1.

AVIONICS
1.1 INTRODUCTION:
Avionics is a portmanteau word of "aviation electronics". It comprises electronic systems for use on aircraft, artificial satellites and spacecraft, comprising communications, navigation and guidance, display systems, flight management systems, sensors and indicators, weather radars, electrical systems and various other computers onboard modern aircraft and spacecraft. It also includes the hundreds of systems that are fitted to aircraft to meet individual roles; these can be as simple as a search light for a police helicopter or as complicated as the tactical system for an airborne early warning platform.

1.2 HISTORY:
The term avionics was not in general use until the early 1970s. Up to this point instruments, radios, radar, fuel systems, engine controls and radio navigation aids had formed individual (and often mechanical) systems. In the 1970s, avionics was born, driven by military need rather than civil airliner development. Military aircraft had become flying sensor platforms, and making large amounts of electronic equipment work together had become the new challenge. Today, avionics as used in military aircraft almost always forms the biggest part of any development budget. Aircraft like the F-15E and the now retired F-14 have roughly 80 percent of their budget spent on avionics. Most modern helicopters now have budget splits of 60/40 in favour of avionics. The civilian market has also seen a growth in cost of avionics. Flight control systems (fly-by-wire) and new navigation needs brought on by tighter airspace, have pushed up development costs. The major change has been the recent boom in consumer flying. As more people begin to use planes as their primary method of transportation, more elaborate methods of controlling aircraft safely in these high restrictive airspace have been invented. With the continued refinement of precision miniature aerospace bearings, guidance and navigation systems of aircraft become more exact. Ring laser gyroscope, MEMS, fiber optic gyroscope, and other developments have made for more and more complex and tightly integrated cockpit 1

systems. Many of these advanced systems are known as a Flight management system or FMS. These integrate the functions of communications radios, navigation radios, GNSS sensors, distance measuring equipment (DME), transponder through a unified user interface. The Garmin G1000 is an example of one such system in general use at the present time (2009). Higher end, or commercial FMS units may rely on an Inertial Measurement Unit or IMS to provide a self-contained navigational reference. Some of these units use hemispheric resonating gyros or wine glass gyros (see vibrating structure gyroscope) coupled with GNSS receivers to provide accurate navigation data to flight crews and automated aircraft systems.

1.3 AIRCRAFT AVIONICS:
The cockpit of an aircraft is a major location for avionic equipment, including control, monitoring, communication, navigation, weather, and anti-collision systems. The majority of aircraft drive their avionics using 14 or 28 volt DC electrical systems; However, large, more sophisticated aircraft (such as airliners or military combat aircraft) have AC systems operating at 115V 400 Hz, rather than the more common 50 and 60 Hz of European and North American, respectively, home electrical devices.[1] There are several major vendors of flight avionics, including Honeywell (which now owns Bendix/King, Baker Electronics, Allied Signal, etc..), Rockwell Collins, Thales Group, Garmin, Narco, and Avidyne Corporation.

1.3.1 COMMUNICATIONS:
Communications connect the flight deck to the ground, and the flight deck to the passengers. On board communications are provided by public address systems and aircraft intercoms. The VHF aviation communication system works on the airband of 118.000 MHz to 136.975 MHz. Each channel is spaced from the adjacent by 8.33 kHz. Amplitude modulation (AM) is used. The conversation is performed by simplex mode. Aircraft communication can also take place using HF (especially for transoceanic flights) or satellite communication.

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1.3.2 NAVIGATION:
Main article: Radio navigation Navigation is the determination of position and direction on or above the surface of the Earth. Avionics can use satellite-based systems (such as GPS and WAAS), ground-based systems (such as VOR or LORAN), or any combination thereof. Older avionics required a pilot or navigator to plot the intersection of signals on a paper map to determine an aircraft's location; modern systems, like the Bendix/King KLN 90B, calculate the position automatically and display it to the flight crew on moving map displays.

1.3.3 MONITORING:
Main article: Glass cockpit Glass cockpits started to come into civilian use with the Gulf stream G-IV private jet in 1985. However, these largely stemmed from the need of military pilots to quickly deal with increasing amounts of flight data while concentrating on the task (dogfight with enemy aircraft, detection of surface targets, etc.) Display systems present sensor data that allows the aircraft to fly safely in a more flexible manner as skipping unnecessary information was not possible with the earlier mechanical (usually dial-type) instruments. ARINC 818, titled Avionics Digital Video Bus, is a protocol used by many new glass cockpit displays in both commercial and military aircraft.

1.3.4 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM:
Airplanes and helicopters have means of automatically controlling flight. They reduce pilot workload at important times (like during landing, or in hover), and they make these actions safer by 'removing' pilot error. The first simple auto-pilots were used to control heading and altitude and had limited authority on things like thrust and flight control surfaces. In helicopters, auto stabilization was used in a similar way. The old systems were electromechanical in nature until very recently. The advent of fly by wire and electro actuated flight surfaces (rather than the traditional hydraulic) has increased safety. As with displays and instruments, critical

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devices which were electro-mechanical had a finite life. With safety critical systems, the software is very strictly tested.

