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GLOBAL VAMPIRES OF LEGEND & MYTH II_artemka

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artemka

Author: artemka
VR Publish Date: Jan 18 2007

This article continues my work from my last article GLOBAL VAMPIRES OF LEGEND &
MYTH

I continue to try and compare the different vampire myths across countries and
continents. I have tried my best to make sure that there are no duplications with
my previous article.

The spelling of the vampire names was different depending on the era when it was
written; often the spelling changed when it was translated into a different
language and then back again.

Where countries no longer exist but can still be identified inside modern land
boundaries, the ancient country name was used.

Some of the myths on here may not conform to your definition of a vampire. I have
used the definition from several sources to make sure that I have not missed out a
myth that may conform to someone else�s definition of a vampire

It is not a complete list �

ADRIATIC COAST (covering many counties)

Vrykolakas

The Vrykolakas was a species of vampire found in the Adriatic and Aegean regions.
It was created by various means including an immoral life. It travelled in the
dark and knocked on doors, calling out the name of someone inside, if the person
answered they would die soon after. The Vrykolakas gained further powers as it
grew older.

AFRICA

Adze � Impundulu - Obayifo

The Adze was a vampire spirit that possessed tribal sorcerers among the Ewe, a
people inhabiting parts of southeastern Ghana and southern Togo in Africa. The
Adze flew around in the form of a firefly but, if caught, changed into a human. It
drank blood, palm oil and coconut water and preyed on children, especially
handsome ones.

The Impundulu was a vampiric servant of a witch found in the Eastern Cape region
of Africa. This vampire servant was usually passed down from mother witch to
daughter witch and was used to inflict suffering on their enemies. It was said to
have an insatiable appetite and had to be continuously fed. The Impundulu also
took the form of a handsome man and could become a lover to its mistress.

The Obayifo was a living vampire found among the Ashanti people of the Gold Coast
in Africa. It was said to be a man or a woman that left their human body at night
to feed. It was particularly fond of young children. The Obayifo also caused
blight in crops.

ARABIA

Algul - Katanes

The Algul was an Arabic vampire., which, translated, means �horse leech� or
�bloodsucking jinn�. The Algul was traditionally a female demon that inhabited
cemeteries and ate dead babies.

The Katanes was a lean, sharp-toothed, hairy vampire-like creature in Arabia but
little else was known.

ASIA

Kumiho

Kumiho or �nine-tailed fox� was an evil trickster found in Asian folklore. It was
a shape shifter, a vampire and a possessor of humans. It was widely feared.

AUSTRALIA

Talamaur

The Talamaur was a living vampire found in Australia. This creature could
communicate with the spirit world and make a spirit its servant, which it then
sent among the living. One version of the Talamaur could send out its soul to
drain the remaining life essence from a fresh corpse.

BABYLONIA

Estrie - Utukku

The Estrie was a female Hebrew spirit. The Estrie was considered to be an
incorporeal spirit of evil that had taken solid form and lived among humanity to
satisfy its need for blood. Its favourite prey was said to be children, although
no one was considered safe when it needed to feed.

The Utukku was a Babylonian vampire spirit, sometimes viewed as a demon. Generally
it was believed to be the spirit of a recently deceased person that had returned
from the grave for some unknown reason.

BRAZIL

Jaracacas

The Jaracacas was believed to appear in the form of a snake, it fed on the breast
of a woman while she attempted to breastfeed her child. The Jaracacas did this by
pushing the child out of the way and silencing the child�s cries by forcing its
tail into the child�s mouth.

BUDDHIST (not a country but I can�t find where they�re from)

Preta

In Buddhist tradition, the Preta was a hungry ghost. They had a human shape, but
their bellies were bloated and they had very tiny mouths. Because of the size of
their mouths, they were unable to quench their thirst. The Buddhists saw this as a
punishment in reincarnation for selfishness, or for having too many desires, in an
earlier life. They were doomed to spend a part of time in such an existence.

