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SCHOOL READINESS OF THE PRESCHOOL PUPILS OF ST.

IGNATIUS LEARNING CENTER, XAVIER HEIGHTS CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2010-2011

A Junior Thesis Presented to the Faculty of The School of Education Xavier University (Ateneo de Cagayan) Cagayan de Oro City

In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements of the subjects ECP 32: Directed Study in Early Childhood Education

By Berro, Kristyle V. Semaa, Giraldyne D. Tomboc, May Rose F.

November 27, 2010

APPROVAL SHEET

This junior thesis entitled: SCHOOL READINESS OF THE PRESCHOOL PUPILS IN ST. IGNATIUS LEARNING CENTER, XAVIER HEIGHTS CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY FOR SCHOOL YEAR 2010-2011 prepared and submitted by Kristyle V. Berro and Giraldyne D. Semaa and May Rose F. Tomboc in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject ECP 32: Directed Study in Early Childhood Education, has been examined and is recommend for Oral Examination MYRNA T. MIOZA, M.A Adviser

Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject ECP 32: Directed Study in Early Childhood Education

Lourdes G. Tolod, PhD Dean, School of Education

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page APPROVAL SHEET TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM Introduction Conceptual Framework Schematic Diagram Statement of the Problem Significance of the Study Scope and Delimitation of the Study Definition of Terms II III REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design Research Setting Respondents and Sampling Procedure Data Gathering Procedures Statistical Instrument Scoring Procedure IV DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA The Profile of Responses in General Interpretation of Data V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary Findings 28 30 19 21 15 15 16 17 17 18 1 4 5 6 6 7 7 ii iii

Conclusions Recommendations

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BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES A B C D E LETTER OF APPROVAL INTERVIEW SHEET SCHOOL READINESS OBSERVATION LOG NARRATIVE REPORT CURRICULUM VITAE

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Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM

Introduction St. Ignatius Learning Center, preschool children range from four to six years old is at the stage of school readiness. When the new school year starts most children may have the experiences of adjustment in the school especially in the environment. These adjustments may take the effect upon the school readiness of children. School readiness is referred to children when they are able to be ready to go to school. In discussions of preschool programs, school readiness is a major topic of debate. Raising entrance ages for admittance to kindergarten is based on the reasoning that many children are not ready, and teachers have difficulty in teaching them. For most parents, readiness means that their children have the knowledge and abilities necessary for success in preschool and for getting ready for the kindergarten. Kindergarten teachers believe that there are important factors for kindergarten readiness. According to Morrison, these factors are: (1) physically healthy, rested, and well nourished, (2) able to finish task, (3) can count to twenty or more, (4) takes turns and shares, (5) has good problem-solving skills, (6) is

2 enthusiastic and curious in approaching new activities, (7) is able to use pencils and paintbrushes, (8) is not disruptive of the class, (9) knows the English language, (10) is sensitive to other childrens feelings, (11) sits still and pays attention, (12) knows the letters of the alphabet, (13) can follow directions, (15) identifies primary colors and basic shapes, and (16) communicates needs, wants, and thoughts verbally in childs primary language. Tan also suggested that a childs readiness to begin schooling has a difference between in readiness to learn and readiness to go to school. Tan also noted the developmental pediatricians description of readiness for learning as: (1) the level of development when the child is more receptive to learning specific materials, (2) the age at which an individual has this specified capacity, and (3) readiness to learn, however, may not guarantee readiness to go to school. Tan stated that readiness for school means a standard of physical, intellectual, and social development that enables the child to fulfill school requirements and to assimilate school conventions. Although there are no hard and fast rules, developmental pediatricians have formed some simple guidelines in determining school readiness: (1) readiness to be separated from the parent for three hours, (2) ability to express needs and ideas to others, (3) ability to listen to a story and re-tell events, (4) increased sociability. Ability to join in songs and know simple ones, (5) ability to cut with scissors, (6) toilet training. At least be able to say that he needs to go to the bathroom, (7) can follow simple

3 directions, (8) can recognize basic colors and shapes, and (9) can run, skip, hop, and jump. According to Morrison, the NAEYC has adopted the following position statement on school readiness: The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) believes that those who are committed to promoting universal school readiness must be committed to: (1) addressing the inequities in early life experience so that all children have success to the opportunities which promote success, (2) recognizing and supporting individual differences among children, and, (3) establishing reasonable and appropriate expectations of childrens capabilities upon school entry. According to Cook, families and communities play critical roles in helping children get ready for school. Schools can improve the readiness of young children by making connections with local child care providers and preschools and by creating policies that ensure smooth transitions to kindergarten. Children entering kindergarten vary in their early experiences, skills, knowledge, language, culture, and family background. Schools must be ready to address the diverse needs of the children and families in their community and is committed to the success of every child.