1.3.5 COLLISION-AVOIDANCE SYSTEM:
To supplement air traffic control, most large transport aircraft and many smaller ones use a TCAS (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System), which can detect the location of nearby aircraft, and provide instructions for avoiding a midair collision. Smaller aircraft may use simpler traffic alerting systems such as TPAS, which are passive (they do not actively interrogate the transponders of other aircraft) and do not provide advisories for conflict resolution. To help avoid collision with terrain, (CFIT) aircraft use systems such as ground-proximity warning systems (GPWS), radar altimeter being the key element in GPWS. A major weakness of (GPWS) is the lack of "look-ahead" information as it only provides altitude above terrain "look-down". To overcome this weakness, modern aircraft use the Terrain Awareness Warning System (TAWS).

1.3.6 WEATHER SYSTEM:
Main article: Weather radar Main article: Lightning detector Weather systems such as weather radar (typically Arinc 708 on commercial aircraft) and lightning detectors are important for aircraft flying at night or in Instrument meteorological conditions, where it is not possible for pilots to see the weather ahead. Heavy precipitation (as sensed by radar) or severe turbulence (as sensed by lightning activity) are both indications of strong convective activity and severe turbulence, and weather systems allow pilots to deviate around these areas. Lightning detectors like the Storm scope or Strike finder have become inexpensive enough that they are practical for light aircraft. In addition to radar and lightning detection, observations and extended radar pictures (such as NEXRAD) are now available through satellite data connections, allowing pilots to see weather conditions far beyond the range of their own in-flight systems. Modern displays allow weather information to be integrated with moving maps, terrain, traffic, etc. onto a single screen, greatly simplifying navigation. 4

Radars include airborne early warning (AEW). targeting information etc. the bigger sensor platforms (like the E-3D.). anti-submarine warfare (ASW). It has been used in Fourth generation jet fighters and the latest generation of airliners. the tactical systems are designed to withstand the rigours of the battle field. VHF Tactical (30-88 MHz) and SatCom systems combined with ECCM methods.1. Nimrod MRA4) have mission management computers.7 AIRCRAFT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: There has been a progression towards centralized control of the multiple complex systems fitted to aircraft. As with aircraft management. 1. JTRS and even TETRA provide the means of transmitting data (such as images.4 MISSION OR TACTICAL AVIONICS Military aircraft have been designed either to deliver a weapon or to be the eyes and ears of other weapon systems.1 MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS: While aircraft communications provide the backbone for safe flight. including engine monitoring and management. 16. The benefit of altitude providing range has meant a significant focus on airborne radar technologies. and cryptography secure the communications. JSTARS. 1. The integrated modular avionics concept proposes an integrated architecture with application software portable across an assembly of common hardware modules.3. The vast array of sensors available to the military is used for whatever tactical means required. ASTOR. Data links like Link 11. and even weather radar (Arinc 708) and ground tracking/proximity radar. UHF. 5 . Police and EMS aircraft also carry sophisticated tactical sensors.4. Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) are integrated with aircraft management computers to allow maintainers early warnings of parts that will need replacement. 1.4.2 RADAR: Airborne radar was one of the first tactical sensors. 22 and BOWMAN.

These are all used to provide imagery to crews. weaponcontrolling radars that additionally perform such terrain-mapping.4.4. They can be used to launch devices (in some cases automatically) to counter direct threats against the aircraft. Maritime support aircraft can drop active and passive sonar devices (Sonobuoys) and these are also used to determine the location of hostile submarines. They are also used to determine the state of a threat and identify it. 1.4.5 AIRCRAFT NETWORK BUSES: The avionics systems in military. 1. This imagery is used for everything from Search and Rescue through to acquiring better resolution on a target.g. commercial and advanced models of civilian aircraft are interconnected using an avionics databus. 1. there are strict rules about using it to navigate the aircraft. 1.Besides its primary role as the main sensor for fighters.3 SONAR: Dipping sonar fitted to a range of military helicopters allows the helicopter to protect shipping assets from submarines or surface threats. include: Aircraft Data Network (ADN): Ethernet derivative for Commercial Aircraft Avionics Full-Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX): Specific implementation of ARINC 664 (ADN) for Commercial Aircraft 6 . the military uses radar in fast jets to help pilots fly at low levels.4 ELECTRO -OPTICS: Electro-optic systems include Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR). Modern technologies allow the creation of multi-functional. Earlier models were just separate devices often mounted under the primary (e. Common avionics databus protocols. While the civil market has had weather radar for a while.5 ESM/DAS: Electronic Support Measures and Defensive Aids are used extensively to gather information about threats or possible threats. air-to-air) unit and covered with the same radome. and Passive Infrared Devices (PIDS). with their primary application.

