"J

f

I
CORROSION
..................... ~

I U~ PE..c..'o/2_S
TABLE OF

tvL~u4

CONTENTS

,.

II-

II-

,.

"

,..

..

PI P2
P2- ! P2-! . .

SURFACE PREPARATION Dry abrasive blasting
Abrasives Surface profile Blasting grades Equipment

.......................................................

11-"

OIl

'"

..

.

P2·2 P2-3 P2-4 P2-6 P2·7 P2-7 P2-8 P2-g P2A P2B
P3

. .

Wet blasting Hand and power tool cleaning
'f·
I •.

. . . . , (NON·FERROUS) .
"'

Needle gunning Flame cleaning Chemical cleaning" .: SURFACE PREPARA';fION PAINT CONSTITUENTS Binder Pigments Solvents Other constituents
Plasticizers Anti-settling agents Driers (applicable to oil based paints) . . Anti-skinning agents (applicable 10 oil based pamts)
..

.

·C:O .. ;
i

... ,

,

.
.

~~

TESTS TO DETECT SURFACE CONTAMINATION .......•.....•....•..•....•..••••..•.••.••...•..••••••...••.••.•.. , .................................................•.........................•........... •............................................................

P3-t .
.

P3·3 P3-4 P3-5 P3-5 P3-5 P3-5 P3-5 P3-6 P3·6 P4 PS

Pigment volume concentration (p.v.c.)

. .
. .. .
.

Solutions and dispersions PAINT DRYING AND CURING COATING SYSTEMS Layers of a paint film Types of coating system PAINTIPAINT General Viscosity Density Flashpoint , , , ,
, .. , . ,

, .•.........• , , , , ,., ,
, , - .. ,

.

, .........•...................•...........••..• ,, , , ,., , , , , ,, ,
,

•....•............•................•••...•................•••.....••.. , , , , , , , .........•...... , , ..............•...... . . . , ,
,

Corrosion protection methods ,

P5-1 ,. P5-1 P5-2 P7 P7·1
P7-2

,."

FILM TESTING , ,,

,

, .
,.

P7-J P7-5 P7·5 P7-6 P7·9 .' P7·9 P7-10 P7-14
P7-14

,., . (w .f.t.) Wet film thickness Dry film thickness (d.f.t.) Opacity Adhesion
Vee cut lest ,

, , , , , , , , , ...•.....

. . .
, .

, _

, , .. ,

,

,.,

,

Degree of gloss

{

Cross-cut lest (cross hatch test)

.

Dolly lest Hydraulic adhesion tester

. .

P7-14 P7-15 PS . .
.

:..

"

WEATHER

CONDITIONS

•........

;'•. ,;'.:'. , ................•.....•..............••.......•

Relative humidity (RH%) and dew point Metal temperature
PAINT APPLICATION

P8-1 P8-1
P9 P9-t

~~S

Brush application Roller application Spray application

.. .. ... ... .. ... . ... .. . .. ... . .. ... .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. ... ... .. .. . .. .. .. ... . .. . " . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '.. .

P9-t P9-t P9-4 PIO Pll

Application of metal coatings
COATING FAULTS •..........•........••....................................•..••......••.• PAINT COLOURS

The Munsell system BS 4800
HEALTH & SAFETY .•........•...••.•..•.•.•..•......•...•....•...•.....•.••.•...•.•••.••

. . . , . .
.••.•.•..•...••.•.•.•. , .

Pl1-l PlI-I
P12

()

COSHH Regulations 1988 Occupational Exposure Limits (EH40) Volatile organic compounds
INSPECTION NORMATIVE ., .••...•.....•..•...•.•.•....•..••.•.............•..........••.••.•..•..••.•. DOCUMENTS

PI2-l
PI2-t P12-2 P13 QA2

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Ruane & II T P O'Neill
NOTES
•' " ,S" ",> .~-~ ~I-

"
"

UNITPl· CORROSION

.

Corrosion is generally an electro-chemical reaction and at least one cathodic reaction .
, ":"-1 ,~_-

process which results from an anodic

{>

The anodic reaction is expressed as follows: M ~M+It+ne
Where:

10

M = clement involved
n e

~j;!

If7...

= electron(s)

= a number

At least one of the following cathodic reaction(s) takes place at the cathode: I.
20

Oxygen reduction in acid solutions: Oxygen reduction in neutral and alkaline solutions: Hydrogen evolution: Metal iron reduction: Metal deposition:

O2 +4H+ +4e ~ 2H20 02 + 2H20 + 4e ~ 40H2H++2e ~H2 Fe+3 + e ~ Fe+2./ Cu+2+2e~ Cu

2.
3, 4.

30

5.

.,
r

An electrolyte is a substance which. when in solution (usually water or in its fused (molten) state), will conduct a current and be broken down by it.

Iron are is an oxide of iron in chemical balance with the environment; when this iron ore is converted to iron. the chemical balance is changed and the iron becomes active, i.e. it corrodes on contact with the natural environment and tries to revert back to its natural inert state. The natural environment usually contains moisture (which provides the electrolyte) giving the following simultaneous reactions:
40

Anodic reaction:

Fe ~ Fe'"

+ 2e-

i.e. iron gives ferrous (iron) ions and electrons. Cathodic reaction:
50

2H20+02 +4e- ~ 40Hi.e. water + oxygen + electrons give hydroxyl ions. ·The products of these reactions take part in further reactions with the immediate environment leading to the formation of corrosion products, the most familiar being rust:

i

60

Fe" + 20H- ~ Fe(OHh
i.e. ferrous ions plus hydroxyl ions gives iron hydroxide.

4Fe(OHh +02 ~ 2Fe20)H20+2H20
i.e. iron hydroxide plus oxygen gives rust. Corrosion reactions can be accelerated by the existence of certain criteria including:
70

1. 2.

variations in oxygen content on the materials surface, chlorides and sulphates, other metals or metal compounds e.g. rnillscale, acids or alkali's. of higher nobility in contact with the steel.

Mil/scale is an oxide of iron produced when the steel is manufactured; il is a result of the white hot steel coming into cOPilact with air and forming an oxide composed of three layers: FeO nearest the steel. FeJO. then Fep .•on the outside. Millscale has a total thickness between approximately 25 pm and JOO um.
,~

3. 4.

8C1

90

The following list shows some metals/metal compounds in their order of nobility in sea water at ambient temperature. The relative positions of the metals/metal compounds in the list can change with a change in electrolyte type or temperature; this list is known as the galvanic series. The galvanic series may show the potential of each metal/metal compound measured in volts against a specified type of reference electrode, If absolute potential values of metal elements only are shown, which are independent of the electrolyte used, the list becomes known as the electrochemical series.

.

C R... n. " T .. O'Seill Issu. Z 21110SlYtl

Ruane & II T P O'Neill
NOTES

UNIT PI • CORROSION
Gold Silver Nickel Copper
10

NOBLE

,
'.::...LL.C_"'· .,'.\

\ .

Tile electrochemical series is produced under
standard conditions and is usefillfor theoretical
CLue.lsments or ill

Mill scale Mild steel Aluminium Zinc Magnesium IGNOBLE·.:.;.S.":~·l -

it'''''' .'

€\

laboratory situutions.

t..';

20

30 •

Example: If steel was in intimate contact with zinc or attached to zinc via a wire in an electrolyte, e.g. soil or water, the zinc would corrode first because steel is more noble than zinc. In this example the zinc becomes the anode and the steel the cathode, i.e, the steel is being cathodically protected and the zinc is acting as a sacrificial anode.

40

so

60

70

.:

."

80

90

(,
OR...... &TI'O'N.m Isou< 1 10/115/116

Pl-2

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UNIT P2· SURFACE PREPARATION
Correct surface preparation is a vitally important stage for most coating systems, it is ' often the process which governs the service life of the coating system.
, I~"';"~"

NOTES

."

Thereare various ways to pr~p~r~' ~~I-f~ceprior to coating:' a' •
10

'


• • •
20

• • •

Abrasive blast cleaning Wire brushing Scraping Grinding Needle gunning Chemical cleaning Water blasting Weathering Flame cleaning Vapour degreasing

30

The quality of a surface preparation is governed by the amount of surface contaminant remaining on the substrate after cleaning, although it may also relate to the resultant surface texture, e.g, the surface profile on a substrate after abrasive blast cleaning.

\~(!:;
.:',-

Dry abrasive blasting
40

')
50

Dry abrasive blasting is carried out by projecting a highly concentrated stream of small abrasive particles onto the substrates surface at speeds up to approximately 720 kmIh (450 m.p.h.). The operation removes rust, scale, dirt and any other extraneous material from the substrate and also leaves an irregular profile which provides an ideal key for coating adhesion. Dry abrasive blasting is often the best method of surface preparation for long term-protection coating systems.

Abrasives
The degree of surface roughness and rate of cleaning is partially governed by the characteristics of the abrasive used; these being:

41o~

~,.}S' ;' ,

,-,-:,,)'60

, C)
70

• • • • • • • • • •

Size Hardness Density Shape Steel or chilled iron grit Steel or chilled iron shot Grit and shot mixed Copper slag Garnet Sand

Both metallic and mineral abrasives are commonly used for blasting, for example:

80

Sand is not dangerous unless it is in dust form when it can be inhaled. e.g. after fragmentation during dry blasting operations,

The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 19S1r (COSHH Regulations) do not allow the use of sand containing free silica in dry blasting

91

operations because of the associated health hazard of silicosis, There are other abrasives which are used, usually for specialised applications. e.g. walnut shells. ceramic grits, crushed glass, aluminium silicate. Effect of abrasives Grit is angular in profile with sharp cutting edges; it shatters mill scale and undercuts any surface contaminant resulting in a clean surface with a rough profile. The amplitude tends to be quite erratic with a large occurrence of rogue peaks, especially when blasting in one area for too long.

c: V

o Ruane
lssueZ

&< T P ZZI05/'J6

O'N.m

P2..1

, ,

I
\
I

The amplitude of a blasted surface may be measured by a number of methods. which has the effect of reduc~.lt>.. SURFACE PROFILE C II.".. Blast finishes produced in production should not be touched with bare hands due III contamination.''''''/0'_'>'' 50 tG('d. e.tl. . Before taking any readings it is necessary to zero the gauge on a flat piece of glass. Because there are so many troughs of different depth. 60 including the use of a surface profile needle gauge. It is common practice to mix metallic shot and grit to obtain a blast finish close to the ~ ideal (a typical mix being 70-80% shot and 20-30% grit). surface replica tape.agn~al~r%g!tt. it shatters mill scale.I..iling work hardens M~_!iUlfl!fM(). • 16 ".!he.. however. e. . and necessary.(1 "'''.!!:[!!' ~~ r--.ndeS:> The size of the profile as measured fromthe peaks to the troughs is known as the amplitude or peak to trough height. All accurate measuring equipment. ~J~~rn. and is primarily governed by the size of abrasive used. Testex tape.~h. Issue " T I' O'Nflll 1 Zl/051'16 . 70 80 90 SURFACE PROFILE GAUGE o Ru.ish is similar to a grit blasted finish although there is less roughness to the touch. the visual appearance of a shot blasted fir..l:. although other factors are important..~ -.."e.g. Shot is spherical.. e.''··. or a surface comparator. c S..: C) 40 I'· . .1-I<\(·.. angle of impingement. . Ruane & II T P O'Neill UNIT P2 • SURFACE PREPARATION NOTES .l)~g~iJ. hardness of surface and other characteristics of the abrasive itself.._c • e' Amplitude 31> Trough Rogue peaks If ei I. Surface profile 20 The shape of a cross-sectioned blast finish is known as the surface profile or anchor J!!!..fN(. Shot also :ii7. r:t . a typical amplitude range for liquid paints would be in the region of 30-75 11m.(. reduces the occurrence of rogue peaks but may press impurities into the surface.. Surface profile needle gauge This relies on a needle reaching the bottom of the troughs on the surface profile. but does not have sharp cutting edges to cut into as~~~~~e. 10 Rogue peaks are peaks whit'h stand out above the required profile and should be avoided if applying thin coatings as they may lead ItJ spot 0' flash rusting.g.g.~~e of any stress corrosion cracking which could otherwise occur in the future. it is normal. dial micrometers. should be issued wilh calibration certificates or cenificates of conformance to give assurallce that the feadings obtained are going to be correct within a stated margin of error. to take ten or twenty readings and calculate the average amplitude. Maximum amplitudes or amplitude ranges would normally be quoted in specifications.

