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ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA

PURPOSE

This document establishes guidelines for the design of headed type anchors into reinforced concrete foundations.

SCOPE

This document includes the following major sections: • NOTATION

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**DUCTILE DESIGN PROCEDURE
**

CONCRETE INSTITUTE) GENERAL REFERENCES AITACHNffiNTS

AS DESCRIBED

DY ACI (AMERICAN

This document covers the design procedures outlined by ACI (American Concrete Institute) 349, Appendix B. The procedures of the UBC (Uniform Building Code) 19253 are provided in Attachment 02. Each consists of2 parts: design of steel headed anchors and design oftbe concrete embedment. Related dimensional requirements for the design are included in appropriate sections of the document.

APPLICATION

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The approach to be followed will be determined at the beginning of each project. Each method must be used in its entirety. Steel anchors and concrete embedments must. be designed according to the same method. This document applies to headed anchor bolts and threaded rods with tack welded nuts. Where other anchor systems are utilized', this document may serve as a guideline. Ductile design of anchors is preferred for designs in UBC defined seismic Zones 3 and 4. Ductile design as prescribed by ACI 349 will be followed when designing nuclear facilities. Design limits less conservative engineering judgment. tban those specified herein may be used with prudent

In addition to the requirements of the body of this document, refer to Attachment 06 for special limitations when designing tall vertical vessels. Investigation of overlapping stress cones and intersections of edges should be considered with the design of vertical vessels.

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Strueturnl

Engineering

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ANCHOR

BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA

ACT 349, Appendix: B. will be referred to as ACI throughout this document, unless another ACI publication is specifically named.

UBC 19253 will be referred to as UBC unless another section ofthe code is specifically named. Galvanized anchor bolts will be provided for all exterior and corrosive interior applications. unless dictated otherwise by the client or the job site location, To ensure ductility, use the design values specified in the table for galvanized anchor bolts. Where plain anchor bolts are specified for exterior use or installation in a corrosive interior atmosphere. the reduced design values specified in the table for nongalvanized anchor bolts will be used. NOTATION Symbols Tensile stress area (square inches) of a bolt or stud. Projected area (square inches) of an assumed failure cone or truncated pyramid .. The cone or pyramid radiates from the bearing edge toward the free surface at an angle of 45 degrees. Ar Reduction of the projected area (square inches). Area. of reinforcement inches). A .t A a b Area ofreiafbreement required by design for the tension failure mode (square inches). Area of reinforcement required by design for shear failure mode (square inches) . required by design for the lateral bursting failure mode (square

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A

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Out-to-out dimensions of bearing edges. Refer to Attachment 09, Figure I. Out-to-out dimensions of bearing edges. Refer to Attachment Ultimate bursting design load (kip). Design strength of con crete (kip) . Additional load factor 09, Figure I.

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1925.2 of the. 1994 UBe.

/000 2.15 1207 dtd 31Mor05.d<>o

Structural Engineering

ANCHOR HOLT DESIGN CRlTERIA

D

Major thread diameter of threaded anchor or nominal diameter of a bolt (inch). Diameter of reinforcing bar (inch).

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Effective diameter used for the calculation of the tensile stress area, Ab• Specified compressive strength of concrete, but not to exceed 6,000 psi (pounds per square inch) for design herein.

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f' or f

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Minimum specified tensile strength of anchor steel (psi). Minimum specified yield strength of steel (psi). Overall thickness of concrete member (inches). Embedment length of an anchor measured from the bearing surface to the top of rough concrete (inches). Minimum development length of reinforcement (inches).

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b

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D

Edge distance measured from the anchor axis to the free edge (inches). Number of threads per inch. Ultimate strength of an anchor in tension (kip). Design tension strength ofconcrete (kip).

P'

p p p p

D

Design tension strength of steel anchor (kip). Actual working tensile force on the anchor(s) (kip). Factored tension loading (kip). Ultimate strength of an anchor in shear (kip). Design strength of concrete (kip). Design shear strength of steel anchor (kip). Actual working shear force on the anchor{s) (kip).

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V'

V V

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v

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iOOO 21 S 1201 dtd 31 Marll5doc

Structural Engineering

ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA

vu

Factored shear loading (kip). Concrete weight correction factor. Equals 1 for normal weight.

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Strength reduction factor. Coefficient of friction. Refer to Attachment OS.

of I of v DEFINITIONS

Anchor Head

Allowable tensile stress for steel anchors (ksi). Allowable shear stress for steel anchors (ksi).

A nut, washer, plate, bolt head, or other component designed to transmit anchor loads to the concrete by bearing. Attacbment Structural components external to the embedment that transmit load to the embedment. Embedment The portion of the anchorage system, steel anchors embedded in concrete, or grout designed to transmit loading from the attachment into the concrete. The embedment may be fabricated of plates , shapes, bolts, reinforcing bars, shear connectors, expansion anchors, inserts, or any combination thereof. Ductile Design Design of anchorage systems such that in the event of overload the steel anchors will fail before concrete failure occurs. Concrete stress cones should be designed to withstand the ultimate strength of the anchor in tension and shear. >Nonductile Design Design in which concrete brittle failure may occur at extreme overload. Concrete stress cones will be designed to resist factored design loads rather than ultimate bolt capacities.