4 Conceptual Framework This study is anchored on the concept that the school readiness of the child will likely be on their appropriate time of learning and the decisions of their parents to let them go to school. (Fisher, Julie Starting From The Child. Philadelphia: Cromwell Press Limited, Frowbridge. 2002) The children are ready to learn if learning is adapted to the intellectual proclivities of children whereas their general knowledge and grasping of information as well. Once again, we are drawn to the behaviors of parents and caregivers who appear to make these adaptations instinctively. Parents adapt naturally to their childs intellectual tendencies, attributing consciousness and intentionality to their childs actions from the very beginning of his or her life (Stern, 1985). Childrens school readiness may have to do something of learning when their cognitive disposition is to be taught are matched. Parents may make this match instinctively knowing, as they do, so much the body of beliefs, expectations and assumptions that their child brings to a learning situation.

Independent Variable

Dependent Variable

Pupils Profile Gender Age Year Level

School Readiness Skills General Knowledge Skills Self- knowledge Skills Physical Skills Social Skills

Figure 1.1 Schema showing Independent variable and Independent variables of the study.

6 Statement of the Problem This study proposed to investigate the School Readiness of Preschool pupils. 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 1.1 Gender 1.2 Age 1.3 Grade Level? 2. What are the characteristics of the respondents in terms of: 2.1 General Knowledge Skills 2.2 Self- knowledge Skills 2.3 Physical Skills 2.4 Social Skills?

Significance of the Study The result of the study will be useful for the administrators, teachers, pupils and parents. To the Administrators it will minimize the number of drop-outs and assess if the child is ready to school and to reduce the numbers of first grade failures and reduction of number failures throughout elementary the elementary school years.

7 To the Teacher the result of the will be used in guiding the pupil and to provide assistance so that they will be able to cope with the things they need. To the Parents the result of the study is for the parents not to hurry their child to go to school. To the Pupils the result of the study is for the children to have a higher achievement levels through the school years.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study dealt with the school readiness of pupils in terms of age, gender and grade level. This study also dealt with the characteristics of school readiness in terms of general knowledge, physical skills, self-knowledge skills and social skills. The study is delimited only at St. Ignatius Learning Center with 43 respondents specifically 19 Nursery pupils, 9 Kinder 1 pupils, and 15 Kinder 2 pupils in School Year 2010- 2011.

Definition of Terms The following operational definitions one intended to contribute to a better understanding of some important terms that frequently occur in this research. Age- refers to the respondents, ranges from 4, 5 and 6 years old. Grade Level- this refers to the childs level of attainment

8 School Readiness- this refers to the readiness of the child to enter school and educationally based environment to process the learning on how to do things independently. General Knowledge- this refers to the childs identification within his/her environment. Physical Skills- refers to the condition of the respondents in terms of movement: fine and gross motor skills. Self- Knowledge- this refers to the child basic information of his/her self. Social Skills- refers to the condition of the respondents in terms of interacting with peers, teachers, parents and guardians.

Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE For further discussions about the school readiness of children the general characteristics were described as General Knowledge, Self Knowledge Skills, Physical Skills, and Social Skills. The idea that children should be ready for early childhood school is relatively new. The word ready comes from the Anglo-Saxon and originally pertained to riding, not school. Educators first began to apply the term readiness to children in the late 1920s and early 1930s as a result of studies by Dr. Arnold Gesell, founder of the Guidance Nursery at Yale. Gesell believed that each child passes through fixed developmental stages that are not necessarily related to the childs chronological age. Rather each child progresses through each stage at his or her own rate. Any attempt to train a child to sit, talk, or read before that child was developmentally (Butterworth, 1992) On the average, children start preschool between three and four years old some start earlier or later depending on the childs readiness to go to school. A childs readiness to begin school is not determined by age alone. There is a difference between readiness to learn and readiness to go to school. Developmental pediatricians would describe readiness as: 1) the level of development when the child is more receptive to learning specific materials 2) the age at which an individual has this specified capacity ready was useless, and perhaps even harmful.

10 3) readiness to learn, however, may not guarantee readiness to go to school. The three conjectures of readiness that are stated is that readiness of school has standard of physical, intellectual, and social development that enables the child to fulfill school requirements and to assimilate school conventions. (Tan, 2002) In discussions of preschool and kindergarten programs, school readiness is a major topic of debate. Raising entrance ages for admittance to kindergarten and first grade is based on the reasoning that many children are not ready, and teachers therefore have difficulty teaching them. The early childhood profession is reexamining readiness, its many interpretations, and the various ways the concept is applied to educational settings and children. (Morrison, 2001) Most schools admit kindergarten, children who are four years nine months when school opens in the fall. Variations do exist among communities, with some systems admitting children at a younger age. As young as four years three months, and others requiring that the child reach his fifth birthday before entering kindergarten. The question of school entrance age is of vital concern to parents and to educators. (Mindess, 1972) How well children settle into school can have implications for their long term education, says Dr. Kay Margetts, a lecturer and early childhood education