. After blast cleaning.. -- .. A profile grading can be given when the area under assessment is rougher than the smoothest of two adjacent areas on the comparator but not as rough as the roughest of the two areas..~Il. The preparation is then given a coding. The surface under examination is visually compared with high quality photographs in the standard both before and after blasting.. the surface shall be cleaned from loose dust and debris. .1(1~ name or a commonly used or surface replica tape. The profile is then graded according to the following: . Remove the Testex tape from the surface and measure the overall thickness with the dial micrometer. Steel surface largely covered with adherent mill scale but little. . The rade of blast finish is primarily overned by blasting time and the velocity of the abrasive particles. surface replica tape and surface comparators only gives the degree a/roughness and not the degree 0/ cleanliness. Prior to blast cleaning.. c._------_--------------------------------_ •. _ - . Medium profile: Equal to or rougher than area 2 but not as rough as area 3. () K~ .. any heavy layers of rust shall be removed by chipping. Steel surface on which the mill scale has rusted away and on which general pitting is visible under normal vision. Deduct SO urn (2 thou") from the reading to obtain the amplitude. Remove paper backing and stick Testex tape to the surface to be measured. 2. rust. The plastic 20 4. BS 7079 : Part Al is the same as ISO 8501-1 and SS 055900. e.is a tr. 40 • ). It is important to note that needle gauges.. ~ BS 7079 : Part At ~ it ( " . . • + Coarse profile: Equal to or rougher than area 3 but not as rough as area 4. C Sa2Yzwhich can be interpreted using the following extract from the standard: Rust grades: 70 A• B• .' . n 111051% P2·3 . Steel surface on which the mill scale has rusted away or from which it can be scraped. S. grease and dirt shall also be removed.g. small wooden stick or similar .. Part Al of this standard is pictorial and shows rust grades prior to blasting and the degree of surface cleanliness after blasting. but with slight pitting visible under normal vision.... nt-J£jrro. • ~.". . The procedure for carrying out this test is as follows: 10 fW) 1. I. (mylar) to which the Testex paste is attached is 50 urn thick. . Blasting grades so The grade of a blast finish relates to the amount of surface contaminant remaining after blasting. 3. Fine profile: Equal to or rougher than area J but not as rough as area 2.. Steel surface which has begun to rust and from which the mill scale has begun to flake . has the advantage of providing a penn anent record.. z ~ T P O'N . (. 80 D~ Preparation grades « blast cleaning.J(.never with the fleshy part of the finger as this will contaminate the blast. Visible oil.Ruane & II T P O'Neill NOTES UNIT P2 • SURFACE PREPARATION Surface replica tape Testex rape . 60 BS 7079 • Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products. Surface comparator 30 The roughness of the surface to be assessed is compared to the different areas on the comparator by scraping with a finger nail. if any..'.. It is used in conjunction with a dial micrometer and although quite costly.$''. Zero the micrometer ensuring the flat contact points are clean. until the peaks can be seen butting up to the transparent plastic.~J(!~Afl. Rub the Testex paste into the troughs using a blunt instrument.

and from mill scale. more consistent and uniform blast finishes.g.oil. The main advantages of this system compared to air blasting systems are as follows: a. the surface shall be free from visible oil. Centrifugal blast units also exist in a portable form for blasting large flat plates or ships decks and similar.wash separator removes any dust contaminants from recycled abrasive before it is fed back into the wheels. paint coatings and foreign matter. paint coatings and foreign matter. When viewed without magnification. • • ". (. -. mill scale. b. -. f.:. 70 g.. " :.'. more environment friendly. e.~'. The abrasive used would normally be reusable for cost reasons. grease and dirt. and from most of thc{f. lower abrasive consumption.. Any residual contamination shall be firmly adhering.. rust. ). Ih1r.:'.c. 4 M~ t.. 80 lower cleaning time. d. are usually fixed installations and are commonly used for large production runs. The abrasive is fed into the centre of the wheels and to the inner edges of the attached blades by means of an impeller.:. safer to implement ~ closed system. 30 C) 40 COMPARISON SSPC White metal (SP5) Near white metal (SPlO) OF BLASTING GRADES BS 7079 (SS 05 59 00) Sa3 Sa2Y2 Sa2 Sal NACE Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Commercial finish (SP6) Light blast and brush off 50 SSPC = Steel Structures Painting Council NACE = National Association of Corrosion Engineers . and from poorly adhering mill ~ scale..'_']::<::. ~ Thorough blast cleaning .~'::J~" . the surface ~h~Hbe free ~rom vi~ibl.1I . lower energy consumed. Any remaining traces of contamination shall show only as slight stains in the form of spots or stripes. the surface shall be free from visible oil. When viewed without magnification.i NOTES Sa2 10 t Sa21/2 w 20 Very thorough blast cleaning. '4 '< I~" :.~![\~~ Ruane & /I T P O'Neill UNIT P2· SURFACE PREPARATION Sal . paint coatings and foreign matter. paint coatings and foreign matter.. c. contamination.p . The abrasive is recycled up to approximately twenty times providing it is free.?': surface shall be free from VISIble011.e. known as centrifugal blast wheels. e.~---------------------------- P2-4 . less labour used. rust.:: t·. An air.------.. rust. Sa3 • Blast cleaning to visually clean steel. from grease or oil "'-:-'. ~-': Blasting in factories is often carried out using rotating wheels which throw the abrasive at the component.i. Wh~n viewed wit~out magnification. rust. r~a~e ~n~ dirt. IL shall have a uniform metallic colour. grease and dirt. f r l 90 U. and shall be free from mill scale. When viewed without magnification.~:~n~!o~O·N'.Light blast cleaning.•. ~ . '. These units. The abrasive is then accelerated to the end of the blades and ont0 th2e20compohnent centrifugal force at speeds typically between by 250-350 kmIh (l 60m. grease and dirt. Equipment Centrifugal blast units 60 @. on pipes in pipe mills.

{\ BO 8~S(r~l) 90 Venturi shaped nozzles also produce a larger blast pattern with the whole area receiving a relatively equal amount of abrasive."-' :. \.7 MPa (100 p. Blasting nozzles . liquid separators.g. Li' 60 70 Venturi Shaped Nonle . tungsten carbide.. a dead mans handle for direct operator control.. a Venturi shaped blasting nozzle. Wheel abrators are in a closed system. It is important to keep the pressure at the nozzle as close to 0.7 MPa (100 p. Straight bore nozzles are rarely used for blasting large surface areas because they are not as efficient as Venturi shaped nozzles.g. Limiting pressures to 0. a carbon impregnated hose. The pressure at the nozzle may be measured using a hypodermic needle gauge. Straighl Bore Nozzle. ~) ~.i. the higher the pressure the higher the velocity and therefore the higher the rate of cleaning. a pressurised pot containing the abrasive. resulting in a fringe area of lower blasting efficiency.i..i.s.normallybe used on site work. Safety . 1 1211J5J% P2-S .h. whereas.h. would. ( 50 Blasting nozzles are available in a variety of materials and orifice sizes. Sometimes the nozzles are lined with relatively abrasive resistant materials. this is placed through the hose near the nozzle.) is advantageous for safety reasons. for a longer working life.i. .) as possible because for every I% loss in pressure there is approximately a 1Y2% loss in efficiency.7 MPa (l00 p.) is approximately 350 kmlh (220 m. human access to the blasting area is limited. Two types of nozzle which exist are the straight bore nozzle and the Venturi shaped nozzle..\ MP" ~Me<._) When using an open system.)... • • .p.. whereas the velocity for a Venturi shaped nozzle under similar conditions would be approximately 720 kmlh (450 m.ul .. this is at approximately 0. ' a compressor. i. .). moisture filters (knock-out pots). &TPO·Noili Issu. e.e.'. with the hole in the needle facing the nozzle.s.p. e.:~~:' Pressure blasting equipment basically consists of: • • • • 20 NOTES '.Ruane & /I T P O'Neill I·· UNITP2· SURFACE PREPARATION Air blasting Pressure blasting. therefore warning signs are necessary and C Ru. ) :: .". providing an air supply of approximately 0. for site blasting applications using pressure blasting equipment. The velocity of abrasive leaving a straight bore nozzle at 0. i.) depending on the abrasive used.s.( The velocity of abrasive particles leaving a blasting nozzle is primarily governed by the pressure at the nozzle.i.l.). access is not usually restricted. ..s.7 MPa (100 p. 40 t.s.e. a straight bore nozzle concentrates most of the abrasive in the central area of the blast pattern. . which is a type of air blasting system... Vacuum blast and suction blast equipment also come under the category of air blasting but are not as widely used due to lower efficiency. There is a point where an increase in pressure does not increase the velocity substantially..7 MPa (100 p..

). Use external couplings if joining hoses together. the problems associated with drying large surface areas or the cost of water miscible primers. Restrict the pressure to 0.s. the production and disposal of sludge (particularly with abrasive injection). It is claimed that this technique is very controllable and will remove one coat of paint if required. all wet blasting methods blasting. 60 • • ••• High pressure water plus abrasive injection Operates at pressures up to 140 MPa (-20.) which can be extremely dangerous.?'j • • • l~. red lead paint films.Ruane & /I T P O'Neill NOTES UNIT P2 • SURFACE PREPARATION regular inspection of the equipment is required. Disadvantages include high cost and low efficiency.).g. Operators should wear protective clothing.s. :\ Use hoses of the correct type. Disadvantages include high cost and low efficiency. leather apron and gloves. reinforced. gc:r. including an air fed helmet. However. 70 Low pressure water plus abrasive injection Operates at -0.000 p. including: have similar disadvantages over dry abrasive 40 a. e Ruano &0 T I' O'Neill Issue 1 2210Sl'J(o .i.i.i. with or without abrasive injection Operates at -0. 90 Air blasting with water injection Water with or without an inhibitor is injected into an air/abrasive stream. because they do not create dust.i.7 MPa (100 p. • • 10 Other safety considerations relating to Use of carbon impregnated hose to reduce the chance of static shock.. the availability and drainage of water. Use of a dead-mans handle to stop the flow of abrasive when the operator lets of the nozzle. Suitable for removing soluble contamination.7 MPa (l00 p. Highly flexible and mobile in use. The advantages of this method are the same as for high pressure pure water blasting. Will remove mill scale at high pressures.). boots.000 p. b. grease.i. etc .) which can be extremely dangerous. c. d. 80 Steam blasting. Internal couplings reduce the bore and the eroding action of the abrasive could lead to a blow-out. • 20 • Wet blasting 30 Wet blasting methods are good for removing chlorides from surfaces and are good for the-removal of toxic coatings.s.7 MPa (100 p. Keep hoses as straight as possible to prevent kinks which may lead to a blow-out. 50 High pressure pure water blasting Operates at pressures sometimes in excess of 200 MPa (-30. but will also remove firmly held contamination and will leave a surface profile. This method is ideal for surfaces contaminated with oil. i.s.. The advantages of this method are as follows: • • • Simple to operate.s. the extra cost of supplying and mixing a substrate inhibitor (assuming the specification allows the use of an inhibitor). pressure blasting are as follows: . e.e.

Ruane & /I T PO'Neill NOTES UNIT P2· SURFACE PREPARATION r. but the surface .. relates to scraping. This method of cleaning.. Needle guns are useful for cleaning difficult surfaces such as rivet heads and welds. or Jason's hammer as it is sometimes referred to. When viewed without magnification. r: . they also peen (hammer) and stress relieve the surface. " T I"O'~. paint coatings and foreign matter. V e ku.i. grease and dirt shall also be removed. rust.. is often used for short term protection coating systems. Visible oil. ~.. 20 . . so Needle gunning A needle gun. Hand and power tool cleaning Hand and power tool cleaning. -.:1.. i. BS 7079 : Part A I defines standards of wire brushed finishes along with other hand and power tool cleaning methods as follows: 'Prior to hand and power tool cleaning. • grinding and needle gunning. shall be treated much more thoroughly to give a metallic sheen arising from the metallic substrate. chipping. phosphor-bronze or beryllium-bronze. ' 10 . consists of many air 60 operated reciprocating tungsten needles.. it may be specified that wire brushes used must be of the non-sparking type. or where access for blasting is restricted or damage from abrasive to the surrounding environment would occur. '" 70 Reciprocating needles l' 80 V 90 Compressedair NEEDLE GUN [. Wire brushing is a_widely used surface preparation method but it only cleans up an existing surface. maintenance work.' . Their disadvantages are that they can leave sharp edged craters and rogue peaks and they also have a tendency to push impurities into the surface.. r: { Bronze brushes may not be permitted because of Ihe possibility of galvanic corrosion. and from poorly adhering mill scale... .' . the surface shall be free from visible oil. StJ ~ Very thorough hand and power tool cleaning. any heavy layers of rust shall be removed by chipping.. It is usualty preferable for the needles to have a small cross-section. it does not re-cut a new profile.. wire brushing.IOS/% P2-7 . grease and dirt. Plastic bristles with embedded abrasives are available as an alternative. sanding. For safety reasons. St3 is usually obtained by mechanical wire brushing and St2 is usually achieved by hand wire brushing.iIl Issee Z l1.. After needle gunning the amplitude of the surface profile may be checked by the same methods used for abrasive blast cleaning if the contour of the substrate allows . although not as effective as blast cleaning. 30 St2 .r :. Care must be taken to avoid over brushing a particular area causing ~" a condition with a highly polished surface which has an adverse effect on coating adhesion.Thorough hand and power tool cleaning. As for St2.e.

• .g. 3. should be avoided as a loss of mechanical strength may be caused. Dehydration .. primes the surface. 80 4. UNIT P2 • SURFACE PREPARATION . NOTES Flame cleaning 10 The application of an oxyacetylene flame to the steel surface to be cleaned efficient method of removing rust.: " Chemical cleaning 60 Pickling is a chemical cleaning process which is widely used in a factory environment for preparing items such as pipes and steel plates. it is often necessary to apply the paint while the metal is still warm. C FI and 0 PI. Pickle: Total immersion in a tank of acid.. Phosphate: Only applies to Footner's duplex process. i. possibly after a final wash.1 No.Rust is a combination of iron oxide and moisture. xylene. Wash: A clean water wash to remove acid and surface residues.. {f " e Ru...3 flame cleans the surface.' c(.:: . etc .The mill scale on contact with the intense heat expands at a faster rate than the steel to which it is attached and flakes off. The cr. #'. 30 20 -~~ • • . The technique involves a final treatment in a I to 2% phosphoric acid solution held at sOGe. u w•• : 12JtJS/'JIi P2-8 .. the time taken is variable and depends upon the type and degree of contamination.. around 40GC (which is about the maximum to which the hand can be comfortably applied). effectiveness of the process is due to a combination of factors: IS .. '.'. . -.. ~ Differential expansion .e..g. 5-10% sulphuric acid at 65-70DC. an . This leaves a thin rust inhibitive phosphate coating on the steel surface to which the coating should be preferably applied while it is still warm. e. this gives a light grey appearance on the surface when finished.. Heat penetration .:.. C.The heat from the flame penetrates all the surface irregularities and removes all traces of moisture. for I to 2 minutes._ -e' ~. · • C.' .::'~.' . rust etc. usually applied by hose or spray. wire brushes the surface to remove all the dry powder."> t'.. e 'i_. The flame cleaning of any form of fastener. 50 BS 7079 : Part A I shows minimum flame cleaning standards according to rust grades..."" &< T P O·N. 90 l·~ . oil. As the moisture is rapidly driven off the rust is dehydrated and converted to a dry powder which can be removed by wire brushing.:. B FI.':'. ( I f . A Fl. grease.2 No. Degrease: Removes surface contaminants such as grease and oil by the use of a suitable solvent. . mill scale and other contamination.. e. rivets or bolts.. to remove mill scale. e. • ~{i[{~ 70 2. Procedure: I. \ r.llH The warmth of the plate lowers the paint viscosity enabling it to flow more easily into irregularities and also ensures that condensation will not form on the surface. ~ c) 40 Plame cleaning often requires three operatives who work in a team as follows: No. usually applied by cloth.g.Ruane & II T P O'Neill .