DUCTILE DESIGN PROCEDURE AS

iOOO 215 1207 dId 31 MwIlS.doc

Structural En.gineerlng

"" (ACI load factors) x P. Seismic friction resistance is commonly excluded for other cases such as steel columns.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA DESCRIBED BY ACI DesigD Loads Prior to design of the attachment. ACI applicable codes. • Seismic shear forces Only frictional resistance due to compression as a result of moment couple forces may be used as resistance against seismic shear forces. will be specified. Shear forces may be resisted by friction and need not be considered provided the following: • Nonseismic shear Frictional resistance due to vertical forces and friction resistance due to compression caused by moment couple forces must be greater than the design shear force or bolts and embedments must be capable of carrying the entire applicable shear forces.doc Structural Engineering . only for vertical vessel anchorage design. or bolts and embedment must be capable of carrying t~e entire applicable shear force. Design of Steel Material Properties Standard headed anchor bolts or threaded rods with heavy hex nuts will be used. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) A307 bolts or ASTM A36 threaded rods with ASTM A563 heavy hex nuts. Other materials may be used as required. tack welded to the rod to prevent movement. transmitted loads will be factored in accordance with • • po. Nonnally. Current Fluor practice is 10 include frictional resistance. /000 21S 1207 dtd 31MarOS. Vo == (ACI load factors) xV. Frictional resistance must be greater than the factored design loads. as described above.

dOc Structural Engineering . refer to Attachment 01. (inches) 1/4 to 4 114 to 8 1/4 to 2-1/2 2-5/8 to 4 4-118 to 7 114 to 1 1-1/8 to 1-112 1-5/8 to 3 95 7S 92 81 58 100 120 105 90 • For design purposes. (ksi) 36 36 105 fat (ksl) 60 • 58 125 115 Diamete .9fy or 0..oS.8 fUI For A36 or A307 "" 32. Combined Action Interaction of'bolts under tension and shear will be as follows: 1000 21S 1207 dtd JIM.4 or 48 respectively. hence 0Ft = 32.4 ksi For Ab. and combined action.1 ksi ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA ~ Steel A307 A36 AI93 (Grade B7) A449 (Type I) f. shear.85 and )l = 0. assume fut= 60 ksi Design or Steel Anchors Steel anchors will be checked for tension. eFvAb (by shear friction method) 0t. Bolt Shear Bolt shear will be checked as follows: < ev.11 where"..55 For Ab. refer to Attachment 01.. = 0. Bolt Tension Bolt tension will be checked as follows: < eFt"" the lesser ofO.

P' and V' may be taken as 4/3 times the factored design loads. values listed in Attachment 01. Ab should be effective stress area without corrosion allowance. Therefore.doc Structural Engine. should always be used.eriog . A.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA The interaction equation must always be less than or equal to 1. or reinforce appropriately.0. or reinforce appropriately. leaving the equivalent of Equation 1 or 2. except for the design of nuclear facilities. Equatlon 1: Equation 2: Shear V' < eVe. Alternatively. sheet 2. for example. that component is removed from the above equation. 3: Edge distance will never be less than the greater of 4D or 4 inches. . Design Of Embedment ACI requires that concrete embedments be designed 10 be ductile. the embedments must be designed to withstand the ultimate capacities of the bolt in tension and shear. /000 2151207 dtd 31MarOS. 4: Where the alternate nonductile design approach is used. The requirements herein must be attained: Tension P' ::. the following equation must be satisfied in lieu of Equations 1 and 2. ACI load factors have already accounted for wind and seismic short term loading within the equation. Ultimate bolt capacities will be determined as follows: P' V' Note!!! Il fUI Ab Where concrete embedment is designed for ultimate bolt capacity. or reinforce appropriately: Requirement Requirement Ifreinforcement is provided for either tension or shear embedment. "'Pc.

reinforcement assumed failure surface. hence lateral bursting need not be addressed unless an unusual situation occurs. reinforcement axis of the anchor. Lateral Bursting Design Strength The minimum edge distance at which the cone has sufficient strength according to ductile design methods has been determined to be 3. for details. lateral bursting failure may occur rather than tension pullout. provided the bars can develop adequate length within the free side of the failure cone.6D. /000 21S 1207 did 31 MarO S. To accomplish this. Ultimate Bursting Design Load B' = where 13 x P' P =0. reinforcement must be provided.6D. Figure 2b. In addition. Figure I.!. Note!!! Typical pier reinforcement may be considered as tensile resisting elements according to the above criteria. It is recommended the failure cone.9fy that restricts propagation of cracking should must be fully developed on both sides of the that reinforcement be placed concentric with will not be placed farther than Ld13 from the Reinforcement will be oriented in a manner it occur. This concentration will cause a blowout cone failure that propagates from the anchor head toward the free edge as shown in Attachment 10. When an anchor subject to tensile force is located closer than 3. Refer to ACI 349R B.ANCHOR HOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Cone Pullout Design Capacity will be determined as follows: Where concrete strength does not meet the requirements of Equation I. Refer to Attachment OS. AS! =-- O.25 as a result of Poisson's effect.doe Struetural Engineering . This practice limits the edge distance to 4D or 4 inches.l. This is due to differences in the restraint stiffness around the periphery of the anchor head which tends to cause lateral strain concentration on the side of the free edge.S. p' .

ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Concrete Strength Concrete strength will be greater than the ultimate design load. refer to Attachment 06. Requirement 2 will be satisfied for edge distances of 10D or greater. because edge distances that require reinforcement are generally Jess than the development length of a No.ngineering . Reinforcement When reinforcement is required.9fy) Reinforcement will be oriented in a manner that restricts cracking should it occur. Figure 2. Current Fluor practice is to provide reinforcing ties that penetrate concentrically through the assumed failure oone. Where concrete strength does not meet the requirements of Equation 2 (or Requirement 4 as applicable). Other details may be used where the engineer can demonstrate physical adequacy within economical limits. This assumes that the shear cone is not reduced due to adjacent bolts or pedestal dimensions.000 psi and 36 ksi bolt material). it will be placed in a similar manner to reinforcement shear spalling failure. Shear spaIling design capacity will be determined as follows: Note that for ductile design (and f c = 4.4 bar. reinforcement will be provided. The area required will be as follows: for Shear SpalJing Design Strength The concrete failure cone will propagate from the bolt bearing at the surface of the concrete toward the loaded edge as shown in Attachment 06. Strength is determined on the same premise as the tension failure mode with the exception that only half the stress cone is available to provide resistance."" Structural J<:. A $V = v' (O.d. For details. Development length for any size rebar on the free side ofthe assumed crack is nearly impossible. Figure I. Several approaches have been taken to provide adequate reinforcement. /000 215 1207 dtd 31 MortIs.