11 at the University of Melbourne. Its about moving from a friendly environment at preschool or home to one where the child ratio is very different, she says. More independence is required, the physical setting is bigger and there are more rules and many more children from different backgrounds. Also, school is about interacting with others and considering their needs, cooperation, controlling your responses and behaving in an appropriate way, not just reading and writing. (Cook, 2002) School readiness of a child can be of parents faults if they push their child to go to school if they are responsible enough in doing school activities only to find out if he can manage himself to his social environment. Many parents agonized over this decision, often running to preschool and prep teachers, caregivers and other parents for advice. While there is no simple answer, its generally agreed that children must be socially and emotionally mature enough to cope with the extra demands of school, regardless of their age. But each child develops at a different rate, and many will undergo huge changes between now and next year. (Cook, 2002) Mannheim believed, as most sociologists do, that people generally live their lives by habit. They tend to have routine ways of doing things and habitual ways of seeing and defining the world. These habits of thought, which Mannheim called ideologies, have immense power because they are shared with others and are built into the structural assumptions of institutions. For this reason, few

12 people stray very far from the definition s of reality. When Mannheim talks about the readiness to see beyond the matters at hand, a preparedness to see the whole situation. The task then is to pull back the ideological tarpaulin of human beings spread across their lives and view the marked reality that lies beneath it. (Webb, 1989) School districts have offered a guide on to childrens intuition on school readiness. Whether possible if there is a program for orienting the children before the kindergarten year begins. There are many ways of orienting entering kindergarten children and their parents to school. Some schools plan a visit wherein children visit kindergarten room for an hour or so while their parents talk with the principal, school nurse, school psychologist and other team members. In some school districts a short screening assessment is administered to each incoming student. At this time, parents are sometimes asked to fill out an information sheet on their child. This visit is carefully planned and is not a time when the class shows their visitors all the things they know how to do; instead, the teacher, with the assistance of the class, might share some of the regular activities with the visitors. These might include working the puzzles and blocks, creating a picture, and singing songs. Serving juice and cookies and having story time is a good way to end the visit to the kindergarten. (Ramsey, 1980)

13 The situations on school readiness of childrens motivation. Motivation in a sense of combining external and internal margins to get the child gain for school readiness and found out that this school readiness in connection to motivation and its benefits for both the parents and child if he should get home visits before the school begins. According to Tulio (2000), it is apparent that General Knowledge skills have the principle of intelligence and some means of measuring the intelligence level of their pupil if they are to present meaningful learning experiences. General intelligence is made up of several primary mental abilities. The primary mental abilities are: ability to do arithmetic problem, verbal meaning, spatial perception, word fluency, memory, and perceptual speed. These abilities however are independent to one another. On the other hand, those children who are identified as academically weak may need extra help in discovering the solution to various problems they are required to solve. Home visits are one way fore children, parents, and teacher to get acquainted. Some teachers visit the childrens homes within the days allotted before the opening day of school. These kinds of visits are time-consuming but often very rewarding. Some parents are pleased to have teachers come to their homes others are hesitant and reluctant. If home visits are made, the time for the visit should be mutually agreed on by you and the parents. Home visits should not be lengthy, drawn-out affairs. Visits are a time for getting acquainted and sharing information. In some school districts kindergarten handbooks are

14 distributed to the parents at this time. Handbooks could also be given to parents at registration or orientation time. (Ramsey, 1980) Childrens school readiness is a success of entering the school into an appropriate age. This debate has association to the district school programs such as the public and private kindergarten schools. In the United States, about 98 percent of children attend kindergarten prior to entering the first grade, but the exact date by which a child must have turned five in order to be eligible for that years enrollment varies from state to state. Recently many states concerned about early failure or lack of readiness that children must turn five by September of the school year, rather than by the usual December date. (Calkins, 1997)

Chapter 3 Research Methodology This chapter presents the methods and procedure used in the study. It includes discussion of the research setting, research sitting, respondents and sampling procedure, data gathering and instrument procedure, statistical instruments, statistical treatment of data, frequency and percentages and scoring guidelines.

Research Design In this study, the researchers used a descriptive case study approach. Descriptive study refers to a type of educational research which deals with the prevailing condition according to Travers (1978) as cited by Mioza (2008). It is descriptive because the study is intended to conduct a survey on the characteristics of the respondents.

Research Setting The research was conducted in St. Ignatius Learning Center in Cagayan de Oro City. St. Ignatius is located at Block 22, Lot 2 Xavier Heights Subdivision Upper Balulang Cagyan de Oro City.

16 Respondents and Sampling Procedures Since one of the means of acquiring data needed for the study is through observation, the researchers made use of purposive sampling in determining the respondents of the study. Purposive sampling consists of individuals who have special qualifications of some sort or are deemed representative on the basis of prior evidence (Fraenkel, 2007). The researchers made use of observation and checking on the school readiness checklist to gather evidence on the qualifications such as the characteristics of school readiness. This private school is one of the non-sectarian schools in Cagayan de Oro City. They offer Nursery, Kindergarten I & II and complete elementary and high school. It is a typical type of school and is located at Block 66, Lot 2 Xavier Heights Cagayan de Oro City. Table 1 below shows the total population of the Preschool pupils ( Nursery, Kinder I & II) for the School year 2010- 2011 Table 1 Distribution of Respondents by Class Level Nursery Kinder I Kinder II Total Population 19 9 15 43 17 Date Gathering Procedures

The researchers asked permission from the Directress of Saint Ignatius Learning Center to conduct the study. The researchers initially conducted a discussion with the principal in charge regarding the procedure of the study and the instrument that was used. The researchers first floated the respondents using the School readiness Observation Log and Face-to-face Interview Guide. When the observation was gathered, the researchers then preceded to the face- to- face interview with the pupils which was followed by observation of the pupils. The observation of the respondents were done inside the classroom during their free play, individual or group activity, snack time and class time in two consecutive weeks. In addition to the observation data, the researchers made some field notes in the course of the observation. It contained the day to day account of the observation that was considered relevant to the study. This was done in order to capture some behaviors that were not observed during the use of the questionnaire.