EMS and police helicopters will be required to fly in unpleasant conditions which may require more aircraft sensors.6 POLICE AND AMBULANCE: Police and EMS aircraft (mostly helicopters) are now a significant market. 7 . Military aircraft are often now built with the capability to support response to civil disobedience.ARINC 429: Generic Medium-Speed Data Sharing for Private and Commercial Aircraft ARINC 664: See ADN above ARINC 629: Commercial Aircraft (Boeing 777) ARINC 708: Weather Radar for Commercial Aircraft ARINC 717: Flight Data Recorder for Commercial Aircraft IEEE 1394b: Military Aircraft MIL-STD-1553: Military Aircraft MIL-STD-1760: Military Aircraft 1. They can also be equipped with searchlights and loudspeakers. Police helicopters are almost always fitted with video/FLIR systems allowing them to track suspects. some of which were until recently considered purely for military aircraft.

8 . The APU drives a third. an electrical Ground Power Unit (GPU) can supply the aircraft. Two Transformer Rectifiers (TR) supply.2. in normal configuration. the distribution network with direct current. a constant-speed hydraulic motor drives an emergency generator (CSM/G) to supply the systems required for aircraft control. The generators supply the distribution network with alternating current. auxiliary. In the event of major failure. On the ground. ELECTRICAL 2. each engine drives one generator. its associated GCU and its channel The essential generation switching The control circuits for galley and sheddable busbars supply The monitoring and indicating circuits for the cockpit.2 AC GENERATION: The AC generation consists of: Integrated Drive Generators (IDG) A main generation corresponding to the two IDG channels and to the transfer circuit An auxiliary generation corresponding to the APU generator and its channel An emergency generation corresponding to the constant speed motor/generator.1 ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION: Two Integrated Drive Generators (IDG) normally supply the aircraft electrical power in flight . 2. generator (APU GEN) which can replace either main generator (GEN 1 or GEN 2). The APU GEN can also be an independant power source.

The IDG provides a 115/200 VAC. Rotating diodes rectify the three phase output of the main exciter rotor.The hydromechanical Constant-Speed Drive drives the AC generator at constant speed. provides power for other components of the electrical system which comprises the generator (supply of the GCU. 3-phase. The second machine (Main Exciter (ME)). This is accomplished by the Constant Speed Drive (CSD) which drives the AC generator at constant speed. This output feeds the main rotor winding. The generator is thus "self-flashing" and "self-sufficient".2 MAIN GENERATION: The two engine generators provide the AC main generation.2. The DC output thus produced supplies the rotating field system of the third machine. and the external relays and contactors). Its rotor is constructed of small Rare Earth Cobalt magnets. The AC main generation supplies the whole aircraft in normal flight configuration. 9 .2. The output from the PE stator winding: has a generator excitation function. The drive speed varies according to the engine rating. Each engine (HP rotor) drives its associated IDG through the accessory gearbox. The generator is a three stage assembly which includes three machines connected in cascade. 10 poles stator. The first machine (Pilot Exciter (PE)) is a twelve pole Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG).2. EGIU. 400 Hz AC supply at the Point of Regulation (POR). 2.The AC generator produces thus constant frequency power.1 INTEGRATED DRIVE GENERATOR: The IDG converts variable speed shaft power directly into constant frequency 400 Hz AC electrical power. The IDG has two parts: the Constant-Speed Drive (CSD) and the generator. receives its field excitation from the pilot exciter via the voltage regulator in the GCU: this creates a stationary field.

The main alternator has a 3-phase star-connected stator-winding. This maintains the generator frequency constant. Each main generator is driven by an engine HP compressor via an accessory gearbox and an integrated hydromechanical speed regulator which transforms the engine variable speed into constant speed for the generator. supply the aircraft electrical network when the electrical ground power unit is not available. The three phases and neutral are taken to the generator output terminal block . In the event of mechanical failure.3 APU GENERATOR: 2. replace either or both engine generator(s) in case of failure On the ground. General: The operation principle is the same as that of the IDG generator 10 . This generator can: In flight.The generator is designed for use with an external voltage regulator forming part of the GCU.2.2. The APU directly drives the APU GEN at constant speed. serves to disconnect the IDG (reset on ground only).The third machine (main alternator) receives excitation for the rotating salient four pole field from the rectified output of the main exciter. the IDG pushbutton switch protected by a guard and located on the ELEC panel on the overhead panel. 2.3 Auxiliary power unit The AC auxiliary generation comes from the APU generator.