Remove any oil or grease by means of a suitable solvent or proprietary degreaser. 20 3.g. In certain cases. are coated for aesthetic reasons. arc often coated to prolong their ~~~~~tivelife. . The oxide layer provides an adequate key for the coating system. whereas GRP or concrete would be coated usually for appearance reasons ~ 10 The surfaces must be cleaned and prepared regardless of the reason(s) for coating. zinc galvanizing. SURFACE PREPARATION (NONwFERRODS) Some non-ferrous metallic surfaces are coated for anti-corrosion surfaces. e. situation allows. zinc and aluminium. i. but using wire brushing or some other abrasion method may not always be the best alternative. Sweep abrasive blasting preferred. abrade using emery 4. Remove any water soluble contaminants detergent (-2%)."\ I '_ C RllAn. Rinse using clean water. " 60 ( . For surfaces coated with zinc.:r ! Ruane & 1/ T P O'Neill NOTES UNIT P2A. It is not necessary to etch zinc coatings which have a dull .: () !' " .e. For aluminium substrates (and all other non-ferrous substrates other than zinc). using water. :( (' Preferably use power washing equipment where the If this is not practical. appearance due to an oxide layer which has formed over time due to reactions with the oxygen in the atmosphere. 70 c' 60 90 (J. f f' (. cloth or wire brush. a PVB type (poly-vinyl-butyral) type etchant would nonnally be used. thin gauge aluminium cladding or zinc galvanising. -~ . Typical procedure: I. including non-metallics.>. e. T P O'Neill Issue I Z2IOSIWi . Relatively reactive metals. it may not be feasible to use sweep blasting as a surface preparation method. " purposes and some .g. . Etch primers are usually on these surfaces to provide a key to the substrate. &. usually mixed with 2. a non-proprietary etchant called T-wash is usually used.

but a dark environment is required for this method. The tape is examined using a magnifying glass and an assessment of the degree of dust contamination is made. Remove the test paper and check to see if any salts have been drawn by capillary action.' so { \.. ':". -. TESTS TO DETECT SURFACE CONTAMINATION The following tests are qualitative. • o 70 Dust The presence of dust may be determined by applying transparent pressure-sensitive adhesive tape to the test surface and then removing. There are many other tests for detecting contamination but some of these require a chemist or other suitable qualified person topedorm. 10 ('-'. .:: Soluble iron salts The potassium [erricyanide lest may be used to detect the presence of colourless soluble iron salts which may be present in the pits after blast cleaning. a cotton wool swab wiped over the surface may reveal oil or grease which was not directly visible when on the surface. If salts are present..cc . To test the presence of any mill scale particles left behind after blast cleaning to BS 7079 grade Sa3 the copper sulphate test may be used. 3. Wait a moment for any water droplets to evaporate then apply a potassium ferricyanide test paper by pressing down for 2 to 5 seconds. these tests tend to be mainly quantitative. The steel turns a bright copper colour and any mill scale particles show as black spots. they will accelerate corrosion causing rust spots which may in turn break the bond of any applied coatings leading to the failure of the coating system. the pressure applied to the tape and its degree of stickiness will partly govern the results. 40 Mill scale 1'" . . . that is to say the quantity of contaminant will not be determined from these tests. 20 c ( Spray a fine mist of distilled water onto a small area of the blast cleaned surface using a scent-spray type of bottle. Standards do exist which standardize the test conditions and the way in which the results are assessed.1 Z2IOSI'JII P2B-l . The use of an ultraviolet lamp may also detect oil or grease by causing it to fluoresce. (. ~ '. ". "\ CIRuan. Procedure A fine mist of slightly acidic copper sulphate solution is sprayed onto a localised area of approximately 100 mm in diameter. 2. 60 !. They show as prussian blue spots.r (. leading to the eventual failure of any coating system applied. Procedure: I.'·c . Oil or grease 90 Simple visual assessment may reveal the presence of oil or grease. BO t :. I. however. Ruane & II TP O'Neill NOTES UNIT P2B.'".-r .1.1"" !:. This means to say that if any traces of mill scale are present on the surface after preparation they will accelerate the corrosion of the underlying steel and disband. & T P O'Srili bs~.. V . Mill scale is cathodic with respect to steel.' For example.

... . ~-. . 20 Opaque liquid paints consist of a liquid medium known as the vehicle (which primarily contains binder and solvent) plus solid pigment particles. t' v·:. ---~. the component in the paint which forms a hard viscous film. An unpigmented paint is known as a varnish. r. if''' I' t\. it would not be the right choice to coat . h\~M"'< '... • • ·...g.c.. g... Very durable."I:-.. e..A:( \.'...~ ~ 1'" ~.o r". ~-~.g. C.a chemical plant with a linseed oil based paint as these paints have low resistance to chemical attack.:'· '" • t·I~·": (>..I . c· t J A paint type is normally identified by its binder.t II<. Water based paints are also used nowadays for industrial applications. OR . e.'\.)-r"llh PI.p...'.l~ i....-l'._\·~\ /prtt\/". '.~provides .7~.:'. . .·. Resistant to mould growth. -. Solvent free liquid paints.\ :r""I'_o..{/I::. e. ~!!. Binder The binder is the film former...)J . Provides a tough inert film resistant to acid and alkaline agents.. ~ '-'{ 70 ")/Jt~'....e..-t. Ruane & /I T P O'Neill NOTES UNIT P3 • PAINT CONSTITUENTS Paints may be sub-divided into the following types: • Liquid paints containing solvent. 90 d. .adhesion to a substrate's surface. The advantages of a chlorinated rubber paint system are: a.. '" 40 . linseed oil..-!L' .._ r. therefore a paint must be carefully selected to ensure it is able to do the work required.~r(. b.·J {~ r-. ~lfJ""'!'- • ~t#~l~~ r)Lt... "" &< TPO'Noili Issuol O~ P3-1 .I. .. 60 "-'::"'...IS\tll~t It .:."t4r1c .' • • • • • • r. .--' ..-~. . tung oil Phenolic Polyurethane Silicone Styrene Vinyl "\... \''J..(.mechanical and chemical resistance and impermeability to moisture. Easily maintained. Low water vapour permeability (tenth of that for alkyd).-- bi!l... although solvent free materials are becoming more widely used. Liquid paints containing solvents are the most common. . Non-toxic... • c 80 Each binder has its own characteristics. Non-flammable. It may be thought of as the adhesive that holds the pigment and other additives together to form a continuous film.. c. i. .... Examples of binders: .." :':. » (..._. f.. 50 • • • Acrylic Alkyd Cellulose Chlorinated rubber Emulsion Epoxy Ethyl and methyl silicate Natural oils."Jf"'... An epoxy or a chlorinated rubber based paint would be a much better choice as these paints have good chemical resistance properties. • 10 • Solvent free liquid paints and powder paints are latter developments which eliminate the need for costly and hazardous solvents. Powder paints.. .

Before synthetic resins made their appearance. b.: C (. branched or complex. oxygen and nitrogen... slow drying. usually have to be modified chemically by heating. these produce elastic.g. Paints which C Ruane" T P O·N.. ~ . i. A polymer is a high molecular (. ~. t._J ~.'\ x 'j. €. Almost all resins used in paint formulations nowadays are synthetic.'j. a framework of a building or a honeycomb LINEAR POLYMER . although they are commonly used in oleoresinous varnishes (oil and resin) for specialised uses. e. Paints which contain more oil than resin may be referred to as long oil paints. these link together with other monomers and atoms to form polymers. form polymers to make up a structure roughly analogous to a tangled mass of spaghetti.' • COMPLEX POLYMER e €: 50 depending on the type of polymer which may be linear.. Resins and oils form polymers.. All film formers polymerize.e. such as carbon.g. epoxy. e..O -:. . They may be hard brittle solids or soft semi-solids. Paint binders may consist of resin.t. May pinhole at high temperatures.r . synthetic.~ C\4·V{. c. til" £..Low resistance to solvents. i!. Natural resins.m 100. '-~\\ '\ul \. or as is more usual in modem paints... shellac. c. or resin and oil.· 30 BRANCHED POLYMER ) Monomers '" .l"''"to.. . C/\···.. .. vinyl etc . The basic units of a polymer are known as monomers. this is a chemical process known as polymerization and takes place during the drying of a paint film.t\~\".'.t:. these are rapid drying oils.j\"'. Natural resins. l OJ/06lll6 P3-2 e .. hydrogen.• before they are of any use to the paint industry. .~". composed of a string or structure of repeated units consisting of chemical compounds made up from elements of a low molecular weight. paint films used for decorative purposes.. ~ ) . " 90 \. i ft A paint binder forms polymers when drying takes place.. .. alkyd.. are usually quite transparent and have film forming properties. e C l '(: C C C Oils '". unsaturated drying oils were used as film formers. Cobwebbing when spraying.. are soluble in organic solvents but not in water. darnmars.. ~'. oil.: c e e c e e-. etc . weight linear molecule. Resins 70 Natural resins are obtained from plant secretions or plant fossils.ts..• these have similar physical properties to natural resins but have different chemical compositions. -. Nowadays.Ruane & II T P O'Neill NOTES UNIT P3 • PAINT CONSTITUENTS Disadvantages of a chlorinated rubber paint system: a. 10 . e 60 Most polymers are organic and may be naturally occuring. Common drying oils are linseed oil and tung oil.~... their use is restricted.. I '. :-" '-:... copals. J '~1 .

.drying and·no~..c r.blue Compounds of chromium· green. >. Pigments must be chemically inert and insoluble in the vehicle in which it is dispersed.')". 50 Opaque pigments These inert pigments are used for the purpose of providing colour and opacity. fast drying.. but may also improve the paint films hardness and durability. -I •• . .. low weight and resistance to heat and corrosion. .g. Pigments are usually classified by colour or by the primary characteristic they afford to the paint. e '/? 20 Pigments Pigments are solids in powdered form which are derived from either chemical ~iacJions.. ·· e RUlne " T P O'N.~j~~~1~ . ~~. alkyd resin based oils paints. The use of red lead.white pigments: i .black • red..-""""'" . -'Most plgglE:nts used . these produce brittle. yellow Titanium dioxide .\i • • 80 • • • Zinc chromate Zinc phosphate Red lead Calcium plumbate Coal tar . <. The fatty acids in non-drying oils are saturated. .. I. light. . organic or inorganic.:".. 10 The fatty acids in drying oils are unsaturated.. minerals. yellow . S~J. . is restricted due to high toxicity.! paints are inorganic although there are some common organic PIiffi'ents. e.' • 30 -~' Pigments basically give a paint film its colour and opacity (hiding power)..i. \. Ruane & /I TP O'Neill NOTES UNIT P3 • PAINT CONSTITUENTS contain more resin than oil may be referred to as short oil paints. or to give anti-corrosive properties by means of cathodic protection providing the metallic particles are in close contact with one another.g.'..I6I% • Zinc Aluminium 0 . paint films used for structural coatings. '.fi.. this means oxidation and drying may take place. yellow. --r . this prevents or limits oxidation.~dryi~g· are used in certain paints. . Colour permanance when exposed to the environment. calcium plumbate and zinc chromate.m .._ """.' P3-3 . • Iss". orange Compounds of iron .•.e. . i."'_' ". or the saturation is limited. There are pigments which can apply other characteristics to a paint. Metallic pigments: May be used to give metallic finishes. • Carbon Compounds of calcium Compounds of cobalt .:. 60 • • • • • . or animals.brown. Its main characteristics are high strength.--~ 40 Pigments are insoluble. vegetables.) :' . . anti-corrosive (rust inhibitive) properties. Pigments may be. Rust inhibitive (anti-corrosive) 70 Used in primers for the purpose of corrosion prevention. Titanium dioxide is a white pigment and worthy of special mention because it is present in many paints over a variety of light colours. '.: . is also a consideration. red. dyes are soluble. for the purpose of modifying the properties of the resins. 1 0:II1.. listed below are some pigments classified by the latter: . e... 90 .j. Opacifying pigments are typically less then I urn per particle. . air and moisture.

I 10 Extender pigments: More often referred to as extenders.:' .. This results in an excellent coating to resist the passage of water.e. The c.. the effect on the paint's properties can be seen at the point where cursor and property line cross. 10 M.ty. Too much binder gives a high gloss film with low opacity and a film which has a tendency to chalk and blister.:i' C") / blistering Properties e C· 70 low I-':""_--~_'/ permeability C CPVC low ~~~ PIf!t.are. e e I . this means that the flakes of pigment overlap one another like tree leaves on the ground. E.i11 Z ONOlil'.. but the main advantage of using extenders is lower cost :1 e &.v. higher or lower pigment concentrations. by moving the cursor to the left towards lower pigment volume concentration. by moving the cursor to the right towards high pigment volume concentration. glass flakes. these are not opaque and.: ~. Micaceous meCUlSmica. it will be seen that a higher gloss would be expected. having characteristics similar mica.c.#~t::1'L (2'T.'iM /..I.v. high gloss CPVC e e (lJ £ 50 e: ~.).p. • • 20 • Kaolin Chalk Talc Slate dust • {.p. . are other laminar pigments which have similar characteristics to M.) 40 Each paint has an optimum ratio between the amount of binder and the amount of pigment.i'.c. the gloss property reduces considerably. 60 '.r~4~cing.l6 . Some opaque pigments can also provide these characteristics. ( Laminar pigments: Laminar pigments are small flakes which have a leafing effect when the paint dries. c 90 e Ru . e ". Mica.' Too much pigment will give a porous film due to poor wetting of the pigment particles. (micaceous iron oxide) is a laminar pigment widely used in midcoats on structural steelwork. By using the centre dotted line as a cursor and moving to left or right.used for increasing vispos.c. '. gloss and aiding intcrcoat adhesion. Pigment Volume Concentration c G C From the illustration it will be seen that a paint can be formulated over a range of p.O. blue &0 TPO·N.c.v. the tensile strength of the coating is also improved.v. this optimum ratio is just below the critical pigment volume concentration (c.Ck·1. 1 • ~. For example. or as is the cast with micaceous 30 • c_) iron oxide.LO.Ruane & /I T P O'Neill NOTES UNIT P3 • PAINT CONSTITUENTS . Conversely. (! C Pigment volume concentration (p. i.. is defined in BS 2015 : 1992 as 'The particular value of the pigment volume concentration at which the voids between the solid particles that are nominally touching are just filled with binder and in the region of which certain properties are changed markedly. and aluminium flakes.i.Ijt(ij 80 I \ C 6.