Statistical Instruments For better resulting the analysis, organization and interpretation of the data gathered, the following statistical tools were used to process the data gathered in the study.

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For problems one, frequency and percentage distribution were used. For problems two, frequency, percentage and mean distribution were likewise employed to describe the general knowledge skills, physical skills and social skills.

Scoring Procedure After some series of reading, the researchers prepared the following scoring system For the School Readiness Observation Log, the score was interpreted as follows: Average Score 4.80- 5.00 3.80- 4.79 2.80- 3.79 1.80- 2.79 1.00- 1.79 Description Almost Always Generally Sometimes Seldom Rarely

Chapter 4

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the findings, analysis and interpretation of the data relevant to the questions posed in this study. The collected data were organized and presented according to the order of the research questions in the statement of the problem found in Chapter 1.

Problem No.1 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 1.1 Gender 1.2 Age 1.3 Year level?

Table 2 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Gender of Respondents Gender Frequency Percentage Male Female Total 20 23 43 46.5 53.5 100.0

Table 1 shows the Frequency and Percentage of male and female respondents. The total number of respondents was 43. It occurs that more of the female respondents responded the indicators followed by males.

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Table 3 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Age of Respondents Age Frequency Percentage 4 years old 5 years old 6 years old 7 years old Total 18 9 15 1 43 41.9 20.9 34.9 2.3 100.0

Table 2 shows the frequency and percentage of the age group of the respondents. There are more four years old respondents followed by five years old, six years old, and seven years old. According to Tan (2002), children start preschool between three and four years old some start earlier or later depending on the childs readiness to go to school. Table 4 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Grade Level of Respondents Grade Level Nursery Kinder 1 Kinder 2 Total Frequency 19 9 15 43 Percentage 44.2 20.9 34.9 100.0

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Table 3 shows the grade level of the respondents. The Nursery has the highest total number followed by Kinder 2 and Kinder 1. According to Morrison (2005), school readiness includes a childs ability, as a given time to accomplish activities and engage in process associated with schooling, whether nursery school and kindergarten. School readiness does not exist in the abstract it must relate to something. School readiness is measured against the process of formal schooling. Childrens lack of school readiness may be considered a deficit and detriment because it indicates a lack of what is needed for success in nursery and kindergarten.

Problem No.2 2. What are the characteristics of the child in terms of: 2. 1 General Knowledge Skills 2.2 Physical Skills 2.3 Social Skills 2.4 Self-Knowledge Skills? Table 5 Mean Distribution of the Preschool Pupils Characteristics of General Knowledge Skills for the School Readiness Range Description Frequency Percentage 4.70- 5.00 Almost always 3.70- 4.69 Generally 7 16.3 2.70- 3.69 Sometimes 36 83.7 1.70- 2.69 Seldom 1.00- 1.69 Rarely Total 43 100.0 Mean: 3.4 Description: Sometimes 22 Standard Deviation: 0.68

Indicator: 1. The child is curious and eager to learn 2. The child names familiar objects and their uses (e.g. chair, spoon, soap) 3. The child identifies some common animals ( e.g. dog, cow ) 4. The child identifies some zoo animals ( e.g. monkey, elephant, bird) 5. the child names familiar places and explains their uses ( e.g. store, playground) 6. The child knows and identifies familiar people by name 7. the child understands words for how things feel ( e.g. hard, soft, hot, cold) 8. The child understands words for how things move ( e.g. fast, low, stop, go)

Mean 3.46 3.54 3.56 3.54 3.25 3.67 3.21 3.28

Description Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes

Table 4 shows the Mean Distribution of the Preschool Pupils Characteristics General Knowledge Skills for the School Readiness. Most of the 36 respondents responded Sometimes which is 83.7 per cent. It is indicated that they were curious and eager to learn, names familiar places and explains their uses (e.g. store, playground), and understands words for how things move (e.g. fast, low, stop, go). According to Tulio (2000), it is apparent that General Knowledge skills have the principle of intelligence and some means of measuring the intelligence level of their pupil if they are to present meaningful learning experiences. General intelligence is made up of several primary mental abilities. The primary mental abilities are: ability to do arithmetic problem, verbal meaning, spatial perception, word fluency, memory, and perceptual speed. These abilities however are 23

independent to one another. On the other hand, those children who are identified as academically weak may need extra help in discovering the solution to various problems they are required to solve.