2. The generator includes three stages which are The Pilot Exciter The main exciter The main alternator A temperature bulb is included in the auxiliary generator. 90 KVA. When the APU fuel-saving mode is used. Any high oil temperature causes the automatic shutdown of the APU (by the ECB). The generator is a brushless oil-cooled generator with a nominal 115/200 volt. NOTE: The frequency range of the APU generator can be from 395Hz to 405Hz. This sensor is connected to the Electronic Control Box (ECB) of the APU. the frequency of the APU generator decreases to 396Hz. The APU supplies. In this mode.4 GROUND AND AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (GAPCU): The GAPCU controls the APU generator and the external Power channels. For the APU generator channel control. scavenges.This in turn causes the APU speed to decrease to zero. 2. the GAPCU has different functions: Voltage regulation. The APU gearbox supplies the oil for cooling and lubrication of the generator. 11 . System test and self monitoring.The APU directly drives the APU generator at a nominal 24000 rpm constant speed. Control and protection of the network and the generator. 3 phase 400Hz output. the APU speed is reduced to 99%. It senses the generator-oil outlet temperature. The cooling circuit is common to the APU and the generator. drains the oil.

this Blue system is supplied by a Ram Air Turbine (RAT).2.5 AC EMERGENCY GENERATION The AC emergency generation enables part of the distribution network to be recovered in case of: Loss of the two main generation sources Unavailability of the auxiliary generation.2. A servo valve speed regulator controls the speed: it transforms the oil flow of the Blue hydraulic system into constant speed for the generator.2. It is oil cooled and gives output power 5KVA continuously.6 Ram Air Turbine A hydraulic motor drives the emergency generator. NOTE: The Blue hydraulic system is supplied by an electric pump in normal configuration AC Generator: Three phase 115V/200V-400Hz with 12000rpm.2.6 CONSTANT SPEED MOTOR/GENERATOR : Hydraulic motor: 2. The emergency generation system is mainly composed of a Constant Speed Motor/Generator (CSM/G) including a hydraulic motor and an AC generator. a Generator Control Unit (GCU). When emergency conditions are met. 12 . 2.

the ground service network which comprises: the AC ground service bus control the DC ground service bus control 13 .2. to control the warnings associated with the corresponding channel. 2.Each channel sends its own parameters to SDAC1 and SDAC2 through two isolated ARINC 429 data links. Two EGIUs are installed on the aircraft.7 GENERATOR CONTROL UNIT: The main functions of the GCU are: to regulate the generator voltage by the field current. 2. an external power receptacle is provided forward of the nose landing gear well.The second EGIU is connected in the same manner to generator 2 and to the APU generator.2. For this.2. This receptacle enables to supply the whole network via the transfer circuit or only part of it.2.DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION: General: The aircraft network can be supplied by a ground power unit.One EGIU is associated with the GCU1 and the GPCU.8 ELECTRICAL GENERATION INTERFACE UNIT: The main function of the EGIU is to process the parameters from the GCU and associated generator. to protect the network and the generator by control of the associated GLC and the generator field current. to provide BITE information to the Ground Power Control Unit (GPCU). The EGIU then transmits the information to the cockpit (ECAM) via the System Data Acquisition Concentrators (SDACs).9 EXTERNAL POWER .

with a 1000 VA nominal power.3 DC GENERATION The power sources of direct current are three identical transformer rectifiers and two batteries. transforms the direct current from the battery 1 into a single phase. They are supplied with three phases 115 VAC/400 Hz voltage from the normal Alternating Current (AC) distribution network. the two normal TRs (TR 1 and TR 2) and possibly the batteries supply direct current. alternating current.When the network is supplied.2. In normal configuration. For maintenance purposes. STATIC INV FAULT message appears on the upper ECAM display unit.2. The fault indication will be available during BCL BITE reading from the Centralized Fault Display System (CFDS).2.10 Static Inverter The static inverter. the static inverter delivers FAULT indication to the Centralized Fault Display System (CFDS) through the two Battery Charge Limiters (BCL). The static inverter is automatically activated if AC BUS 1 and AC BUS 2 are lost and the CSM/G is unavailable. In the event of loss of one or both TR.10 STATIC INVERTER: 2. 2. part of the DC network is transferred to the ESS TR.The static inverter defect is sent to the battery charge limiter 1 which stores it in a memory as a class I failure. 14 . 115 V 400 Hz.

115 VAC. Its efficiency is > 86%.2. On the ground. Main TR’s are ventilated by air extracted from the aircraft ventilation network. Its proven reliability recorded and confirmed by several airlines exceeds a MTBF of 100. controls contractor opening in case of no current flow to the DC BUS (minimum current detection). 400 Hz generator. To ensure these protections.polyamide cases It used to start the APU (Auxiliary power unit).1 TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER: 2. before electrical ground power is supplied to the aircraft system. 15 . Each TR control its via an internal TR logic.1 Transformer Rectifier The TR unit converts aircraft primary AC power to 28 VDC power from a 3phase.000 hours.2 BATTERIES: General: The Alkaline battery has 20 semi open nickel-cadmium VHP 23KA-3 cells with welded .3. This light weight 40 Amp TR Unit has been developed for commercial airborne applications. each TR sends a fault signal to the Centralized Fault Display System (CFDS) for maintenance purpose. 2. In flight.3. This logic.3. if a malfunction or a failure occurs in the power supply system. which is intended to protect the Direct Current(DC) network and the TR.

