This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
. 98% Al as hydroxide Filter, rinse with water, acid leaching (2M H2SO4 + H2O2) (70-90C) filter leachant +oxalate to remove 90%Co at 99% purity +AcorgaM5640 (2:1 molar ratio)to remove 92% Cu +1M Cyanex272 to remove 99% of remaining Co concentrate + Sod. carbonate(sat.) 100C to remove 80% Li waste neutralized Cobalt oxalate heated, added to Li carb. and fired at 600C(6hrs), crushed, pelletized and fired again at 800C(10hrs) to give LiCoO2 which can be reused as electrolyte in new batteries.
Neobdymium Iron Boron(NIB) magnets are mainly composed of Nd(7%-16%), Fe(50%-65%), B (<1%). Lowest Nd content in cheap Chinese magnets while others may have higher percentages. In the process I researched, there are the following steps: DEMAGNETIZATION It would require heating to a very high temp (Curie point) which is about 310-400 C for NIB magnets. It would be carried out in an electric furnace for small batches. COMMINUTION Size reduction is important for further processing as a very high surface area would be preferrable for roasting. Grinders or pulverizers would do the job. It would be worth noting that NIB magnets are inherently brittle to some extent and would require nominal forces to grind to a fine powder. a size < 200# would be preferable although no exact data is available. ROASTING A rotary kiln would be required to convert elements to their oxidized state. Heating, turning in presence of excess Oxygen upto 500-650 C. Nd+O2-Nd2O3 Fe + O2 - Fe2O3 Nd2O3 + Fe2O3 - NdFeO3 DISSOLUTION The Oxidized components are further oxidized in Conc H2SO4 (1.5 to 2.5 M for appropriate dissolution) at 50 -60 C for 2 hours. This would result in formation of Nd2(SO4)3 and Fe2(SO4)3. The clear liquor is decanted, leaving behind the insolubles which are washed and sent back for roasting. Solubility is around 60%-80%. PRECIPITATION Nd2(SO4)3 , when treated with an excess of Na2SO4, forms a complex of Na[Nd(SO4)2] which precipitates, leaving other elements like Fe in the soln. RECLAMATION
After washing with clean dilute H2SO4, NaOH is added in stoichiometric excess to the ppt. This leads to a metathetic reaction resulting in formation of Nd(OH)3 which remains as ppt. This can then be fired to form Neobdymium Oxide. This process can result in formation of highly pure Nd(95%-99.9%).
Price point For 1 Kg of NIB magnet
Amount of Nd- 10% = 100g = 70g(recoverable in first cycle) = 0.5 moles = 800 Rs
H2SO4 required = 2 liter, 2M soln = 250 Rs Na2SO4 required = > 0.5 moles =70 g +50g(excess) = 20 Rs NaOH required = > .5*3 moles = 60g +20g(excess)= 10 Rs
To develop a precise sensor for ambient NOx measurement in levels of ppb The techniques available in the market are mostly based on chemiluminescence, Optoelectronics and electrochemical sensing. Chemiluminescence based sensors are comprised of the following components: A gas pump capable of creating a high pressure or a vaccum pump at the end of the system. A NO2 -> NO converter employs a heated (250C) Mo catalyst for a 90% or less efficiency. An air drier, and O2 -> O3 converter A reaction chamber, preferably two, coated with mirrors (99% reflector) and connected to a Photodiode/Phototransistor(lower pecision) Power source capable of creating high voltages. Electronics for measuring current/ voltage and converting them into electronic reading Electrochemical Newer technology for medical use has developed a tiffin box sized handheld breath analyser (for NO) which can be adapted for ambient monitoring. It is very cheap but requires maintenance every 12 month or 300 tests, which can be expensive. This is closest to what you require. Its performance on a long term basis is comparable to CL sensors. Manufacturers: Aerocrine (NioxMino) and Bedfont (NObreath) (much smaller but 20x costlier). Keep in mind that these are NO sensors, breath-powered hence would still require a pump and a Mo catalyst. Optoelectronics CRDS (Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer) comprises of a cylinder(30 cm) with high reflecting mirrors at either ends. A laser of specific wavelength(408.37) is reflected several times before entering a detector. The amount of light is corrected for errors and amount of light absorbed is calculated, thus amount of NO2 is calculated. The beauty of design is that it can create a virtual path length of kilometers, meaning very high
accuracy. Only downside is requirement of a more powerful pump (170 torr vs 30 torr for CL) The bright side is that this device can be modified to detect a large number of gases with very high accuracy and can even replace a large number of current sensors.
Parameter Range ppb Response time Power draw Resolution ppb Cost Maintenance Size
Chemiluminescence 0.5-20000ppb 3-10 sec 1000W +-1.5 20k- 50k High amplifier
Electrochemical 50-100000ppb 10-30 sec <50W +-5 <200 Low small
Enhanced electrochemical 3-300ppb 10-30 sec <10W +-5 2300-56000 Moderate Tiffin box
Optoelectronics 0.1-1000 15-60 sec <100W +-.5- .05 30k-40k+ Low 1 m long dia 3”
PCB recycing process The final PCB recycling process can be described as folllows: The Primary shredding The secondary shredding to create particles <750 microns(0.75mm) The resonant vibrating screen (.6mm) Falcon SB40 -.25tph 75% recovery with a grade of 85% . Feed 40g/l pressure .01MPa, 50rpm Price qoute has been requested from suppliers and I am waiting for reply. The centrifugal concentrator supplies a 60% solids slurry Hydrometallurgical extraction Add HNO3. Enhance dissolution by a ultrasonic vibrator, low cost leach liquor- electrowinning, Cu cathode, Pb anode solids- leach in HCl+excess Cl(+H2O2 not sure)+H2SnCl6 electrowinning. recovery of HCl and HNO3
The non metal parts can be sold as building materials... OR dried and corona discharge separator can extract remaining metals.
Extraction of Platinum from Hard Drive platter It was a bit tough nut but here is what I found... Pt is found in very small quantities on HDD platters, order of 10 mg per platter or something like that. This process would need severe optimization to be profitable. Not a lot of research has been done on it. The following process has been derived from different processes. A platter consists of following layers: Topmost is a <6nm protective layer, followed by a Pt, Co,Cr mixture which form tiny magnets. Followed by a Cr alloy on a glass substrate. Not all platters may have Pt on them. Hence profit may not be high. To process these platters, it should not be touched by hand or similar objects as layer is very thin. Put it in a solution of 10HCl(37%):1H2O2(36%) at 95C for 2 hrs under agitation. About 90% dissolution can be achieved under agitation. Pt + 2H2O2 + 4 HCl = PtCl4 + H2O Followed by Ammonium Chloride Precipitation to form Ammonium Hexachloroplatinate. AHP can be accumulated from both HDD and catalytic converters before final processing or maybe sold as such at a lower price. This can be heated under a stream of Hydrogen in a tube furnace to liberate sponge form of platinum. Otherwise, it can also be liberated by introducing Hydrazine Hydrate. which precipitates Pt granules.