Table 6 Mean Distribution of the Preschool Pupils Characteristics of Physical Skills for the School Readiness Range Description Frequency Percentage 4.70- 5.00 Almost always 1 2.3 3.70- 4.69 Generally 5 11.6 2.70- 3.69 Sometimes 33 76.8 1.70- 2.69 Seldom 4 9.3 1.00- 1.69 Rarely Total 43 100.0 Mean: 3.25 Description: Sometimes Standard Deviation: 0.73 Indicator: 1. The child walks in a straight line 2. The child can sort and match items according to simple attribute (size, function, and colors) 3. The child is able to maintain attention in a group setting. 4. The child draws and recognize picture of their family. 5. The child names basic shape and colors 6. The child is able to count out objects from 1 to 10. Mean 3.62 3.03 2.86 3.25 3.12 3.60 Description Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes

Table 5 shows the Mean Distribution of the Preschool Pupils Characteristics of Physical Skills for the School Readiness. Most of the 33 respondents responded Sometimes which is 76.8 per cent. It is indicated that they can walk in a straight line, can draw and recognize picture of their family, and able to count objects from one to ten. 24

According to Lowfrey (2001), four year old children had an isolated movement of the body gives an impression of greater suppleness of the joints. The child can button clothes and put on his shoes but cannot tie his laces for sometime yet. While on the five year old children, they act more like an adult. They had locomotion and carriage has become more stable. Meanwhile on the six year old children, they are very lively but rather restless and develop a kind of tool consciousness. Table 7 Mean Distribution of the Preschool Pupils Characteristics of Social Skills for the School Readiness Range Description Frequency Percentage 4.70- 5.00 Almost Always 3.70- 4.69 Generally 2 4.7 2.70- 3.69 Sometimes 40 93 1.70- 2.69 Seldom 1 2.3 1.00-1.69 Rarely Total 43 100.0 Mean: 3.13 Description: Sometimes Standard Deviation: 0.70 Indicator: 1. The child is confident enough to explore And try new things. 2. The child can separate from parents Easily without being upset. 3. The child can comply with requests to finish an activity when requested. 4. The child can share his/her own toys to other children 5. The take turns in a small group without assistance 6. The child has reasonable control over emotions. 7. The child can stand up for himself/herself in the playground. Mean 3.12 3.03 3.20 2.96 3.0 2.98 3.56 Description Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes 25

8. The child learns to sit quietly and pays attention

3.56

Sometimes

Table 6 shows the Mean Distribution of the Preschool Pupils Characteristics of Social Skills for the School Readiness. Most of the 40 respondents responded Sometimes which is 93 per cent. It is indicated that they were confident enough to explore and try new things, can separate from parents easily without being upset, can share his/her own toys to other children, take turns in a small group without assistance, and learn to sit quietly and pay attention. According to Tulio (2000), children Social adjustment is desirable and necessary. As the individual emerges from the sheltered life within the home toward an additional needs and wants appear. Boys and girls differ widely in their social adjustment due to varying circumstances and conditions in the environment, social conditions, economic conditions, personal defects or laminations, incompatible needs producing internal conflicts and conflicts between ideals and certain needs of young individuals.

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Table 8 Percentage Distribution of the Preschool Pupils Characteristics of Self Knowledge Skills Indicators Frequency Percentage 1.Knows full name 43 100.0 2. Knows age 3. Knows Fathers name 4. Knows Mothers name 5.Knows where he/she live 6. Knows brothers name 7. Knows sisters name 8. Knows when her/his birthday Mean: 41.25 43 43 43 38 41 41 38 100.0 100.0 100.0 88.37 95.34 95.34 88.37

Table 7 shows the Percentage Distribution of the Preschool Pupils Characteristics for Self Knowledge Skills. In the first column there were eight indicators classified as (1) Knows full name, (2) Knows age, (3) Knows fathers name, (4) Knows mothers name, (5) Knows where he/ she lives, (6) Knows brothers name, (7) Knows sisters name, and (8) Knows when his/ her birthday. The majority responses signified as Yes also known as the highly response of the respondents. The minor responses signified as No also known as the less response of the respondents. There were a 100 per cent on respondents responses on (1) Knows full name, (2) Knows age, (3) Knows fathers name, and 27 (4) Knows mothers name. According to Woolfolk (1998), self knowledge is knowing yourself intimately. It involves knowing your thoughts and feelings, how they came about, and how they influence your behavior. It is about understanding your needs,

desires, motivations, beliefs, views and values. Self-knowledge is a prerequisite of self-consciousness not to be confused with consciousness as a raw subject alongside self-awareness. However, self-awareness may in itself be a necessary condition for self-knowledge to be sought after and developed in the first place. In short, it is about knowing how you tick and what makes you tick.

Chapter 5 Summary, Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations This chapter presents the summary, conclusion, and recommendations of the study based on the data presented.