.215. Structural Engineering Practice AIT ACHMENTS Attachment 01: Bolt Design Strength.. Ministry of Energy.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA REFERENCES ACI (American Concrete Institute) ACI Building Code Requirements Chapter 11. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) A36 A307 A563 ICBO (International Conference of Building Officials). 1995. Vol.doc Structural Engineering . Manual of Steel Construction. 1989. for Reinforced Concrete. Section 1925.). Section 4. New Zealand. Seismic Design of Petrochemical Plants. Inc. 1981. UBC (Uniform Building Code). ACI 349 Appendix B (A36 And A307 Steel Anchors) 670. I. (ACI 318-95): ACI Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Structures. 1994Ed. 1985. A1SC (American Institute of Steel Construction ASD 9th Ed.Design Details Attachment 02: UBC Design Procedure For Headed Type Anchors Attachment 03: Bolt Design Strength. (ACI 349-85): Appendix B. UBC 1925 (A36 And A307 Steel Anchors) Attacbment 04: Effective Stress Area Of Concrete Attachment 05: Figure 1: Figure 2: Coefficients Of Friction Concrete Pullout Failure 11)00215 1207 dtd 3IMOlilS.4050: Standard Anchor Bolts And Sleeves . USA.

Attachment 07: Figure I: Overlapping Stress Cones Figure 2: Enlargement Of Stress Area At Overlapping Stress Cones Or Edge Intersection Attachment 08: Multiple Cone Overlapping Attachment 09: Figure I: Two-Way Shear Failure Figure 2: .doc Structural Engineering .ANCHOR SOL T DESIGN CRlTERlA Attachment 06: Concrete Shear Spalling Failure Figure L Figure 2. Vertical Vessel Reinforcement Detail Attachment 10: Figure I: Lateral Bursting Failure Figure 2: Yielding Mechanism For All Tubular Equipment Attachment 11: Special Design Consideration For Tall Tubular Equipment Attachment 12: Use Of Sleeves Attachment 13: Sample Design 1: Steel Column On A Concrete Pier Attachment 14: Sample Design 2: Steel Column On A Concrete Pier Attachment 15: Sample Design 3: Horizontal Excbanger On A Concrete Pier Attachment 16: Sample Design 4: Vertical Vessel On A Concrete Pier lOGO 21S 1207 dId lJManlS.

Ab: £IF.49 0.00 7.21 1.94 6.v (fu.34 144.50 4. Effective stress area 7tl4 x d.00 4.39 7.Ab: BF.00 11.S5fy 2.:ff Ab Ab 3.53 0.22 0. d.0Q 4.86 3.30 59. 7.26 52.61 2.28 1.39 3/4 7/8 1.24 5.&6 1.98 92.8fut 0.10 0.70 5. "'Po 0Vo 5.98 1.43 1.32 0.00 6.10 36.93 1:68 2.18 2.40 3.00 10.50 4. ACI349 Appendix B(A36 and A307 Steel Anchors) Nongalvanized D(in) 112 5/8 d.00 Note!!! Nominal bolt diameter Effective bolt diameter with an additional corrosion reduction of 1/16" for 5/8-inch bolts and smaller or 1/8" for larger bolts.96 19. (futAb) / (0.AbJ.19 3.00 1·114 1-112 1-3/4 2.87 3.75 2.9fy(rebar)) /000 215 L207 aO I did J I MaillS .24 0. BFv lesser ofO.89 91.10 0.95 37.:tl ".79 2.45 5.00 2-114 2-112 2-3/4 3.63 1.70 0.36 0.:rr 0.00 &.16 69.13 2.91 2.9fy (rebar) A.37 14.64 0.18 175.03 Asv 0. n 13.99 115.L) I (O.3& 2.47 0.00 9.13 0.00 4.00 D Ab 0.t 0.F.9fy or 0.20 0.91 74.55 x O.72 3.75 0.47 0.44 0.96 4..17 0.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERlA Bolt Design Strength.11 0.00 5.19 0.13 10.35 27.99 1.43 0PD 0Vo A.56 4.51 7. 6.06 0.15 1.77 1.doc Structural Engineering .27 0.66 1. 4.16 2.36 0.26 24. A.35 48.32 1.41 12.32 3.

76 31.:rr Ab Ab x d.61 0.65 0.91 10.75 ev.23 0.37 0.78 2.00 9.86 7. 2.53 67.38 193.00 10.59 0.9fy (rebar)) (fl1tAb X ).00 7.oS.68 104.64 As.00 1.52 1.srul I2lF.00 4.23 19.91 2.rr 0.76 n 13. 2. o.95 5.01 4.55 7.50 4.27 16.43 0.Ab: lesser ofO.77 3.77 0. (rebar) 1000 2151207301 did 3lMa.15 0.54 0.doc Structural Engineering .15 41.52 0.29 0.57 2.00 2-114 2-112 2-3/4 3.31 100.92 160.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Bolt Design Strength.9f.03 2.08 1.03 3.98 2.11 1.09 0.00 6.43 45. ASI AsY (fuIAb)I (0.51 2.37 0.00 Ab "'Po 4. 5.26 2.60 4.73 32.50 6.55 x 0.14 0.00 11.52 3.68 61.00 4. 6. 7.26 0. "'Po f.68 1.45 3.rr2 aFI 4.69 15.20 0.33 0.49 3.00 8.64 0.45 10.9fy or 0.46 5.00 1-1/4 1-112 1-3/4 2. Effective stress area rtl4 d. D Nominal bolt diameter Effective bolt diameter with an additional corrosion reduction of 1116" for 5/8-inch bolts and smaIler or 1/8" for larger bolts.00 5.50 4.98 0.41 1.17 3/4 7/8 1.I.98 129.12 2.86 1.65 Note!!! 1.00 4.47 0.17 0. 3.88 1.91 54.49 83.87 5.) I (0.85f. ACI349 Appendix B(A36 and A307 Steel Anchors) Galvanized D(in) 112 5/8 d.88 80.97 1.56 1.24 4.JVo "FlAb: "P.33 23.34 1. Asv 0.

