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Mr.

Palmer Ch 24-25 Test


1. During the Gilded Age, most of the railroad barons A) rejected government assistance. B) built their railroads with government assistance. C) relied exclusively on Chinese labor. D) refused to get involved in politics. E) focused on public service.

AP US History

2. The national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad construction in the late nineteenth century by providing railroad corporations with A) cash grants from new taxes. B) land grants. C) cash grants from higher tariffs. D) reduced prices for iron and steel. E) aid for construction of railroad stations.

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3. Match each railroad company below with the correct entrepreneur. A. James J. Hill 1. Central Pacific B. Cornelius Vanderbilt 2. New York Central C. Leland Stanford 3. Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe

4. Great Norther

A) A-4, B-2, C-1 B) A-3, B-4, C-2 C) A-2, B-1, C-3 D) A-4, B-3, C-1 E) A-1, B-3, C-4 4. The only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was the A) New York Central. B) Northern Pacific. C) Union Pacific. D) Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe. E) Great Northern.

5. One by-product of the development of the railroads was A) a scattering of the U.S. population. B) fewer big cities. C) the movement of people to cities. D) a reduction in immigration to the United States. E) a loss of population in the East. 6. The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years was A) agriculture. B) mining. C) the steel industry. D) electric power. E) the railroad network. 7. The United States changed to standard time zones when A) Congress passed a law establishing this system. B) the major rail lines decreed common fixed times so that they could keep schedules and avoid wrecks. C) factories demanded standard time schedules. D) long-distance telephones required standard time coordination. E) all of the above. 8. Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits were called A) pools. B) trusts. C) rebates. D) interlocking directorates. E) holding companies.

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9. The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations was the A) Federal Trade Commission. B) Interstate Commerce Commission. C) Consumer Affairs Commission. D) Federal Anti-Trust Commission. E) Federal Communications Commission. 10. One of the most significant aspects of the Interstate Commerce Act was that it A) revolutionized the business system. B) represented the first large-scale attempt by the federal government to regulate business. C) began the process of breaking up the railroad monopolies. D) failed to prohibit some of the worst abuses of big business, such as pools and rebates. E) invoked the Constitution's interstate commerce clause. 11. One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was A) increased competition. B) supporting a centrally planned economy. C) funding research on new technologies. D) elimination of the tactic of vertical integration. E) elimination of as much competition as possible.

12. Match each entrepreneur below with the field of enterprise with which he is historically identified. A. Andrew Carnegie 1. interlocking directorate B. John D. Rockefeller 2. trust C. J. Pierpont Morgan 3. vertical integration

4. pool

A) A-2, B-4, C-1 B) A-3, B-2, C-4 C) A-3, B-2, C-1 D) A-1, B-3, C-2 E) A-4, B-1, C-3

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13. Match each entrepreneur below with the field of enterprise with which he is historically identified. A. Andrew Carnegie 1. steel B. John D. Rockefeller 2. oil C. J. Pierpont Morgan 3. tobacco D. James Duke 4. banking

A) A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4 B) A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1 C) A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2 D) A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3 E) A-4, B-2, C-1, D-3 14. The steel industry owed much to the inventive genius of A) Jay Gould. B) Henry Bessemer. C) John P. Altgeld. D) Thomas Edison. E) Alexander Graham Bell

15. J.P. Morgan undermined competition by placing officers of his bank on the boards of supposedly independent companies that he wanted to control. This method was known as a(n) A) interlocking dictorate. B) trust. C) vertical integration. D) pool. E) holding company. 16. America's first billion-dollar corporation was A) General Electric (GE). B) Standard Oil. C) American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T). D) The Union Pacific Railroad. E) United States Steel. 17. The first major product of the oil industry was A) kerosene. B) gasoline. C) lighter fluid. D) natural gas. E) heating oil. 18. The oil industry became a huge business A) with the building of kerosene-fueled electric generators. B) when the federal government granted a monopoly to Standard Oil. C) with the invention of the internal combustion engine. D) when diesel engines were perfected. E) when oil was discovered in Texas.

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19. John D. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve his domination of the oil industry except A) employing spies. B) extorting rebates from railroads. C) using federal agents to break his competitors. D) pursuing a policy of rule or ruin. E) using high-pressure sales methods. 20. The gospel of wealth, which associated godliness with riches, A) based its theology on the sayings of Jesus. B) held that the wealthy should display moral responsibility for their God-given money. C) stimulated efforts to help minorities. D) was opposed by most clergymen. E) encouraged many millionaires to help the poor. 21. During the age of industrialization, the South A) took full advantage of the new economic trends. B) received preferential treatment from the railroads. C) turned away from agriculture. D) held to its Old South ideology. E) remained overwhelmingly rural and agricultural. 22. The South's major attraction for potential investors was A) readily available raw materials. B) a warm climate. C) good transportation. D) cheap labor. E) ethnic diversity.

23. In the late nineteenth century, tax benefits and cheap, nonunion labor especially attracted _______________ manufacturing to the new South. A) textile B) steel C) machine tool D) electrical appliance E) farm equipment 24. Many Southerners saw employment in the textile mills as A) high-wage positions. B) unacceptable. C) a poor alternative to farming. D) institutions that broke up families. E) the only steady jobs and wages available. 25. Generally, the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the Constitution in such a way as to favor A) labor unions. B) corporations. C) state regulatory agencies. D) individual entrepreneurs. E) independent workers and craftsmen.

