Application of one of the Emerging Technology such as Nanotechnology in Textiles

Submitted by:
• Navyasheel .L. Chippa • Vinod .V. Goranalli Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, M.S Bidve college of engineering, Latur. email-id-


Sr. no I II III V VII Content Introduction World level scenario Manufacturing process (Electrospinning) Applications Conclusion Page no. 02 03 06 15 23

How small is nano ? (nanometre = 10-9m - of course)

What is Nano

‘Nano’ is from Greek word Nanos - meaning "dwarf“. It is a prefix meaning 10-9. In the matric system, A nanometre is a billionth of a metre, or

• 1/80,000 of the diameter of a human hair • 10 times the diameter of a hydrogen atom. 1 metre vs. 1 nanometre = Diameter of Earth(12760km) vs. Diameter of M&M(1.2cm)

What is Nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology is a catch-all phrase for materials and devices that operate at the nanoscale. In the metric system of measurement, “Nano” equals a billionth and therefore a nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. References to nano materials, nanoelectronics, nano devices and nanopowders simply mean the material or activity can be measured in nanometers. To appreciate the size, a human red blood cell is over 2,000 nanometers long, virtually outside the nanoscale range!

World-level nano technology scenario 1 2 3 4 Discipline Chemistry Electronics Energy/envoirnment I.T. % of Share 26 8 24 7

5 6 7 8 9

Textile Optical Medical Advanced material Manufacturing

3 3 6 13 1

Why is this length scale so important?
• The wavelike properties of electrons inside matter are influenced by variations on the nanometer scale.

At nanometer length scale, it is possible to vary fundamental properties of materials, e.g., melting temperature, magnetization, charge capacity, without changing the chemical composition.

• Biological systems, e.g., DNA, are in nanometer scale, if we can assemble DNA, or place artificial components to it, we can create new species. • Nanoscale components have very high surface areas, making them ideal for use in composite materials, reacting systems, drug delivery, and energy storage. • At the nanoscale, surface tension and local electromagnetic effects become more important, making nanostructured materials harder and less brittle. • The interaction wavelength scales of various external wave phenomena become comparable to the material entity size, making materials suitable for various optoelectronic applications.

Nanotechnology in Textile and Apparel industry:
• The application of nanotechnology to textiles and apparel industry has started only several years ago. • The knowledge in this field is still very limited. • High potential with the advance in nanotechnology • New and novel functions • Closely related to material science, polymer chemistry and process innovation. • Known advantages of the nanotechnology in textile and apparel applications • More effective • More active • Large surface area per unit weight • Less change to physical and mechanical properties • Hard • Strength • Air permeability • Low chemical usage • Low energy costs

Nano Fibres:

Nano refers to the 10-9 power, or one billionth i.e. nanometer. For comparison, a human hair is about 80,000 nanometers thick! The fundamentals of nanotechnology lie in the fact that properties of substances dramatically change when their size is reduced to the nanometer range.

Nanofibres production by 3 principle:
 Air-blast atomisation  Pulling from melts  Electrospinning of polymer solutions

Introduction to Electrospinning

Electrospinning process:
The operational principle of electrospinning is quite simple. In this non mechanical, electrostatic technique, a high electric field is generated between a polymer fluid contained in a spinning dope reservoir with a capillary tip or a spinneret and a metallic fiber collection ground surface. When the voltage reaches a critical value, the charge overcomes the surface


tension of the deformed drop of the suspended polymer solution formed on the tip of the spinneret and a jet is produced . This stretching process is accompanied by the rapid evaporation of the solvent molecules that reduce the diameter of the jet, in a cone –shaped volume called the “envelope cone”. The dry fibers are accumulated on the surface of the collection plate resulting in a non-woven mesh of nano fibres.

Apparatus:An example of one experimental set up used for electrospinning is shown in Fig. 1 The polymer solution or melt is contained in a glass tube, usually a pipette that is connected to a syringe like apparatus. A metering pump attached to the plunger of the syringe generates a constant pressure and flow of the fluid through the pipette. The driving force is provided by a high voltage source through a wire immersed in the solution. The high voltage source can generate up to 30 kV, and the setup can be run on either positive or negative polarity. Adjusting the flow of the fluid and the magnitude of the electric field controls the spinning rate.


Process Parameters :
The above description of the process suggests that the following parameters affect the process:

1)System Parameters:
► Molecular Weight, Molecular-Weight Distribution and Architecture (branched, linear etc.) of the polymer ► Solution properties (viscosity, conductivity & and surface tension)

2) Process Parameters:
► Electric potential, Flow rate & Concentration ► Distance between the capillary and collection screen ► Ambient parameters (temperature, humidity and air velocity in the chamber) ► Motion of target screen.