Summary The main purpose of the study was to determine the school readiness of the children in terms of age, gender, grade level and their characteristics in school readiness. This also sought to investigate whether the indicators that relate to school readiness behaviors of the preschoolers. Specifically, the study aimed to answer the following questions: 1.) What is the profile of the respondents in terms of gender, age, and grade level? 2.) What are the characteristics of school readiness of respondents in terms of General Knowledge, Self- Knowledge Skills, Physical Skills, and Social Skills? Based on the problems mentioned above of the study, the following response on Gender profile of the respondents that there are more female respondents. On the age group profile of the respondents, there are more four years old respondents followed by five years old, six years old, and seven years old. And on the grade level profile of the respondents, the Nursery has the highest total number followed by Kinder 2 and Kinder 1.

On General Knowledge Skills for the School Readiness of children, most of the 36 respondents responded Sometimes which is 83.7 per cent. It is 29 indicated that they were curious and eager to learn, names familiar places and explains their uses (e.g. store, playground), and understands words for how things move (e.g. fast, low, stop, go).

On Physical Skills for the School Readiness of children, most of the 33 respondents responded Sometimes which is 76.8 per cent. It is indicated that they can walk in a straight line, can draw and recognize picture of their family, and able to count objects from one to ten. On Social Skills for the School Readiness of children, most of the 40 respondents responded Sometimes which is 93 per cent. It is indicated that they were confident enough to explore and try new things, can separate from parents easily without being upset, can share his/her own toys to other children, take turns in a small group without assistance, and learn to sit quietly and pay attention. On Self-Knowledge Skills for the School Readiness of children, there were eight indicators classified as (1) Knows full name, (2) Knows age, (3) Knows fathers name, (4) Knows mothers name, (5) Knows where he/ she lives, (6) Knows brothers name, (7) Knows sisters name, and (8) Knows when his/ her birthday. The majority responses signified as Yes also known as the highly response of the respondents. The minor responses signified as No also known as the less response of the respondents. There were a 100 per cent of the respondents responses on (1) Knows full name, (2) Knows age, (3) Knows fathers name, and (4) Knows mothers name. 30

Findings The following findings were drawn from the study:

1.) Majority of the respondents are the females or 53.5%. It occurs that more of the female respondents responded the indicators followed by males. 2.) Based on the data of the age of respondents, 41.9% of the respondents are four year olds followed by 34.9% are six year olds, 20.9% are five year olds, and 2.3% are seven year olds. 3.) Based on the data of the grade level of the respondents, 44.2% of the respondents are nursery followed by 34.9% are kinder 2 and 20.9% are kinder 1. 4.) In terms of General Knowledge, the data showed most of the respondents responded sometimes which is 83.7% and it is indicated that they were curious and eager to learn, names familiar places and explains their uses (e.g. store, playground), and understands words for how things move (e.g. fast, slow, stop, go). 5.) In terms of Physical Skills, the data showed most of the respondents responded sometimes which is 76.8% it is indicated that they can walk in a straight line, can draw and recognize picture of their family, and able to count objects from one to ten. 6.) In terms of Social Skills, the data showed most of the respondents responded sometimes which is 93% it is indicated that they were 31 confident enough to explore and try new things, can separate from parents easily without being upset, can share his/her own toys to other children,

take turns in a small group without assistance, and learn to sit quietly and pay attention. 7.) In terms of Self Knowledge Skills, the data showed most of the respondents responded: 1.) Knows full name which is 100%, 2.) Knows age which is 100%, 3.) Knows Fathers name which is 100%, and 4.) Knows Mothers name which is 100%, 5.) Knows where he/ she lives which is 88.37%, 6.) Knows brothers name which is 95.34%, 7.) knows sisters name which is 95.34%, and 8.) Knows when her/his birthday which is 88.37%.

Conclusion Children are apt to get off to a better start in school if they enter Kindergarten with certain basic skills and attitudes, as well as some general knowledge about the world. Turning four does not mean to make a child ready for school. Birth date frequently controls the decision about who should enter school and in which grade. In St. Ignatius Learning Center, policies states that a child who is going to turn four during the school year by either January 1 to July 30 should enter in Kindergarten of the school year. The childs experience in school will make a difference in how he feels about learning, socializing, and future schooling. The crucial factor that 32 determines whether a child will do well or poorly in school is not how aggressively they are pushed early on but rather an enthusiasm for learning.

Time alone will not immunize against school problems, but the readier the child and the more learning that he experienced, the greater his chance of success.

Recommendations The following should address to: 1. School Administrator: that they should have full attention to their students who are entering Grade 1 and admissions tests are required for them. The use of assessments should be appropriate for the Grade 1 level. 2. Teachers: They should not stop their students for being curious. That they should have effective teaching strategies and they should be approachable. They should not hurry their children to go to school. 3. Parents: That they should encourage their children to go to school and let their children explore things. 4. Students: That they should be their self. That they should enjoy learning and enjoy what they are doing.

Bibliography

Calkins, Lucy. Raising Lifelong Learners: Aparents guide.Canada, United States: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1997.