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26. Match each labor organization below with the correct description. A. National Labor Union 1. the one big union that championed producer cooperatives and industrial arbitration B. Knights of Labor 2. a social-reform union killed by the depression of the 1870s C. American Federation of Labor 3. an association of unions pursuing higher wages, shorter working hours, and better working conditions

A) A-3, B-1, C-2 B) A-3, B-2, C-1 C) A-1, B-2, C-3 D) A-1, B-3, C-2 E) A-2, B-1, C-3 27. One group barred from membership in the Knights of Labor was A) African Americans. B) Chinese. C) women. D) Irish. E) social reformers. 28. The Knights of Labor believed that conflict between capital and labor would disappear when A) the government owned the means of production. B) labor controlled the government. C) workers accepted the concept of craft unions. D) business would understand the principles of social justice. E) labor would own and operate businesses and industries.

29. The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil War period was the A) National Labor Union. B) Knights of Labor. C) American Federation of Labor. D) Knights of Columbus. E) Congress of Industrial Organizations. 30. By 1900, organized labor in America A) had begun to turn in a clearly Marxist direction. B) had enrolled nearly half of the industrial labor force. C) was accepted by the majority of employers as a permanent part of the new industrial economy. D) had begun to develop a more positive image with the public. E) relied heavily on the National Labor Relations Board. 31. The people who found fault with the captains of industry mostly argued that these men A) had no real business ability. B) built their corporate wealth and power by exploiting workers. C) tried to take the United States back to an earlier age of aristocracy. D) were environmentally insensitive. E) retarded technological advances. 32. The major factor in drawing country people off the farms and into the big cities was A) the development of the skyscraper. B) the availability of industrial jobs. C) the compact nature of those large communities. D) the advent of new housing structures known as dumbbell tenements. E) the lure of cultural excitement.

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33. The New Immigrants who came to the United States after 1880 A) had experience with democratic governments. B) arrived primarily from Germany, Sweden, and Norway. C) were culturally different from previous immigrants. D) received a warm welcome from the Old Immigrants. E) represented nonwhite racial groups. 34. Most Italian immigrants to the United States between 1880 and 1920 came to escape A) political oppression. B) famine. C) the political disintegration of their country. D) the military draft. E) the poverty and backwardness of southern Italy. 35. A bird of passage was an immigrant who A) came to the United States to live permanently. B) only passed through America on his or her way to Canada. C) was unmarried. D) came to America to work for a short time and then returned to Europe. E) flew from job to job. 36. Most New Immigrants A) eventually returned to their country of origin. B) tried to preserve their Old Country culture in America. C) were subjected to stringent immigration restrictions. D) quickly assimilated into the mainstream of American life. E) converted to mainstream Protestantism.

37. In the new urban environment, most liberal Protestants A) believed that a final Judgment Day was coming soon. B) were driven out of mainstream seminaries and colleges. C) welcomed ecumenical conversations with Roman Catholics. D) sharply criticized American society and American government. E) rejected biblical literalism and adapted religious ideas to modern culture. 38. Settlement houses such as Hull House engaged in all of the following activities except A) child care. B) instruction in English. C) cultural activities. D) instruction in socialism. E) social reform lobbying. 39. The place that offered the greatest opportunities for American women in the period 18651900 was A) the big city. B) the West. C) suburban communities. D) rural America. E) New England. 40. Labor unions favored immigration restriction because most immigrants were all of the following except A) opposed to factory labor. B) used as strikebreakers. C) willing to work for lower wages. D) difficult to unionize. E) non-English speaking.

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41. The religious denomination that responded most favorably to the New Immigration was A) Roman Catholics. B) Baptists. C) Episcopalians. D) Christian Scientists. E) Mormons. 42. Booker T. Washington believed that the key to political and civil rights for African Americans was A) the vote. B) rigorous academic training. C) the rejection of accommodationist attitudes. D) to directly challenge white supremacy. E) economic independence. 43. As a leader of the African American community, Booker T. Washington A) helped to found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. B) advocated social equality. C) discovered hundreds of uses for the peanut. D) promoted black self-help but did not challenge segregation. E) promoted black political activism.

44. Match each of these late-nineteenth-century writers with the theme of his work. A. Lewis Wallace 1. success and honor as the products of honesty and hard work B. Horatio Alger 2. anti-Darwinism support for the Holy Scriptures C. Henry James 3. contemporary social problems like divorce, labor strikes, and socialism D. William Dean Howells 4. psychological realism and the dilemmas of sophisticated women.

A) A-4, B-2, C-3, D-1 B) A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4 C) A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3 D) A-3, B-4, C-1, D-2 E) A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1

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Answer Key
1. B 2. B 3. A 4. E 5. C 6. E 7. B 8. A 9. B 10. B 11. E 12. C 13. D 14. B 15. A 16. E 17. A 18. C 19. C 20. B 21. E 22. D 23. A 24. E 25. B 26. E 27. B 28. E

29. C 30. D 31. B 32. B 33. C 34. E 35. D 36. B 37. E 38. D 39. A 40. A 41. A 42. E 43. D 44. C

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