. ~ . 50 Toxicity: The toxicity of a solvent can be determined from its occupational expressed in parts per million (p.. If a source of. ( Rate of evaporation: 30 . through thickness drying while others promote surface drying. can vary from approximately 3% for black (carbon) to 15-18% for T 0 white in . a common type known as the Draeger tube works on a similar principle to the breathalyser. thereby making it more plastic..... -.. "....p. The paints solvent must be volatile so that it evaporates from a coating of paint to leave a viscous film.. A plasticizer may also improve the application properties of the paint.. This is t~_.: Some solvents evaporate quicker than others..j C R..:L~~.': . . Driers consist of compounds of metal. this enables the molecules of the paint to move more easily. although this is also dependant upon the polymer type.:. 2 ' long oii alkyds.. e.figned to be solvent free lMy have acceptable application properties .. '.....c..· -"'{-...~t ..r_n.. ! c.._. exposure limit A variety of apparatus exists for measuring toxicity. anti-settling agents. which are thixotropic agents... ... i ~.. ~ . e. ..).. p. .. ~a"p~~1)3t~. \-..·1'1 Anti-settling agents retard the formation of sediment in the bottom of paint containers and help maintain the paints uniform consistency during the paints shelf life.. are used as plasticizers.... dry spray. namely the binder. :< C) 70 In addition to the main ingredients of a paint."". help to keep the solids in dispersion.. o~ m~ane!ei Each compound also modifies the drying characteristics of the paint."'1-!'-... e. - '. these may include plasticizers.. Plasticizers A plasticizer in a paint reduces the brittleness of the dried film by allowing the molecules of the paint to move more easily. solvent and pigment.-' .g.IC~~d.~~y~_n!.~~..-r·.. I "...-""'~ '. __. e. .. __ .c.. T.. -: • .': fl~':"")" ~~~j') ~)~ I Non-drying oils._r_ ..._. Anti-settling agents ~~r~< -r~_1 <:~ 'I Thixotropes are gel formers which give a paint a two slage viscosity._ . e. '- \ . " t... . c: r. some driers promote . .. are required for complicated polymers.. Bentones and waxes.. ".. See Unit P12 ..gf!h~.P "\¢r:.c c· (: Ruane & /I T P O'Neill UNIT P3 • PAINT CONSTITUENTS The p..~ ". there are other constituents...v.. driers.. ( " 20 Strong solvents..g.!I"!.v. Flash point: 40 ~Ie . acetone..iE!_mJ~Jemp~'!tl!r~.. The important properties of a solvent are as follows: Solvent power: Paints de.~~ic~ t~e vapours given ~ff are .. 4 I\\{.~9~~.' ..... ignition IS introctl.. C'. " Other constituents 60 . If the rate of evaporation is too quick problems may arise during application.r Driers (applicable to oil based paints) 90 Driers are added to oil based paints to accelerate the drying process..g....... also the method of application will effect evaporation.... • __ . and anti-skinning agents. l. castor oil and coconut oil. no & T P O'~tiU Issue 1 O:l/OMl6 P3-5 . NOTES 10 Solvents The ability of a paint to spread over a surface is far from ideal unless the paint contains a solvent. of a paint formulation depends upon pigment strengths and binder types...~.g. ..m. spraying results in faster evaporation than brush applied coatings.g..

c c G G C 80 I C 90 CIRu_ &I T I' O'Noili lss u. these aggregates are not completely broken down by the paint mills during paint manufacture. 20 Solutions and dispersions { ~~. for example.g.e o e c 70 In an emulsion.lll~ c .. Solutions 3 I~--a'.. pigment and vehicle. is surrounded by a liquid.. complete dispersion is rarely achieved because the pigment particles group together in small groups known as aggregates when supplied by the pigment manufacturer. ~ ... minute droplets of one liquid are dispersed in a second liquid with which it is insoluble: one completely surrounding the other. d The vehicle of a paint is a solution. each pigment particle would be completely In practice. ~r ~•.. 50 If a paint was in complete dispersion surrounded and wetted by the binder..Ruane & /I T P O'Neill UNIT P3 • PAINT CONSTITUENTS (. e. There are two types of dispersions: suspensions and emulsions. the paint manufacturer must break down the aggregates to achieve the necessary degree of dispersion or fineness of grind for the particular paint.g. _'. C: ~ ~ In a dispersion there is no solubility.'~~'Ts~' i~...~o~'. the final degree of dispersion must be high to obtain gloss paints.~ "' e " However.~q"~~'--p-. Suspensions In a suspension. or latex and water. one component. Emulsions ... 0' ~ Skins may form on the surface of an oil based paint. a clear var'nish is also a solution.g.i~~ioncomponents the C) 40 produce one homogeneous _ water. the cause' usually related to the! existence of driers in the paint. which could be a liquid or a solid. 10 ~ e ~~.'~. 60 ~ t . or sugar and • • tj c C Dispet:si~ns r-~ . Thick skins may form if paint containers have not been closed properly or if the paint in the container has been exposed to the air for too long... NOTES Anti-skinning agents (applicable to oil based paints) '. oil and water. solid particles are dispersed within a liquid. natural oil and white spirit. e. e. 1" Anti-skinning agents prevent or slow down the formation of a skin on the surface of a paint in its container by retarding or eliminating polymer growth due to oxidation.' ~he pigmeht particles are suspended in the vehicle. each particle or group of particles being surrounded and wetted by the liquid. of the mixture are completely soluble and dissolve to substance.

g..... even under pressure.m ~he.': Drying mechanisms The types of drying mechanisms are: . Freedom from residual tack is another term encountered ._T_"·-·. it is caffed airdl)ing. possess linear or 70 Oxidation 80 Paints based on drying oils.. the coating will not resoften because of the permanent chemical change which has taken place..When dust no longer adheres to the paint surface.. ( • . which includes most alkyd and phenolic paints..dc. ~processes:' .J."- Coalescence 60 Solvent evaporation Some paints dry solely by solvent evaporation to leave a film of non-volatile solids. but below that used for staving. or a combination of these . rubber and vinyl paints.. __ .' if drying is accelerated by the application of heat above ambient ·t._. if desired. 90 o R . Paints which dry by this mechanism have complex polymers. Ruane & II TP O'Neill NOTES UNIT P4 • PAINT DRYING AND CURING I 10 Ql:y.. lJ$uol M &. • • ._.. T I' O'Noill OJIII6i'J6 P4-1 . dry firstly by solvent evaporation then by oxidation.1 992: 9. which means that if the paints solvent is reapplied to a cured coating. ---. Chemical curing """- --.. On contact with the oxygen in the air a chemical reaction takes place ..~. Paints which cure solely by solvent evaporation are known as non-convertible or reversible paints.:. . Touch dry . Hard dry .EJ_s_a!J. • • • 40 Dry to handle •The state of drying when a coated item can be handled without damage.[Not defined as in BS 2015 : 1992] This term is used to describe certain degrees of film hardness when tested by specified methods. --..r I·" r.Ln_gj~ . These terms are 'confusing but mean that if the paints solvent is reapplied to a dried coating.. Paints which cure by oxidation are known as convertible or non-reversible paints. paint and related terms as 'The in of change .iqllid. 50 . Surface dry or sand dry .. .fi_n_ed BS 2015 .. e. L:.0(31 coating material fro. ·.--. Various terms exist in relation to the drying of a paint film: • Dust dry ...emperature. to form a hard film. . _. Tack free . . Non-convertible paints..to th~ solid state." . physico-chemical reactions of the binding medium. . '!l:\l I' \ 20 • . chlorinated branched polymers.t~~ drying process takes place during exposure to air at normal temperatures. but a permanent chemical change does not take place.... with the aid of driers which are present in the paint. -. Solvent evaporation _" 'Oxidation ~._l. ~ ··~hen·.[Not a BS 2015: 1992 term] When the paint is dry on the surface but is soft and tacky underneath.When a very slight pressure with the fingers does not leave a mark or reveal stickiness. due toe.vaporalion of SOlvent. This term primarily applies to oil based paints. it is termed/arced drying..• --c. . The term may also be used when the drying has reached such a stage that. a further coat may be applied. Application of heat by using an oven or infra-red energy is termed staving.r '.Free from tack. the coating will resoften. '.the paint polymerizes. • • ..

t C\ ( ( . (E:~) Iss". I I 1\ 50 60 -. - .ill 1 n3/lW96 &< P4·2 e f ~. llJ o Ru. ultra-violet light..ioif" ~~"-'--"" Two-pack ~ait:lts are used taking into consideraticnthe pot life and in some cases the '--"_. -30 Other terms for induction period art ltad time and stand time. The pot life is the maximum period of time after mixing in which the paint must be used.Ruane & /I T P O'Neill NOTES UNIT P4· PAINT DRYING AND CURING Chemical curing Chemical curing is similar to oxidation. heat. but instead of oxygen another curing agent is used. infra-red light.. and then by polymerization due to a chemical reaction with the curing agent. .. I C C c) 70 • C I) 80 c 90 e (_. although this is not very obvious in practice. which have already formed. { 10 Paints which mel! when heat is applied are knowll as thermoplastic coatings.g. ( 20 lnduciionpe. • \. Paints which chemically cure are convertible or non-reversible paints. Acrylic emulsions and vinyl emulsions dry by this mechanism and are classed as non-convertible or reversible paints. Curing agents can be added to a paint prior to application (two-pack systems).. . and therefore have complex polymers. Induction periods are typically up to 30 minutes.. if a solvent is present.. this can vary from a few minutes to a few hours... or they can be already present in a paint and then activated by an external source of energy.. {~> < 'l. this allows the polymers of the paint.'. TP O'N.. e. electron beam etc . The induction period is the minimum period of time during which the mixed components are left to stand before use. This is to allow for certain chemical reactions • to take place and/or time allowed for air bubbles to escape. Paints employing this drying system dry initially by solvent evaporation. to come into contact with one another and physically join together. Coatings which do no/ melt after the application of heat are known (IS thermoset coatings. ( ( Coalescence 40 Paints which dry by this mechanism dry initially by water evaporation.

i. A multi-layered paint system consists of a primer. low permeability coating. in most cases...e. Cathodic protection: This is achieved by coating the substrate with a paint . to provide a key for the next paint layer and. Midcoats also build up the film thickness to provide a more even surface by filling in slight surface irregularities. Primer 50 The function of a primer is to provide maximum and lasting adhesion to a substrate. This type of coating is often considered as an etchant or form of surface preparation rather than a primer.g through the paint film. without a midcoat the inhibitive pigment in the primer would soon be washed out or diluted. thus achieving optimum adhesion. must have a gloss finish to also allow water to flow more readily from a surface and allow the surface to be cleaned easily.containing metallic pigments. 1 OJi06l')6 t/ " . or even better applying a thick. . 80 Primers and finish coats are often thin layered coatings and are quite permeable. Each coat has its own specific function. Passivation: Corrosion is retarded or arrested by chemical reactions between rust .~_£!~t! in the primer. It is usually good practice to apply primers with a brush as this enables the paint to be worked into the substrates surface.Ruane & /I T P O'Neill NOTES t: UNIT P5 • COATING SYSTEMS Corrosion protection methods 10 Paint systems protect the substrate from corrosion by a combination of one or more of the following methods: I.g. which will lead to corrosion. which are ignoble with respect to the substrate. zinc or aluminium. epoxy. colour and gloss. and the substrate andlor moisture passl'. 2. 60 c) c Mordant means "of a corrosive nature".~!1hl~~iY. polyurethane. Some specifications will not allow etch primers to be sprayed due to high toxicity. e. 90 Finish Th'e final coat in a system gives a surface its final appearance. They are often used on new zinc or aluminium surfaces and are applied as a thin film which chemically reacts with the substrate to produce an etched surface. Etch primers which are also known as wash or mordant primers are normally two-pack paints containing phosphoric acid and an inhibitive pigment. This may be achieved by applying a thick coat of paint or applying a paint having low permeability.'f P5-1 . or "to bite into". f) " 20 The barrier principle: The substrate is isolated from the environment which causes corrosion by using a coating of low permeability. 70 Midcoat Midcoats may be standard undercoats or high-build coats. A final coat must also have solar protective properties and.m Iss . to retard corrosion by means of an inhibitive pigment. OR_&TPO'N. primarily there to serve as a barrier to prevent 'the passage of water. 3. at least one midcoat and a finish coat. thereby providing optimum coverage and mixing in any dust particles. on most structural work.30 40 Layers of a paint film Paint systems may be single layered coatings or multi-layered coatings. Cathodic protection may also be achieved by means of metal coatings such as zinc galvanizing..