CANADA

Mara

The Mara was a Slavic vampire, also found in the legends of the Kashube people of
Canada. It was said to be the spirit of an unbaptized dead girl. The Mara was
considered to be a terrible night visitor who crushed and oppressed her victims.
In the Slavic legend once the Mara drank the blood of a man she would fall in love
with him and would return to plague his dreams until he died. She was also said to
be fond of feeding on the blood of children.

CARIBBEAN

Soucoyant - Ol' Higue - Loogaroo

In the Caribbean, vampires known as Soucoyant in Trinidad and Tobago, Ol' Higue in
Jamaica, and Loogaroo in Grenada, took the form of an old women during the day
and, at night, shed their skin to became flying balls of flame who hunted for
blood. They were said to be notoriously obsessive-compulsive. They could be
stopped by sprinkling salt or rice at entrances, crossroads and near beds; the
vampire felt compelled to stop and pick up every grain. They could also be killed
by rubbing salt into their discarded skin, which would burn them when they
returned and put it back on in the morning.

EUROPE

Nachzeher

The Nachzeher was a vampire found among the Kashubes of northern Europe. This
vampire had the ability to kill its relatives by psychic means. While in its grave
the vampire would begin to devour its shroud and then pieces of its own flesh.
This caused the living relatives to begin to waste away.

GERMANY

Alp � Doppelsauger - Neuntoter

The Alp was a German vampiric spirit associated with the bogeyman and the incubus.
It normally tormented the nights and dreams of women. The creature�s physical
manifestations could be very violent and dangerous. Long connected with the
nightmare, the Alp was considered male and sometimes the spirit of a recently
deceased relative.

Children could become an Alp if the mother had used a horse collar to ease
childbirth. During the Middle Ages the Alp was said to appear as a cat, pig, bird
or other animal. In Cologne it could also appear as a lecherous demon dog, which
associated it to the werewolf legends of that time. In all its manifestations the
Alp was known to wear a hat.

The spirit form of the Alp could fly like a bird, ride like a horse and was
credited with a certain gallant attitude, rarely forcing itself on its prey. The
Alp drank blood from the nipples of men and children but preferred milk from
women. Because it was so involved in terrors of the mind and sleep, the Alp was
thought virtually impossible to kill.

The Doppelsauger was a vampire found in northern regions, among the Wends (a
Slavic race). The thought was that a child, once weaned, would become a vampire if
(s)he should nurse again. On its passing into a vampire, the Doppelsauger would
eat the fleshy parts of its nursing mother�s breast and in so doing would draw out
the life essence from a living relative.

The Neuntoter was considered to be a carrier of plagues and pestilence. By
tradition, it was only seen during the times of great epidemics.

GREECE

Empusas � Mormo - Vrykolatios (Vryolatios)

The Empusas or Mormo was a vampiric creature from Greek mythology, it was usually
said to be in attendance to the goddess Hecate. It was described as a demon that
could, from time to time, take human form. Its most common incarnation seems to
have been in the form of a Phoenician woman.

The Vrykolatios (Vryolatios) was a vampire species found on the island of
Santorini. They are described as fiends who banquet on the living.

INDIA

Chordewa � Gayal � Jigarkhwar � Masan � Masani - Pacu Pati - Yakshis

The Chordewa was a witch found among the Oraons, capable of turning her soul into
a form of vampire cat. It was said that if the cat licked a persons lips they
would die soon after.

The Gayal was a vampiric spirit. Usually created due to the death of a man who had
no one to properly perform the burial rites at his funeral. When he returned from
the grave, the Gayal reeked his revenge on the sons of others and on his own
relatives. The threat of a relative returning as a Gayal usually ensured that the
proper funeral rites were performed.

The Jigarkhwar was a vampiric sorceress found in the Sind region of India. She fed
by extracting a person�s liver through a piercing stare and various incantations.
The liver was then cooked on a fire and eaten, at which time the victim died.

The Masan was usually said to be the ghost of a child, that delighted in
tormenting and killing children. The Masan was also said to be able to curse a
child that walked in its shadow. It would also follow a woman home should she
allow her gown to drag on the ground over the Masan�s shadow.