3.5kg.1. W=248mm. H=215mm.2. Consumable volume of electrolyte: 60cm³ per cell.g.KOH s. Electrolyte: sol. weight: 25. dimension of the battery base: L=254mm. Max.2 Battery Specifications: Nominal voltage: 24 v. Rated capacity: 23Ah at rate of 1hr.24 16 . Max.

RADIO 3.2 COMMUNICATIONS: The communication system is used for speech communications and optionally for data communications.1 Speech Communication 17 .1 SPEECH COMMUNICATON: 3. Electromagnetic waves longer than (lower frequency) microwaves (300MHz) are called Radio waves. other aircraft and the ground stations (speech and data).2.3. Communication is done between the crew members and ground personnel. 3.2. Also. Mostly.1 INTRODUCTION: Transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below visible light (400THz). Radio is used for Communication and Navigation purposes. to communicate with the passengers. 3.

1.1.2.975 MHz.3.e.1 HIGH FREQUENCY (HF) SYSTEM: The High Frequency (HF) system is used for all long-distance voice and data communications between: a) b) Different aircraft (in flight or on the ground) The aircraft and one or several ground stations.2.8 to 23. Each HF system has an interface with the following systems and components: Radio Management Panels (RMP) Audio Management Unit (AMU) Centralized Fault Display Interface Unit (CFDIU) Landing Gear Control Interface Unit (LGCIU) System Data Acquisition Concentrator (SDAC) Air Data/Inertial Reference Units (ADIRU) Air Traffic Service Unit (ATSU) Ground HF DATA LINK (GND HF DATA LINK) International Civil Aircraft Organization (ICAO) address Multipurpose Disk Drive Unit (MDDU) or Portable Data Loader (PDL) 3. a HF antenna. This system has two HF transceivers.e. with 1 KHz spacing between channels). The VHF3 system 18 . The HF system operates within the frequency range defined by ARINC 719 (i. 118 to 136. 2. with 25KHz spacing between channels). The VHF system operates within the frequency range defined by ARINC 716 (i.999 MHz. two couplers.2 VERY HIGH FREQUENCY SYSTEM: The Very High-Frequency (VHF) system is used for all short-range voice communications between: Different aircraft in flight Aircraft (in flight or on the ground) and ground stations.

1.2.The RMPs also enable the frequency control of the radio navigation equipment (VHF Omni directional Range (VOR). Distance Measuring Equipment (DME). 19 .3 RADIO MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: 3.(if installed) is also used to transmit data (Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) or Air Traffic Service Unit (ATSU). Instrument Landing System (ILS).3Radio Management System The RMPs enable a centralized frequency control of the VHF and HF radio communication equipment.2. Automatic Direction Finder (ADF)) in case of failure of the Flight Management and Guidance System (FMGC).1. Each VHF system is composed of: A transceiver An antenna Each VHF system has an interface with the following systems and components: Radio Management Panels (RMP) Audio Management Unit (AMU) Centralized Fault Display Interface Unit (CFDIU) Landing Gear Control and Interface Unit (LGCIU) System Data Acquisition Concentrators (SDAC) Air Traffic Service Unit (ATSU). 3.

2 SATCOM: 3.1 Satcom 20 . CFDS.2. MMR radio-navigation equipment 3. 3. These data are transmitted through the VHF3 system (or through the Satellite Communication (SATCOM) system if installed.2.1 ACARS: The ACARS management unit allows the management of the data entered by the crews and transmitted to the ground (SDAC. DME.2.2.2.2 DATA TRANSMISSION: 3.2. ADF (if installed) and ILS radio-navigation equipment The Flight Management and Guidance Computers (FMGC) The Centralized Fault-Display Interface-Unit (CFDIU) The Landing Gear Control and Interface Unit (LGCIU).2. printing and display of ground messages on the Multipurpose Control and Display Unit (MCDU). FMGEC). AIDS. It also allows the reception.The radio management system is connected to: The VHF radio-communication equipment The VOR.

3 PASSANGER ADDRESS AND ENTERTAINMENT: This system comprises: Prerecorded Announcements and Music (PRAM) system Passenger Entertainment System (Music)/Passenger Services System (PES (Music)/PSS) Passenger Visual Information System (PVIS) Passenger Air-to-ground Telephone System (PATS) Passenger Entertainment System (Video) (PES (Video)) Passenger facility (AM/FM radio) The Passenger Address System is part of the Cabin Intercommunication Data System (CIDS) 3.5 MHz). Aero-I allows the aircraft flying within spot beam coverage to transmit and receive multichannel voice. Packet mode data services and emergency calls are available world-wide in the global beam. fax and circuit mode data services.The function of the SATCOM system is the reception and processing of signals via satellites providing aeronautical services in the L-Band (1525-1660.1 Cockpit-to-ground crew call system The cockpit-to-ground crew call system is used to: Call a ground mechanic from the cockpit Call a crew member from the ground.2. The Aero-I SATCOM system (conformed to ARINC 761) uses an intermediate gain terminal. passenger telephone and data services) with the ground.2.4 INTERPHONE: The Interphone system comprises: 3. exploiting the higher power of the Inmarsat 3 satellite. 21 .2.This system is used for all aeronautical satellite communications (cockpit voice. 3.4.

