. In the present case. Any practice that destroys that confidence will impair the usefulness of the check as a currency substitute and create havoc in trade circles and the banking community. committing in effect its total resources. in his capacity as administrator of the Testate Estate of one Angela M. a parcel of land. inscribed on 18 January 1977. Quezon City. 12. RCBC promptly debited the amount of P30. Civil Code). Right to recover damages even if negligence not attended by malice and bad faith. in addition to the moral. the said property. Peñarroyo caused the annotation on the title of an adverse claim as evidenced by Entry No. a complaint for specific performance against Myron C. under the circumstances. Therefore. together with several other parcels of land likewise owned by Butte. There is an element of certainty or assurance that it will be paid upon presentation that is why it is perceived as a convenient substitute for currency in commercial and financial transactions. In American Express International. Layman’s perception that a cashier’s check is good as cash Reliance on the layman's perception that a cashier's check is as good as cash is not entirely misplaced. The complaint alleged that on 15 June 1973.
as administrator of the Testate Estate of Butte. for any reason not attributable to Papa. Jr. sometime in April 1977. to authorize the Register of Deeds to cancel it and issue a certificate of title in the name of Peñarroyo. The payee of a check would be a creditor under this provision and if its nonpayment is caused by his negligence. on 12 April 1977.000." After more than 10 years from the payment in part by cash and in part by check.000. that Valencia and Peñarroyo discovered that the mortgage rights of the bank had been assigned to one Tomas L. pursuant to Article 1249 of the Civil Code. their appeal was dismissed because of failure to file their appellants' brief.00) given by Valencia and Peñarroyo in payment of the full purchase price of the subject lot. the rule is otherwise if the debtor is prejudiced by the creditor's unreasonable delay in presentment. Valencia and Peñarroyo prayed that Papa be ordered to deliver to Peñarroyo the title to the subject property (TCT 28993).000. said Papa was ordered to pay to Peñarroyo the sum of P45.500. Papa's assertion that he never encashed the aforesaid check is not substantiated and is at odds with his statement in his answer that "he can no longer recall the transaction which is supposed to have happened 10 years ago.000. on the presumption that the check in the amount of P40. and to pay the costs of the suit. knowing that said property had already been sold to Valencia and Peñarroyo on 15 June 1973. While it is true that the delivery of a check produces the effect of payment only when it is cashed.000 was encashed.00. if the owner's duplicate certificate cannot be produced. except when through the fault of the creditor. the drawer cannot be held liable irrespective of loss or injury unless presentment is otherwise excused. by ordering Papa to deliver to Valencia and Peñarroyo the owner's duplicate of TCT 28993 of Angela M. Papa filed the petition for review on certiorari. Papa himself admits having received said amounts.500. payment will be deemed effected and the obligation for which the .000.00 in cash on 24 May 1973. withh costs against Papa. and if he from whom it is received sustains loss by want of such diligence. Jao alleged that the subject lot which had been sold to Peñarroyo through Valencia was in turn sold to him on 20 August 1973 for the sum of P71. as special administrator of the Estate of Ramon Papa.000. to pay Valencia and Peñarroyo the sum of P20.00 until the property is delivered to Peñarroyo. free from any liens and encumbrances. it will be held to operate as actual payment of the debt or obligation for which it was given. Parpana (now deceased). Reyes and Amanda Santos. his failure to do so for more than 10 years undoubtedly resulted in the impairment of the check through his unreasonable and unexplained delay. the instrument is impaired. the trial court rendered a decision. Delfin Jao was allowed to intervene in the case. Issue: Whether the alleged sale of the subject property had been consummated. upon his paying earnest money in the amount of P5.000.000. Butte and the peaceful possession and enjoyment of the lot in question or. likewise.release of the title to the property.00 (in cash) as earnest money. On 27 January 1992.00. For his part. upon the latter's payment to the former of the balance of the purchase price of P71.00.000. the Court of Appeals rendered a decision. filed a third-party complaint against spouses Arsenio B.00 as attorney's fees. Papa had been collecting monthly rentals in the amount of P800.00 in check on 15 June 1973. Peñarroyo was ordered to pay Jao the sum of P5. Papa refused and failed to deliver the title to the property. It has.000. Making common cause with Valencia and Peñarroyo. that since then. He maintained that what Valencia and Peñarroyo had actually paid was only the amount of P5. On 29 June 1987. ordering Papa to execute a Deed of Absolute Sale in favor of Peñarroyo covering the property in question and to deliver peaceful possession and enjoyment of the said property to Peñarroyo. and that should that be impossible. Upon his motion. and the monthly rental of P800. The acceptance of a check implies an undertaking of due diligence in presenting it for payment. alleging among others that the sale was never "consummated" as he did not encash the check (in the amount of P40.000. Granting that Papa had never encashed the check. Held: Valencia and Peñarroyo had given Papa the amounts of P5. in payment of the purchase price of the subject lot. Papa.00 as accrued rentals as of April 1982. affirming with modification the trial court's decision. Papa appealed the aforesaid decision of the trial court to the Court of Appeals. and having issued receipts therefor. to turn over to the latter the sum of P72. and that should that be impossible. the winning bidders in public auction sale held by the City Treasurer of Quezon City when the estate of Butte was not able to pay the real estate tax of said property. This is in harmony with Article 1249 of the Civil Code under which payment by way of check or other negotiable instrument is conditioned on its being cashed. allowing Papa to redeem from the Reyes spouses and ordering the spouses to allow the former to redeem the property in question. likewise. He even waived the presentation of oral evidence. and P40. the presumption is that the check had been encashed.00 plus legal interest of 12% from 23 August 1973.00 for and as attorney's fees and litigation expenses. that despite repeated demands from said respondents. by paying the sum of P14. However.00 from the tenants of the property. The Reyes spouses. ordering Peñarroyo to execute and deliver to intervenor a deed of absolute sale over the same property. and ordering Papa to pay Valencia and Peñarroyo the amount of P5. been held that if no presentment is made at all. appealed the above decision.00 plus legal interest of 12% from 15 June 1973..00 plus legal interest of 12% thereon from 2 January 1980.