Neadhey, Meith.Education in the Kindergarten. USA.1948 Brown, Carl. Looking, Listening and Learning: Observing and Assessing Young readers. Toronto, Canada, USA: Hignell Printing Ltd., 1993. Machaob, Jeanne N. Early Childhood Experiences in Language Arts. USA:Delmar Publishers Inc.1985. Krogh, Suzanne L. Educating Young Children.USA: Mccraw Hill, Inc., 1994 Fraenkel, Jack R. How To Design And Evaluate Research In Education, Sixth Edition. New York, U.S.A.. The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2007. Lundsteen, Sara Wynn and Tarrow, Norma Bernstein. Guiding Young Childrens learning: A comprehensive Approach to Early Childhood Education. USA: McGraw- Hill, Inc., 1981 Tacluyan, Myrna Q. Television Viewing Behavioral Tendencies, Parental Factors and Other Demographic Variables Among Preschool Pupils: Basis For Enhanced Parental Program. Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines. Lourdes College. 2008

Webb, Rodman B. and Robert R. Sherman. Schooling and Society.866 Third Avenue, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.1989 Ramsey, Marjorie E. and Bayless, Kathlessn M. Kindergaten Programs and Practices.11380 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, United States: The C.V. Mosley Co., 1980.

Cohen, Dorothy H. and Marguerita Rodulph. Kindergarten and Early Schooling. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, United States of America: PrenticeHall, Inc., 1977 Mena, Janet G. Foundation: Early Childhood Education in a Diverse Society. USA: Magfield Publishing Company.1998 Naubauer, Dorothy. Those First School Years. Washington.1960 Hymes, James. Teaching the child under Six. Columbus, Ohio: Bell & Howell Company, 1974. Kyte, George C. The Elementary School Teacher at Work. New York, United States of America: The Dryden Press, Inc. 1957. Vail, Priscilla L. Smart Kids with School Problems: Things to know and Ways to Help. New York, New York: Penguin Books USA, Inc.,1987. Mindess, David and Mindess, Mary. Guide to an Effective Kindergarten Program. West Nyack, New York:Parker Publishing Company, Inc., 1972 Morrison, George S. Early Childhood Education Today 8th Edition. United Staes of America: Prentice- Hall,Inc., 2001. Butterworth, Diana. Your Childs First School: AHndbokok for Parents. USA: Walker Publishing Company, Inc., 1992. Fisher, Julie. Starting from the Child. Philadelphia: Cromwell Press Limited, Trowbridge.2002 Tan, Linda. Is your child Ready for School?. Philippines: Mega Magazines and Publications, 2002

Lowfrey, George, Growth and Development of Children. Chicago, USA. Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., 2001

Tulio, Lovely. Foundations of Education. Mandaluyong City, Philippines. Cacho Hermanos Inc., 2000

Woolfolk, Anita. Educational Psychology. Massachusetts, USA. A Viacom Company., 1998

Appendix A Ms. Imee Perez Principal Saint Ignatius School

Block 60, lot- 2 Xavier Heights Cagayan de Oro City Dear Maam: Greetings of Peace! We, the 4th year Education students of Xavier University- Ateneo de Cagayan de Oro, Major in Preschool Education, are currently conducting a research study on childrens school readiness. Since our study deals with preschoolers, we thought of them as our possible respondents, we will be particularly dealing with the Nursery, Kinder 1 & 2.Below is our proposed course action: a. We will be directly observing the preschool pupils in relation to their school readiness based on the indicators specified in School readiness observation log. The observation schedule will arranged upon the approval of this request. b. We will be asking the preschool pupils information about themselves to see their self- knowledge. In line with this we would like to ask your permission to allow us to gather the data necessary for the analysis and completion of our study. We will assure you of the complete confidentiality of the data you gathered. We will also send to you the results of the study hoping it will be beneficial to your institution. We are hoping for a favorable response. Thank you very much. Respectfully yours, Kristyle Mae V. Berro Researcher Giraldyne D. Semaa Researcher May Rose F. Tomboc Reasearcher Noted by: Ms. Myrna T. Mioza

Adviser Appendix B

Face to Face Interview Guide


Interview Sheet

1. What is your name? ______________________________________________________________ 2. How old are you? _______________________________________________________________ 3. What is your fathers name? ______________________________________________________________ 4. What is your mothers name? ______________________________________________________________ 5. Where do you live? ______________________________________________________________ 6. What is your brothers name? ______________________________________________________________ 7. What is your sisters name? ______________________________________________________________ 8. When is your birthday? ______________________________________________________________

Appendix C School Readiness Observation Log Part I. Personal Background: Name: ________________________________ Age: _______ Gender: _______ Part II: Directions: Please check each question as honestly as possible and check the column that corresponds to your answer according to the following scales: 5- Almost always 4- Generally 3- Sometimes 2- Seldom 1- Rarely 5 4 3 2 1

A. General Knowledge
The child is curious and eager to learn The child names familiar objects and their uses (e.g. chair, spoon, soap ) The child identifies some common animals (e.g. dog, cow ) The child identifies some zoo animals (e.g. monkey, elephant, bird ) The child names familiar places and explains their uses ( e.g. store, playground ) The child knows and identifies familiar people by name The child understands words for how things feel ( e.g. hard, soft, hot, cold ) The child understands words for how things move ( e.g. fast, low, stop, go )

B. Physical Skills
The child walks in a straight line The child can sort and match items according to simple attribute ( size, function,, colors ) The child is able to maintain attention in a group setting The child draws a recognize picture of their family The child names basic shape and colors The child is able to count out objects to 10

C. Social Skills
The child is confident enough to explore and try new things The child can separate from parents easily without being upset The child can comply with requests to finish an activity when requested

The child can share his/ her own toys to other children The child take turns in a small group without assistance The child has reasonable control over emotions The child can stand up for himself/ herself in the playground The child learns to sit quietly and pays attention .