Telephone links between the cockpit and the ground crew from the external power receptacle c.3 Cabin and service interphone The cabin and service interphone system is used for the telephone communications on the ground between the flight crew and the ground service personnel.It has also an aural warning function when the aircraft is powered by batteries for the systems given below: APU fire ADIRS powered by batteries Equipment ventilation faulty. The flight interphone system: Telephone links between the various crew stations in the cockpit.4.2. All the radio communication and radio navigation facilities installed on the aircraft: In transmission mode: it collects the microphone inputs of the various crew stations and directs them to the communication systems. The SELCAL (Selective Calling) system: Visual and aural indication of calls from ground stations equipped with a coding device used by the aircraft installation. b.2 Flight crew interphone The flight crew interphone system is part of the CIDS.2. 22 . 3. In reception mode : it collects the audio outputs of the communication systems and the navigation receivers and directs them to the various crew stations.4. 3. 3.5 AUDIO INTEGRATING: The audio management system provides the means for using: a.2.

The system can also operate in manual mode on the ground. The recorder is a four-track system and all tracks are recorded simultaneously. it causes interference in the communications and navigation systems.2.3. When the memory block unit is fully recorded.7 AUDIO-VIDEO MONITORING This system comprises: a. Cabin Intercommunication Data System (CIDS) The Cabin Intercommunications Data System (CIDS) is a microprocessorbased system used to operate. 3. 23 . control.2. the system progressively erases recordings made in the previous 2 hours and simultaneously records new information. locked and electrically powered. Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR): The Solid State Cockpit Voice Recorder (SSCVR) is designed to record crew conversations and communications into memory block unit in flight and on ground. Bulk erasure is also possible during manual operation of the system. monitor and test various cabin functions. the aircraft becomes charged with static electricity. If the discharge of the static electricity is not controlled. The SSCVR provides storage for 2 hours of consecutive recording for each of the four audio input channels. The recorded information can be intentionally erased when the aircraft is on the ground with the parking brake on. static dischargers are installed.6 STATIC DISCHARGING: During flight. b. The functions are managed by CIDS dependent on the configuration of the aircraft and the CIDS software. To decrease the effect of this interference. thus only information recorded in the last 2 hours of operation is retained. when at least one engine is running or up to five minutes after the last engine is shut down irrespective of which engine is shut down first.

This configuration provides for triple redundant information for all inertial and air data functions. 24 .3.1 AIR DATA/INERTIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM (ADIRS): The main air data and heading/attitude data are provided by a three-channel Air Data Inertial Reference System (ADIRS). These data can be divided into four groups: Air Data/Inertial Reference System (ADIRS) Landing and taxing aids Independent position determining Dependent position determining. Each channel is isolated from the others and provides independent information as defined by ARINC Characteristic 738. The ADIRS comprises: Three Air Data/Inertial Reference Units (ADIRU) A control and Display Unit (CDU) Three pitot probes Six static probes Eight Air Data Modules (ADM) Linked to the pitot and static probes Two Total Air Temperature (TAT) sensors Three Angle of Attack (AOA) sensors Each of the ADIRUs contains two portions: The Air Data Reference (ADR) portion which supplies air data parameters.3.3 NAVIGATION: The aircraft navigation systems provide the crew with the data required for flight within the most appropriate safety requirements. The Inertial Reference (IR) portion which supplies attitude and navigation parameters. 3.

provides the following standby data on a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) installed in place of the standby horizon: Attitude Standard or baro-corrected altitude and related barometric pressure Indicated airspeed and Mach number Lateral acceleration and the following optional parameters: ILS deviation V-bar aircraft symbol Barometric pressure in hPa or in hPa and in.2 INTEGRATED STANDBY INSTRUMENT SYSTEM (ISIS) The standby heading is given by a magnetic compass. The Integrated Standby Instrument System (ISIS) indicator replaces the three conventional standby instruments i.e. The ISIS indicator. 3.Hg Altitude in meters.3.The parameters are transmitted to the user systems on ARINC 429 buses.3. It detects and identifies a failure related to the ADIRS and reports it to the Centralized Fault Display System (CFDS) 3.: the standby altimeter (and standby altimeter in meters -optional-) the standby airspeed indicator the standby horizon indicator.3 LANDING AND TAXING AIDS: This part of the navigation system comprises: 25 . The Built-In Test Equipment (BITE) is included in the ADIRUs and the ADMs. which is an independent instrument.

3. and generates the image.3 Landing and Taxing Aids 3.3.1 Para visual Indicator (PVI) The aircraft is equipped with one PVI installed on the glare shield panel 131VU.3. Captain's side.3. The system receives parameters from the DMC1 which can be switched to the DMC3.3. This system provides the Captain with an image which serves as a piloting aid for take-off and landing in reduced visibility conditions.2 Head Up Display (HUD) The aircraft is equipped with: HUDC (Head Up Display Computer) OHU (Optical Head Unit). 26 .3. 3.