.! : 'j Colour 60 . e '~I .C Ruane & 1/ TP O'Neill NOTES "I UNIT P5 • COATING SYSTEMS £ (. C) Pigment type 50 • • C i ..c I ( ( ( 70 (' c ( 80 C ( (! 90 I e Ruane bout &: T P O'Neill 2 OM161'i6 P5-2 { . Types of coating system 10 General There are various ways to classify paint systems as shown in the following table: Classification 20 Options Anticorrosion Antifouling Decorative Flame retardent Heat resistant Hold paint Moisture tolerant Road marking Alkyd Cellulose Chlorinated Rubber Emulsion Epoxy Polyurethane Vinyl Aluminium Micaceous iron oxide Red lead Red oxide Zinc phosphate Black Blue Green Red White Yellow c Function • • c 30 Binder type 40 .

sealed or painted Sprayed metal: bare.: 70 In order to work effectively the zinc particles must be held in close contact with themselves and the substrate. are not included in the product sections because 0/ limited experience in their use at the lime all(/5493 publication. sealed or painted 20 Organic zinc-rich Inorganic zinc-rich Drying oil type . these pigment particles eventually corrode thereby sacrificing themselves to corrosion.~-'-~ Type 10 Characteristic constituents Zinc and/or zinc-iron alloy Zinc or aluminium metal Zinc and organic binder Zinc and silicate binder Drying oil.. - Two-pack chemical-resistant overcoated with one-pack chemical . urethane oil. In order to have this property the sacrificial pigment must be ignoble to the material to be coated. minimum zinc content of 90% (by weight) of the d.'b.. T P O'N<l1I Iso. is often specified.f. e.g. They have excellent heat resistance properties and may be used as a single coat system or they may be overcoated with a specialised finish.J~!I~~_I1~'t. if required. modified alkyd.. Zinc rich primers are two-pack paints contain metallic zinc in high concentration. coal tar enamel.. ~. a scratch. .!X!. ( Moisture-curing polyurelhanes and higb-maiecular-weight linear epa:cy resins which are both one pack chemical-resistant materials...Ruane & 1/ T P O'Neill NOTES : UNIT P5 • COATING SYSTEMS Thf. Silicone alkyd One-pack chemical-resistant One-pack chemical-resistant and drying oil type primer Two-pack chemical-resistant 40 i.t. When a zinc rich or a zinc metal coating is subject to minor damage.t~?m BS 5493.p Zinc coating (except sprayed metal): bare. a corrosion reaction will take place which produces zinc salts that self-seal the damaged area. shows the principle coating systems identified by their binder: ''''_'' .. Metal coatings. alkyd.!~~_~~traf. therefore an efficient binder is necessary. are principally used for very long term protection and do not usually come under the category of paint systems.. resistant travel coat and finish 50 Bitumens Sacrificial coatings 60 Sacrificial coatings contain pigments which cathodically protect the iron or steel substrate to which the paint is adhered.. c 80 90 e Ru ..g..g. zinc galvanizing and metal sprayed coatings. zinc and aluminium are the most common types of pigment employed. Organic zinc rich primers usually have an epoxy binder.<. e.. silicone sealer. &. phenolic varnish or epoxy ester plus pigment Silicone-modified alkyd plus pigment Chlorinated rubber or vinyl copolymer resin plus pigment Epoxy ester or alkyd primer with chlorinated rubber finish Epoxy or polyurethane resin (including modification with coal tar) plus pigment Epoxy resin overcoated with chlorinated rubber plus pigment Coal tar or mineral bitumen with or without pigment.. e. Inorganic zinc rich primers often contain a methyl or ethyl silicate binder.. % Ul/llII<'% PS-3 .. A :.

e. After application. (?:' ~ ( f. one p~ck. in both cases the powder is usually applied using electrostatic methods to achieve more uniform thicknesses and to reduce powder wastage via overspray. specification for exact definitions which apply.~ted . e...!l. t «: UNIT P5 • COATING SYSTEMS Powder coatings Powder coatings are basically solvent free paints. 3.!V... ~ ... Epoxy powder.::-..... e. .~ .._ . Wet surface: Droplets and free water are present on the surface.1 .) 30 The surface that requires coating may be below the dew point temperature. Each thermoset powder particle contains base and curing agent._. Water displacing.( 40 2... ~. ~ ~ ..~ P5-4 t .atedrubbers. moisture tolerant systems may be specified for use on damp surfaces. is commonly used nowadays for a variety of applications including underground pipelines and domestic appliances. rubbers . -..~t"~'.g." f \. e. Damp surface: Surface temperature detectable water.. some moisture tolerant chlorin. always consult the applicable -:::"C C C . . ~ I '..Water absorbing. ' • • 60 ..-I Ruane & /I T P O'Neill NOTES ....-. Moisture curing.··••)Fio . two pack epoxy.oIY.__.iQ. due to low temperature gas or liquid in a piping system. _..e·1Ie f:.p.·.m lu. &0 TrO·N. ~ . Note: Definitions differ between specifications. thermoplastic. 10 ! (" ( They may be thermosetting or ( . . Solvent free...Z!l4/ll6l'J6 . 50 Moist surface: Standing water and droplets have been removed but there is a thin film of moisture on the surface. . Various definitions may be used when moisture exists on a substrate...... for example: 1. t.. . 20 « f ( ( ( Moisture tolerant systems c.g. is below the dew point but there is no .... ._ f (j 70 C ( ( ( eo ( ( ( 90 C Ru .~~~~~~e. the coating may sometimes be post-cured in a subsequent stoving operation. The component to be coated is usually preheated... . but they do not react together until they are activated with a heat source.~ Paints for use on damp surfaces include: ~ : . .. In situations like these. · • •. " ~.' . for example. the powder may then be applied by using a fluid bed or spray technique.. :..ant ch!o!. which gives a thermoset coating.g..l." t. ". .g. some moisture toler.

.. P5A-l . 1•.:••. rate. The binder types which are in common use • usins b water as a solvent are: Ifll.. is (' r~ + Water borne coatings can be applied by any of the current application i... : I . Global Warmitl. These materials use water [IS a solvent... plentiful. Some of the binders in modern paint formulations can't be modified to use water as a solvent.. .flllltri.e.". than hand Rubbers • • • • • • • )n general. Slow evaporation Needs non-ferrous Application Less durable Requires very clean substrate. 60 GWP . Low viscosity. Storage requirements. ~.. Overcoating of water based paints.. &: r r O'SriU ttw. Advantages • VOC compliant Non-toxic. " 90 { :' V o Ruane IS. Odourless. Compatibility. can be problematic.. however. • (10 • • • • • window is smaller.. 'E} 10 • 20 Alkyds Epoxies Acrylated Acrylics Bitumens Silicones Polyurethanes Vinyls water borne coatings need a higher standard of surface cleanliness hydrocarbon solvent based materials. Water borne coatings were developed in order to comply with European Community (and subsequently COSHH) requirements to reduce the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) into the atmosphere. readily available.. application.. and development of these materials tends to be in the direction of high volume solids or solvent free formulation. Non flammable.'iur 1 •. Water is cheap. roller.•. 50 Water borne coatings are compatible with all other systems but in some cases adhesion problems may occur. :. conventional spray. depending on the water based binder type and solvent strength of the overcoating system.l1 p". O~(J/rl!Depietion POlf'III(1{ • • • • • • 70 Disad vantages • Needs inhibitors and other additi ves. \ (no GWP or OOP). ODf' . in' place of the hydrocarbon solvents normally associated with the coatings industry...c-" Ruane s /I TP O'Neill I.. brush. or airless spray.. conventional preparation 010 If manufacturers recommendations usually comparable to conventional of these materials methods. performance coating systems. which usually excludes are followed.

. Group B . varnishes and similar products. apparatus and related information on widely used test methods for paints..Designation of intensity. which covers procedures.. The BS 3900 Methods of test for paints. Group E .Mechanical tests on paint films./ o Ruane . t OliUf>l96 . Group 0 .Environmental tests on paint films (including tests for resistance to corrosion and chemicals). Group H . is a specification widely referred to. The general introduction setting out the scope of the series is indended to be read in conjunction with each of the parts which are issued in loose leaf form and can be obtained separately: Group A . some of which may be unique to one paint manufacturer or clients specification. ....11 Iso. Group D .Tests involving chemical examination of liquid paints and dried paint films.Optical tests on paints. T r O·N. . 80 .( Ruane & II TP O'Neill NOTES UNIT P7 • PAINTIP AINT FILM TESTING General 10 There are a large number of paint/paint film tests which are carried out. ( 50 60 70 . Group C . 20 C) 40 Group F ..Tests on liquid paints (excluding chemical tests). quality and size of common types of defect: general principles and rating schemes. 90 l.Durability tests on paint films.Tests associated with paint film formation. '.

the frictional forces between the molecules are greater.: 'flo.s/ml 2). then with the end of one finger over the orifice of the cup.s.11 OlllJ6/'l6 P7-2 ( .. therefore any comparative tests must be carried out at a specific temperature. .il! . . The viscosity of water is approximately 1 centi-poise. e €J . e. The opposite is true with a low viscosity fluid. The instruments used for measuring viscosity are known as viscometers of which there 50 are many types. • •• . 80 4. Procedure for measuring viscosity using a Ford flow cup No. '. Viscometers in paint laboratories are usually of the rotational type. There is no direct relationship between the time value obtained and the percentage of added thinners. Temperature affects viscosity.' 6< T P 0'[1.~ " e • 20 The S. I.! C) 40 A simple method for measuring the viscosity of free flowing paints is by using a flow cup. Bring temperature of paint to within 20±0. = I poise.g.5°C. C' e so te ~.. 3. 5.5"C.g. unit for dynamic viscosity is the newton-second per square metre (N. 20±O. I 60 ~. !~ Viscosity Viscosity is a measure of a fluids resistance to flow... Remove the finger from the orifice and start the stop watch simultaneously with the commencement of the paint stream. unit. 10 A fluid with a high viscosity has a high resistance to flow and therefore has a thick consistency.. The time in seconds is taken as the viscosity. again there are may types including the Ford. bou. A comparison has to be obtained by preparing a number of control samples using different percentages of thinners added 'to the paint taken from a freshly opened can. 10 N.1. 90 This procedure can be used to determine the quantity of any added thinners. . the poise.. Redwood. and Zahnflow cups.s/m although the old c. then draw a flat edge across the top of the cup to wipe off the paint level with the edges. .1 tl .i • ff: . Allow a moment for air bubbles to rise.. The watch is stopped when the first distinctive break in the paint stream occurs. 2. e. is still commonly used. rapidly fill it with paint. o Ruan.Ruane & II T P O'Neill NOTES UNIT P7 • PAINTIP AINT FILM TESTING ..4: 70 .. Level the apparatus.

.1'.. Carefully replace the cover so that air and any excess paint is expelled through the vent Wipe off any surplus paint from the cover then reweigh. f:']: ~t --- 80 2. I g.. a rotation viscometer Or another type of Viscometer which works the paint must be used . DENSITY CUP Procedure for measuring densitl'~~.S mm of the brim. 70 l ~~--------------1. Divide weight by 100 if the density in g/cm' is required. The weight of a sample of paint taken from a paint kettle could be compared with control samples which have been prepared by adding differing percentages of thinners 10 the e Ruane '" T I' O·N. Density is measured by the use of a density cup. the density of a curing agent may be higher or lower than that of water. Remove the cover and fill with paint to within 2. - " . } . I em) of water .. l '_ 90 6.. Ruane /I T P O'Neill s UNIT P7 • PAINTJP AINT FILM TESTING A thixotropic paint needs to be worked to reach the free flowing stage. 3. S.f . ~ 10 NOTES . 4. therefore the v!scosity cann?t be assessed with a flow cup. . This procedure can be applied to determine the quantity of any added thinners. ':-:'.' •. )1 Weigh the cup to the nearest decigram using a laboratory balance with a 1000 g capacity and a sensitivity of ±D.30 1000 em) of water = 1 millilitre = I gram = I litre = I kilogram The density of a paint will be higher than that of water. 20 .\.l~~~P: () ct. . I.!qQ_c_D. 40 /vent .m Issuo I OJ/06l96 . " .." ~} Density Density is weight per unit volume and is therefore found by the following formula: . the density of a solvent will be lower than that of water. Determine the weight of the paint by subtraction. weight Density = --volume The unit used for measuring the density of paint is usually grams per cubic centimetre (g/cnr').'. .c. .

Density Note: 12.59 x 7 0.78 x 2 ."ue I O.69 be 1041. • e o () 40 Example formulae I. -I c. A two pack paint is mixed at a ratio of seven parts base to two parts curing agent.35 kg? weight () a. What is the density of paint after mixing? a. the difference is that the answer for the sa formula will have no units.56 7 9 parts sa would = = C.13 1.It = € (: . e C: b..47 glcml 60 (j 70 Note: sa would be 1.59 g/cm' and 0. . d. it is a dimensionless ratio. 2 parts curing agent c.. c. i. density of x f 0 water • 30 - Because the density of water is lg/cm' the figure obtained from the sa formula will be the same as that obtained from the density formula.: ~ ~ Density = 1.56 12..~! C·. the densities are 1.41 g/cm' 11. . I Ruane & II T P O'Neill NOTES UNIT P7 • PAINTIP AINT FILM TESTING . Specific gravity (Sa) = d ensuy .1 . 7.35 kg Density = ures Density sr-+'. What is the density of a paint if 5 litres weighs 7.. 50 . & T P O'Neill . 9 parts combined d. 1000 grams = 7.35 xx 1000 xx cml 5 • ~.69 1. mixed in the correct proportions.'. (:: I paint taken from a freshly opened can. however.e.78 g/crrr' respectively. 11.. e e i density of water: 20 . . Density=-- volume -~ t~ -J"~0 . 10 Relative density Relative density or specific gravity is the density of any substance compared to the f>~. 1. t· '• 'I eo (: (: I ! (' 90 e Rua"...13 + 1.. 2. there is a relationship between the obtained weight and the percentage of added thinners if the pre-mixed density of thinners and density of paint is known. It is also possible using this procedure to determine whether two-pack paints have been C.47.l106/'J6 P7-4 . 7 parts base b.

using a co~~ Immediately after application of the paint..) \: .. If an orange flame is observed. ~. 4. The film thickness should be recorded as lying between the last touching tooth and first non-touching tooth as shown on the tooth calibrations marked on the gauge. (. l'. . bZ<'" ! tJ"{' l ~ ' ....'..' At least two further readings should be taken in different places. Activate the source of ignition every VzoC rise in temperature.c.re-suitsover'tne'paitiied area. the comb-gauge should be placed firmly onto the substrate in such a way that the teeth are normal to the plane of the surface. '.'" COM6GAUGE /. thereby reducing the amount of dried coatings which are outside the specified thickness tolerances.A. 2. too high and overheating The material has 3. 90 3. The gauge should then be removed and the teeth examined in order to determine the shortest one to touch the wet paint film.. M 6< TfO'Ntili bsu. 70 l· () 80 ~_. ":::i' C'/"/'" under lest should be cooled or replaced and the lest restarted.l 1. "(tJ I' Scale ECCENTRIC'M-IEEL \~'J . Procedure: 20 I. I 0J/06I'J6 P7·5 ... Fix the Abel cup containing the substance for assessment into a water bath. Apply a heat source to the water bath and monitor the air/vapour temperature in the Abel cup.) 40 The wet film thickness is taken immediately after a coating has been applied so that any deviation from the specified thickness range can be immediately rectified while the paint is still wet..+ V o R..f.. Wet film thickness (w. . Also any calculations based on volume solids will be meaningless if a lot of solvent has evaporated. " f. •. The wet film thickness may be found by using a comb gauge or an eccentric wheel.: /''':''1..!:f. The f1ashpoint temperature ts identified when a blue flame flashes over the substance being assessed. }~...'. 2. UNIT P7 • PAINTIP AINT FILM TESTING Flash point 10 ~ Flashpoints give an indication of fire risk and are defined as...• . . 50 "" (. in a similar ~Ta1n'fepresentati'~e . ~~.. Flashpoint determination of paints or solvents may be carried out in accordance with BS 3900 part A9 using a closed cup of the Abel type.":'. T P O'Neill NOTES Ruane & /I . the temperature ls occurred. 30 ':.t. 'the lowest temperature at ~7 which solvent vapour from the product under test in a closed cup gives rise to an air/vapour mixture capable of being ignited by an external source of ignition'...~ ~ . ~ .