ACI methods are preferred for designs in the UBC defined seismic zones 3 and 4. 2 for anchors in the tension zone where special inspection is provided. The equations are slightly different from the ACI and should not be used interchangeably. Pu (factors of 1909. Section 1925. or bolts and embedment must be capable of carrying the entire applicable shear force.2.2 and UBC x x 1925. Seismic Shear Forces caused by moment couple must be capable of carrying Only frictional resistance due to compression as a result of moment couple forces may be used as resistance against seismic shear forces. Fluor practice is to include frictional resistance. Frictional resistance must be greater than the factored design loads. 3 for anchors in the tension zone without special inspection. x V. anchorage • /000 2151207 a02 dtd 3IMarOS. 1.2 (factors of 1909.2 loads will be factored in accordance with UBC Section 1909. Vu Load Factors ofUBC 1925. Current design. only for vertical vessel Seismic friction resistance is commonly excluded for other cases such as steel columns.2) 1925. as described above.3 for cases where special inspection is provided. • Load Factors Prior to the design of the attachment. the following: Shear forces may be resisted by friction and need not be considered Nonseismic Shear provided Frictional resistance due to vertical forces and friction resistance due to compression forces must be greater than the factored design shear force or bolts arid embedments the entire applicable shear forces.dDC Structural Engineering .2) x P.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRiTERlA UBC Design Procedure for Headed-Type Anchors General The UBC method has the same premise as the ACI method but it is not as stringent as the ACl concerning ductile design.2 are as follows: « c' c' c' • 2 for cases without special inspection.

shear. Design of Embedment • Code Requirements The following requirements must be attained: Equation I: Equation 2: Equation 3: Requirement 4: Tension P" < "'Po.doc Structural Engineering . Combined action ~[(:J(~:)}_o + Edge Distance wil I never be less than the greater of 4D or 4in. Load factors have already accounted for short term louding situations. • Bolt Tension: Bolt tension will be checked as follows: "Pn ". (. /OO02151207a02dldllMarllS. or reinforce appropriately.75fut• for A36 and A307 = 45 ksi For Ab.9f.F"xAb O.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CruTERlA UBC Design Procedure for Headed-Type Anchors Design of Steel Anchors Steel anchors will be checked for tension.0. Shear Vu < "v c. or reinforce appropriately.F.0 Note!!! The above equation must always be less than or equal to 1. refer to Attachment 03.xAb 0. • Combined Action: Combined tension and shear must satisfy the following interaction equation.. and combined action..J2 +(~~J2 <1. For Ab• refer to Attachment 03. • Bolt Shear: Bolt shear will be checked as follows: "'Yo ".

reinforcement must be provided.Design Details. The stress area is defined by the projected area of stress cones which radiate toward the concrete face.215. 1000215 1207302 did 3 I Mar05. intersection of cones with concrete edges. The effective area will be limited by overlapping stress cones. Other lengths may be used as necessary. In addition. Ap. Figure 2a. reinforcement must be ful!y developed on both sides of the assumed failure surface. Figure 2b for details.65 • Tension Pullout Design Strength The concrete failure cone will propagate from the bearing edge of the anchor head as shown in Attachment 05.doc Structural Engineering . Reinforcement will be oriented in a manner that restricts propagation of cracking should it occur. Ap. the bearing area of an anchor head. COile pullout design capacity will be determined as iollows: Wherever concrete strength does not meet the requirements of Equation I.4050: Standard Anchor Bolts and Sleeves . when the requirements herein are maintained. Refer to Attachment 04 for the determination of the effective stress area. Strength for each mode is based on an assumed failure surface which propagates at an angle of 45 degrees from the point of application toward the concrete surface.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA UBC Design Procedure for Headed-Type Anchors • General Design strength of the concrete embedment is controlled by the following failure modes.l3 from the axis of the anchor. Concrete tension capacity is proportional to the anchor bolt length. Reductions of strength accounting for geometric layout will be considered in the determination of the effective stress area. Strength Reduction Factors: 0= 0. To accomplish this. The lengths have been based on the length necessary to develop tension reinforcement where it is required. It is recommended that reinforcement be placed concentric with. Refer to Attachment OS. reinforcement will not be placed farther than 8!1b or L. Equations have been developed based on a uniform tensile stress of 4~ acting on an effective stress area. the failure cone. have been provided as a guide and to provide consistency throughout projects. tension pullout or shear spalling. and by the overall thickness of the concrete. The lengths of bolts shown in Practice 670.

For details refer to Attachment 06.doc 5 Structural Engineering . Where 4D < edge distance < 100. because edge distances that require reinforcement are generally less than the development length of even the smallest ofrebar sizes.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA UBe Design Note!!! Procedure for Headed-Type Anchors Typical pier reinforcement may be considered as tensile resisting elements according to the above criteria. /CIOO 2 ! 1207 a02 dtd 31 MorOS . However. increasing the edge distance is Edge distance will not be less than 4D or 4 inches. This is the basis for recommending increasing the edge distance when Equation 2 is not satisfled. Where it is impractical to increase the edge distance to satisfy Equation 2. Several approaches have been taken to provide adequate reinforcement. • Shear Spalling Design Strength The concrete failure cone will propagate" from the bolt bearing at the surface oftbe concrete toward the loaded edge as shown in Attachment 06. Satisfy Equation 2 or reinforce appropriately. provided the bars can develop adequate length within the free side of the failure cone.) (If Equation 2 is not satisfied. reinforcement will be provided. Shear spalling design capacity will be determined as follows: Where edge distance> 10D. developing any size rebar on the free side ofthe assumed crack is nearly impossible. Strength is determined on the same premise as the tension failure mode with the exception that only hal f the stress cone is available to provide resistance. current Fluor practice is to provide reinforcing ties that penetrate concentrically through the assumed failure cone. Where concrete strength does not meet the requirements of Equation 2 or edge distance is less than IOD. strongly recomrnended. Satisfy Equation 2 or reinforce appropriately. Reinforcement will be oriented in a manner that restricts cracking.