27 . The ILS function is to provide the crew and the airborne system users with lateral (LOC) and vertical (Glide/Slope) deviations signals. b. This image gives the guidance information in take-off. the Flight Management and Guidance Computer (FMGC) with position information. the Instrument Landing System (ILS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS). The GPS function is a radio aid to worldwide navigation which provides: the crew with a readout of accurate navigation information.3. and sends them to the OHU after transformation.3. This system is composed of: Two ILS receivers Localizer antenna Glide slope antenna. which can be switched to the DMC3. landing or approach configurations. one command output and one dialog output. The HUDC processes the input parameters received from the Display Management Computer 1 (DMC1).3 Instrument Landing System (ILS) Either ILS or MMR receivers are controlled from FMGCs and Radio Management Panels (RMPs) featuring two output channels. a. All data are shown on the EFIS displays. The ILS system enables to know the aircraft position during the landing phase with respect to a predetermined descent path. position. with respect to the approach ILS radio beam transmitted by a ground station. track and speed.This system provides the Captain with an image superimposed on the outside world in his field of view. 3. 2. 1. The MMR system is a navigation system with two internal receivers.g. e. for accurate position fixing.

3.4. 28 .The MMR system is composed of: two MMR receivers a Localizer antenna a Glide/Slope antenna two GPS ACTIVE antennas.3.3.4 INDEPENDENT POSITION DETERMINING: This part of the navigation system.1 WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM: 3.1 Weather Radar System The weather radar system is a X-band system which can be capable of the Predictive Windshear function. which is basically independent of ground installations. This system enables: detection and localization of the atmospheric disturbances in the area defined by the antenna scanning with visual display of their intensity presentation of terrain mapping information by the combination of the orientation of the radar beam and of the receiver gain detection and presentation of windshear events in the area defined by the antenna scanning (if the Predictive Windshear function is operative). provides data on the position of the aircraft. It comprises : 3.4.3.

3. The system monitors the trajectory of the other aircraft for the purpose of determining if any of them constitute a potential collision hazard. The selection and reading of Decision Height are performed on the Multipurpose Control and Display unit (MCDU).2 RADIO ALTIMETER: The function of the radio altimeter is to determine precisely and continuously.4. one for transmission and one for reception for each transceiver.3 TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM (TCAS): The TCAS is designed to protect a volume of airspace around the TCAS equipped aircraft. The function of the TCAS II is to determine the range.The Height and Decision Height data are displayed on the PFD.3. This system is made up of the following components : one or two transceivers (transceiver 2 is optional) a control unit a flat plate antenna and its drive unit. 29 . The radio altimeter system is composed of: two transceivers four identical antennas. 3. altitude and bearing of other aircraft equipped with ATC transponders.4. the height of the aircraft from 0 to 2500 ft above the terrain independently of the atmospheric pressure.Note: The Electronic Flight Instrumental System (EFIS) controls the operation and superimposes the weather picture on the Navigation Display. If a potential conflict exists. the system provides the pilots with aural and visual advisories which indicate the vertical avoidance maneuvers.3.

3. The GPWS generates aural and visual warnings if the aircraft adopts a potentially hazardous condition with respect to: Mode 1 – Excessive rate of descent Mode 2 – Excessive closure rate with terrain Mode 3 – Descent after takeoff and minimum terrain clearance Mode 4 – Unsafe terrain clearance Mode 5 – Descent below glide slope. 30 . Traffic advisories are shown on the EFIS displays.4.4.4 GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM (GPWS): This system is used to inform the crew if the aircraft is in a dangerous configuration when approaching the ground in a non-predetermined manner.3 Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) The aircraft is equipped with: a TCAS computer unit two TCAS antennas.3.3. 3. The system exchanges data with the Air Traffic Control (ATC) System. The system is operative between 30ft and 2450ft radio altitude.

and to provide graphic displays of the conflicting terrain on the NDs. 31 . aircraft altitude and a terrain data base to predict potential conflicts between the aircraft flight path and the terrain.3.4. This function uses aircraft geographic position.5 Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS) The purpose of the Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (Enhanced GPWS) is to alert the flight crew of potentially hazardous conditions with respect to the terrain. The TCF function generates aural and visual alerts.5 ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM (EGPWS): 3. and providing the flight crew with aural alert messages and visual annunciations and displays in the event that the boundaries of any alerting envelope are exceeded. The following Enhanced features has been added to existing basic Ground Proximity Warning Modes 1 to 5 which are the backbone of the system: Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF) function. The system achieves this objective by accepting a variety of aircraft parameters as inputs. applying alerting algorithms. It creates an increasing terrain clearance envelope around the intended airport runway directly related to the distance from the runway. Terrain Awareness alerting and Display (TAD) function.3.3.4.