Nanofibres – basic setup:

An important characteristic of electrospinning is the ability to make fibers with diameters in the range of nanometers to a few microns. Consequently these fibers have a large surface area per unit mass so that nanowoven fabrics of these nanofibers collected on a screen can be used for example, for filtration of submicron particles in separation industries and biomedical applications, such as wound dressing in medical industry, tissue engineering scaffolds and artificial blood vessels. The use of electrospun fibers at critical places in advanced composites to improve crack resistance is also promising.

Some examples of details application: 1) Wrinkle Resistant Nanotechnology Fabrics
The company Nano-Tex produces wrinkle-resistant and stain-repellent fabrics by attaching molecular structures to cotton fibres. Textiles with a Nan technological finish can be washed less frequently and at lower temperatures. High-performance functional clothing is an increasingly important feature of the workplace. For example Gore-Tex has developed an antistatic, weatherprotective, outerwear fabric. Nanotechnology has been used to integrate tiny carbon particles membrane and guarantee full-surface protection from electrostatic charges for the wearer.


4) Killer Clothing Using Nanotechnology to Destroy Bacteria and Fungi
The United States Army has invested $50 million in the Institute of Soldiering Nanotechnology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and has publicly stated one of its primary objectives is to keep soldiers safe from chemical and biological agents. One of the more promising applications under development is the creation of “killer clothing”.

5) Sensors and Sprays
In addition to the clothing, the institute is also working on nanotechnologybased sensors to detect diseases as well as a series of creams and sprays to prevent and treat a variety of deadly agents. The Institute of Soldiering Nanotechnologies has been charged by Congress with commercializing these technologies as quickly possible. Companies like Dupont and Raytheon are already partnering with the institute in the hope of bringing developments to the marketplace electronics”, etc.

6) Self Self-cleaning Fabrics cleaning Fabrics

Self-cleaning Fabrics were developed in 2003 in the Nanotechnology Centre of the Functional and Intelligent Textiles and Apparel. The key results were published in J. Amer. Ceramic Soc. In may 2004 and was reported by Nature in June 2004.

• The fabrication of self-cleaning fabric used a new technology of producing anatase TiO2 thin film at low temperature.


• A nanoscaled thin transparent layer was formed on the fibre surface with very good durability • The nanolayer acts as catalysts that help to break down and remove: i) Dirt ii) Odour (body odour, smoking odour, etc) iii) Bacteria iv) Colour stains v) Harmful organic materials, such as formaldehyde • Other carbon-based molecules, With the help of sunlight or other light sources that contain UV radiation, in a process of photocatalysis. (Cleaner kids clothes) When you pick out presents for the kids this year, wouldn't it be great to give them clothes they couldn't mess up, no matter how hard they tried? As this ScienCentral News video reports, thanks to nanotechnology new fabric for kids' wear can actually repel spills.

7) Shirts that Stop Bullets
What if you could wear lightweight armor that kept you warm – and let you phone home? Nanotechnologists have come up with a super strong, flexible fiber that can conduct heat and electricity. It could be made into a modern version of chain mail, the heavy metal mesh worn by medieval knights. If woven from the new fiber, modern chain mail could be light as a cotton shirt, but bulletproof. At the NanoTech Institute at the University of Texas at Dallas, a research team headed by Institute director Ray H. Baughman has spun a new lightweight fiber that the scientists say is the toughest known. Their


new fiber is four times tougher than spider silk, and 17 times tougher than Kevlar, now used to make bulletproof vests. The team’s key ingredient is tiny carbon nanotubes, miniscule rolled-up sheets of carbon atoms that can be found naturally in soot.

The availability of commercial quantities of nanofibre products, along with methods and equipment to characterize and control the process output , should accelerate the incorporation of nanofibres into new products. The low basis weight, small fibre diameter and pore size, high surface area and choice of fibre chemistry are important tools in the development of new products such as barrier fabrics, cleaning wipes, personal care wipes, and medical and pharmaceutical products such as wound dressings and tissue scaffolds. The first commercial steps of nanotechnology have been made in the textile area. To create alter and improve textiles at the molecular level and increase durability and performance beyond that of normal textiles is possible now. Possibilities with nanotechnology are immense and numerous. It can rightly be said that nanotechnology is slowly but steadily ushering in the next industrial revolution.


• Books:
1. Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research - 2006 2. Asian Textile Journal – September 2005 3. Textile World Magazine – August 2006 4. Synthetic Fibres 5. Chemical Weekly

• Websites:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is nanotechnology,

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Email-id – Mobile no. – 9421025895 2. GORANALLI V.V Email-id –

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