particularly the payment of the amortizations due. The promissory note and the deeds of mortgage are not negotiable instruments as they lack the fourth requisite which is it must be payable to order or bearer. GSIS extrajudicially foreclosed the mortgage and caused the mortgaged property to be sold at public auction on December 3. Isabelo R. the mortgage and the extrajudicial foreclosure .00. their property and all other documents executed in relation thereto in favor of the Government Service Insurance System" be declared null and void. together with spouses Mr. Issues: Whether the respondent court erred in annulling the mortgage as it affected the share of private respondents in the reconveyance of their property? Whether private respondents benefited from the loan. executed a deed of mortgage. GSIS V. the Lagasca spouses executed an instrument denominated "Assumption of Mortgage. 1962. Mr. Racho. They also executed a 'promissory note"." obligating themselves to assume the said obligation to the GSIS and to secure the release of the mortgage covering that portion of the land belonging to spouses Racho and which was mortgaged to the GSIS. the spouses Racho filed a complaint against the spouses Lagasca praying that the extrajudicial foreclosure "made on. The foreclosure was being assailed by the spouses as they alleged that the mortgage contracts were signed not as guarantees or sureties but merely gave their common property for the sole benefit of the other spouses. 1961. they. 1958. February 23. HELD: Both parties rely on the Negotiable Instruments Law but this is misplaced. in connection with two loans granted by the latter in the sums of P 11. therefore. the GSIS required their consent to the mortgage of the entire parcel of land which was covered with only one certificate of title. The trial court rendered judgment on February 25. The trial court dismissed the action but this was reversed by the appellate court. Butte and the peaceful possession and enjoyment of the lot in question. For more than two years. another deed of mortgage. Due to the failure to comply with the terms of the mortgage. was given as security under the two deeds. the mortgages were extrajudicially foreclosed. and Mrs. said decision was reversed by the respondent Court of Appeals. A parcel of land covered by Transfer Certificate of Title No. CA 170 SCRA 533 FACTS: Two deeds of mortgages were issued by spouses Racho in favor of GSIS as security for two loans obtained by them. Both sides of the case used the provisions on accommodation parties in the Negotiable Instruments Law. This undertaking was not fulfilled. with full knowledge that the loans secured were solely for the benefit of the appellant Lagasca spouses who alone applied for the loan. co-owned by said mortgagor spouses.00 and P 3. They also executed a promissory note.check was given as conditional payment will be discharged. Court of Appeals 170 SCRA 533. 1957. although formally they are co-mortgagors. stating that. dated April 14. and Mrs Flaviano Lagasca. Upon failure of the mortgagors to comply with the conditions of the mortgage. On July 11. GSIS vs CA Government Service Insurance System v. 1968 dismissing the complaint for failure to establish a cause of action. in favor of petitioner GSIS and subsequently. dated November 13. 38989 of the Register of Deed of Quezon City. Considering that Valencia and Peñarroyo had fulfilled their part of the contract of sale by delivering the payment of the purchase price. 1989 Facts: Private respondents.500. had the right to compel Papa to deliver to them the owner's duplicate of TCT 28993 of Angela M. However.000. respectively.
the fact that the loans were solely for the benefit of the Lagasca spouses would not invalidate the mortgage with respect to private respondents' share in the property. otherwise known as the Negotiable Instruments Law. The factual context of this case is precisely what is contemplated in the last paragraph of Article 2085 of the Civil Code to the effect that third persons who are not parties to the principal obligation may secure the latter by pledging or mortgaging their own property. 2031 because they are neither payable to order nor to bearer. The note is payable to a specified party. Contrary to the holding of the respondent court. So long as valid consent was given. are clearly not negotiable instruments. it cannot be said that private respondents are without liability under the aforesaid mortgage contracts. by the provisions of the Civil Code and special laws on mortgages. the provisions of Act No. governance shall be afforded. These documents do not comply with the fourth requisite to be considered as such under Section 1 of Act No. As earlier indicated. Absent the aforesaid requisite.proceedings are valid? Held: Both parties relied on the provisions of Section 29 of Act No. which provide that an accommodation party is one who has signed an instrument as maker. instead. The promissory note. drawer. as well as the mortgage deeds subject of this case. but is held liable on the instrument to a holder for value although the latter knew him to be only an accommodation party. The respondent court. 2031. the factual findings of respondent court are that private respondents signed the documents "only to give their consent to the mortgage as required by GSIS". . acceptor of indorser without receiving value therefor. with the latter having full knowledge that the loans secured thereby were solely for the benefit of the Lagasca spouses. the GSIS. erred in annulling the mortgage insofar as it affected the share of private respondents or in directing reconveyance of their property or the payment of the value. 2031 would not apply.