00 6.63 n Ab oP~ 5.43 4.21 1.10 86.80· 34.00 5.00 1-114 1-112 1-3/4 2.65 Sl.94 116.50 4.16 2.40 9.43 1.88 17.00 9.24 240.00 4.00 7.75f: 0FvAb> /000215 1207 a03 dtd 3 1Maz05.20 200.98 192.66 1.45 97.53 0.10 0.00 Note!!! I.25 244.32 0.90 14.47 0. 3 .38 2.36 0.00 2-1/4 2-112 2-3/4 3.17 0.15 1.00 4.00 10.rr 0.91 2. 2.35 3/4 7/8 1.65 9.13 2.58 62.d<>e Structural Engineering l .7S 72.75 0.20 129.77 1.9f. ".50 7.22 OVD 13. 8.87 3. D deff Nomina! bolt diameter Effective bolt diameter Effective stress area 11: "'4 d2elf Ab Ab 4.56 4.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Bolt Design Strength.p..50 4.76 41.18 11. oVn I 0FIAb> !ifFt oFv O.00 11.22 0.15 160.64 0.28 23.00 0.61 2.00 .45 5.64 154.40 19.00 4. 5.30 293.99 1. O.44 0. UBC 1925 (A36 and AJ07 Steel Anchors) Non-galvanized D(in) 112 5/8 d.

5. UBe 1925 (AJ6 and AJ07 Steel Anchors) - GalvanIzed D(in) 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 doff 0.00 9.98 oPo 8.35 14.23 0.00 7.00 1-114 1-1/2 1-3/4 2.75 269. Ab 4.03 2.00 6.:lr Ab Nominal bolt diameter Effective bolt 'diameter Effective stress area 7t '4 d eff 2 2. 3FyAb• 0F.00 4.00 4.47 0.45 ·222.56 1.92 oVo 13.50 4.14 103.00 8.54 0.15 0.01 4.30 322.doc Structural Engineering .65 63.34 1.45 43.14 134.76 n Ab 0.78 2. 21.97 1.38 76.26 2.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Bolt Design Strength.42 17.41 1.77 0. ""Po 0Vo ""FlAb.49 3.50 4.11 1.38 32.75f. 3.10 1. /000 21 S 1207 a03 dId 31 MatO~ .82 25.10 12.05 145.94 52.46 174.24 4.88 1.00 2-114 2-1/2 2-3/4 3.51 2.91 2.33 0.00 5.61 0.75 10.43 0.00 4.45 85.65 0.00 6.54 267. 0.95 5.9f.15 27.00 10.96 216.95 112.80 180. 0Fy 0. D d.85.00 Note!!! 1.00 11.

the effect of 2-way shear must be considered.707 r (refer to Attachment 07.) For overlapping stress cones or intersection with an edge. Reduction of effective stress area will be in accordance with ACI 349. the area of the head itself does not contribute to resistive strength and should be subtracted for all computations of Ap. refer to Attachment 07. Where e > 0. When the overall concrete dimension is small (anchorage to slabs or walls).doc Structural Engineering I .707 r.. Figure I. Figure I) where e < 0. Calculation for multiple stress cones (refer to Attachment 08. Figures I and 2. Refer to Attachment 09. (Refer to Attachment 05. Figures I and 2). '1 " I 1000 21 S 1207 aM do:! 31 MOlI"lS. Figure 2. Current codes do not provide in depth detail 00 the procedure for calculating the effective stress area. Appendix B.. • • • • Because failure is initiated at the periphery of the anchor head. Several assumptions have been left for the engineer's judgment of particular situations.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Effective Stress Area of Concrete General This attachment has been provided as an aid for calculation and should be interpreted neither as standard nor as code.

. .90 /L:=: 0.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Figure 1& 2: Coefficients of Friction and Concrete Pullout Failure Respectively Figure 1. Coefficients of Friction /-L = 0.dc>c Structural Engineering .6<1) Arl Ap .05 dtd 3 I MarOS. r2 2 I! 'W i -+--+-' I -.70 /L = 0..55 Figure 2. (o) (b) /000 2151207. Concrete Pullout Failure I I A ..A - '@"""L LJ II I FAILURE SURFACE / LJl I' / (BEARING AREA) FAILURE INITIATES HERE AND MOVES TOWARD THE SURFACE.45' I I / 1'1"'/ / I' Arl" ~ (1.

doc Structural Engineering .2. CONCENTRlCALL Y PLACED L AREA REINFORCING TIES = Asv '---- VERTICAL BARS MUST BE PRESENT WITHIN THE CONE . Figure ..ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Concrete Shear Spalling Failure Figure 1.J PLAN /00021 5 121)7 aO 6 dtd J I MarlJ5.

60) 2 2 180 A r2- -~ - qe 1000 21S 1207 a07 did llMar05. "tTl' II II I A II II SYIoIIoiETRIC II I II II I' 1'1' I' I' OVERlAPPING FAILURE EDGE INTERSECTlON NONSNI.doc Structural Engineering . Enlargement of Stress Area at Overlapping Stress Cones or Edge Intersection q == r sin a Ar 1 == f (1. II " . .ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Figure 1 & 2 : Overlapping Stress Cones and Enlargement of Stress Area at Overlapping Stress Cones or Edge Intersection Figure 1.IETRIC FAILURE Figure 2. Overlapping Stress Cones Ap2 CONCRETE FACE .

ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA MuUfple Cone Overlapping LINE OF OVERLAP OR EDGE OF INTERSECTION LINE OF OVERLAP OR EDGE OF INTERSECTION A PYRAMID TYPE FAILURE MAY BE ASSUMED: 1.doc Structural Engineering .) SPECIAL CONSIDERATION MUST BE GIVEN TO THE CASE WHERE FAILURE SURFACES INTERSECT WITH CONCRETE FACES. 1000 215 1207 .a08 did 3 I MarOS .) OVERLAPPING 2 A P "" (3 + 2r) -4 A r1 2..

Vertical Vessel Reinforcement Details (~ANCHOR BOLT • PIER AND TENSION BAR o TENSION REINFORCEMENT 'N PIER---t VERT BAR -~----+--.(a + 2Ld • RDlVCE 2I\)ij> + 2Ld ElY mE TOTI.__ USE ADDITIONAL HORIZONTAL BARS AS REQUIRED 10 SUPPORT THE VERTICAL TENSION REINFORCEMENT.I.I- ---.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Figure 1: Two-Way Shear Failure Figure 2: Vertical Vessel Reinforcement Details Figure 1.BEAAlNG AREA or mE . "'" SEC'I1ON '. ~ fOIl UIoIiTIll .NICHOR srm.0-11" Figure 2..()£P1'H ("'r) 21\) "'.S AREA. Two-Way Shear Failure STRC.r{lS"doc Structural Engineering .09 did 31 M. . 1000 215 1207.

1 1000 21 S 1207 010 did ] I MartlS.doc STRAIN PROFILE AT MAXIMUM USABLE BOLT STRAIN Structural Engineering .r~-------------------------------------------------------------------~ _ ANCHOR DOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Figure 1: Lateral Bursting Failure and Figure 2: Yielding Mechanism for All Tubular Equipment Figure 1. Lateral Bursting Failure Figure 2. Yielding Mecbanism for all Tubular Equipment h d .

However.5j. required to provide a yielding mechanism. Notation Elastic displacement of the equipment. The maximum for practical purposes will be taken as 18 inches. in feet. Equipment height. d h j Design j= 25d(A-l~ h 10002151207 oIl dtd 31MarOS. for example bolt chair height.0".0 I x 12 x h. limited to 0. there may be some instances where it is necessary to design according to the following. having a fixed base. Deformation modification factor == 1. in inches. Ductility factor.04. Problem The problem is to provide a rational yielding hierarchy of the primary structural system for designs subject to dynamic loading. above top of concrete. calculations such as these will be the responsibility of the vessel group. Bolt circle diameter. This can be accomplished by designing a bolt and bolt chair according to the following procedure. in feet. Length of bolt.doc Structural Engineering . E Maximum usable bolt strain. Dynamic loads include seismic and wind forces. taken as 3.l. in inches. A tall tubular vessel will be defined as a vessel that has a height to diameter ratiogreater than 5 and a height greater than 35'. The maximum deflection is limited to 0.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Special Design Consideration for Tall Tubular Equipment General This attachment has been provided primarily for the purpose of informing the structural engineer of a possible problem with the design of tall tubular equipment Typically. Ductile behavior may be achieved by designing a ductile yielding mechanism at the base of tall tubular equipment.

95d h e = 0. . refer to the following example: h d 90'-0" 8'-0" 0'-4" l. Figure 2) 6= o. 250.-l)L\ h Since (A-I )L\ 6 =qlj _E__ 0.doc Structural Engineering .5-I)x4" J= 90' 4.56 inches or greater.. 25x4'x(4.56 inches Hence.04 (maximum usable bolt strain) .5 j = 15. the bolt chair height or bolt length above top of concrete will be 15. 0.95(l -I )L\) .5 x 3 = .ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Special Design Consideration for Tall Tubular Equipment For derivation. Derivation (Refer to Attachment )0. r=----'-"'hs . -I )L\) J =: . h j = Bolt Length (from top of concrete to the bottom of nut at the bolt chair) 1000 215 1207 all dId 3IMarOS.

major Compressor Heater. minor Horizontal vessel Exchanger Stack. minor Miscellaneous X X X X * Special Cases {000 215 1207 al2 dtd3lMarll5. derrick Structure.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Use of Sleeves Recommended practice for the use of Sleeves and 2 nuts with standard anchor bolts. field assembled Pipe support. shop assembled Pump Without Sleeves With Sleeves X X X With 2 Nuts· X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Boiler. freestanding Structure. shop assembled Boiler.doc Structural Engineering . Anchor Bolt Sleeves Equipment Vertical vessel Sphere Stack. major Pipe support. guyed Stack. ALI other applications will receive 1 nut for each bolt. field assembled Heater.

VERTICAL REINF"ORCING ijJ SECTION II II 1000 2151207 al3 dill 3 IMarllS_d<l< Structural Engineering .ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA ~ Sample Design I: Steel Column on a Concrete Pier '4 TIES TYP SPACING ~ TO" O. f I PIER VERTICAL REINFORCING PLAIN TYPICAL (8) VERTICAL BAR DETAIL ·4 TIES ~ 1 1 .C.

7 [y = 36 ksi.55) Ab:. ksi rebar. ==60..37 kip (Attachment 1) . no shear on bolts) loads.4 kip = 4.5 kip 9" > Vu.l)(P.32 in2 (non-galvanized) = 10. 0.7 x U)(V.75 (1. fu.62 kip Vu = 0. friction between base plate and concrete is excluded. Ref. ) (N) = (0.3IMar05.J ""C Design per ACI-349 method Since loads are primarily due to seismic action.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Sample Design 1: Steel Column on a Concrete Pier Design Data " 22" square pier 7J8"r/JLoads fo = 4 ksi fy = 60.== 8. 215 120.. ksi headed a~chors.. ( 670.) (for non-seismic Design of Bolts Design strength per bolt '=' 1.73)(0.. = Tension force in bolt determined by methods beyond the scope of this document.81 kip ok /000 21 S 1:<07al3 dld. @ Top of Pier P = 2 kip ..7 x 1. = 1 kip P.7) A30. Design 80lt tension force P == 9.6 ft-kip v.) = 13.::: (13.73k s 2bolts Vs i . friction = ~(P.t M..85)(9. Pu = 0.do<: Structural Engineering . Standard base plate detail 10.75 (1.62)/2 ==6.