method.g.I UNIT P7 • PAINTIP AINT FILM TESTING The wet film thickness may be found by calculation: w J.f. _ e Choose a magnetically insulated shim of known thickness. there are a variety of gauges available with various scale ranges: • • • • eddy current/electronic gauge magnetic film thickness (banana) gauge pull-off gauge or Tinsley pencil magnetic horseshoe gauge gauges Eddy current/electronic 50 The most accurate of the non-destructive gauges are the eddy current gauges of which there are many types.:: 60 e € ( ( ( ELECTRONIC D. close to the thickness of the paint you expect to find. ( . Prior to use.I.) 20 There are four methods of determining the dry film thickness of a paint: • • • non-destructive test gauges destructive test gauges test panels calculation Ii • c CI C) 40 Non-destructive test gauges Measuring the dJ.. the gauge must be calibrated. T. t. but are available for measuring film thicknesses on both ferrous and non-ferrous conductive substrates. I} Ruan.t.. They are also the most expensive type. directly with a non-destructive test gauge is the most widely used .1% .t.. unlike the other gauges mentioned which rely on a ferromagnetic substrate. e c ". may only be used for measuring the thickness of non-ferromagnetic coatings applied over ferromagnetic substrates.:.-IO r &"1 ".$. 90 l. ! I O~~xd J. &< T I' O·N.. as its most widely referred to. GAUGE • 70 C € 80 Magnetic film thickness gauge The banana gauge. e.Ruane & 1/ T P O'Neill NOTES .ill tssue I 0)10(. == V. Calibration procedure: c (' '-. = ---a.t: ·Ci 10 w j. accuracy is claimed to be within ±5%.! Dry film thickness (d. " • • • .:ea- volume fr ~ . don't choose a 25 urn shim to calibrate if you expect the coating thickness to be in excess of 300 urn: this will reduce the accuracy._.F.

or Tinsley pencil as its most widely referred to.- Pull-off gauge 50 This type of gauge may only be used for measuring the thickness of non-ferromagnetic coatings applied over ferromagnetic substrates. bsucl '" T I' O'NoIlI U. Gradually wind the wheel backwards slowly until the magnet detaches itself. Place the shim on the same substrate surface finish as the surface finish on which' the.f. 20 f.JIIHiI'Hi P7-7 .n . . The instrument is now calibrated and may be used to measure the d. ' Ruane & /I TP O'Neill r UNIT P7 • PAINTIP AINT FILM TESTING 2.. With some instruments the scale itself must be moved to line up with a fixed cursor. The accuracy of these instruments is claimed to be ± 10% and as with the other magnetic gauges. cal ibrate the gauge on an uncoated blasted surface. 10 4. c Rua. I eo Magnetic horseshoe gauge '.. 30 ( r: \. although you have to be quick because the magnet and indicator are spring loaded. rotate the wheel to 'Zero to locate the position of the scale adjustor. The gauge is then slowly pulled away from the coated substrate at normal incidence until the magnet detaches itself. move the cursor on the instrument to the thickness of the shim as shown on the scale wheel._ 90 The magnetic horseshoe type gauge works by measuring the change in magnetic flux between the two poles of a magnet. the change in magnetic flux depends on the coating thickness. c g. I. wind the scale wheel forwards (away from yourself) until the magnet is definitely attached to the shim/substrate. paint to be measured is attached.. The pull-off gauge. Calibration is required before use.. if the paint is on 11 blasted surface . TINSLEY PENCIL c ( 60 70 () c.. At this point. When using the latter type of instrument. NOTES " I. They are not very accurate compared to the other non-destructive test gauges. of any non-magnetic paint films to within a claimed accuracy of ±5% in some cases.. consists of a magnet at the tip of the instrument which attaches itself to the coated substrate. at this point the indicator on the body of the gauge is read. Place the magnet onto the shim and press firmly on the instrument. may only be used for measuring the thickness of non-ferromagnetic coatings applied over ferromagnetic substrates. 40 MAGNETIC FILM THICKNESS GAUGE f\ "1.t. 3.': .

% I~ 100 60 b. may be assessed indirectly by measuring the w.: a..s.=~ rlf * ( (. e.g. . which rely on a non-magnetic coating. . therfore must be found by calculation.O. df. tc . w fs. I.t.t.: (lO.t. of the paint.f. = 1200 em x 700 em = 15 em 840 X g. may be used to measure the d.f. A small vee shaped channel is cut into the coating at a fixed angle governed by a cutter built into the gauge. The width of the channel is then measured on a graticule scale by means of a microscope which is again built into the instrument. h.s. with a micrometer. as follows: df.LO.%xwf. 80 f.e. 100 44x? too' ( ( ( C) w. and providing the volume solids (v .t. w f. is not given directly in the question. «0L \ ( t 20 « t f { ( Test panels Test panels. G) is one such type of destructive test gauge. metal plates of a known thickness. & T P O'Ndli Issue I OJl1l6i'}6 .: d.f.OOOJlm:: 90 r.ft. 10 um c C w. 10 •« ( "( They are sometimes used on paint films containing M.I. f. == To find w.f. = v. Calculation The d. indirectly. is ferromagnetic and therefore non-destructive test gauges. e. df. i.t. volume w.f.100 .t. = v. The paint inspectors gauge (P. cannot be used.t. Another destructive thickness gauge is the Saberg thickness drill which works on a similar principle to the paint inspectors gauge. calculating the d.t.t. wf.t. em.. f. .t.s. e. C C: Example: 50 C: Ii What would be the dJ.f.Ruane & II T P O'Neill NOTES UNIT P7 • PAINTIP AINT FILM TESTING Destructive test gauges Destructive test gauges cut into the paint film and should therefore only be used where necessary due to the cost of repairing the damaged coating. w. 70 df.t . pigment.t. fi :~.000 11m 840 = 1791lm P7-8 ( e RUin.f.t.t. = 15 10. M.f. if 15 litres of paint with a volume solids content of 44% is used to cover an area 12 m x 7 m? To find d. t. %) content of the paint is known.t. _ v~. . Convert 1 em).C. by coating them in the same way as the work being carried out and measuring the d. = 15 litres 12 mx7 m 15 X 1000 em3 t ( Convert all existing units to common units. % x wf.t. wft.

i. . incorporating various patterns: stripes.~i~! _a~!~~_ for ?~~city ?f ~ paint A commonly used cryptometer known as a pfund cryptometer consists of a black and 'i. Qp!c:ity -is _~h~hiding power the paint film posseses.la'Ss_'plat~both~itlforPorai!ng . a tapered applicator is then placed onto the surface which leaves a paint film of gradually decreasing thickness.. may also be used to measure opacity. = 100xl7911m 44 k.e. 50 s. Opacity is not solely governed by the size and amount of opacifying pigments in the paint. squares etc. more commonly known as hiding power charts. ~ale to .t. some of which are designed for laboratory use and some of which are portable. ~]e c. i. the opacity is assessed in the same way as other cryptometers./:.s. =79 11m Opacity 20 .f. which depends on the surfaces specular reflectance. a photo-electric cell. and white cards. for a dark coloured paint the w.'I1w. --~ . Degree of gloss The degree of gloss a paint film posseses may be directly measured using a glossmeter.t. would be taken at a point when the black area is just no longer visible.r I Ruane & /I T P O'Neill NOTES UNIT P7 • PAINTIP AI NT FILM TESTING Return to d.' . T Glossmeters contain a light source set at a specific incident angle to the painted sample. 60 --_ ( o 70 \ L .f. would be taken at a point when the white area is just no longer visible.t. the opposite of transparency...iIl I OJlOlll'}6 P7-9 .f. & (HU.. For a light coloured paint the w.·'C\.e. ~~~~~sq_p!~~~!. dft.f. Black. 80 Lighlmeter GLOSSMETER 90 The amount of reflected light. The plates are first covered with paint. it also depends on the difference in refractive index between the pigment and the paint vehicle. T P O'N. zig-zags.:!.. c\. 30 . which is set at the same angle as the angie of incidence. c R~.t. if the reading was in the order of 25% the finish would be matt.... ) e. 40 .n....show .surface. extremely high gloss. Photoelectric cell j-' :':-.a_.f. is displayed on a meter as a percentage of the incident light A reading of 100% would be similar to that obtained from a polished glass panel.. { J •. 10 dft.-"""-.. measures the reflected light. which_j~st hides the s ~n~er!y'ing . '.the w.t 4~ ci. These are coated using a bar applicator which gives a specific w.:· . formula: j.t. There are various models available. : "..

Insert the tip of the knife blade under the tip of the vee and attempt to lever the paint away from the substrate. all govern the degree of gloss. cohesive failure within an individual paint film. ...'" '!.. the pull-off adhesion (est or dolly test. \ • " T P O'Seili Issu. cut a vee using approximately 12 mm cuts forming a 30 angle.. midcoat or finish. cut 6 lines vertically and horizontally.. 10 The degree of pigment dispersion. through the paint film and down to the substrate..Cl Ruane & II T P O'Neill NOTES .. 2. ~ ...'.: .relevant specification for precise instructions. may show: ( • • o Rua .4 . manufacturer otherwise it may not be possible to guarantee the system. It should not peel cleanly from the surface 0 € e e C l ( ( 70 Cross-cut test (cross hatch test) Using a sharp knife or multi-bladed cutter.. 80 c ( Dolly test 90 A more technical adhesion test... adhesive failure between paint films.~(. All paints within a system should have compatibility between coats and with the substrate... tc. I.. when compatibility is lacking it is often the adhesion which suffers.. to produce 25 squares.v c I.0 mm apart. . the pigment volume concentration. whereas a pigment dispersed to 40 urn would be typical of a matt paint which may be a primer. adhesive failure between primer and substrate (most likely). I UNIT P7 • PAINTIP AINT FILM TESTING C.. therefore always consult the .. The tapes degree of stickiness will be relevant to this test and the number and size of the squares may vary.. the amount of segments remaining may be given a value based a scale in accordance with the applicable specification. Cover the area with adhesive tape and snatch off. 60 Vee cut test With a sharp knife. Pigments dispersed to 10 JlI11 would typically be expected in a gloss finish. and the binder type. the size of the pigment particles. I{ .. L e 20 Adhesion Adhesive failures more often occur between the uncoated substrate and the primer due to insufficient surface preparation or insufficient dust removal after the main surface preparation. e c) 3 ()! Paint system C 40 e Substrate 50 • (between primer and substrate) • It ADHESION/COHESION ~ ." • • 8 C ~ . . It is advisable to obtain all the components for a paint system from one ':<"f:1 '.. I OJlOlil'Hi P7-10 '.

c· 90 ORu .1 OJ/1)(w"}6 P7-11 . &< T PO'Nril1 [sou. 10 4. I' Clean "me! degrease the surface to he tcstod. \" 30 ' Dolly puller Paint film . ( v. 2.s.. Substrate PULL OFF DOLLY TEST 40 Test results require careful interpretation. Alternauve adhesives (Ire 3.s. o • . .epoxy based systems 3000 p. adhesion are as follows: 1500 p. . Cut paint around the dolly down to the substrate using special cutter.s. but gives more accurate test results.i. . possible. see lest procedure sheets. .i.zinc etch primer Hydraulic adhesion tester Similar principle to the dolly tester..i... Attach pull-off instrument and apply pull-off force." 60 c) 70 80 l (. 20 Load indicator \ . Mix regular araldite and stick dolly to the surface. 5.. Roughen the surface with fine/medium grade emery cloth.alkyd based systems 50 Some typical values obtained for acceptable 12000 p.( Ruane & /I T P O'Neill UNIT P7 • PAINTIP AINT FILM TESTING Procedure for carrying out pull-off adhesion test: NOTES I. leave for 24 hours at 25°C.

e R~.. 80 " " Metal temperature 90 c The metal temperature may be measured with a magnetic temperature gauge or electrical contact thermometer..h":2!)"~~~sa.e. The relative humidity and dew point cannot be read directly from the apparatus. ~ . that temperature. Repeat the operation until consecutive readings of each bulb temperature agree to within a. \ Measuring R. . Always read the wet bulb temperature before the dry bulb temperature immediately after rotation. (~r:rr:t~~. ~.' • • • 20 Relative humidity (RH %) and dew point ( Definitions Relative humidity is the amount of water vapour in the air expressed as a percentage. . If the wet and dry bulb temperatures are the same." .. compared to the amount of water vapour which could be in the air at the same temperature. --j)olh relative humidity and dew point are measured using a hygrometer of which there are many types.. snow. The wet bulb cools down to a constant wet bulb temperature due to the evaporation rate of water from the wet wick.H.~~~!llJ?~~t. The frame is rotated by hand for 30~40 seconds as fast as possible so that the bulbs pass through the air at least 4 ms'.!I_re2t. ~~.!!. C.. 70 If it is 100% relative humidity the wet bulb will be the same temperature as the dry bulb.c. the current temperature is the dew point. When the air or metal temperature is below SoC. is covered with a closely fitted cylindrical cotton wick. A typical painting specification extract..isas follows: 'It is not permissible to apply paints when the following conditions apply: • 10 r' During rain..r I~ I Ruane & II T P O'Neill NOTES UNIT P8 • WEATHER CONDITIONS The coating specification should always state the weather conditions in which a coating can or cannot be applied. % and dew point 50 . or psychrometer consists of two mercury in glass thermometers set side by side in a frame which is provided with a handle and spindle so that the frame and thermometers can be rotated quickly about a horizontal axis.Therefore. i.'_")\ The higher the air temperature the greater the amount of water vapour which can be held in it.2 C. (-~. '" T tss .. the end of which dips into distilled water or clean rainwater contained in a small cylinder attached to the end of the frame..'" <:. or below.g_n would .wN. because no evaporation can occur.. When the air or metal temperature is down to within 3°C of the dew point temperature. called the wet bulb thermometer. ( . The whirling hygrometer. the air is saturated. ZO-l/ll6l% r O'Neill P8-1 .. hygrometric tables or special slide rules must be used. . When the relative humidity is above 90%.bt.. The bulb on one of the thermometers. This causes the water to evaporate from the wet bulb. ( 40 C'. if the temperature dropped to the dew point temperature the relative humidity would rise to 100% and condensation would be formed on any objects at. 60 .n. or high winds. D The dry bulb temperature is tile air temperature Willi a chill factor.