The terrain awareness alerting algorithms continuously compute terrain clearance envelopes ahead of the aircraft.3. the station transmits the reply pulses to the aircraft. The Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) is a radio aid to medium range navigation which provides the crew with : A digital readout of the slant range distance of the aircraft from a selected ground station Audio signals which identify the selected ground station. 32 .3.5 DEPENDENT POSITION DETERMINING: This part of the navigation system comprises: 3. After 50 microseconds. Paired interrogation pulses go from an onboard interrogator to a selected ground station.1 DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT: The principle of the DME navigation is based on the measurement of the transmission time. 3. The DME uses the frequency band from 962 MHz to 1213 MHz for reception and transmission.5.

1 Distance Measuring Equipment 3.3. The system is made up of the following components: two ATC transponders a ATC/TCAS control unit four ATC antennas: two bottom antennas and two top antennas 3.5.3.3.5.3.5.2 AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL: The ATC allows an operator of the corresponding equipment on the ground to locate and identify the aircraft in flight without having to communicate with the crew.2 Air Traffic Control 33 .

3. The ADF bearings are displayed on: two EFIS Navigation Displays (in Rose mode). The system is made up of the following components: one or two transceivers (transceiver 2 is optional) two ADF loop and sense antennas. 34 .5.4 VHF OMNI RANGE (VOR): The VOR firstly enables the bearings of one or two VOR ground transmitter stations to be permanently indicated with respect to the aircraft heading.3 AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER: 3.5.The system is made up of the following components: two VOR/MKR receivers a VOR antenna to supply the two VOR/MKR receivers a MARKER antenna to supply the VOR/MKR receiver 1 which is the only one to ensure the MARKER function.3. and secondly it indicates the aircraft course deviation with respect to a preselected course. The system receives frequency information from FMGCs or RMPs.3.3.5.3 Automatic Direction Finder The ADF enables the bearings of one or two ADF ground transmitter stations to be permanently indicated with respect to the aircraft heading. a Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI) 3.

35 .g.5.5.b VOR The system receives frequency information from FMGCs or RMPs.4. e.4. 3.5 Global Positioning System (GPS) The GPS system is a radio aid to worldwide navigation which provides: the crew with a readout of accurate navigation information.3.3.5.5 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS): 3.3.a VOR Radial 3.3. track and speed.5.VOR data are displayed on: two EFIS PFDs two EFIS NDs a VOR/DME Radio magnetic Indicator (RMI) or a VOR/ADF/DME RMI Marker data are displayed on CAPT and F/O PFDs and NDs.3. position.

They are built around an LCD or CRT display device.3.While.5.6 Primary Flight Display Primary flight display is a modern aircraft instrument dedicated to flight information.6 Primary Flight Display (PFD): 3.5. An air data computer analyzes the information and displays it to the pilot in a readable format. it still uses the system to make altitude.the Flight Management and Guidance Computer (FMGC) with position information for accurate position fixing. vertical speed and other measurements precisely using air pressure and barometric readings. airspeed. The GPS system is composed of: two GPS Sensor Units (GPSSUs) two GPS antennas.3. The GPS system uses signals broadcast by a constellation of 24 satellites at a frequency of 1575. the PFD does not directly use the Pitot static instruments to physically display flight data.42 MHz. 36 . 3.

lists procedures to undertake to correct the problem.7 Navigation Display The Flight management system sends the flight plan for display on navigation display.3. It also produces messages detailing failures and in certain cases.3.3.8 ECAM DISPLAY: 3.5. 3.5.8 ECAM Display Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor (ECAM) is a system that monitors aircraft functions and relays them to the pilots.5.5.7 NAVIGATION DISPLAY (ND): 3.3. 37 .3.

38 .CONCLUSION This article offers a comprehensive view of Technology and Elements of system in Avionics. It will not make one an expert in avionics but will provide the knowledge to approach the Technological developments.

5.4.5.5.1.5 Global Positioning System 3.3.1 Speech Communication 3.2 Satcom 3.1 Transformer Rectifier 2.3.3.2.2.10 Static Inverter 2.1 Distance Measuring Equipment 3.3 Auxiliary Power Unit 2.3 Radio Management System 3.5.4.3 Automatic Direction Finder 3.3.6 Primary Flight Display 3.3.FIGURE CHART 2.2.6 Ram Air Turbine 2.3.3.2.2 Battery 3.3 Traffic Collision Avoidance System 30 3.3.5.5.5 EGPWS 3.2.2 Air Traffic Control 3.5.3.2.7 Navigation Display 31 32-33 33 34 35 35 36 37 39 .3.3 Landing and Taxing Aids 10 12 14 15 16 17 19 20 25-26 3.2.3.3.4 VOR 3.

J. J. 40 .BIBLIOGRAPHY References of this article are taken from: 1. UK.POWELL.PALLETT. A320 Aircraft Maintenance Manual “AIR INDIA”. Aircraft Radio Systems. Aircraft Instruments and Integrated Systems. E. UK. AIRBUS INDUSTRIE. France.H. 2. 1988. 1992. Longman Scientific & Technical. 3. Pitman. 1981. England.

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