ok 10.5 ill Ld·. .9)/2 = 141.39 kip (Attachment 1) 2:: (1. or galvanized bolt diameter. edge distance = 6-1I2" ATOT = (16-112")(22") = 363 Arl in 2 = 1.37 ok Design of Concrete L. (360.d = 10.85)(36 ksi)(Ab) = 5.O" BOLTS 1101 IlN~!UN Concrete Pyramid Strength = 0.35 Interaction: 6..d"" Structural Engineering .2ldp per bolt = 56.39 = 0.65(4) -100.4 kip per 2 bolts <pp(2::P' ok • Ab is based on uncorroded.55(0..0.ksi(0.35 5.j4o.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Sample Design 1: Steel Column on a Concrete Pier <pVc= 0.OD .54 in 2 Tension: AI' = 363 .72 S 1.". bolt spacing = 9"..0.47 i02) = 28.. in 2 Shear: AI' = (282. /000 215 1207 oil did 31MarQS.54) = 360.4)14 = 0.2(1.) = 59.2 kip per 2 bolts P' = fUl (Ab·) = 60..81 + 0..

oS._ 1000 ksi)(0./4000 .2 in2 per bolt for shear.75 0.47 .#4 tie at top of pier is adequate 10002151207 al3 dId3IMa. (141.5) = 23.do<.0 kip per 2 bolts !pVc < V' Reinforce edge = 6-1/2" < (10-7/8") = 5.55(60 io2) = 15.5 kip per bolt = 31. Structural Engineering . Ay required= 1 ._.27 kip per 2 bolts V' = 0.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Sample Design 1: Steel Column on a Concrete Pier !pVc == 0.65(4) .

ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Sample Design 2 : Steel Column on Ii Concrete Pier "/<' OIA H-BOL TS Ld . TS4 .. fI- BARS HOO KED BOTTOM (8 TOTAL) ~~ ~ -.-. --' '----- ·S €! 12" DC BOTTOM TYPICAL SECTION iOOO 2151207 al4 dtd 31 MarllS.~..22" F • 4" . ..d<>e Structural Engineering . PLAN ELEVATION H-BOLTS ·4 TIES TYP / I /" . .._ III : !211l 0 PS 'l PS .

6 kip per bolt VI = 0. Factored Loads Pu = 13.65 kip Interaction: 24.75)2 ( 41. = 13.4) = 0.4) = c' = 1.48(1.77 in2) = 41.87 34.75(60 ksi)(0.3 Reference (Attachment 2) Working Loads P.ng .87 kip Design Anchors Critical bolt experiences tension and shear (PPn eIlVn = 0.0 ok /000 2J5 1207 a14 dId JJMru05_doc Structural Engineeri.75 kip Vu = 0.77 in2) 34.48 kip per bolt Loads are primarily due to seismic action.58 = kip refer to (Attachment 3) = 0. 1925.9(60 ksi)(0.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Sample Design 2 : Steel Column on a Concrete Pier Design Data Concrete f c = 4 ksi Rebar f y = 60 ksi Anchors 1-114" diameter H-bolts A307 (non-galvanized) Design basis UBC sect.3)(1.3 24.6(1.3)(1.36 s 1.58 + ( 0.65 )2 = 0. therefore friction is excluded.

/ k" I _ Tension: Ap = (2{ S± X S± + 5) = 21 8. 1/"I // "- i.o.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Sample Design 2: Steel Column on a Concrete Pier Design of Embedment LINE OF SPALLING fAILURE MODE (2) BOLTS IN TENSION LINE Of TENSION PULLOUT MODE STOP AT CONSTRUCTIONJOINT PROJECTED PVRAMD TEt-ISl.. .LaE .63 in 2 per bolt /000215 1201 014 did 31 Mar1l5 .doc Structural Engineering .Rt.l: rAl.

ANCHOR DOLT DESIGN CRlTERIA Sample Design 2 : Steel Column on a Concrete Pier Shear: . 35..94 == 0.31 +(0.v :::: (.65 55.02in 2 per bolt Typical configuration of#4 ties @ top of the pier is adequate by inspection /000 2151207 al4 dtd 3 IMarOS.j4000 .65 (I) = .6.960ksj O.. IOD = 122. 4>Ve..46 kip per bolt 1000 v.35::.doe Structural Engineering I.16" 3 Reinforce for shear A.63) 1000 . 1 ok 5"::.75)2 0.95 kip per bolt $Pc = 0.87 ) 0. . .94 Interaction: Equation (3) edge distance = _I [(24.j4000 4-(218.87)2) 9.= 0. = 9.27) =.65 (1) 4-(39. 2 ~~D=4.

ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Sample Design 3: Horizontal exchanger on a Concrete Pier I t . N ± 2'-5" 2'-5" tOG -t-VESSEL II< FONS -_- ~ ..--!i . N If I ! ! i ih .- F_IX_E_D_E_NO PIER ..1 I END II< FON I I ih .. EA.C. HPFS EL !2 II" SPACING TYPICAL °4 TIE VERTICAL REINFORCING TYPICAL PIER DET AlL *5 Q 8" O. WAY BOTTOM TYPICAL SECTION /000215 1207 al S did 31 MarQS..---'-' 10'-11" ---I--I! SLIDING ..:.. 10" 4'-10" PLAN 7'4" 25'-1" ADDITIONAL 04 Ii? EACH BOLT TIE DIA H-BOL TS EL 04 TIES TYP.::.doc Structural Engineering .