Appendix D NARRATIVE REPORT Date Summary of Observation First day of observation the children were looking at the visitors and they were very curious to them. Before the class begins, the children were talking loudly and roaming inside the classroom. Sept.13-14 The children were displaying their new bought toys and showed it to their classmates. There was one pupil who is always crying because he doesnt know how to deal with other classmates. He always sits beside with his teacher even though when the class is going on. The teacher starts with her lesson and the children listens attentively. Children, when asked about their name they answer it directly. When asked about their parents name they only answer their parents first names. They have difficulty in answering the question Where do you live? They mostly answer using directions and saying Our house is over there. During play time, the children were very energetic. They love to climb on the tables, and make noises. Some children use the chalk and draws on the blackboard. Sept 17-20 During the lesson, the teacher asks them questions of what they learned

Sept.15-16

and applied in the lesson. When asked about the pictures of animals in the classroom they quickly recognize the pictures. They called their classmates in their first names or nicknames. There was one time that there were five children running inside the classroom and suddenly there was one child saying Stop! You run so fast. When showed their pictures of family they can recognize it. They even tell stories about their family of how close they were in their family especially with their brothers, sisters, and grandparents. They have their routines that once when the teacher is in front of them they were asked to sit quietly and pays attention. During the activity hour, the teacher asked them to color the pictures in their books. The children were role playing. There was one time there were two children had a fight but they were able hold their emotions. Sept.22-24 There was a child when asked where do zebras and elephants live and she answered in the zoo. The children were asked about the shapes and they can recognize it.

Sept.21-22

APPENDIX E Curriculum Vitae

PERSONAL DATA Name Date of Birth Place of Birth Religion Civil Status Home Address Fathers Name Mothers Name Kristyle Mae V. Berro May 12- 1990 Ilaya Carmen Roman Catholic Single Xavier heights blk 30 lot 6 Wulfildo P. Berro Mayonita V . Berro

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Tertiary Education Bachelor of Elementary Education Early Childhood Education Present Secondary Education Elementary Education Xavier University High School Km.5 Elementary School (March 2007) (March 2002)

Curriculum Vitae Personal Data Name Date of Birth Place of Birth Sex Religion Civil Status Citizenship Home Address Fathers Name Mothers Name Giraldyne D. Semaa November 2, 1989 Cagayan de Oro City Female Roman Catholic Single Filipino 26 Clementino Chavez, Macasandig Cagayan de Oro City Romeo P. Semaa Nieva D. Semaa

Educational Background Tertiary Education Bachelor of Elementary Education Field of Specialization in Preschool Education Xavier University Ateneo de Cagayan Cagayan de Oro City June 2006- Present

Secondary Education

Lourdes College High School Macasandig, Cagayan de Oro City June 2002- March 2006

Elementary Education

Holy Trinity Montessori School 11- 21st Nazareth, Cagayan de Oro City June 1996- March 2002

Seminars Attended

Ateneo Campus Leadership Discovery (ACLD) Agriculture Bldg., Xavier University Ateneo de Cagayan February 11, 2007

Symposium on RA 7277- Magna Carta for Disabled Persons and BP 344 LRC, Xavier University Ateneo de Cagayan July 28, 2009

The Current State of Workplace Disability Management and Health Policy Initiatives Little Theater, Xavier University Ateneo de Cagayan April 30, 2010

Curriculum Vitae Personal Data Name Date of Birth Place of Birth Sex Religion Civil Status Citizenship Home Address Fathers Name Mothers Name May Rose F. Tomboc May 4, 1989 Nasipit Agusan del Norte Female Protestant/ Baptist Single Filipino Igpalas, Culit Nasipit Agusan del Norte Socrates M. Tomboc Erminda F. Tomboc

Educational Background Tertiary Education Bachelor of Elementary Education Field of Specialization in Preschool Education Xavier University Ateneo de Cagayan Cagayan de Oro City June 2007- Present Bachelor of Science in Biology Field of Specialization in Entomology Caraga State University-Ampayon Butuan City June 2006- 2007

Secondary Education

Nasipit National Vocational School Bay View Hill Nasipit Agusan del Norte 2001- 2005

Elementary Education

Culit Elementary School Culit Nasipit Agusan del Norte 1997-2001

Work Experience

Student Assistant- Xavier Grade School Macasandig Cagayan de Oro City April 2010- Present

Seminars Attended

The Current State of Workplace Disability Management and Health Policy Initiatives Little Theater, Xavier University Ateneo de Cagayan April 30, 2010 Seminar in Legal Bases in Special Education Stc 301- Xavier University- Ateneo de Cagayan March 2008