The Masani was a female adult vampire, she was said to be the spirit of burial
grounds in India. She was burnt black in appearance. Her hunts were conducted by
night, that started by her emerging from a funeral pyre. Anyone passing the burial
site would be attacked.

The Pacu Pati was a powerful vampire from India. This creature was deemed Lord of
all beings of mischief. It was seen at night in cemeteries and places of
execution.

In India (especially in the southern state of Kerla), theYakshis were beautiful
women who seduced men in order to kill or eat them. They were said to be scared of
iron objects in addition to other religious symbols. They could be killed by
driving an iron nail through their head. They could also be imprisoned in trees
using blessed objects.

IRELAND

Dearg-due (Dearg-Dul) - Leanhaum-shee - Leanansidhe

In my last article I said that I could not find much out about the Dearg-due,
other than ways to kill it. I have now found this:

The Dearg-due was a dreaded creature of Ireland, whose name meant "Red Blood
Sucker." This was an ancient vampire that dates back to Celtic times, it is still
feared. The only way to stop it hunting was to pile stones on any grave suspected
of being its home. The most famous tale of the Dearg-due was the story of a
beautiful woman supposedly buried in Waterford, in a small churchyard near
Strongbows Tree. Several times a year she rose from her grave and used her
stunning appearance to lure man to their doom.

The Leanansidhe or Leanhaum-shee appeared first in the Isle of Man. This vampiric
faerie seems to have migrated to Ireland�s eastern coast. Similar to the Hebrew
Estrie, she was well known for luring men (and inspiring poets) to their deaths.
One myth says she devoured her prey by draining their essence through long bouts
of sex. The other myth says that she drank blood and, sometimes, collected it in a
cauldron.

ITALY

Stregoni benefici

The Stregoni benefici was an Italian vampire, said to be on the side of good and a
mortal enemy of all evil vampires.

JAPAN

Kasha - Yasha

The Kasha was a vampire that fed by removing corpses from graves, or prior to
cremation, and devouring them.

The Yasha was a female vampire bat of Japanese folklore. A woman could become one
of these creatures if she allowed anger to lower her status in rebirth.

LIBYA

Lamia (not the Greek One)

The Lamia was a vampire from Libya. According to legend the Lamia was a Queen of
Libya and all of her children were slain by the goddess Hera. The Lamia wanted
revenge for this and roamed the earth feeding on infants. She was also said to
entice men into sex and then devour them in a gruesome way.

MADAGASCAR

Ramanga

Ramanga was a living vampire found in Madagascar. It was a servant of tribal
elders. The Ramanga would consume the nail clippings and spilled blood of any
noble member of a tribe.
MALAYSIA

Bajang

The Bajang was a Malaysian vampire, assumed to be male. It appeared as a cat and
normally threatened children. The Bajang could be enslaved and turned into a demon
servant and was often handed down from one generation to the next within a family.
It was kept in a Tabong (bamboo vessel) that was protected by various charms.
While imprisoned it was fed with eggs and would turn on its owner if not enough
food was provided. The master of such a demon could send it out to inflict harm on
his/her enemy; the enemy usually died soon after of a mysterious disease.
According to traditions the Bajang came from the body of a stillborn child, coaxed
out of the corpse by various incantations.

MEXICO

Tlaciques - Civatateo

The Tlaciques were vampiric witches found among the Nahuatl Indians of Mexico.
They could turn into a ball of flame or into a turkey, in which form they were
said to be able to feed unnoticed.

The Civatateo were said to be the servants of the Gods (they also had the magical
powers of a priest). They date back to the time of the Aztecs. All of the
Civatateo were noblewomen who had died during childbirth who then had returned to
earth in order to stalk travellers, haunt temples or churches, and feed off of
children. They were said to be white and shrivelled, with a certain type of glyph
(character) either painted on their clothes or tattooed on their bodies.