Bristle brushes are usually high quality brushes but quite expensive . Curved rollers exist. usually under 20 p. they also have scales along the length of each hair which allow the brush to hold more paint. 1 IQ/06/% P9-1 ...e. which gives optimum coverage and mixes in any dust particles. one carrying the paint at a low fluid pressure. but they do not produce spray fog or overspray.e...' e Ru .i. (_) . RoUer application is not permitted in certain specifications for certain work. t . Ruane & /I T P O'Neill NOTES UNIT P9 • PAINT APPLICATION Brush application 10 There are many types of brush which may be used to apply paint.s.e.. The air supply leads to an air cap on the gun and blows onto the paint stream as it exits the nozzle resulting in very fine atomisation.r [ . but unlike brush application. 70 (-: .' For a paint to be sprayed successfully it must first be atomised. less wastage and less spotting'etc. . Brushes may havejitlings of the following types: 20 • ( • 30 • • • • bristle. "c ': (" \ . on nearby structures. or remote from the gun in the case of pressure feed. The paint is held in a container attached to the top of the gun in the case of gravity feed. some types of roller have a paint feed via a fluid line connected to the handle..e. Conventional spray 60 c... underneath the gun in the case of suction feed. 60 Spray application Spray application produces production rates well in excess of that achieved by brushing and is therefore a very common paint application method.. i. i. the paint does not get worked into a surface and there is also a lack of uniformity in film thickness. &< T P O'Neill .s. and the other carrying an air supply at a pressure of approximately 40·75 p. hogs hair horsehair natural f bres synthetic fibres mixture of above Bristles have a natural taper allowing the brush to maintain its form.. for pipes. Pressure fed conventional spray guns are able to cover much greater areas without the need to continually refill the container and are therefore the most common type of conventional spray systems encountered. Brush applied coatings often do not have the uniformity of thickness usually encountered with spray applied coatings. Atornisation is achieved by both the conventional spray and airless spray application methods. i. thus achieving optimum adhesion. Brushing also works a paint into a substrates surface. Two lines feed the spray gun.i . 40 Roller application 50 Roller application is a quicker method than brush application and is useful for large flat areas.. there is less of an environmental hazard. it must be broken down into very fine droplets. i. 90 ~J .. the flat paint brush is the most common type encountered.

shut off the pump and open the pressure relief valve.. hence the term airless.ll Iso lie Z 10/l161'16 '( ~.e.. (35 x 100). would lead to a fluid pressure of 3500 p. the diaphragm pump and the electrical pump. In addition to air motors supplying compressed air.. when the paint meets the air it splits up into fine droplets due to the air resistance The unpressurized container containing the paint is remote from the gun. other methods exist to achieve the fluid pressures necessary for airless spray.. I ." •. . A compressor supplies the air up to approximately 100 p. e.) 2400 3000 2800 • • € c.s.i.s. 30 'C 10 f4~. the paint is sucked in using a fluid pump and fed to the gun by way of a special reinforced high-pressure fluid line." Airless pressure (p.s.. i. There is no air cap on the gun.s. operatives must always adhere to the following: • 60 Use tips designed for airless spray.'~ • C~) 70 • • • • • • e G C . 0 C C': The orifice size governs the throughput of paint whilst the orifice angle governs the size of the pattern.'. There is also a tip known as a titan tip which has an adjustable hole size. Ensure the safety catch on the gun is set whenever the gun is put down.i. . both these supply hydraulic pressure.i. some have the advantage of being fully reversible by turning a lever 180 to clear out any blockages in the small orifice. whilst safety catch on the gun is set. Wear an air fed helmet.i. Ensure there are no kinks in the line.Ruane & II TP O'Neill NOTES UNIT P9 • PAINT APPLICATION " • .s. to the fluid pump. • 80 • 90 C Ruane '" T P O'No. a 35: I ratio pump supplied with an air pressure of 100 p.g. c 20 • .. The fluid pump multiplies the pressure by a ratio governed by the pump.. Chlorinated rubber High build epoxy 50 " 17-23 thou" 17-23 thou" Zinc rich paints Using airless spray equipment can be very dangerous due to the high fluid pressure. e. 40 Typical requirements for tip orifice sizes used with airless spraying are as shown in the table: Paint type Tip size 13·21 thou" '\. this air inlet pressure is adjustable. ( Airlessspray One line feeds the spray gun carrying the paint at a pressure typically between 2000 and 4000 p. Never point the gun at anybody or yourself. Ensure the equipment is earthed to prevent static shock. The spray tips on airless spray guns are usually lined with tungsten carbide. Never attempt to change or clean nozzles when the fluid is pressurized.~ t. Use fluid lines in good condition designed for airless spray.i. The paint is atomised by forcing it through a small orifice at high pressure.g.

. 60 3. washed and then immersed in a bath of molten zinc between 420-450 C to achieve a coating thickness of approximately 85-130 urn. '.. Metal sprayed coatings are often sealed to prolong their life due to their porous nature.' Hot metal spraying Metallisation. p!~ . \ ~. -.. Coating thicknesses of approximately 15-30 urn are typically achieved. This molten metal is then projected onto the prepared surface by the products of combustion augmented by an air blast from the compressed air driven motor... 2.U..Ruane & /I T P O'Neill UNIT P9· PAINT APPLICATION ' ...~ NOTES . . e. Application is normally carried out using one of the following methods: Powder fed system..t}~e~~!:. Coating thicknesses of up to 25 J. is a widely used 40 system for preventing corrosion of metal structures. .. '. 'J1:lJL!.. \". . 50 c..' ... D . C) 70 Wire and pistol system. -.. The arc method of metal spraying is now widely used for mechanised applications. Electroplating 30 C~) . The wire is used as one electrode (similar to the welding process).. .:".~!b:'?~ ...~n!.g. ••.. Sherardizing 20 Used for fittings.c~ti~. The coating metal is supplied in fine powder form and blown through a heat source onto the substrate.. from • metal-salt solutions.me_~I.iII Iss •• Z 10I1lfoI% ..'.t oJ {. P9·4 . ... \ . The most common sprayed metals used are aluminium and zinc. 1.l_sC?It consist of a hand held gun with an air powered motor which ! draws in wire through knurled feed rollers into an oxygen/fuel gas flame where the metal is melted. () Ruo"" 6< T P O'S. '. ". The components are acid cleaned.. .IlTI are usually applied.9f . The items are cleaned and then tumbled for a few hours in hot zinc dust at a temperature just below the melting point of zinc. fittings and cladding. Particularly suited to threaded components where only a small change in dimension is acceptable.g. This is a very wasteful method which often requires a recycling facility.:.. \ I . or the method of hot spraying one metal with another. Electric arc system.' ... . \ Yo .59!1]~0E-}E.' Application of metal coatings 10 ' . 'P.."'.. '.~ r~ee. . zinc. the energy from the arc melts the wire and the resulting molten metal is blown onto the substrate by means of an air jet. 80 90 G . fasteners and small items. .'. ' ... production lines. The plating of small parts by the electrolytic deposition of metal.•. ' . Galvanizing Used for structures. ~ . . where thousands of components of identical shape are to be coated. . e.

Cracking: Specifically. Curtainings.r: Ruane & 1/ T P O'Neill NOTES .'\'. NOTE 2: The term peppery is sometimes used when the bits are small and uniformly distributed. ( ( 30 Bloom: A deposit resembling the bloom on a grape that sometimes forms on the gloss film of a coating. . NOTE.:. C: Cissing: .artic1es of gel. Cracking that resembles checking but the cracks are deeper and a pattern L C 80 Crocodiling or alligatoring: A drastic type of crazing producing resembling the hide ofa crocodile or alligator. " 1 . 1 ~. U ·. UNITPIO·COATINGFAULTS The following terms have been extracted from BS 2015 . Mud cracking is associated primarily with highly pigmented water-borne paints. 20 Blistering: The formation of dome-shaped projections or blisters in paints in the dry film of a coating material by local loss of adhesion and lifting of the film from the underlying surface. The p~esence ~f p. The process of diffusion of a soluble coloured substance from.'. c 50 The formation of small areas of the wet film of a coating material where the coaling . 'I . . ::.:---... .'<.} " . thus producing an undesirable staining or discoloration. • • . usually as a result of ageing. The resulting sag is usually restricted to a local area of a vertical surface and may have the characteristic appearance of a draped curtain. ( Chalking: 40 C The formation of a friable..!. ~: . resulting in an uneven coating having a thick lower edge. vapour. T I' O'Nolll tssue I 10l06I96 PlO-l .. hence the synonymous term curtaining."I·. into or through a coating material from beneath. C Rusne &. NOTE: Such blisters may contain liquid. a breakdown in which the cracks penetrate at least one coat and which may be expected to result ultimately in complete failure.' 31.Glossary a/paint terms. c. The term seedy specifically denotes the presence of bits that have developed in a coating material during storage. Mud cracking: A network of deep cracks that form as the film of a coating material dries. the splitting of a dry paint or varnish film. 10 IJ:~ iLY NOTE 1. ~ . Checking: Cracking that comprises fine cracks which do not penetrant the top coat and are distributed over the surface giving the semblance of a small pattern. Coo/king can be considerably affected by the choice and concentration of pigment .' material has receded leaving holidays in the film. Cratering: The formation of small bowl shaped depressions in the film of a coating material. gas or crystals.r .:~-r('· " \ . they occur erratically and at random. Cracking: Generally.. t. especially when it has been applied to an absorbent substrate. ~. causing loss of gloss and dulling of colour... sagging: A downward movement of a paint film between the times of application and setting. The following terms are used to denote the nature and extent of this defect: Hair cracking: Cracking that comprises find cracks which may not penetrate the top coat. powdery layer on the surface of the film of a coating material caused by disintegration of the binding medium due to disruptive factors during weathering.. flocculated material or foreign matter in a coating material or projecting from the surface of afilm.: 70 Crazing: broader. 90 \_...i... 60 l.

50 Pinholing: The formation of minute holes in the wet film of a coating material that form during application and drying due to air or gas bubbles in the wetfilm which burst. due to water containing soluble salts. Efflorescence: 10 • I ( "( f: Not a paint defect.. T P O·Nom wuo I IClI{I(o. resembling the peel of an orange due to the failure of the film to flow out to a level surface. saponification refers to the decomposition of the medium of afllm by alkali and moisture in the subs/rate. Saponified films may become sticky and discoloured. It is the development of a crystalline deposit on the surface of brick. etc. Ropiness: 70 60 C) c ( ( ( ~ • Pronounced brush marks that have not flowed out because of the poor levelling properties of the coating material. giving rise to small craters that fail to coalesce before the film has set. 80 NOTE: In painting practice. \. (' t't 20 C { ( • ( 30 A defect due to faulty application techniques seen as areas where the film of a coating material is of insufficient thickness or where there is a complete absence of coating materials on random areas of the substrate.Ruane & 1/ TP O'Neill NOTES UNITPIO· COATING FAULTS Dry spray: The productionofa rough Of slightly bitlyfilm from sprayed coating materials where the particles arc insufficiently fluid to flow together to form a uniform coat. Saponificaticn: Not specifically a paint defect term. C Ru .. in particular of a sprayed film. " . and evaporating so that the salts are deposited. coming to the surface.Orange peel effect: The uniform pock-marked appearance. In some cases the deposit may be formed on the top of any paint film present. pigment agglomerates in a coating material.% PIO-2 . In very severe cases the film may be completely liquefied by t f saponification. but usually the paint film is pushed up and broken by the efflorescence under the coat. does not reach the true tack-free stage. Flocculation: The development of loosely coherent. e. 90 rivelling: The development of wrinkles in afilm of a coating material during drying. Residual tack: The degree of stickiness remaining in afilm of a coating material which. &. Grinning through: The showing through of the substrate due to the inadequate hiding power of the coating material.. cement. HoJidays: f'" . sand and lime. 40 e ( ( ( ( Lifting: Softening. Flaking: Lifting of the coating materials from the substrate in the form of flakes or scales. NOTE: See also spray mottle and pock-marking.g.. swelling or separation from the substrate of a dry coat as the result of the application of a subsequent coat. Wrinkling.. new concrete or rendering based on cement. NOTE: See also crinkling and finish. The formation of a soap by the reaction between a fatty acid ester and an alkali.. although set. usually due to the initial formation of a surface skin.