doc Structural Engineering .44 kip taken @ fixed end M = (3. .27SW .ANCHOR 'BOL T DESIGN CRITERIA Sample Design 3: Horizontal exchanger on a Concrete Pier -- - -------- 2'-0" ----------------------"-------- TOG EL 25'-1" 10'-11" ~ FIXED END ~ SLIDING END Design Data Concrete: fo = 4 ksi Anchors: A36.92' = ± 0. seismic design friction excluded.ft 6.6 ft .__= O. Loads Longitudinal seismic operating: V = 0 .275( 12. Rw VI oqg'tu"""" ...92') Couple = = 6.kip!l 0.60 kip ..5 kip) = 3. 3/4" diameter threaded rods w/nuts. V~ .6 kip TJ_ 1 end /000 21 S 1201 al S did 3lMarOS.44 kip)(1. non-galvanized Seismic: V = -- ZIC WI.. =O..55 kip kip Operating WI = 12. .15W Wind and other forces must be checked for typical design Equipment: Empty WI = 4.5 Design per ACI-349 method.

v = 0.5kip/Z) = 0.70 kip (from Attachment t.70)=0.25 kip Desfgn of Anchors @ longitudinal forces P u = O. sheet I) Interaction: (0.5") pyramid failure = 135 in] .75( 1.2 kip per bolt 1000 1000 1151207 315 dtd 3 1MarllS.84 kip per 2 bolts = 0.6) = 0.15(12./4000 .41/3.5" Ap .41 kip per bolt Steel: 3/4" diameter <PPD= 7.0 ok = 12" The effective stress area is limited by three edges @ 5" and overlapping stress cones @ 8.8 kip-ft P = 125/2 = 6.5 kipl2 = 6.::.44) = 4.92' = 1.94 kip M = taken @ either end (0.25 kip/end Loads Transverse seismic operating: J.75(1.1)(3. Concrete: 3/4" diameter H-bolt Ld 1.1)(0.94 kip) 1.71::.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Sample Design 3: Horizontal exchanger on a Concrete Pier p = 12.65(4)-(135) = 22.doc Structural Engineering' .42 kip per bolt v«: 0.4217. 'llPc= 0.82 kip per Z bolts = 2.7 x 1.13 kip <pVn = 3.7 x 1.(10")(13.13) + (2.

m per 2 bI 0t 1-#4 tie additionaJ at top of pier around bolts. /000 215 1207 a 1 S dId 31 MarlJS .5 A sv = (0.9 2 ) = 02' . 6.) 60ksl 0.27) 1000 in2) = = 2 <pVc = 0.9 kips per boll> <pVc reinforce edge = 5" ~ IO(~) 4 7.33in (X.14000 (39.33 in2/' <pPc > P' ok = 19.46 kips per bolt V' = 0. see sketch @transverse loads Transverse direction is ok by inspection.55(60)(0.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Sample Deslgn 3: Horizontal exchanger ona Concrete Pier P' = (60 ksi)(O.65(4) -- = ..27 in . since computations show bolt interaction stresses are low and concrete stress values are ok or have already been reinforced.8 kip per bolt .doe Structural Engineering .shear = 1t( 5: J == 39.55X60X0. use uncorroded or galvanized bolt diameter A p .33 10.

ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Friction Resistance (Seismic Loads) Friction Resistance • Assume only those bolts within an arc of 270 degrees.V.l = coefficient of friction = 0.. h • When friction resistance at the bottom of the vessel is not sufficient to carry the full lateral force.55) ~ V. as shown below.I h P -T - I/~x 2/3 0 ONLY THESE BOLTS WILL RESIST SHEAR LOAD. Note!!! For Don-seismic cases the vertical loads may be used when determining friction resistance. This way bolts with small edge distances can be ignored.55 I P 2/3 0 0 .doc Structural Engineering . resist shear. 1000215 1207 al6dld 3lMarOS.: Bolts do not carry shear load If: F = P (0. it is then assumed that the bolts must carry the entire load and friction resistance is zero.: Bolts carry ful1shear load f.55) :. If: F = P (0.

since load factors are different.75(1. = 393. factored loads may govern the design).75 kip 281.7)1500 ft kip = 2100 ftkip Wu = 0.I x 1.25 kip F =P f.55) == 154.7)200kip=280kip M. == 393.75(1. thus: V' u = V ( 360 ) = 373 ki • 270 P Trial number of bolts == 20 1()()()2151207aI6dIl:l3IMa~5.4(1500) 2/3(8) == 281.75(0.56 kip Therefore bolts take full shear in both cases (for non-seismic cases. V u to account for 270 degree arc of bolts. = 1500 ft kip Concrete: f c = 4 ksi D = S'-O" Check Friction Resistance Bolt circle == 7'-6" Unfactored Loads P=~= 2/3D 1500 Factored Loads p u 2/3(8) = = Mu 2/3D 1.25(0. = 0.= 200 kip W == 500 kip Ii = 0.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRITERIA Friction Resistance (Seismic Loads) Design Data V.. Factored Loads Vu=O.55 fy= 6~ ksi ACI design basis M.I.55) = 216.1 x 1.4)500 kip = 525 kip Adjust shear force.7S(1.7 kip Fu = P f.I.doo Structural Engineeriog ..

doc Structural Engineering .0 69.ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN CRlTERlA Friction Resistance (Seismic Loads) Vuperbolt= 373 20 = 18.35 Design ok or Embedment A detailed investigation of geometry of stress cones must be done by the design engineer.7 kip Dcsign Tension Force 4Mu W N = number of bolts = N(BC)-N _ 4(2100) .98 kip <pVn = 36. try 2" diameter H-bolts qlPn = 69.25 + 18. Also see Attachment 6 for additional design consideration with the design of tall tubular structures.35 kip Interaction: 26.25 kips j Design or Steel Bolts Refer to Attachment 1.7 :::0.89:S. closely spaced bolts. Overlapping stress cones and intersections of edges are of concern with designs involving equipment that bas large. 1000 ZIS 1207016 did 3 1MarOS .20(8) = 525 20 26. 1.98 36.

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