MOLDAVIA

Zmeu

The Zmeu was a vampiric figure that took the form of a flame and entered the room
of a young girl or widow. Once inside, the flame became a man who seduced her.

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

Vis

The Vis was a vampire among the Lakalai people of New Britain that flew at night,
it was said to shine brightly and clawed out people�s eyes with its long nails.

PHILLIPINES

Danag - Bebarlangs

The Danag was a Filipino vampire held to be very ancient as a species, responsible
for having planted taro (a tropical plant) on the islands long ago. The Danag
worked with humans for many years but the partnership ended one day when a woman
cut her finger and a Danag sucked her wound; the Danag enjoying the taste so much
that it drained her body completely of blood.

The Bebarlangs were a tribe found in the Philippines that had members that
practised a form of psychic vampirism. They apparently sent out their astral
bodies and fed on the life forces and vitality of individuals.
POLAND

Ohyn

The Ohyn was a little known vampire caused by the presence of teeth and a caul in
a newborn baby.

ROMANIA

Varacolaci

The Varacolaci was a vampire that ranked among the most powerful of all the
undead. It was said to have the ability to cause both lunar and solar eclipses.
They could appear as pale humans with dry skin. They could travel on an astral
thread [aka the midnight spinning], travelling as far as needed so long as the
thread remained unbroken.

RUSSIA

Vourdalak

Vourdalak was a Russian vampire, considered in Russian folklore to be a beautiful
but evil woman.

SLAVIA

Mara - Mahr

The Mara was a Slavic vampire, also found in the legends of the Kashube people of
Canada. It was said to be the spirit of an unbaptized dead girl. The Mara was
considered to be a terrible night visitor who crushed and oppressed her victims.
In the Slavic legend once the Mara drank the blood of a man she would fall in love
with him and would return to plague his dreams until he died. She was also said to
be fond of feeding on the blood of children.

Among the ancient Slavish and Teutonic people, the Mahr was believed to be the
spirits of their dead family members (or even living people) who could send their
spirits out at night to disturb humans and/or drink their blood. They could appear
as moths, hairs or straw.

In contrast the Mahr were also said to be a race of giant vampiric moths that
lived in the Carpathian Mountains. If a person was bitten by one of these
creatures, the Mahr could inhabit their body. There were numerous ways of killing
a Mahr, including a stake through the heart.

In Poland and in Bulgaria Moravia, the Mahr were called Mora.

SLOVAKIA

Nelapsi

The Nelapsi was a Slovak vampire, which caused serious harm to the living. The
Nelapsi was said to be able to massacre entire villages in a single visit. It also
had the ability to kill with a single glance.

SLOVENIA

Pijavica - Volkodlak
The Pijavica was created as a result of evils perpetrated during a person�s mortal
life, particularly incest, which was guaranteed to cause the sinner to return as a
member of the undead. It generally fed on relatives or descendents.

The Volkodlak was a species of vampire found in Slovenia; it has been linked in
some ways to various werewolf legends.

SOUTH AMERICA - SURINAM

Azeman

The Azeman was a female vampire or werewolf of Surinam. At night, she transformed
into an animal and travelled around drinking blood. Obviously she was thought to
beobsessive-compulsive; the best way to stop her was to scatter grain or seeds
around and she was compelled to stop, count and gather them. She also wouldn�t
cross a broom, so another way to stop her was to prop a broom against a door.

SPAIN

Guaxa

The Guaxa was a witch of the Asturies. She was old and ugly with many wrinkles and
a single tooth. She preyed upon children and young adults, entered their homes
while they were sleeping and feeding off of their blood until they died.

Sources:

www.hiddenlair.org
www.pantheon.org/areas/mythology
www.occult.be/
www.seattleluxury.com/encyclopedia/entry/vampire
www.faqs.org/faqs/paranormal

Vampire Myth & Lore, Packman & Krown
The Myth of Babal, David D Mighal
Blood or Energy, T K Sheehan

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glyph
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taro

Thanks to:

DarkFallenAngelOfSinJas
MidNightRayven