1 .. .. blues. Such standards contain only a proportion of the total colours in this British Standard.\.. specifies 100 colours which have been selected from the framework of237 colours in the BS 5252. . 20 . The lightness of a colour is determined by the proportion of light which it reflects.~'~~\ . I IlI/tI6I96 PII-I \ . irrespective of hue and saturation. 70 ... Lightness: -". (~ _.~.. r . ... ' Saturation: . I... purples etc .'"" \ . L .~ . plastics (BS 4901) and sheet and tile flooring (BS 4902).. The terms chroma and intensity are also used in a similar sense.> .... }~~) . lightness. ..'" •.. __ 40 The Munsell system ~"~--.. . UNIT PI I • PAINT COLOURS " c.". A colour is only standardized when it is included in another British Standard. f'..:. . :•.J8. ~. Colours of similar hue and lightness may differ in colourfulness or intensity of colour. ·"1 . Corresponding terms used are value and reflectance value.... thevertical axis is the scale of value and the paths protruding outwards from the centre represent the degree of chroma which increase in intensity in the direction of the arrow.:fo ~-<--. Hue: Colours are divided into groups having the same hue.. i..-. The BS 5252 .."':..: . t-W" 50 The Munsell system of colour coding shows in a convenient manner the relationship between the three chief qualities of colour. NOTES General 10 The colour of a surface is considered in terms of its three chief qualities: hue. __..Framework/or colour co-ordination/or building purposes. "'-i. ".:. In ordinary speech this quality is often vaguely called colour.. into reds...__ .Paint colours for building purposes."... such as those that have been derived for paints (BS 4800). &< T P O'Neill r..' ...-. greens... ' .Ruane & II T P O'Neill fT .... .. ' . and saturation. yellows.. _..I : -.~\.. ~. ~ .. -- ... '..~.!. 'i~ ).'_ .' .r )!§. may be defined as the intensity of any particular hue when compared with a neutral grey of similar lightness..::_-' ". :~~ t. . _ 1-" .::. 60 v.:i~.. the spectrum colours being the most intense or of highest saturation..Q9_ f ..-- ~ ~ .. establishes a framework within which 237 colours have been selected as the source for all building colour standards and the means of co-ordinating them.~:.. \ 110 90 l:... OR .'1 The BS 4800 .... ..·:. This quality. termed saturation. . : \_. .c. selected.. . ~...•'. ..~..e.. f. The circular band represents the hues in proper order.-. vitreous enamel (BS 4900)..._. to meet design requirements within relevant technical and economic constraints."..._. It is not itself a range of colours for any particular product and is not to be used to specify British Standard colours._-._.:....' .'v:..

harmful.. the occupational exposure limit for xylene is 100 ppm. has its own occupational exposure limit as giyen in EH40...-_ " - 80 The toxicity value of a solvent is expressed in parts per million (ppm). 3246) define a substance hazardous to health __ -".. -' • -..':. There are two types of occupational exposure limit: '-- . this means to say that if the air contained xylene exceeding 100 ppm the air would be considered to be a significant hazard to health. •~ L C / . a biological agent.._ . ( ...~ 70 The Guidance Note EH40... corrosive or irritant. Responsibilities '.. radioactivity.. 90 Maximum exposure limit (MEL): "is the maximum exposure limit for that substance set out in Schedule I in relation to the reference period specified (in COSHH) when calculated by a method approved by the Health & Safety Commision. 1..' .. ''-. 1994 (SI No. a substance listed in part I of the approved list as dangerous for supply within the meaning of Chemicals {Haxard Information and Packaging) Regulations 1993 and for which an indication of danger specified for the substance in Part V of that list is very toxic. r'~ Occupational -.C The exposure of an employee to substances hazardous to health is under the control of the employer... ..:' :" .. masks. A solvent. is a document published by the Health and Safety Executive and updated each year which gives occupational exposure limits for substances hazardous to health.. therefore the OES is 100 ppm.. . . Employers must prevent exposure to substances hazardous to health. """ Exposure Limits (EH40) . Employees have a duty to report any problems in exposure control procedures or any defects found in protective equipment . • _. which is a substances hazardous to health. C) . toxic.- .. b. '...'.. ~ ~ "" ... employers must always carry out a risk assessment for all substances hazardous to health to which employees may be exposed. "'-. (.... high or low temperatures. or control exposure when total prevention is not reasonably practicable. ~ . dust in air" when substantial. high pressures. e. entitled Occupational Exposure Limits.. (. . t. r' ( The COSHH regulations are not applicable to the control of lead. . " ):" ..10Z/01I'J6 P12-1 .C . _ "-.' f······ -.g. These are <' (.. (. e.Ruane & II T P O'Neill NOTES I~ UNIT P12· HEALTH & SAFETY COSHH Regulations 1994 10 Scope The COSHH Regulations ~-----"'--''''''''____~a. . are a second choice for control.. . "~.. c.' 20 c ( . a substance comparable with the above ." e Ruane &< T P O·N.__. \_ The accupaNonal exposure limit for xylene is an occupational exposure standard (OES).\A... Personal protective equipment. ~ . e..)r... tests carried out.g.. .•• .m lssu.. medical treatment or below ground work (mining). A training organisation is responsible for exposure by trainees.-.:' C 60 Employers must keep records of examinations/monitoring kept for 5 years. 40 years for identifiable employees. d. 30 ' .. 50 c' ( Prior to work commencing. Other Regulations deal with these areas. asbestos.. explosive or flammable properties of materials.. one which has an MEL in Schedule I of COSHH or if the H & S Commission has approved an OES ..

. It is estimated that in 1992 in the United Kingdom alone. but.UNIT P12· HEALTH & SAFETY NOTES ~ c ( ( '(. 2. The United Kingdom Environmental Protection Act of 1992 goes even further. . Short term exposure limits are taken over a 15 minute reference period. 1.'. When a MEL is specified. Occupational exposure standard (DES): "the standard approved by the Health & .25 lb) ofVOC's. but always below the specified value. t: . 'Maximum short term exposure limit: ISO ppm.0 100"" 2 (! ( 4 30 C) 40 Ethers Esters (I « « Ketones c c 50 Hydrocarbons (Aromatic) Hydrocarbons (Aliphatic) Chlorinated hydrocarbons f t " ( 60 f () 70 50 nJa 100 I Miscellaneous aMEL.1.35% to 50% of which came from paints.3 kg) of VOC's. 10 An OES should not be exceeded. Examples of solvents with their corresponding long term exposure limits (OE5's unless otherwise specified) can be seen in the following table: r:.E. exposures must be kept as low as is reasonably practicable. Volatile organic compounds Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) are toxic and harmful to the environment.:" ~ d ..8-2. Each gallon (4.8 million tons of VOC's were released into the atmosphere . ~ . M. an exposure over the limit is acceptable providing that the reason for exceeding the OES has been identified and measures are taken to reduce the exposure below the OES as soon as is reasonably practicable. "Maximum short tenn exposure limit: 450 ppm. Long tent! exposure limits are averaged over an R hour reference period. As an example of weight volume ratio. with further reductions thereafter. ao VOC can mean volatile organic compounds or volatile organic content. Safety Cornmision for that substance il" relation to the specified reference period when calculated by a method approved by the Health & Safety Commision. The European Community directives are demanding a reduction of 30% VOC emissions by 1999.55 litres) of industrial coating contains 4-5 lb (1.B. l-Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Carbon tetrachloride Methyl chloride Water Nitromethane Nitrobenzene OEL (ppm) 200 1000 400 250 200 400 150 750 200 50 100 50 5 300 500 100 350.5 kg (1. Xylene Toluene Benzene n-Octane Hexane White spirit 1.K. .K. { ~ ( 20 4 Solvent Examples with Corresponding OEL's Group Alcohols Name Methanol Ethanol Ethyl ether Isopropyl ether Methyl acetate Ethyl acetate Isobutyl acetate Acetone M.I. requiring a reduction of 38% 90 '-. each litre of car paint contains 0.

.. e.l &< T P O·N. 1\ i . . 60 (:-C) C ~ .. '. I \ -. they are mainly fast curing. ( ·._-------_ . ~::(' I~:i~-(~: .-' .' \ ~'I'~\~~'f~ .Ruane & 1/ TP O'Neill NOTES UNIT P12. tif~'-:' IIt~ ".... . 100% VS urethanes have no VOC's. :•. high volume solid paints. .." ". water borne paints and powder coatings. but application areas are significantly reduced because of the slow evaporation rate of the solvent water. 20 _ ! 10 Each of the systems currently have their advantages and disadvantages. Most paint manufacturers have chosen their particular product path.'...c c v :': Water borne epoxies are often referred to as new generation or third generation epoxies.I ~ . ( 30 Water borne coatings are environmentally friendly and biodegradable. Water borne epoxies have been in use for some time now. where possible. materials which may be dangerous to manutactunng operatives and to applicators. t.. The component needs to be heated to a minimum of 70"C (over 200°C in some cases) to melt the powder in order for the reaction to take place.. 80 I - ~ ~~~):. "'-:.---------------------~ '--~ .l-' f "-' 90 (-~ (". ' . 'I<I . COSHH Regulations also require paint manufacturers to screen alll0i> raw ~ateria[ ."." ..". over 65% VS..g..\ "". wu. . . (' ..' melt at much lower temperatures but this would create manufacturing problems and storage problems._- . e Ru .e.. . 40 ~. Powders can be formulated to #")~. ~ . i. High volume solid paints still contain VOC's and therefore in the future their use is likely to be restricted.. therefore extra costs are not incurred in disposing of containers and sludges etc.used in the manufacture of the~r pro~uct and ~Iiminate. but when used in high humidity environments their successful application and attainment of intended properties is difficult to achieve.iJl OZlO1I'1t1 . all'l1~_. ' Powder coatings can be applied as thin 'as 25 urn electrostatically with a utilisation yield of 98%. chalking and natural erosion is virtually nil but the activator chemicals are extremely toxic. some for new formulations of water borne epoxies and some for 100% VS. I·~~ . The alternatives to standard paints containing sol vent are solvent free paints (100% VS). v. I . The disadvantage is that costly heat is required for the reaction. .~F ..-------------------------.'. S. highly resistant to chemical attack.-":. HEALTH & SAFETY of VOC by 1998.ciY 50 .... :J ) \ l . some have opted for acrylics and vinyls high build.'l .. ..~. _"i_. \ 70 -"\ ') IC/">' '.. ~. ~" . •.

Learn the specification(s).. •• (_ . On completion of the job Make the final check on integrity of the work..'.. Check the previous days work. Get to know the personnel..':. Ensure all concerned understand the specification. Check the materials useage. ~. this should preferably be written permission. Check the equipment. OR . Agree the days work programme with the contractor's senior personneL During the day Check the environment. • • • 50 • • 3. clear. Conduct and/or attend site meetings. Check the materials. • 5. 1 1(lI(NII'I6 PI3-! .. Keep the engineer/supervisor specification.. . informed at all times of any departure from the C' . Get to know the plant. At the end of the day Check the days work. painting inspection personnel should be issued with relevant procedures for carrying out inspection to enable them to carry out their duties in accordance with the client's/organisation's requirements. I."< UNITP13· INSPECTION i . Complete reports. \. Procedures should be simple.. • 2.•. .. f) . &< TPO'NoiU !sou.. Check the housekeeping. The procedure should leave the inspector in no doubt as to what is to be done. • • • • 60 • • 10 4.. On completion of the work at each stage Ensure that system meets the specification by carrying out or witnessing tests. logical. Check each operators work. comprehensive but concise. Inspection duties The agreed specificationis) 10 for the contract may consist of a combination of one or more (if the following: • national/international specijicution(s) • client speciflcationis} • job specificationis) 20 • procedure specification( s) It is the duty of a painting inspector to ensure all painting and associated operations are carried out in accordance with the specification(s) for the work to be undertaken. Check the equipment. Check for any application faults. Ruane & /I T P O'Neill NOTES . • • • 80 • • 6. Check the standards. • • • • • • General: Obtain or gain access to the specificationts). The procedure should be useful Fir instruction in a labour turnover siuuuion this is a good guide as to whether a written procedure is adequate.... Write the summary report.- : ~ I .:. » Inspection procedure 90 Ideally. .tj. Inspectors should not deviate from the specification requirements unless the client or supervisor gives permission to do so. At the beginning of the day Check the environment. 40 • Make written reports at an agreed frequency.: 30 '.

'i ( b.. Wet film thickness gauges (comb type). 007.. which give information specific to these tasks in sufficient detail to enable the user to know exactly what is required. some inspectors may only be performing adhesion testing. '. e. g. Equipment Each inspector shall be supplied with the following equipment: a. poorly maintained and leaking compressors.~. Issue: T P O'Nrili IQI06IIJ6 .RUane & /I T P O'Neill t) UNIT P13 • INSPECTION Procedures may give information beyond the scope for what is required from a specific inspection task. DFT measurements and pinhole uerectiotr. (. (}~'...."'~' measure and record amplitude once daily. application of paint or safety considerations. recording all the relevant information as required by the client.. rain.. 10 '~ t.. . d.. Surface profile comparator. Wet and dry film thickness to be checked and recorded at frequent intervals. Steel temperature gauge or digital thermometer. unsafe scaffolding. Approvals Each inspector shall be qualified to BGAS ~ainting Inspector Grade 3. This may relate to surface preparation. a. Painti~g or preparing surfaces during inclement weather conditions. 40 d. May be worn brushes. 2. snow~ fog. Use of unskilled operators. c. 50 5. Dry film thickness gauge (electromagnetic type). e. e Rua". e. ( 6" ~. Copies to be retained by the inspector.g. . To witness and inspect application of each coat and inspect completed paint system in accordance with the client's specification and good paint inspection practice. see calibration procedure. damaged ladders. i ( 80 Typical contractor malpractices Typical contractor malpractices which the inspector should be aware of are as follows: 1. -30 b. -In ihis case written instructions may be provided" -. e. 3. Equipment calibration and checks This is to responsibility of the QA manager. 3.I . mist etc . To inspect surface preparation in accordance with BS 7079. Painting inspectors duties To assess condition of substrate prior to treatment. Relative humidity.g. 60 123. c. dew-point.------------------~~-.. Whirling hygrometer and scale. contaminated equipment from previous contract etc .. Use of unsuitable equipment. . (-li To ensure materials used on site are to client's specification ABC 4. 20 Scope This procedure shall be used for painting inspection work carried out on all pipework and tanks applicable to Site A and Site B. 'I NOTES . . . To submit daily and weekly reports. & 90 2. document No.'" ! ! The following text is very brief and incomplete but it is intended to give an appre~ation of the content of a painting inspection procedure: PAINTING INSPECTION PROCEDURE I. f ( ( I I o 70 f. air temperature and steel temperature to be checked and recorded at least four times daily..

Z~ fV\ ~ I "" t: "1C~:_'_ K~ V" j..s ____ 4tu. Applying two paint-coats-to the same area in one day assuming sped ficationdoes not allow this.. t. excess binder on top of freshly opened can. Use of incorrect paint type or mixing different manufacturers products. Using diesel in the paint (as a thinner or plasticiser) which will prevent proper drying. 6.'1 ~ . C \ c. 11.~~vlt ~ ~tc I - \ 0"1 c_ 80 '2. Cleaning surfaces with cotton waste or rags.:1' :..'~ I ~. 13..'::.! I~ P13-3 .J I :2 3 4~ It. .. they must be under cover...-. Storing paint incorrectly.. 9. 8.'.. Paint used outside the expiry date. Insufficient blasting or painting in difficult access areas. . pigment settlement.~ .i '.' "I. 10 Painting before inspection of substrate preparation or previous coat. t:. j 30 <_ 40 50 t·: t: 60 ( 70 /' I ef0<. < OR . C . 12.l . inform engineer. &: T P O'NoiU Issu. Missing out a coat. 7.. V .cccJt pdi\'\'~ lfuN-.. Re-using expendable abrasives.-\ LA. suspected by condition of can. 5.~ C. Lint free paper tissues must be used. T P O'Neill '-f NOTES I Ruane & /I UNIT P13· INSPECTION 4. under pipes etc .1 ttM \~c:: f c('~ h r\ljIN. Use of wrong solvent or an excessive amount of solvent.p~....... 20 10. 15. Check date by way of manufacturer's coding.. 14. Applying low thickness of paint. P lc\fb~ I t 0 90 l_.

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